Sie sind auf Seite 1von 69

MODERN APPROACHES TO GENDER STUDIES

Editorial coordinators: Lecturer Sebastian CHIRIMBU, PhD Lecturer Maria ALEXE, PhD

MODERN APPROACHES TO GENDER STUDIES EQUALITY THROUGH ASSUMED DIFFERENCES

ECKO HOUSE ACADEMIC PUBLISHING 2012

Centre for Research, Resources and European Studies ccrse2012@yahoo.com / formare.proiect@mail.com This book is published as a result of research undertaken at the Centre for Research, Resources and European Studies within the International Institutional Partnership "Improving employability of young people in the European workforce through training, information and communication technology" and has been developed between the Foundation "Generation Europe Romania", the Institute "Eudoxiu Hurmuzachi for Romanians Around the Globe" , "Pro Europe" Centre, "Cefora" Business Fondation, DPIPP-Crevedia, "Profession 2000 +" Fondation (Ecoprof) and Mehr Iranian Institute Language Institute.

Modern Approaches to Gender Studies ( Equality Through assumed Differences) / Sebastian Chirimbu, Maria Alexe (editorial coordinators) ISBN 978-1-4276-5377 paperback ECKO House Academic Publishing P.O. Box 901930 Sandy, Utah 84092 (USA) Email: info@eckohousepublishing.com All rights reserved. The purpose of the book is didactic / scientific research. The authors of the articles are solely responsible for the contents of their contribution. It is assumed that they have the necessary authority for publication.

No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilized in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the editorial coordinators. This book is printed on paper suitable for recycling and made for fully managed and sustained forest sorces. Logging, pulping and manufacturing processes are expected to conform to the environmental regulations of the country of origin. Printed and bound in the USA.

Acknowledgements This volume is a tribute to all those who starting with the beginning of the 20 century have contributed to put woman into a positive light and the result of hard work of Gender Studies Department of the Centre for Research, Resources and European Studies and Gender Studies section of the Research Centre for Specialized Translation and Intercultural Communication (TUCEB). It consists of a collection of studies written by some specialists from different Romanian and foreign universities. The articles reflect different researches which all can be included in generous field of Feminist studies and the majority of them are reproducing the communications presented at the conference Modern Trends in Communication and Education and Translation Bucharest June 2012. All the articles have in common a great admiration for the courage of those who have fight and made possible that women of contemporary society have access to all positions in politics, science and art and a keen interest for the actual status of female scientists and researchers. The studies are published in four different sections, aspect which proves the diversity of the centre activity. The first one is dedicated to political and sociocultural aspects interfering with feminist approach, the second analysis the educational frame in which a correct gender perspective develops, the third section proposes some case studies and the forth is related to (applied) linguistics. One of the main purposes of all our research was to demonstrate how actual and diverse the field of feminine studies is in postmodern society in Romania and in other Balkan countries. Women contribution to contemporary civilization is still judged by postmodern audience and critics and the dispute concerning a correct gender perspective is still going on. Nowadays when some of former scandalous subjects (homosexuality, race differences) for are viewed in different way, in many
th

countries women still have to fight for equal position, when in other they consider that their position has been the same since ever. We hope that this volume will contribute in a way or another to help our students, people in general to understand the contribution of Romanian researchers and the level of feminist studies in Romania. At the same time are grateful to all people who have given us the possibility to develop our research (the dean of the Faculty of Technological Equipment- Mr. Ion David, PhD, our colleagues from the Research Centre for Specialized Translation and Intercultural Communication TUCEB, the Centre of Resources and European Studies, our friends from different universities), Mehr Iranian Language Institute, Ecko House Publishing, European Project COST ISO 019: Women Writers in History Toward a New Understanding of European Literary Culture (2009-2013), Huygens Institute, the Hague, our reviewers and to those who generously supported the publication of this volume.

Maria ALEXE Sebastian CHIRIMBU

TABLE OF CONTENTS Acknowledgements Carmen ARDELEAN Carmen DOMINTE Loredana Florina MICLEA GENDER ISSUES IN WAR ZONES 04 11

THE BOSNIAN WAR THROUGH THE EYES OF A TEENAGER. CASE STUDY: ZLATA FILIPOVI EL FEMINISMO LATINOAMERICANO DE AYER Y DE HOY, DESDE EVITA PERN HASTA CRISTINA KIRCHNER POLITICAL RIGHTS AND OPPORTUNITIES OR WOMENA SUCCESS OF THE FEMINIST MOVEMENT

24

37

Adina BARBUCHIRIMBU Sebastian CHIRIMBU Adrian BRANEA Dana ALBU Bianca

51

GENDER ASPECTS IN DESIGN ROMANI PEOPLE. SOME TRADITIONS AND CUSTOMS OF THEIR MALES AND FEMALES CLOTHING AND ITS DISSIMULATIVE FUNCTION. TRADITIONAL SIGNS OF MASCULINE AND FEMININE NINETEENTH CENTURY ROMANIAN WOMENS TRANSLATIONS ACROSS CULTURAL BOUNDARIES

62 68

Florica IUHA

83

Ramona MIHIL Irina DOBROT Neslihan GNAYDIN Ana

106

THE INFLUENCE OF THE MOTHER LANGUAGE ON BILINGUALS HOW NEW WERE NEW WOMEN IN THE WORKS OF WILDE, GISSING AND SCHREINER?

116 130

Efstratia OKTAPODA

VASSILIS ALEXAKIS CRITURE TRANSNATIONALE ET NATIONALISME LITTRAIRE DANS LE CONTEXTE EUROPEN GENDER DIMENSSION IN DESIGNING LEARNING SUPPORTS FIRST STEPS IN EDUCATIONAL EXCELLENCE FOR GIRLS IN ROMANIA

149

Maria ALEXE Mihaela IONESCU Iulia ALEXE Maria Luisa IONESCU Ramona CARAMELEA Alina IFTIME

163 178

GENDER STUDIES IN GIRLS EDUCATION AT THE END OF THE 19th CENTURY. CURRICULA AND EDUCATIONAL INTENTIONS LES TAPES DE LA CONCEPTION DUN COURS DE LANGUE FRANAISE POUR LA FORMATION ET LE DVELOPPEMENT DES COMPTENCES DE COMMUNICATION PROFESSIONNELLE DES TUDIANT(E)S EN SCIENCES SOCIALES FORSTERS EDUCATION ACT: A SIGNIFICANT STEP TOWARDS UNIVERSAL EDUCATION IN GREAT BRITAIN MODERNITY EMBLEMATIC CHARACTER: THE PARIZIAN WOMAN LUCE IRIGARAYS UNREPRESENTABLE. THE HYPOSTASIS OF MASCULINE IDENTITY VS. FEMININE MYSTERY IN CLEOPATRAS LITERARY REPRESENTATION THE OPPOSITION OF SEXES IN THOMAS HARDY'S A LAODICEAN

189

207

Mihaela LEVARDA Elena PRUS Anca Margareta BUNEA

219

232 241

Spiridon KALOSHEV

253

Cristina Florina HERLING Despina CHIRIMBU Sebastian CHIRIMBU Otilia SRBU

THE WOMANS IMAGE IN PROVERBS ISABEL ARCHER OR THE EXPLORATION OF THE INNER UNIVERSE AT HENRY JAMES. THE PORTRAIT OF A LADY KATHERINE PANCOL, A VOICE OF THE WORLD TODAY FACES OF WOMEN IN INTERWAR SOCIAL AND CULTURAL ROMANIAN LIFE MALL: THE EFFECTS OF SHORT-TERM MEMORY AND GENDER ON VOCABULARY LEARNING

262 277

289

Mdlina FTOMENCO Saeed KHAZAIE Saeed KETABI Abdolmajid HAYATI Dara TAFAZOLI Karima BOUZIANE

295

302

PORTRAYAL OF WOMEN IN TRANSLATED ONLINE ADVERTISING: DOMESTICATING OR FOREIGNIZING WOMENS BODIES? JANE EYRE: THE USE OF CONDITIONALS IN A LITERARY TEXT DISCRIMINATION AGAINST WOMEN THROUGH THE WAY THEY ARE PRESENTED IN ADVERTISMENTS ICT IN CLASSROOMS: INVESTIGATION INTO USINGTECHNOLOGY IN TEACHING ENGLISH FROM GENDER PERSPECTIVE

318

Bianca Olivia TURDEAN Viorica BANCIU

326 334

Dara TAFAZOLI Noor Al-Sadat HOSSEINI Nazanin JAHANIAN

343

ABSTRACTS

GENDER PERSPECTIVE POLITICAL AND SOCIO-CULTURAL ASPECTS

dr. Carmen ARDELEAN dr. Carmen DOMINTE dr. Loredana- Florina MICLEA drd. Adina BARBU-CHIRIMBU dr. Sebastian CHIRIMBU dr. Adrian BRANEA drd. Dana Bianca ALBU dr. Florica IUHA dr. Ramona MIHIL dr. Irina Ana DOBROT Neslihan GNAYDIN dr. Efstratia OKTAPODA

10

GENDER ISSUES IN WAR ZONES Carmen ARDELEAN Technical University of Civil Engineering, Bucharest Department of Foreign Languages and Communication

Abstract Womens rights are stated clearly in major international documents, yet in many geographical areas, due to excessive traditionalism or to religious rigor women are prevented from actively participating in the social, economic and political life of their countries. The situation is even worse if those countries are at war. This study presents the real life situation in some of the recently affected war zones (Kosovo, Afghanistan) and the way in which major international organizations (UNO, EU, NATO) are taking steps towards opening the road for change. Key words: Discrimination, War zones, Violence, Womens rights

Bibliography and references Gohari, M.J.: The Taliban. Ascent to Power, Oxford, OUP 2000 KWN Annual Report 2011 KWN Strategic Plan 2011-2014 NATO Chicago Summit Declaration on Afghanistan, May 2012 Resolution S/RES/1265 (1999) adopted by the Security Council at its 4046th meeting, on 17 September 1999 Resolution S/RES/1325 (2000) adopted by the Security Council at its 4213th meeting, on 31 October 2000 Resolution S/RES/1820 (2008) adopted by the Security Council at its 5916th meeting, on 19 June 2008 UN Women condemns violence against women and calls for justice, statement by Michelle Bachelet, UNWomen, July 2012 Websters Online Dictionary: http://www.websters-online-dictionary.org/ Wilkinson, Tracy: Kosovos women await freedom. In Los Angeles Times issue of March 10, 2008 Webography: http://www.womensnetwork.org/

11

http://www.unwomen.org/ http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/ http://articles.latimes.com/ http://www.un.org/womenwatch/

12

THE BOSNIAN WAR THROUGH THE EYES OF A TEENAGER. CASE STUDY: ZLATA FILIPOVI Carmen DOMINTE Faculty of Philology Hyperion University, Bucharest

Abstract Any time in history, war may be considered a huge provocation. It changes lives of all the people involved and sometimes more than that. The starting point of this study is the Bosnian war, seen from different perspectives: one from the historians point of view and the other from a child who lived in Sarajevo at that time. The study in interdisciplinary and it intends to make a parallel between the real facts presented by historians and the same facts related by Zlata Filipovic in her diary. It is also a parallel between history and literature, two different sides of the same provocation: the war. Key Words: war, history, diary, provocation, change Bibliography Caspersen, Nina (2010). Contested Nationalism Serb Elite Rivalry in Croatia and Bosnia in the 1990s. New York, Oxford: Berghahn Books. Cohen, L. (2002). Serpent in the Bosom The Rise and Falling of Slobodan Milosevic, Boulder, Co: Westview. Ferro, Marc (2002). The Use and the Abuse of History. London: Routledge. Filipovic, Zlata (1993). Le Journal de Zlata (trad. Cappon, Alain). Paris: Robert Laffout, Fixot. Fukuyama, Francis (1989). The End of History in The National Interest, no.16. Mahmutcehajic, Rusmir (2000). Bosnia the Good Tolerance and Tradition. Budapest: Central European University Press. Sumantra, Bose (2002). Bosnia after Dayton: Nationalist Partition and International Intervention. New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press. Internet resources

13

Anastasijevic, D. 1994. The Left Bank, Vreme NDA, 29 August. From: http:// www.scc.rutgers.edu/serbian_digest/. Filipovi, Zlata. 2012. Zlata Filipovic, whose journal was Sarajevos answer the Ann Franks diary, tells of her fears for Bosnia today, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/bosnia/. Komlenovic, U. 1993. Every Day is Tuesday, Vreme NDA, 20 September. From: http:// www.scc.rutgers.edu/serbian_digest/.

14

EL FEMINISMO LATINOAMERICANO DE AYER Y DE HOY, DESDE EVITA PERN HASTA CRISTINA KIRCHNER Loredana-Florina MICLEA Technical University of Civil Engineering, Bucharest Department of Foreign Languages and Communication Abstract The elite female personalities who successfully left a trace throughout the years in the history of Latin America, as well in the Universal history, sowed into eternity attributes such as: nobleness, elegance, grace, wisdom, diplomacy. I dedicate this study to famous women who exemplarily intervened in the Latin American and universal economic panorama, as they changed destinies, visions, political trends, giving a new image to world economy. In 2011, Brazil made its debut in the political environment with a new leader, Ms. Dilma Roussef, the first woman president in the history of the Brazilian state who masterly initiated ample structural reforms, investing the Brazilian state with the new trend of stability and national security and contributing to the economical growth by means of the entrance of foreign capital; it proclaimed decrease of unemployment and inflation and managed to get for Brazil the most favorable position in Latin America as far as investments are concerned. In 2011, Cristina Kirchner Argentinas current president maintains an optimal economic situation, by means of an elaborate study and by keeping under control the inflationary phenomenon, while aiming to give an incentive to the Partnership of Americas sector. Key words: economy, feminism, globalization, investment, regionalism

Bibliography and references Bonciu, Florin, Investiiile strine directe i noua ordine economic mondial, Editura Universitar, Bucureti, 2009. Fuentes, Carlos, O ranista mascarado, Politica externa, vol. 13, no. 1, junho/julho/agosto, 2004, Ed. Poz e Terra, So Paulo. Miron, Dumitru, Integrarea economic regional de la prototip la producia de serie, Editura Sylvi, Bucureti, 2000.

15

* * * CEPAL. Panorama de la insercin internacional de Amrica Latina y el Caribe 1999-2000. Santiago: CEPAL, martie, 2001. * * * INTAL, Buenos Aires, november 27-28, 2001 Webography: www.mae.ro

16

POLITICAL RIGHTS AND OPPORTUNITIES OR WOMENA SUCCESS OF THE FEMINIST MOVEMENT Adina BARBU- CHIRIMBU Department of Letters, Spiru Haret University, Bucharest Sebastian CHIRIMBU Department of Specialized Languages, Spiru Haret University, Bucharest

Abstract The paper deals with the issue of political rights for women which were the result of a long fight and of the efforts of women dreamers, of women whose names made the history of the feminist movement. We have identified those factors that had the role of catalysts in the process of obtaining rights and changing the attitude of society towards women. The second part of the paper refers to the way the feminist movement started and evolved in Romania, with focus on the same aspects of political rights and womens activity in the field of International Relations. Key words: feminist movement, political rights, international relations, feminist theories

Bibliography: Cosma Ghizela, Femeile i politica n Romnia: evoluia dreptului de vot n perioada interbelic (Women and Politics in Romania: the Evolution of the Right to Vote in the Period between the two World Wars), Presa Universitar Clujean, ClujNapoca, 2002 Cosma Ghizela, Tarau Virgiliu, Condiia femeii n Romnia n secolul XX: studii de caz (The Condition of Woman in 20th Century Romania. Case Studies), Presa Universitar Clujean , Cluj-Napoca, 2002

17

Stefania Mihilescu, Din istoria feminismului romnesc. Antologie de texte (18381929) (From the History of the Romanian Feminism. Texts (1838-1929), Polirom, Iai, 2002 Mihaela Miroiu, Drumul ctre autonomie. Teorii politice feministe, Polirom, 2004 Mihaela Miroiu, Gndul umbrei. Abordri feministe n filosofia contemporan, 1995 Mihaela Miroiu, Otilia Dragomir, Lexicon feminist, Polirom, Iai, 2002 Webography: http://tara-barsei.ro/wp-content/uploads/2009/02/tanase2008.pdf http://husky1.stmarys.ca/~evanderveen/wvdv/Gender_relations/Feminist_theories.ht m

18

GENDER ASPECTS IN DESIGN Adrian BRANEA Design Department National University of Arts, Bucharest

Abstract Quite a new field in artistic expression, design was dominated by men artists for a long period of time. At the beginning of the 20th. century, when architects started to be concerned by functional aspects of interior design, there was a great difference between the part of house dedicated to women and male interiors. The study is focusing on the evolution of interior design from female male dichotomy to minimalist contemporary interiors. At the same time the influence of women designers upon the evolution of this fascinating domain is analysed. As in many other artistic fields, women presence was a strange aspect, if not a forbidden one, up to the post-war period. Key words : design history, gender, evolution, perspective

Bibliography Buckley, Cheryl , Made in Patriarchy:Toward a Feminist Analysis of Women Design http:www.istor.org/stable Constantin, Paul, Industrial Design, editura Meridiane, Bucureti, 1973 Gu, Adrian, Generaia `80 n artele vizuale, editura Paralela 45, Piteti, 2008 Piper, David, The Illustrated History of Arts, Bounty Books, London, 2004 * * * Dictionaire Ilustr des Designers du Vingtime Sicle, ed. Celiv, Paris, 1992

19

ROMANI PEOPLE. SOME TRADITIONS AND CUSTOMS OF THEIR MALES AND FEMALES Dana Bianca ALBU Doctoral School - Sociology University of Oradea Abstract This paper is a study about the history, migration and origins of the Rrom population. The paper is structured in three parts. The first part presents the overall interest towards Rrom, history, migration and their origins. In the second paper presents a case study on population structure of the Diosig, a village in the Bihor county, highlighting the Rrom minority. The conclusions and bibliography are presented in the last part of the paper. Key words: Rrom, social identity, minority, history, migration Bibliography August. Mircea Itu, Moleanu Julieta, Indian culture and civilization, Credis Publishing House, Bucharest, 2001 Viorel Achim, Gypsies in Romanian, History Encyclopedic Publishing House, Bucharest, 1998 Branch Romanian State Archives, file no. 135 Cherita Lucian, History of Gypsies, Ed Z, Bucharest, 1993 Chipea Floare, Florica Stefanescu, Mr. Olah, Combating poverty and promoting social inclusion, University of Oradea, Oradea, 2004 Cozma, Teodore, Guide to Intercultural Education, Polirom, Iasi, 2001 Angus Fraser, The Gypsies. Origins, Migration and Their Presence in Europe, trans. Dan Serban Sava, Humanitas, Bucharest, 1995 Jozsa Marta, A romak of tobbsegi trsadalom csapdjaban (Rroms into the trap of major company), the Vigil 67, EVF 2002/9 Romanticized history of Gypsies, www.Romacenter.ro Pons Emmanuelle, Gypsies in Romania, a Minority in Transition, Publishing Company Otherwise, Bucharest, 1999 Zamfir Elena, Catalin Zamfir, Gypsies Between Ignorance and Concern, Alternative House, Bucharest, 1993

20

CLOTHING AND ITS DISSIMULATIVE FUNCTION. TRADITIONAL SIGNS OF MASCULINE AND FEMININE Florica IUHA Faculty of Communication Sciences Ecological University of Bucharest

Abstract Anyone, at any level of civilization is a maker - sometimes without realizing it, in an exciting field: their own image Adina Nanu states [2007; 12]. Moreover, since it lies at the centre of both individual and collective actions and of the social symbolism, the body is a central object of analysis in contemporary studies of particular impact, for a better understanding of the present [David Le Breton: 2002; 6]. In the present study we will try to analyse the way in which clothing which clothes the body creates itself a dissimulative function. Le Breton believes that after the 60s as local folk traditions gradually regressed and medicine developed a new imagery of the body expanded rapidly, with a notable acceptance of individualism as a social structure and an embracing of a positivistic (lay) view upon nature. After that decade, the Western person discovered a new body, and the novelty took on its own course, whilst drawing speeches and practices that carry a mass-media halo [David Le Breton: 2002; 7]. Drawing upon mass-media representations will allow us to integrate the above-mentioned function in the immediate day-to-day life, since, as Mihai Coman states, at present, the generally-accepted behaviour rules - in other words, the tacit conventions of a society - circulate and get accepted through the contents distributed by the mass-media [Mihai Coman: 2007; 121]. The clear tendency to stress the elements of show and marketing in the Romanian mass-media manifests itself by changing the deviant cases into sensationalistic topics that can easily captivate readers. Key words: body, dress, , dissimulative function, mass-media

21

Bibliografie: a. Lucrri de specialitate: Agabrian, Mircea - Cercetarea calitativ a socialului: design i performare - Editura Institutul European, Iai, 2004 Bogdan-Tucivov, Ana; Chelcea, Septimiu; Golu, Mihai; Golu, Pantelimon; Mamali, Ctlin; Pnzaru, Petru Dicionar de psihologie social - Editura tiinific i Enciclopedic, Bucureti, 1981 Coman, Mihai - Introducere n sistemul mass-media - ediia a III-a, Editura Polirom, Iai, 2007 Debord, Guy - Societatea spectacolului. Comentarii la societatea spectacolului Editura Est, Timioara, 2001 Dinu, Mihai - Comunicarea. Repere fundamentale - ediia a II-a, Editura Algos, Bucureti, 2000 Drgan, Ioan - Comunicarea paradigme i teorii - vol. I., Editura Rao, Bucureti, 2007 Goffman, Erving Viaa cotidian ca spectacol - ediia a II-a, Editura Comunicare.ro, Bucureti, 2007 Huizinga, Johan Homo ludens - Editura Humanitas, Bucureti, 2007 Lardellier, Pascal - Teoria legturii ritualice: antropologie i comunicare - Editura Tritonic, Bucureti, 2003 Le, Breton, David Antropologia corpului i modernitatea Editura Amarcord, Timioara, 2002 Maffesoli, Michel - Clipa etern. Rentoarcerea tragicului n societile postmoderne, Editura Meridiane, Bucureti, 2003 Nanu, Adina - Art, stil, costum - Editura Noi Media Print, Bucureti, 2007 Nanu, Adina; Buta, Ovidiu - Brbatul i moda - Editura Polirom, Iai, 2009 Restak, Richard - Hundertwasser - pictorul rege cu cinci piei - Editura Taschen Verlag, Kln, 2007 Rath-Vegh, Istvan - Istoria cultural a prostiei omeneti - Editura Garamond, Timioara, 1992 Silverman, David - Interpretarea datelor calitative: metode de analiz a comunicrii, textului i interaciunii - Editura Polirom, Iai, 2004 Zamfir, Ctlin, Spre o paradigm a gndirii sociologice - Editura Polirom, Iai, 2005 Merriam-Webster' s Collegiate Dictionary - ediia a unsprezecea, Merriam-Webster Incorporated, Springfield, Massachusetts, 2009 b. Articole online:

22

Andrei, Cristian - Un brbat deghizat n Traian Bsescu s-a plimbat, cu ctue la mini, prin Piaa Universitii Gndul.info, 19. 01. 2012, http://www.gandul.info/news/video-proteste-bucuresti-un-barbat-deghizat-in-traianbasescu-s-a-plimbat-cu-catuse-la-maini-prin-piata-universitatii-9160262, accesat n 12. 07. 2012 Barzoi, Mircea - Un lider al Qaeda travestit n femeie a fost capturat n Afganistan HotNews.ro, 29. 06. 2011, http://www.hotnews.ro/stirirevista_presei_international-9187973-lider-qaeda-travestit-femeie-fost-capturatafganistan.htm, accesat n 25. 11. 2011 Cea mai tare fars pe care poi s o faci unui ofer. Pn te prinde poliia - Pro Tv, http://stirileprotv.ro/show-buzz/fun/video-cea-mai-tare-farsa-pe-care-poti-sa-ofaci-unui-sofer-pana-te-prinde-politia.html, accesat n 11. 07. 2012 Cleopa, Ilie - Predica la Duminica a 31-a dup Rusalii - CretinOrtodox.ro, 14. 05. 2012, http://www.crestinortodox.ro/sarbatori/duminica-31-dupa-rusalii/predicaduminica-31-dupa-rusalii-71615.html, accesat n 11. 07. 2012 Cum s-a deghizat Seif, fiul lui Muammar Gaddafi, ca s scape de urmritori Gndul.info, 21. 11. 2011, http://www.gandul.info/international/cum-s-a-deghizatseif-fiul-lui-muammar-gaddafi-ca-sa-scape-de-urmaritori-8994761, accesat n 12. 07. 2012 Galan, Laura - Jared Leto, Travestit de New York - 07.10.2010, http://www.bestmusic.ro/30-seconds-to-mars/stiri-30-seconds-to-mars/jared-letotravestit-de-new-york+89989.html, accesat n 25.11.2011 Infractor inventiv. Se deghiza n brbat de culoare ca s nu fie prins - Antena 3, 24. 04. 2010, http://www.antena3.ro/externe/infractor-inventiv-se-deghiza-in-barbat-deculoare-ca-sa-nu-fie-prins-video-97654.html, accesat n 12. 07. 2012 Julia Jianu s-a mbrcat n crciuni sexy pentru a-l atepta pe Mo Crciun Cancan, 24. 12. 2011, http://www.cancan.ro/showbiz/showbiz-intern/julia-jianu-s-aimbracat-in-craciunita-sexy-pentru-a-l-astepta-pe-mos-craciun-199752.html, accesat n 27. 12. 2011 S-a deghizat n poliist i a comis o tlhrie - Adevrul.ro, ediia din Chiinu, 15. 02. 2012, http://www.adevarul.ro/moldova/actualitate/Sa_deghizat_in_politist_si_a_comis_o_talharie_0_646735429.html, accesat n 12. 07. 2012 Un american care s-a mbrcat 6 ani n hainele mamei, pentru a-i lua pensia, arestat - Antena 3, 19. 06. 2009, http://www.antena3.ro/externe/un-american-care-sa-imbracat-6-ani-in-hainele-mamei-pentru-a-i-lua-pensia-arestat-74133.html Un ceretor s-a deghizat n femeie voluptoas. Vezi ct ctig! - Click.ro, 23. 11. 2011, http://www.click.ro/news/national/cersetor-deghizat-femeie-voluptoasa-VeziFOTO_0_1291070939.html#, accesat n 30. 12. 2011 Un lector universitar s-a deghizat n femeie pentru Marul Panaramelor Realitatea.net, 7. 10. 2011, http://www.realitatea.net/un-lector-universitar-s-a-

23

transformat-in-femeie-pentru-marsul-panaramelor_877096.html, accesat n 11. 07. 2012 Un tnr s-a deghizat n ho pentru a-i speria iubita - Jurnalul.ro, 26 aprilie 2012, http://www.jurnalul.ro/fun/farsa-iubit-hot-video-611084.htm, accesat n 12 iulie 2012 c. Surse online: http://dexonline.ro/ http://www.informatiamedicala.ro/dictionar-medical

24

NINETEENTH CENTURY ROMANIAN WOMENS TRANSLATIONS ACROSS CULTURAL BOUNDARIES Ramona MIHIL Philology Department Spiru Haret University, Bucharest

Abstract The entry of women into the profession of writing in the Romanian Principalities was a slow process that became clearer at the end of the 19th century. Most of the first Romanian women writers stepped on the public stage as journalists or translators and their writings were addressed especially to women. The present article is an introductory survey on a larger debate I have been working on since 2010 in order to bring up to light an unknown but very important time concerning the translations of the first 19th century Romanian women (writers): Catinca Faca (Jeanne Louise Henriette Campans Thoughts on Education, 1834), Ecaterina Smboteanu (Lesage, Le diable boiteux, 1835), Ermiona Asachi (Silvio Pelico, Dei doveri degli uomini, 1843), or Elena Bacaloglu (Carmen Sylva, Robia Peleului, 1897). Keywords: 19th century Romanian women writers and translators Notes and references Bermann, Sandra (2005), Nation, Language, and the Ethics of Translation, Sandra Bermann and Michael Wood, Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 12. Hamilton, Susan, and Janice Schroeder (2010), Nineteenth Century Feminisms: Press and Platform, Nineteenth Century Gender Studies 6(2): 2. Knellwolf, Christa (2001), Women Translators, Gender and the Cultural Context of the Scientific Revolution, in Translation and Nation towards a Cultural Politics of Englishness, Roger Ellis and Liz Oakley-Brown (eds.) Clevedon, Buffalo, Toronto, Sydney, Multilingual Matters LTD, 118. Marcu, George, and Rodica Ilinca (2009), Dicionarul personalitilor feminine din Romnia (Dictionary of Romanian Feminine Personalities). Bucharest: Meronia. Shelley, Lorna (2009), Female Journalists and Journalism in fin-de-sicle Magazine Stories, Nineteenth Century Gender Studies 5(2): 4.

25

Stevenson, Jane (2006), Women Translators from the Sixteenth to the Eighteenth Century, in Theory and Practice: A Historical Reader, Daniel Weissbort and Astradur Eysteinsson (eds.), Oxford: Oxford University Press, 134. Zaciu, Mircea, Marian Papahagi, Aurel Sasu, (2005), Dicionarul Scriitorilor Romni (Dictionary of Romanian Writers), Bucharest: Editura Fundaiei Culturale Romne, 5 vol., 1998 2000. * * * (1979), Dicionarul literaturii romne de la origini pn la 1900 (Dictionary of Romanian Literature from Its Beginning until 1900), Bucharest: Editura Academiei.

26

THE INFLUENCE OF THE MOTHER LANGUAGE ON BILINGUALS Irina-Ana DROBOT Technical University of Civil Engineering, Bucharest Department of Foreign Languages and Communication

Abstract The purpose of this paper is to examine bilingualism from a gender perspective. The main question is related to the influence of the mother tongue on bilinguals. It seems that the mother tongue is given a high significance in ones understanding of the world as well as in the interference of words or grammatical structures of it into any second language. The significance of the mother tongue goes as far as psychological aspects are concerned: it is regarded by some studies as being more emotional than the second language. From a sociological perspective, minority languages are preserved if they are ones mother tongue when there is another official language of the country. Ones mother tongue is regarded as a significant part of their personal, social and cultural identity. What insights can a Gender Studies approach offer into bilingualism? Should we focus on a sociological perspective or simply on a linguistic, scientifically proved perspective? Which one offers the best explanation? Linguistic, as well as sociological studies and experiments will be taken into account. Keywords: mother tongue; emotional; culture; identity; interference; transference. Bibliography and references Altarriba, J. and Santiago-Rivera, A. 1994. Current perspectives on using linguistic and cultural factors in counseling the hispanic client. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice 25, 38897. Anooshian, J. and Hertel, T. 1994. Emotionality in free recall: Language specificity in bilingual memory. Cognition and Emotion 8, 50314. Bond, M. and Lai, T. 1986. Embarrassment and code-switching into a second language. Journal of Social Psychology 126, 17986. Bongaerts, T.; Planken, B.; Schils, E. (1995). "Can late learners attain a native accent in a foreign language? A test of the Critical Period Hypothesis". In Singleton, D.; Lengyel, Z.. The Age Factor in Second Language Acquisition. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. pp. 3050.

27

Clyne, Sandra. Psychological Factors in Second Language Acquisition: Why Your International Students are Sudando La Gota Gorda (Sweating Buckets), http://www.bhcc.mass.edu/PDFs/TFOT_PsychFactors2ndLang.pdf Constantinidou, E. 1994. The death of East Sutherland Gaelic. Death by women? In P. Burton, K.K. Dyson, and S. Ardener (eds.) Bilingual Women: Anthropological Approaches to Second-Language Use, pp. 111-27. Oxford and Providence, RI: Berg. Dewaele, J-M. 2004. The emotional force of swearwords and taboo words in the speech of multilinguals. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 25, 20422. Dewaele, J-M. and Pavlenko, A. 2002. Emotional vocabulary in interlanguage. Language Learning 52, 263322. Gonzalez-Reigosa, F. 1976. The anxiety arousing effect of taboo words in bilinguals. In C. Spielberger and R. Diaz-Guerrero (eds) Cross-Cultural Anxiety (pp. 89105). Washington, DC: Hemisphere. Guiora, Alexander et al. Construct Validity and Transpositional Research: Toward an Empirical Study of Psychoanalytic Concepts. Comprehensive Psychiatry 13 (1972): 139-150. Harris, Catherine L. Language and Emotion in the Bilingual Brain. Powerpoint presentation, http://www.bu.edu/psych/charris/papers/harris.ppt Harris, Catherine L., Gleason, Jean Berko, Ayiei Aye. Chapter 10. When is a First Language More Emotional? Psychophysiological Evidence from Bilingual Speakers, pp. 257-283, http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.69.5830 Houmanfar, Ramona, Hayes, Linda J., Herbst, Scott A. An Analog Study of First Language Dominance and Interference over Second Language, in Anal Verbal Behav. 2005 December, 21 (1): 75-98, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2774106/ Krashen, Stephen D. Second Language Acquisition and Second Language Learning, http://www.sdkrashen.com/SL_Acquisition_and_Learning/ Marian, V. and Neisser, U. 2000. Language-dependent recall of autobiographical memories. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 129, 36168. McDonald, M. 1994. Women and linguistic innovation in Brittany. In P. Burton, K.K. Dyson, and S. Ardener (eds.) Bilingual Women: Anthropological Approaches to Second-Language Use, pp. 85-110. Oxford and Providence, RI: Berg. Moyer, A. (1999). "Ultimate attainment in L2 phonology: the critical factors of age, motivation, and instruction". Studies in Second Language Acquisition 21 (1): 81 108. DOI:10.1017/S0272263199001035 Pavlenko A. 1998. Second language learning by adults: Testimonies of bilingual writers. Issues in Applied Linguistics 9, 319. Pavlenko, A. 2002. Bilingualism and emotions. Multilingua 21, 4578.

28

Pavlenko. A. 2004. Stop Doing That, Ia Komu Skazala!: Language choice and emotions in parentchild communication. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 25, 179203. Piller, Ingrid and Pavlenko, Aneta. Bilingualism and Gender, pp. 489-511, in Bhatia, Tej K. and Ritchie, William C. (eds). The Handbook of Bilingualism, Blackwell Publishing. Schrauf, R. 2000. Bilingual autobiographical memory: Experimental studies and clinical cases. Culture and Psychology 6, 387417. Schrauf, R. and Rubin, D. 1998. Bilingual autobiographical memory in older adult immigrants: A test of cognitive explanations of the reminiscence bump and the linguistic encoding of memories. Journal of Memory and Language 39, 43757. Schrauf, R. and Rubin, D. 2000. Internal languages of retrieval: The bilingual encoding of memories for the personal past. Memory and Cognition 28, 61623. Shoebottom, Paul. 1996-2012. The importance of the mother tongue, http://esl.fis.edu/parents/advice/intro.htm van Heuven, Walter J.B., Schriefers, Herbert, Dijkstra, Ton and Hagoort, Peter. 2008. Language Conflict in the Bilingual Brain, in Cerebral Cortex, volume 18, issue 11, pp. 2706-2716, http://cercor.oxfordjournals.org/content/18/11/2706.full Wikipedia article, First Language, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_language Wikipedia article. Critical period hypothesis, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Critical_period_hypothesis Young-Scholten, M. (2002). "Orthographic input in L2 phonological development". In Burmeister, P.; Piske, T.; Rohde, A.. An integrated View of Language Development: Papers in Honor of Henning Wode. Trier: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier. pp. 263279.

29

HOW NEW WERE NEW WOMEN IN THE WORKS OF WILDE, GISSING AND SCHREINER? Neslihan GNAYDIN English Language School, Sleymanah University, Kartal/stanbul, Turkey Abstract Through the end of the nineteenth-century educated middle-class women experienced a developmental process from a traditional position to the new woman position through modern views and improvements in social status and roles, and domestic life. This new woman challenged conventionality and fought to be the master of her own life without being exempted from anything men can reach, and to gain as much influence in public life as domestic sphere. The charm of paid work for educated women created revolt against the domestic sphere especially when women faced gender discrimination in the work place and were accused of unsexing themselves by trying to earn their living in the patriarchal public sphere. The broadening employment of women led to new liberties in public life by forcing the world to accept their independence. Therefore the aim of my paper is to demonstrate how new the New Women were in late-Victorian Britain by principally focusing on the lives of protagonists such as Lyndall in Screiners The Story of An African Farm, Vivie in Shaws Mrs Warrens Profession, and Rhoda Nunn in Gissings The Odd Women. Moreover, I will try to discuss whether this newness turned out to be for the better or worse for these late-Victorian women in the long-run by putting emphasis on their end, fraught with despair, regret and helplessness behind a self-confident, adamant and independent profile against patriarchy. The New Women were new in their ideals such as education, marriage for love, social usefulness, economic independence and equal opportunities for both genders. They left an invaluable legacy behind that next generation of women will build on for more social, political and economic prominence. Their novelty was their attempt and deep devotion to womens emancipation. What made them new was the desire to be recognized as people and to fight for freedom equal to men in late-Victorian Britain. Key Words: New women, free love, economic independence, emancipation, unwomanly woman, odd women

30

Bibliography Acton, William, Prostitution Considered in its Moral, Social and Sanitary Aspects, in London and Other Large Cities, with Proposals for the Mitigation and Prevention of its Attendant Evils (London: Churchill, 1857). Allen, Grant, The Type-Writer Girl (London: Broadview Press, 1897). * * * The Woman Who Did (London: Roberts Bros., 1895). Black, Clementina, The Organization of Working Women, Fortnightly Review 52 (1889), 695- 704, p. 696. Gissing, George, The Odd Women, (London: Broadview Press, 1998). Ledger, Sally, The New Woman: Fiction and feminism at the fin de sicle (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1997). Liggins, Emma, George Gissing, the Working Woman, and Urban Culture (Hampshire: Ashgate Publishing Limited, 2006). Linton, Eliza Lynn , The Modern Revolt, Macmillans Magazine (December 1870), in Criminals, Idiots, Women, and Minors: Victorian Writing by Women on Women, ed., Susan Hamilton (Toronto: Broadview, 2004). Mayhew, Henry, London labour and the London Poor: [] Those That Will Not Work (London: Griffin, Bohn, and Company, 1862). Mill, J. Stuart, The Subjection of Women, ed. Susan M. Okin (Cambridge: Hackett Publishing Company, 1988). Richardson, Angelique & Willis, Chris, The New Woman in Fiction and in Fact (London: Penguin, 1915). Rive, Richard, Olive Schreiner Letters, Volume I: 1871-1899 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988). R. Porter, English Society in the Eighteenth Century, cited in Family Fortunes (Harmondsworth, 1982). Schreiner, Olive, The Story of An African Farm, (New York: Penguin, 1883). * * * Women and Labour (London: Virago, 1978). Shaw, Bernard, Mrs Warrens Profession (Plymouth: Broadview Press, 2005). Showalter, Elaine, A Literature of their Own. British Women Novelists from Bronte to Lessing (London: Virago, 1984) * * *, Sexual Anarchy: Gender and Culture at the Fin de Siecle (London: Bloomsbury Publishing Ltd, 1991). Stutfield, Hugh E. M., Tommyrotics (1895). Vicinus, Martha, A Widening Sphere: Changing Roles of Victorian Women (London: Indiana University Press, 1977). Vicinus, Martha, Suffer and Be Still: Women in the Victorian Age (London: Indiana University Press, 1972). Walkowitz, Judith R., Prostitution and Victorian Society: Women, Class, and the State (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980).

31

Webb, Beatrice, My Apprenticeship, (Middlesex: Penguin, 1926). Worsnop, Judith, A Reevaluation of the Problem of Surplus Women in 19thCentury England: the Case of the 1851 Census, Womens Studies International Forum, 13 (1990).

32

VASSILIS ALEXAKIS CRITURE TRANSNATIONALE ET NATIONALISME LITTRAIRE DANS LE CONTEXTE EUROPEN Efstratia OKTAPODA Universit de Paris IV-Sorbonne (France)

Rsum: Dans le second XXe sicle les crivains transcendent les frontires linguistiques et nationales et inscrivent un nouvel espace non pas national et spcifique, mais littraire et mondial. Le projet romanesque traditionnel fait place aux interrogations identitaires et aux pratiques transversales des crivains. Vassilis Alexakis est une figure majeure de la littrature transnationale contemporaine. Son uvre transcende la problmatique moderne lie la question du nationalisme littraire. Tous les romans d'Alexakis tmoignent la rupture survenue entre l'individu et l'espace. La perte du lien avec l'environnement physique est latente de la dpossession de soi et relve du sentiment de l'impuissance des tres. Alexakis fait appel la mmoire pour crer une nouvelle Grce. Athnes, la capitale, devient l'espace d'une mmoire consigner et d'une qute personnelle restaurer. Entre Paris et Athnes, la croise de deux villes, de deux langues et de leurs cultures, Alexakis se pose comme l'crivain de l'inpuisable questionnement, linguistique et culturel. Mots-cls: Vassilis Alexakis; criture transnationale; Nationalisme littraire; XXe sicle; Europe; Dpossession; Mmoire. Bibliographie primaire Alexakis, Vassilis, Le Sandwich, Paris, Julliard, 1974. Alexakis, Vassilis, Les Girls du City boum-boum, Paris, Julliard, 1975. Alexakis, Vassilis, La Tte du chat, Paris, Seuil, 1978. Alexakis, Vassilis, Talgo (trad. du grec par lauteur), Paris, Seuil, 1983. Alexakis, Vassilis, Contrle didentit, Paris, Seuil, 1985. Alexakis, Vassilis, Paris-Athnes, Paris, Seuil, 1989 (et d. revue par lauteur, Paris, Fayard, 1997). Alexakis, Vassilis, Avant, Paris, Seuil, 1992. Alexakis, Vassilis, La Langue maternelle (trad. du grec par lauteur), Paris, Fayard, 1995.

33

Alexakis, Vassilis, Papa et autres nouvelles, Paris, Fayard, 1997. Alexakis, Vassilis, Le Cur de Marguerite (trad. du grec par lauteur), Paris, Stock, coll. Livre de poche , 1999. Alexakis, Vassilis, Les Mots trangers, Paris, Stock, 2002. Alexakis, Vassilis, Je toublierai tous les jours (trad. du grec par lauteur), Paris, Stock, 2005. Alexakis, Vassilis, Ap. J.-C. (trad. du grec par lauteur), Paris, Stock, 2007. Alexakis, Vassilis, Le premier mot, Paris, Stock, 2010. Bibliographie secondaire (choix) BESSY, Marianne, Vassilis Alexakis. Exorciser l'exil, Amsterdam/New York : Rodopi, coll. Collection monographique Rodopi en littrature franaise contemporaine , 2011. CASANOVA, Pascale, La Rpublique mondiale des lettres, Paris, ditions du Seuil, 1999. JOUANNY, Robert, Singularits francophones ou choisir dcrire en franais, Paris, PUF, coll. criture , 2000. LECLRE, Marie-Franoise, Le premier mot : Vassilis Alexakis l'origine du mot , In Le Point.fr, 26/08/2010. URL: <http://www.lepoint.fr/culture/lepremier-mot-vassilis-alexakis-a-l-origine-du-mot-26-08-2010-1228978_3.php >. Consult le 10 aot 2011. OKTAPODA, Efstratia et Najib REDOUANE, Lle des Balkans : Vassilis Alexakis, Aris Fakinos, Dimitri T. Analis. Une francophonie sans frontires , crivains dexpression franaise de lEurope du Sud-Est. Dialogue des cultures chez les crivains balkaniques dexpression franaise, Paul Miclau (Dir.), Actes du Colloque international de Bucarest du 7-8 novembre 2008, Bucarest, Presses Universitaires Spiru Haret, Editura Fundaiei Romnia de Mine (Roumanie), 2009, p. 22-31. OKTAPODA, Efstratia, Changement de langue et polyphonie romanesque. Le cas de Vassilis Alexakis , crivains multilingues et critures mtisses. Lhospitalit des langues, Axel Gasquet et Modesta Suarez (ds.), Actes du Colloque international de Clermont-Ferrand du 2-4 dcembre 2004, Presses Universitaires de Clermont-Ferrand, 2007, p. 323-338. OKTAPODA-LU, Efstratia, Mondialisation, littrature et francophonie. Les exils de la littrature, ou Nancy Huston : une littrature de lexil , Mythe et mondialisation. Lexil dans les littratures francophones, E. Steiciuc, O. Gancevici et E. Oktapoda-Lu (ds.), Actes du Colloque international de Suceava du 9-10 septembre 2005, Programme de recherche franco-roumain Brancusi, Ministre des Affaires trangres (France), Presses Universitaires de Suceava (Roumanie), 2006, p. 15-23.

34

OKTAPODA-LU, Efstratia, Identit, altrit : frontires et mythes, ou Les crivains grecs dexpression franaise , in Dalhousie French Studies, no spcial 74/75, Identit et altrit dans les littratures francophones, Driss Assaoui (Ed.), Halifax (Canada), 2006, p. 389-412. OKTAPODA-LU, Efstratia et V. Lalagianni, Le vritable exil est toujours intrieur. Mtissage et imaginaire chez les crivains francophones grecs , in French Forum, Fall 2005, Vol 30, No 3 (University of Pennsylvania-USA), 2005, p. 111-139. OKTAPODA Efstratia, Vassilis Alexakis ou la qute d'identit , La langue de l'Autre ou la double identit de l'criture, textes runis par Jean-Pierre Castellani, Maria Rosa Chiapparo et Daniel Leuwers, Actes du Colloque international de Tours du 9-11 dcembre 1999, Littrature et Nations, No 24, 2001, Publication de l'Universit Franais Rabelais, Tours, 2001, p. 281-295. ORPHANIDOU-FRRIS, Maria, LIdentit apatride de Vassilis Alexakis , in Francofonia, No 9, 2000 (Universit de Cadiz), p. 171-185. PENVINS, Vassilis Alexakis, Les premiers mots , In e-littetature.net URL:<http://www.elitterature.net/publier2/spip/spip.php?page=ancientxt&cel=&repert=penv&titr e=alexakis&num=404&id_auteur=2&crit=Penvins> PENVINS, Vassilis Alexakis, Je toublierai tous les jours, Stock 2005, In elitterature.net, mardi 1er novembre 2005. URL:<http://www.elitterature.net/publier2/spip/spip.php?page=article5&id_article=177>. Consult le 10 aot 2011. REDOUANE, Najib, Crise identitaire et bilinguisme littraire chez Vassilis Alexakis , crivains dexpression franaise de lEurope du Sud-Est. Les crivains du Sud-Est europen en qute d'identit, Paul Miclau (Dir.), Actes du Colloque international de Bucarest du 6-7 novembre 2009, Bucarest, Presses Universitaires Spiru Haret, Editura Fundaiei Romnia de Mine (Roumanie), 2010, p. 32-40. SPIVAK, Gayatri, In Other Worlds, New York, Routledge, 1987.

35

EDUCATION ROLE IN CREATING GENDER DIMENSION

dr. Maria ALEXE dr. Mihaela IONESCU Ms. Iulia ALEXE Ms. Maria Luisa IONESCU dr. Ramona CARAMELEA drd. Alina IFTIME drd. Mihaela LEVARDA

36

GENDER DIMENSSION IN DESIGNING LEARNING SUPPORTS

Maria ALEXE Technical University of Civil Engineering, Bucharest Department of Foreign Languages and Communication Abstract The way in which a society wants to educate its members is mirrored in curricula design and learning supports. The general interest for this topic has risen lately due to the increased importance of gender perspectives in analysing all sorts of educational aspects. The new aspects underlined by this study lie in the multiaspectual analysis of both Romanian and English learning supports The aim of this study is to offer a correct multicultural perspective and at the same time to provide students with adequate cultural competences. The main research question to which the analysis tries to answer is if the learning supports used in TUCB offers a correct gender perspective to future engineers. The methodological approach is induced by the methodology of case studies research. Therefore the analysis focuses on several texts books and learning units, largely used by different teachers of English as learning supports for the first year students. The examples are provided by textbooks and other learning supports offered by well known publishing houses as Longman, Oxford University Press, Macmillan, as well as by Romanian teachers Although the gender perspective is involved in designing the curricula for the second year too, this aspect is not going to be disused in the present study. Key words: gender, education, perspective, multiculturalism

Bibliography Caramelea, Ramona Viaa cotidian ntr-o coal de fete n a doua jumtate a secolului al XIX/lea. (lucrare de licen) Cluer, Judita Liceul Unit de Fete din Beiu -1896-1948, Editura Logos 94, Oradea, 2011

37

Cmrescu, Zoe Amintiri editura Vitruviu, Bucureti, 2002 Zoe Cmrescu - Amintiri editura Vitruviu, Bucureti. Eckersley, C.E Essential English for Foreign Students, Foreign Language Press Sofia, 1966 (prima ediie Longman, Londra, 1955) European Commission She Figures 2009Statistics and Indicators on Gender Equality in Sience,in Research eu, Brussels 2009 European Commission Toolkit Gender in EU- Funded research in Research EU 2009 Grnberg, L, tefnescu, D.O. n: Vlsceanu, coala la rscruce. Schimbare i continuitate n curriculum-ul nvmntului obligatoriu. Studiu de impact, Iai, Editura Polirom, 2002 Hornby, A..S. Oxford Progressive English Course, first published 1954, London Oxford University Press, 1971 Ilea, Anca, Daniela Sotoicescu Dimensiunea de gen n aria curricular ARTE, MarLink, Bucureti, 2006 Key, Sue, Vaughan Jones- Inside- out Students Book, Macmillan, 2002 Neagoe, Stelian Viaa universitar clujean interbelic, Editura Dacia, ClujNapoca, 1980 Rachieru, Silvia - Includerea/excluderea social a femeilor Romnia modern (18781914) in volumul Despre femei i istoria lor n Romania (coord. Alin Ciupal) ebooks.unibuc.ro/istorie/ciupala/includereaexcluderea.htm Stoicescu, Daniela Dimensiunea de gen n nvmntul primar: ghid pentru cadrele didactice din nvmntul primar, Editura Marlink, Bucureti, 2006 The Polytechnic University of Bucharest, Department of Modern Languages English for Professional Communication Printech, Bucureti, 2004

38

FIRST STEPS IN EDUCATIONAL EXCELLENCE FOR GIRLS IN ROMANIA Mihaela IONESCU Technical University of Civil Engineering , Bucharest Iulia ALEXE Maastricht School of Governance Maria Luisa IONESCU National School of Political and Administration Studies Abstract In the 19th. century gender difference in education was clearly marked in Romanian society. If in the countryside children received a minimum education, in school were both children were registered, upper education separated the children into different schools. Starting with a brief historical review, this study intends to offer a new perspective upon education in some of the most famous schools for girls. In order to achieve this goal some case studies, three important institutions established in the 19th. century, are going to be analysed, therefore the main methodology is that referring to case studies associated with statistical analysis. The novelty of the approach consists in using the historical perspective to analyse gender aspects in education and to suggest solutions for present. Key words: feminism, education, historical approach, excellence

Bibliography xxxx Anuarul Statistic al Oraului Bucureti 1878-1931 xxxx Anuarul colilor civile de fete cu internat din Sibiu 1903 Daggett R., Willard R - Acieving Academic Excellence through Rigor and Relevance http://www.leadered.com/pdf/academic_excellence.pdf

39

Iorga Nicolae in : Floarea Darurilor, Bucuresti, nr 3 p 141 Ionescu Otilia- Din viaa unei scoli. Liceul de fete Domnia Ileana din Bucureti 1926-1941,Bucureti 1942 Rdulescu Pogoneanu Elena - coala Central de fete din Bucureti,1890, editat la Bucuresti Imprimaria Statului xxxxPrograma colilor de fete cu internat i drept de publicitate pe anul colar 1898) xxxxx Programele Analitice ale nvmntului secundar public 1934 Bucuresti, in Monitorul Oficial nr 191. Imprimaria Statului

40

GENDER STUDIES IN GIRLS EDUCATION AT THE END OF THE 19th CENTURY. CURRICULA AND EDUCATIONAL INTENTIONS Ramona CARAMELEA National University of Arts, Bucharest Teacher Training Department (DPPD) Abstract This research paper aims to provide an overview of the education content from secondary schools for girls and to see whether the model and a certain ideal of feminity charactersitic to that time were translated into the curricula. The role played by school in shaping and spreading national identity during the nineteenth century is well-known to academics interested in history of education or the problem of nation/nationality. The school contributed to a large extent in building a feminine identity, this gender identity being defined in close connection with socio-political context of a time dominated by the national project. The research streched on the period from 1864 to 1898, both extremes being marked by the emergence of new laws with consequences on girls education. Key words: schoos for girls, gender, identity, social values, domestic science

41

LES TAPES DE LA CONCEPTION DUN COURS DE LANGUE FRANAISE POUR LA FORMATION ET LE DVELOPPEMENT DES COMPTENCES DE COMMUNICATION PROFESSIONNELLE DES TUDIANT(E)S EN SCIENCES SOCIALES Alina IFTIME Dpartement Didactique Facult de Psychologie et des Sciences de lducation Universit Ovidius de Constana

Abstract: Although, for students at non philological faculties, the study of a foreign language, in this case French, doesnt represent an end in itself, we believe that this discipline of study should not have a marginal status, as it is actually an important component of the professional training process. Within this paper, we propose to identify and present the steps followed by the teacher, to create a French language course for training and development of professional communication skills in French to students of social sciences, appropriate to communication needs specific to the professional environment where they will integrate, but also for the development of the autonomy in studying French. Keywords: professional communication, French, non philological faculties. Bibliographie: BOCO, Muata (2002). Instruire interactiv. Repere pentru reflecie i aciune. Cluj-Napoca: Editura Presa Universitar Clujean. BRADEA, Livia-Olivia (2007). Comunicarea mijloc i scop n educaie, ediie CD-ROM, Lucrrile Conferinei Internaionale Integrarea European ntre Tradiie i Modernitate, IETM ediia a II-a, Universitatea Petru Maior, Trgu Mure, pp. 273 283. COMISIA EUROPEAN http://ec.europa.eu/languages/languages-of-europe/languages-2010-andbeyond_ro.htm LEHMANN, Denis (1993). Objectifs spcifiques en langue trangre. Paris: Hachette.

42

NEGREA, Violeta (2006). Modele curriculare academice ale predrii limbilor strine i standardele profesiunii economice n Economie teoretic i aplicat nr. 9 / 2006, pp. 103 108. http://www.ectap.ro/articol.php?id=161&rid=9 RICHER, Jean-Jacques (2008). Le franais sur objectifs spcifiques (F.O.S.) : une didactique spcialise? In Synergies Chine n 3 2008, pp. 15 30.

43

FORSTERS EDUCATION ACT: A SIGNIFICANT STEP TOWARDS UNIVERSAL EDUCATION IN GREAT BRITAIN Mihaela LEVARDA Faculty of Foreign Languages and Literatures University of Bucharest

Abstract The aim of the paper is to examine an important episode in the history of the British educational policy in the Victorian Age. Before Forsters Education Act 1870, in Great Britain education was largely a private affair, with upper class parents sending their children to fee-paying schools, and others using whatever local teaching was made available. Therefore, the main objective of many Victorian educationists was to establish a national system of education. William Forster has played a significant role in the educational process of the time. He set the framework for schooling of all children between ages 5 and 12 in England and Wales and advocated the replacing of private education with free compulsory education to all children in Great Britain regardless of their social status. The paper analyses the content and purpose of the Education Act of 1870 and then moves on to examine the consequences of Forsters Act. Key words : Victorian education, educational system, schools, teaching, system

Bibliography Birch, Dinah. Our Victorian Education. Blackwell: Oxford, 3 March, 2008: vii Campus news. Web. 5 July 2012. <http://www.campusnews.ro/stiri-stiri-11754172-top-100-universitati-cea-maibuna-reputatie-din-lume-harvard-mit-primele-locuri-universitatile-din-romania-nuapar-clasament.htm> ompulsory Education. Web. 22 July 2012. < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compulsory_education#United_Kingdom> Davis, Philip. The Oxford English Literary History, Vol. 8. 1830-1880, The Victorians. Oxford University Press, 2002: 218 Elementary Education Act 1870. Web. 3 July 2012. < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elementary_Education_Act_1870>

44

Gillard, Derek. Education in England: a brief history. Ch. 2, 3. 2011. Web. 3 July 2012. <www.educationengland.org.uk/history> Higher Education in the UK. Web. 15 June 2012. <http://www.justlanded.com/english/UK/UK-Guide/Education/Higher-Education-inthe-UK > History of Education in England. Web. 2 July 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_education_in_England> John Henry Newman, The Idea of a University, 1852. Web. 3 July 2912. <http://www.newmanreader.org/works/idea/#contents> Marianne Larsen. The Making and Shaping of the Victorian Teacher. Macmillan. 2011: 7-8 The British Education System. 2 July 2012. <http://www.justlanded.com/english/UK/UK-Guide/Education/Introduction> The British Education System. Just Landed. Web. 3 July 2012. < http://www.justlanded.com/english/UK/UK-Guide/Education/Introduction> The Victorian web. 3 July 2012. <http://www.victorianweb.org/history/education/ulondon/6.html> Walsh, J.J. The University Movement in the North of England at the End of the Nineteenth Century. Northern History, Vol. 46, (1). 2009: 113-131. Wb. 4 June 2012. < http://richardjohnbr.blogspot.ro/2011/02/higher-education-1870-1914.html>

45

GENDER PERSPECTIVE CASE STUDIES

dr. Elena PRUS dr. Anca Margareta BUNEA dr. Spiridon KALOSHEV drd. Cristina-Florina HERLING Florina-Cristina Despina CHIRIMBU dr. Sebastian CHIRIMBU dr. Otilia SRBU Mdlina FTOMENCO

46

MODERNITY EMBLEMATIC CHARACTER: THE PARIZIAN WOMAN

Elena PRUS Institute of Philological and Intercultural Researches, Chiinu Free International University of Moldavia Abstract Modernity created a great change in defining identity. As for the feminine identity the change of perspective is even greater. This paper intention is to analyse and to define a model of identity which was created among the people of Paris. The main research question refers to distinctive aspects of that model as well as to its influence among other European communities. The research starts by analysing the 19th. century scenery, a period when French civilization was a model for whole Europe, mainly for the countries in the South East, a region which struggles to escape old Turkish influence. The methods used are those provided for case studies, to which comparative literature is associated too. Key words: feminine identity, Paris culture, modernity

Bibliography Angelescu, Silviu. Mitul i literatura. Bucureti: Univers, 1999 Baudelaire, Charles. Curioziti estetice. Bucureti: Meridiane, Tr. Rodica Lipatti, 1971 Baudelaire, Charles. Les fleurs du Mal. Florile rului. Bucureti: David; Chiinu: Litera, 1998 Baudrillard, Jean. De la sduction, lhorizon sacr des apparences. Paris: Denol/ Gonthier, 1979 Clinescu, Matei. Five faces of Modernity. Duke University Press, 1987 Cioculescu, erban. Femeia n societatea francezn Medalioane franceze. Bucureti: Univers, 1971 Frisby, D. Fragments of Modernit. MIT Press, 1988 Foucault, Michel. Of outher Spaces in Diacritics, 1986 Lyotard, Jean-Franois . Postmodernul pe nelesul copiilor. Cluj: Apostrof, 1997 Meschonnic, Henri. Modernit. Modernit. Paris : Gallimard, 1998

47

Nouss, Alexis. Modernitatea. Piteti. Braov: Cluj-Napoca, Paralela 45, 2000 Patapievici, Horia-Roman, Omul recent, Bucureti: Humanitas, 2004 Pavlicencu, Sergiu, Tranziia n literatur i postmodernismul. Braov: Editura Universitii Transilvania, 2002 Vattimo, G. La fin de la modernit. Paris: Seuil, 1987

48

LUCE IRIGARAYS UNREPRESENTABLE. THE HYPOSTASIS OF MASCULINE IDENTITY VS. FEMININE MYSTERY IN CLEOPATRAS LITERARY REPRESENTATION Anca-Margareta BUNEA Technical University of Civil Engineering, Bucharest Department of Foreign Languages and Communication

Abstract The sexual difference is a basic principle in organizing social identity. The double feminine / masculine does not constitute the exclusive frame in which specificity can be acknowledged; the feminine specificity is completely set out of context. Regarding the discourse of identity, Luce Irigaray stated that women are a paradox. They are the sex which is not one; they correspond to a specific category: the unrepresentable. Thus, it is very interesting to compare Cleopatras masculine identity hypostasis from Shakespeares depiction with the unstable feminine identity that archetypal patterns offer. The importance of shifting gender identities from Cleopatras representations consists in the need of deconstructing step by step the absolute image of femininity in traditional style that has been concerning the occidental culture for more than 2000 years. Keywords: Gender Identity, Archetypal Patterns, the Unrepresentable, Contrastive Analysis: Cleopatra / Antigone

Bibliography Ashton, T. (2005). A Contrastive and Error Analysis Survey of the Use of Indefinite Article in the English of Native Japanese Learners, Unknown Journal. Auster, P. (1989). Moon Palace. USA: Viking Press. Translated by Leila Nasiriha, in Motarjem Quarterly, No.46. P. 174-175. Arthur, M. (1977) Liberated Women: The Classical Era in Becoming Visible: Women in European History, Ed. Renate Bridenthal and Claudia Koonz, Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.

49

Bodkin, M. (1978). Archetypal Patterns in Poetry: Psychological Studies of Imagination, New York: AMS Press. Hamer, M. (2008). Signs of Cleopatra. Reading an Icon Historically, Updated Second Edition, University of Exeter Press. Irigaray, L. (1985). Speculum of the Other Woman, Translated by Gillian C. Gill, Ithaca: Cornell University Press. Irigaray, Luce. (1991). This Sex Which Is Not One in Feminisms: An Anthology of Literary Theory and Criticism, Ed. Robyn R. Warhol and Diane Price Herndl, Rutgers University Press. Jones, A. R. (1991). Writing the Body: Toward an Understanding of lEcriture Feminine in Feminism: An Anthology of Literary Theory and Criticism, Ed. Robyn R. Warhol and Diane Price Herndl, Rutgers University Press. Lacan, J. (1997). The Ethics of Psychoanalysis 1959-1960, Translated with Notes by Dennis Porter, New York, Norton. Loomba, A. (1989). Patriarchal Discourse. The Language of Patriarchy in the chapter The infinite variety of patriarchal discourse from Gender, Race, Renaissance Drama, Manchester University Press. Murray, J. IMMORTAL LONGINGS A Resource Extra for students and teachers studying ANTONY AND CLEOPATRA, ELECTRA and ANTIGONE http://www.royalexchangetheatre.org.uk/downloads/education/ImmortalLongings.pd f accessible on 21.05.2012 Restuccia, F. L. (2006) Amorous Acts: Lacanian Ethics in Modernism, Film and Queer Theory, Stanford University Press. Surdulescu, R. (1997) Critica mitic-arhetipal. De la motivul anthropologic la sentimentul numinosului, Bucureti, Editura Allfa srl.

50

THE OPPOSITION OF SEXES IN THOMAS HARDY'S A LAODICEAN Spiridon KALOSHEV Department of Bulgarian Language, Literature and Arts, The Angel Kanchev University of Rousse, Bulgaria Abstract A Laodicean is considered to be one of Hardys minor novels, but at the same time one with a very personal touch. It is a novel in which the writer keen analysis of feminine soul almost reaches perfection. As one of his famous novels Jude the Obscure the psychological analysis is revealed through detailed architectural descriptions. The present study intention is to underline the novelty of this novel in which Hardys has the courage to discuss about sex and sexual implication of a relationship. Today this attitude is no more scandalous, but in the Victorian age it was an act of great courage. Key words: Thomas Hardy, feminist approach, modern.

Bibliography Guerard, Albert J. Thomas Hardy. The Novels and Stories. London: Geoffrey Cumberlege OUP, 1949. Hardy, Barbara. Introduction. A Laodicean. By Thomas Hardy. London: Macmillan, 1990. Hardy, Thomas. A Laodicean. London: Macmillan, 1990. Millgate, Michael. Thomas Hardy. His Career as a Novelist. London: The Bodley Head, 1971. Morgan, Rosemarie. Women and Sexuality in the Novels of Thomas Hardy. London: Routledge, 1988.

51

THE WOMANS IMAGE IN PROVERBS Cristina-Florina HERLING Technical University of Civil Engineering, Bucharest Department of Foreign Languages and Communication

Abstract The aim of this paper is to identify by means of proverbs the stereotypes underlining the womans image in two cultural spaces: Romanian and Spanish. The proverbs comprising ideas and characteristics common to the two cultures in portraying the woman constitute the point of departure. Proverbs are a life experience reflecting the ethical image of each people, they mark out its qualities and flaws and aim at fulfilling a moral, ethical and educational task. Behavioral stereotypes perpetuate both in the collective memory and in the individual one as well. That is figures, images, ideas accepted by a community or society. Stereotypes lead to the materialization of the socio-cultural perception by which people build the image, sometimes unreal, of a person, of the relations between sexes, of society. These proverbs reflect the image of the woman, her virtues, her flaws, sometimes distorted, accentuating the familial or social character in a rural context: the mother, the wife, the daughter-in-law, the mother-in-law, the widow, the wanton woman etc., but also the moral profile: the unfaithful, the liar, the backbiter etc. Key words: woman, image, proverb, cultural space, stereotype

Bibliography Campos, Juana G., Ana Barella, Diccionario de refranes, Editorial Espasa Calpe, S. A., Madrid, 2002. Chiimia, I. C., Folclorul romnesc n perspectiv comparat, Editura Minerva, Bucureti,1971. Duduleanu, Mircea M. (redactor), Proverbele lumii despre caliti i defecte, Editura Albatros, Bucureti, 1978. Gheorghe, Gabriel, Proverbele romneti i proverbele lumii romanice, Editura Albatros, Bucureti, 1986.

52

Hinescu, I.C., Proverbele romnilor, Editura Facla, Timioara, 1985. Martnez Kleiser, Luis, Refranero general ideolgico espaol, Hernando, Madrid, 1995. Muntean, George (redactor), Proverbe romneti, Editura Minerva, Bucureti, 1984. Sabban, A./Wirrer, J. (redactor), Sprichwrter und Redensarten im interkulturellen Vergleich, Westdeutscher Verlag, Opladen, 1991. https://jyx.jyu.fi/dspace/bitstream/handle/123456789/18961/URN_NBN_fi_jyu200809295767.pdf?sequence=1 http://www.alonsoquijano.org/cursos2004/animateca/recursos/Biblioteca%20virtual/ C1.%20Tradiciones%20y%20Literatura%20Infantil/20.%20Pascuala%20Morote.pdf

53

ISABEL ARCHER OR THE EXPLORATION OF THE INNER UNIVERSE AT HENRY JAMES. THE PORTRAIT OF A LADY Despina CHIRIMBU Hyperion University, Bucharest Sebastian CHIRIMBU Department of Specialized Languages, Spiru Haret University, Bucharest Abstract This novel is the most stunning achievement of Henry James's early period-in the 1860s and '70s when he was transforming himself from a talented young American into a resident of Europe, a citizen of the world, and one of the greatest novelists of modern times (Introduction by R.Barreca, Signet Classic Ed.). A kind of delight at the success of this transformation informs every page of this masterpiece. Isabel Archer, a beautiful, intelligent, and headstrong American girl newly endowed with wealth and embarked in Europe on a treacherous journey to self-knowledge, is delineated with a magnificence that is at once casual and tense with force and insight. The characters with whom she is entangled--the good man and the evil one, between whom she wavers, and the mysterious witch-like woman with whom she must do battle--are each rendered with a virtuosity that suggests dazzling imaginative powers. And the scene painting--in England and Italy--provides a continuous visual pleasure while always remaining crucial to the larger drama. Isabel is the main focus of Portrait of a Lady, and most of the thematic exploration of the novel occurs through her actions, thoughts, and experiences. Key words: woman, feminity, independence, personality Bibliography The Novels of Henry James by Edward Wagenknecht (New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing Co. 1983) ISBN 0-8044-2959-6 Modern Critical Views: Henry James edited by Harold Bloom (New York: Chelsea House Publishers 1987) ISBN 0-87754-696-7

54

The Portrait of a Lady: Maiden, Woman and Heroine by Lyall Powers (Boston: Twayne Publishers 1991) ISBN 0-8057-8066-1 The Portrait of a Lady, Signet Classic, 1995, USA (introduction by Regina Barreca Meaning in Henry James by Millicent Bell (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press 1991) ISBN 0-674-55763-8 A Companion to Henry James Studies edited by Daniel Fogel (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press 1993) ISBN 0-313-25792-2 The Cambridge Companion to Henry James edited by Jonathan Freedman (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press 1998) ISBN 0-521-49924-0 Webography: http://www.cliffsnotes.com/study_guide/literature/portrait-of-a-lady/characteranalysis/isabel-archer.html http://www.online-literature.com/henry_james/portrait_lady/ http://EzineArticles.com/5132126 http://www.shmoop.com/portrait-of-a-lady/women-femininity-theme.html

55

KATHERINE PANCOL, A VOICE OF THE WORLD TODAY Otilia SRBU Faculty of Letters and Foreign Languages, Hyperion University of Bucharest

Abstract Katherine Pancol moved from Casablanca to France when she was five. She studied Literature and initially became a French and latin teacher, before turning to Journalism. While working for Paris-Match and Cosmopolitan, she was noticed by an intuitive publisher who encouraged her to write. Following the success of her first novel Moi dabord (Me First) in 1979, Pancol moved to New York City. Pancolinsights into human psychology, and particulary women, are amazingly accurate and her sense of details often shaded with wry humour. Her novel The Yellow Eyes of Crocodiles (published in 2006) has been a huge success in France and is already being translated into Russian, Chinese, Ukrainian, Polish, Italian, Korean, Vietnamese and Norwegian. Key words : literature, human psychology, relationships.

Bibliografie Boia, Lucian, Pentru o istorie a imaginarului, Editura Humanitas, Bucureti, 1999 Clinescu, G., Cronicile optimistului, Editura pentru Literatur, Bucureti, 1964 Clinescu, G., Fals jurnal (ntocmit i prefaat de Eugen Simion), Editura Fundaiei PRO, Bucureti, 1999 Clinescu, G., Opere (vol. I Cartea nunii, Enigma Otiliei; vol. II Bietul Ioanide, Scrinul negru), Editura Fundaiei Naionale pentru tiin i Art i Univers Enciclopedic, Bucureti, 2004 Ciupal, Alin, Femeia n societatea romneasc a secolului al XIX-lea, Editura Meridiane, Bucureti, 2003 Marsillac, Ulysse de, Bucuretiul n veacul al XIXlea, Editura Meridiane, Bucureti, 1999 Papadima, Ovidiu, Prefa, n O mie i una de nopi, Editura Saeculum I. O., Editura Vestala, Bucureti, 1998 Prvulescu, Ioana, Alfabetul doamnelor (critic literar), Editura Crater, Bucureti, 1999

56

Prvulescu, Ioana, ntoarcere n Bucuretiul interbelic, Editura Humanitas, Bucureti, 2007 Petrescu, Alexandra, Femeia n imaginarul politic, Editura Ars Docendi a Universitii Bucureti, 2008 Sylva, Carmen, Bucureti, Gazeta femenin, an I, nr. 1, 1908 Zaharia-Filipa, Elena, Studii de literatur feminin, Editura Paideia, Bucureti, 2004 http://www.dilemaveche.ro/

57

GENDER AND APPLIED LINGUISTICS / TRANSLATIONS Saeed KHAZAIE Saeed KETABI Abdolmajid HAYATI Dara TAFAZOLI Karima BOUZIANE Bianca Olivia TURDEAN dr. Viorica BANCIU Noor Al-Sadat HOSSEINI Nazanin JAHANIAN

58

MALL: THE EFFECTS OF SHORT-TERM MEMORY AND GENDER ON VOCABULARY LEARNING Saeed KHAZAIE Phd Student in TEFL, Iran Saeed KETABI Faculty of foreign Languages, Isfahan University, Iran Abdolmajid HAYATI Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran Dara TAFAZOLI Islamic Azad University Science & Research Branch, Iran

Abstract With sweeping power of mobile devices learning anytime and anywhere has been made possible. Through exploiting the inherent capabilities of such devices including portability, accessibility, convenience, versatility, etc. this study set out to investigate the efficacy of multimodal representation of L2 vocabularies and learners' gender in 161 pre-intermediate level L2 learners. To that end, at first they were placed into four different short -term memory (STM) ability groups, using Visual and Verbal Short Term Memory Test (Chen et al., 2005) and then divided into two groups based on their gender. Also, cell phone based vocabulary presentations with different annotations, i.e., pictorial vs. written, were already adapted to the cell phone screen to be accessed by learners' via Bluetooth application. Finally, they were evaluated on their recognition and recall of vocabulary items taught. The analysis indicated that delivery of materials with pictorial and/or written annotation(s) to learners with high-visual and/or high-verbal abilities results in better vocabulary learning. Low-visual and low-verbal ability group showed better results under no annotation condition. However, there was no significant difference in vocabulary learning between male and female learners of different groups. The results of the study point to the minimal relevance of learners' gender to L2 vocabulary learning when compared to learners' cognitive orientations. Key words: Gender, mobile learning, short-term memory, vocabulary learning

59

References [1] Naba'h, A. , Jebreen, H., Aieman A., & Sadeq, Sh. (2009). The effect of computer assisted language learning in teaching English grammar on the achievement of secondary students in Jordan. The International Arab Journal of Information Technology ,6(4), 431. [2] Castells, M (1996): The rise of the network society. Blackwell. Oxford. [3] Godwin-Jones, R. (2008). Emerging technologies, mobile-computing trends: Lighter,Faster, & Smarter. Language Learning and Technology, 12(3), 3-9. [4] Frohberg, D. (2006). 'Mobile Learning is Coming of Age-What we have and what we still miss'. Retrieved 25 October 2006 from http://www.tinyurl.com/yf7cfu [5] Xiong, X. (2010). A comparative study of boys and girls English study differences. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 1 (3), 309-312. [6] Chen, N.-S., Hsieh, sh.-W., & Kinshuk. (2008). The effects of short-term memory and content representation type on mobile language learning. Journal of Learning and Technology, 12, 93-113. [7] Alavi, M., & Leidner, D. E. (2001). Research commentary: Technology-mediated learning - a call for greater depth and breadth of research. Information Systems Research, 12(1), 1-10. [8] Shih, E. Y., & Mills, D. (2007). Setting the new standard with mobile computing in online learning. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 8, 1-16. [9] Mayer, R. E. (Ed.) (2005). The Cambridge handbook of multimedia learning. Cambridge University Press. [10] Hodgins, D. (n.d.). Male and female differences. Focus, 1(1), 6-7. [11] Nation, P. & Waring, R. (1997). Vocabulary size, text coverage and word lists. Retrieved March 27, 2010, from http://www.fltr.ucl.ac.be./fltr/GERM/ETAN/bibs/vocab/cup.html [12] Hully, J., Proctor, S., & Richards, J. C., (2005). New Interchange (3rd ed.). UK: Cambridge University Press. [13] Longman dictionary of contemporary English (4th ed.). England: Pearson Education Limited. [14] Chen, C. M., Lee, H. M., & Chen, Y. (2005).Personalized e-learning system using item response theory. Computers and Education, 44(3), 237-255. [15] Jones, L., (2004). Testing L2 vocabulary recognition and recall. Learning and Technology, 8(3), 122-143. [16] Nation, I. (2001).Learning vocabulary in another language. Cambridge University Press.

60

[17] Nikolova, O. R. (2002). Effects of students' participation in authoring of multimedia materials on student acquisition of vocabulary. Language Learning & Technology, 6(1), 100-122. [18] Richards, J. C., & Schmidt, R. (2002). Dictionary of language and applied linguistics (3rd ed.). England: A Pearson Education Book. [19] Johnson, C. (2009). Differences in male and female learning styles. Brain Differences, 2 (1), 6-13.

61

PORTRAYAL OF WOMEN IN TRANSLATED ONLINE ADVERTISING: DOMESTICATING OR FOREIGNIZING WOMENS BODIES?

Karima BOUZIANE Chouaib Doukkali University, Faculty of Letters and Human Sciences, Eljadida, Morocco Abstract The purpose of my research is to investigate Venutis (1995) strategies of translation, domestication and foreignization in the transfer of womens images from source online advertising to target advertising. Past studies discussed the use of domestication and foreignization strategies only at the level of textual elements in advertising; to my knowledge, no study has yet tackled the transfer of images from source advertising to target ones. This research has, thus, investigated the use the mentioned strategies in the transfer of womens images from online English adverts into online Arabic adverts. Using Barthes model, connotative and denotative meanings (Qtd in Chandler 1997), this research has attempted to find out whether the connotative meanings of womens bodies- as iconic signs holding cultural messages- are domesticated/adjusted to fit the cultural norms of the Arabs or whether they are foreignized/preserved in their foreign identity. By comparing 100 English online adverts and their translated version into Arabic, using qualitative and quantitative methods of analysis, the study revealed that domestication is significantly used to adjust or omit elements (e.g. nudity) in womens images in the Arabic version. Nevertheless, this strategy is mostly used inappropriately which distorts the connotations of the source images and creates meaningless target adverts. Key words: Women images, connotation transfer, advertising, domestication, foreignization.

References Al-Shehari, K. (2001). The semiotics and translation of advertising texts: conventions, constraints and translation strategies with particular reference to English and Arabic. (Doctoral dissertation). Manchester: Centre for Translation Studies, 11- 262.

62

Chandler, D. (1997). Semiotics for beginners. Retrieved December 12, 2011, from http://www.aber.ac.uk/media/Documents/S4B/semiotic.html. Hatim, B. (2001). Teaching and researching translation: Pearson Education Limited, 46. Venuti, L. (1995). The translator's invisibility. London: Routledge. Retrieved December 17, 2011, from http://twitdoc.com/upload/ibaiatutxa/the-translator-s-invisibility-ahistory-of-translation-lawrence-venuti.pdf, 14-54. Venuti, L. (2001).The strategies of translation. In M.Baker (Ed.), Routhledge encyclopedia of translation studies (240-243).London and New York: Routledge.

63

JANE EYRE: THE USE OF CONDITIONALS IN A LITERARY TEXT Bianca Olivia TURDEAN National College Aurel Vlaicu Ortie Abstract Conditional clauses are frequently used in communication in all fields, either formal or informal. Among the novels I have read, I was impressed of the beauty of the language which is implied in the literary style, namely in the Charlotte Bronts novel, Jane Eyre. For a more careful analysis, I chose the chapter 27 of the novel. In this chapter I will make a display of the most important stylistic features of the text and particularly how the Conditionals are exploited here. Key words: narrative conditionals, communication, stylistic features References: L. G., Alexander, 1988, Longman English Grammar, Longman, London. L. G. Alexander, 1998, Longman English Grammar Practice (for intermediate students), Longman. Alice, L., Bdescu, 1984, Gramatica limbii engleze, Editura tiinific i enciclopedic, Bucureti. Laurie, Rozakis, 2003, English Grammar for the Utterly Confused, McGraw-Hill, New York. Michael, Vince, 1994, Advanced Language Practice, Macmillan Heinemann, Oxford. Mihai, Zdrenghea, Anca Greere, 1999, A Practical English Grammar, second edition, Clusium, Cluj-Napoca. http://www.bartleby.com/64/C001/061.html., accessed May 12, 2012. Bronte Charlotte, 2009, Jane Eyre, Penguin Books, London

64

DISCRIMINATION AGAINST WOMEN THROUGH THE WAY THEY ARE PRESENTED IN ADVERTISMENTS Viorica BANCIU Faculty of Social and Human Sciences University of Oradea Abstract The image of woman was altered by the advertisements. To put it bluntly women are still likely to appear as sexual objects in ads than men. Women themselves have become products for sale in ads. The advertisers use of images of women in harmful and offensive ways, the display and positioning of male and female bodies in ads, communicate messages about gender roles and relationships, without saying anything, although voice-overs and captions often reinforce the visual images. Key words: discrimination, language, advertise, ad, technique

References: Yarborough Melanie (nd.) Gender Pitched Advertising: Do Men and Women See the Same Things (www document)URL Romaine Suzanne (1999) Communicating Gender, Mahwah New York: Lawrwnce Erlbaum Associates Vestergaard, Torben and Kim Schroder (1985) The Language of Advertising, New York, Basil Blackwell Grice H.P. (1975) Logic and Conversation, in Cole P. and Morgan J. (ed.) Syntax and Semantics 3: Speech Acts New York, Academic Press http://www.aber.ac.uk/media/Students/dnm9901.html

65

ICT IN CLASSROOMS: INVESTIGATION INTO USINGTECHNOLOGY IN TEACHING ENGLISH FROM GENDER PERSPECTIVE Dara TAFAZOLI Islamic Azad University Science & Research Branch, Iran Noor Al-Sadat HOSSEINI University of Applied Science & Technology, Iran Nazanin JAHANIAN Department of Housing & Urban Development of North Khorasan

Abstract This study is aiming to investigate the attitudes of Iranian undergraduate students majoring in Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) and English teachers towards using Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in their English teaching classrooms. Participants of this study were 130 (65 male and 65 female) students and teachers. A questionnaire contains 25 items were distributed for data gathering. Data analysis proved that the female participants had less positive attitudes towards using ICT in their classes, but the male participants had more positive attitudes. The researchers believe that using these kinds of studies will help policy makers in education, teachers and teacher educators to provide better educational syllabus and materials to their addressees. Keywords: Information & Communication Technology (ICT); Gender Study; Teaching English as a Foreing Language (TEFL), Education References Chappelle, C., Jamieson, J. (2008). Tips for Teaching with CALL: Practical Approaches to Computer-Assisted Language Learning, White Plains, NY, Pearson Education. Garrett, N. (2009). Computer-Assisted Language Learning Trends and Issues Revisited: Integration Innovation, The Modern Language Journal, 93 (Focus Issue), (pp.719-740).

66

God-win-Jones, R (2009) Personal Learning Environment, Language Learning & Technology, 13 (2), (pp. 3-9), Retrieved May 18, 2011, from http://llt.msu.edu/vol13num2/emerging.pdf. Godwin-Jones, R (2010) Literacies and Technologies Revisited. Language Learning & Technology, 14(3), (pp. 2-9), Retrieved May 20, 2011, from http://llt.msu.edu/issues/october2010/emerging.pdf. Kargozari, H. R. & Tafazoli, D. (2011). Vodcasting: A Reusable Learning Object to Teach Writing. Paper presented at the 4th Annual ELT conference from Theory to Practice: Practical Aspects of ELT, May, 2011. Fatih University, Turkey. Kargozari, H. R. & Tafazoli, D. (2012 a). Idiom on the Move: Mobile a Ubiquitous Technology for Learning Idiom. Proceedings of the 6th International Technology, Education and Development Conference. Valencia, Spain: IATED. Kargozari, H. R. & Tafazoli, D. (2012 b). Podcasting: A Supporting Tool for Listening. Proceedings of the 6th International Technology, Education and Development Conference. Valencia, Spain: IATED. Kukulska-Hulme, A. & Shield, L. (2008). An Overview of Mobile Assisted Language Learning: From Content Delivery to Supported Collaboration and Interaction. RECALL, 20 (3): 249-252. Levy, M. (2009). Technologies in Use for Second Language Learning. The Modern Language Journal, 93 (Focus Issue), (pp. 769-782). Levy, M., & Kennedy, C. (2005). Learning Italian via mobile SMS. In A. Kukulska- Hulme & J. Traxler (Eds.) 76-83. Mobile Learning: A Handbook for Educators and Trainers. London: Taylor and Francis. Lord, G. (2008). Podcasting communities and second language production. Foreign Language Annals, 41, 365-379. Meskill, C., & Anthony, N. (2010). Teaching Languages Online. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters. Tafazoli, D. (2011). Role of Technology in Education: A New Approach toward the Future of Education in Iran. Paper presented at the 1st Congress on Education in Iran 1404 Vision, October, 2011. Sharif University of Technology, Iran. Tafazoli, D. & Kargozari, H. R. (2012). Reading Comprehension via Computer. Presented paper at the 4th National Conference on Education, May, 2012. Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Iran. Stockwell, G. (2007). Vocabulary on the move: Investigating an intelligent mobile phone-based vocabulary tutor. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 20(4), 365 383. Warschauer, M (2010) New Tools for Teaching Writing, Language Learning & Technology, 14(1), (pp. 3-8), retrieved May 18, 2011, from http://llt.msu.edu/vol14num1/commentary.pdf. Windham, C. (2007). Confession of a podcast junkie. EDUCAUSE Review, 42, 5065.

67

For orders please contact:

Centre for Research, Resources and European Studies ccrse2012@yahoo.com / formare.proiect@mail.com

68