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LOW POWER SOLAR INVERTER

Project Advisor:

Prof. Dr. Umar Shami

Project Members: Usama Ali Muhammad Hanan Naeem Aslam L2F08BSEE0677 L2F08BSEE0668 L2F08BSEE0717

Session 2008-2012

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF CENTRAL PUNJAB LAHORE, PAKISTAN


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LOW POWER SOLAR INVERTER

This project report is submitted to the Faculty of Engineering, University of Central Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan, for the partial fulfillment of requirement for the degree Of Bachelor of Science In Electrical Engineering

Approved on ________________

Internal Examiner: (Project Supervisor)

Sign: _____________________________ Name: ____________________________

External Examiner:

Sign: _____________________________ Name: ____________________________

Session 2008-2012

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF CENTRAL PUNJAB LAHORE, PAKISTAN


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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

A journey is easier when you travel together. Interdependence is certainly more valuable than independence. This thesis is result of work where we have been accompanied and supported by many people. It is a pleasant aspect that we have now the opportunity to express our gratitude for all of them.

We express our sincere gratitude, regards and thanks to our supervisor Dr. Umar Shami and for their excellent guidance, invaluable suggestion and continuous encouragement at all the stages of our project. His interest and confidence on us was the reason for all the success we have made. We have been fortunate to have them as our guide as they have been great influence on us both as a person and as a professional.

Above all, we are blessed with such caring Parents. We extend our deepest gratitude to our Parents for their invaluable love, affection, encouragement and support. Without their contribution, kindness and support it never become true.

We also thank our esteemed Institution University of Central Punjab, Faculty of Engineering. All projects during the program would have been nothing without the enthusiasm and imagination of our Faculty. Besides, this the project makes us realize the value of working together as a team and as a new experience in working environment, which challenges us every minute.

Table of Contents
1 Introduction 1.1 Block Diagram 1.2 Solar Panel 1.3 Inverter 1.4 Transformer 1.5 Rectifier 1.6 Inverter 1.7 Load Hardware 2.1 Solar Panel 2.1.1 Mono Crystalline Panel and Poly Crystalline Panel 2.1.2 Solar Panel Specifications 2.2 Inverter 2.2.1 Pulse Width Modulation 2.2.2 Inverter Design 2.3 Controller Circuit 2.3.1 Transformer 2.3.2 Rectifier 2.3.3 Voltage Regulator 2.3.4 Capacitor 2.3.4.1 Bi Polar Capacitor 2.3.4.2 Polar Capacitor 2.3.5 PWM Controller Circuit 2.3.5.1 Regulator 2.3.5.2 Voltage Divider Capacitor 2.3.5.3 CD 4047 2.3.5.4 AT89S51 2.3.5.5 SIP Resistor 2.3.5.6 IR 2110 2.4 Transformer 2.5 Rectifier 2.5.1 Half Bridge Rectifier 2.5.2 Full Bridge Rectifier 2.5.3 Smoothing of Wave 2.5.4 Rectifier IC 2.6 Inverter
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Page No. 6 6 7 7 7 7 8 9 9 10 11 12 12 14 15 16 17 19 19 20 20 21 21 22 22 24 24 25 25 26 26 27 28 28

2.7 2.8

Load PCB Designing

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3 4 5

Software-Programming Solar Panel Testing Results and Recommendation Appendix-A Schematic Diagram Appendix-B References Appendix-C List of Figures Appendix-D Data Sheets

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48 49 50 51

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
1. Solar Power Inverter:
As we know that electricity problem in Pakistan. So, now-a-days, people are researching the new ways to generate the electricity to solve the problem. The generation of electricity from Solar Panel is a new modern way. It is quite easy to generate than the other resources of generation. But as other resources, this is expensive one too.

1.1 Block Diagram:


The block diagram of project is as follows:

SOLAR PANEL

INVERTER (FOR HIGH FREQUENCY) TRANSFORMER RECTIFIER

INVERTER (FOR LOW FREQUENCY) LOAD

Figure 1.1

1.2 Solar Panel:


Solar Panel is the main part of the project. The solar panel provides the DC Voltage to the system. This voltage is then converted to AC Voltage by the inverter. Solar panel has to be placed such that the voltage generated by the solar should be maximum. The experiments have shown that the maximum power generated by solar panel is, when the panel is tilted at 10 degrees.

Total Maximum Power Output


550 500 450 400 10 degrees tilt 30 degrees tilt 50 degrees tilt

Figure 1.2
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1.3 Inverter:
The inverter is the second part of project. The inverter has the function of inverting the DC Voltage to AC Voltage. It`s only function is conversion. It is the opposite to the process known as Rectification. There are various types of inverters. The Sine Wave Inverter inverts the DC voltage to AC voltage in the shape of pure sine form. Getting full sine wave output is not quite easy so we usually take the AC wave as output which performs the same function of the pure sine wave. In this project, we have designed the inverter, which give the output of AC wave and not of sine wave. Inverter uses the switching devices for the conversion. There are various types of devices which can be used for the switching purposes. Usually high speed MOSFET`s are used for the switching purpose. For the proper switching of the inverter, we have to use the controller. This controller produces PWM and controls the width of wave. By this the speed of load can also be controlled.

1.4 Transformer:
The next part of the project is Transformer. The transformer here performs the function of boosting inverter`s AC Output to 220V level. This boosting is very important as the load usually works on the 220V level as solar panel only gives the output of maximum 19V.

1.5 Rectifier:
The next part of our block diagram is Rectifier. Now we have to use the rectifier to converting back the AC to DC. For this purpose, the rectifier IC is used. This IC has four points which will rectify the AC Voltage to DC Voltage of same voltage. The process by which it rectify is known as Rectification.

1.6 Inverter:
Now the rectified voltage has to be again inverted into AC Voltage as the load usually AC voltage to operate. The first inverter is used for the higher frequencies while this inverter is used for the lower frequency. For our project, the first inverter has the frequency of 1 kHz while this inverter has the frequency of 50Hz. The function of the inverter has been discussed above.

1.7 Load:
The load can be any electrical load which works on AC voltage. The load can be any motor, or light. It shouldnt be more than 70% of the power of the solar panel. So if we are using 100W panel, load of 60-70% can easily be beard.

CHAPTER 2 HARDWARE
The description of every part of the hardware is given below:

2.1 Solar Panel:


The first and most important part of our project is solar panel. Now, we will look at the solar panels, how they are made of, how they operate and etc. Solar panels use light energy (photons) from the sun to generate electricity through the photovoltaic effect. The majority of modules use Wafer-based crystalline silicon cells or thin-film cells based on cadmium telluride or silicon. The cells must be connected in electrically to one another. They should be protected from the mechanical damage and moisture1. There are two types of modules/panels generally which are: 1. Mono Crystalline Panel 2. Poly Crystalline Panel

2.1.1 Mono-crystalline Panel and Poly-crystalline Panel:


These two panels are only slightly different to each other. The basic difference between is that the cells in Mono are produced from single crystal of silicon while Poly is produced from piece of silicon consisting of many crystals. But practically polycrystalline cells absorb less solar energy as compared to mono crystalline so they produce less electric energy but they are much cheaper than the mono. This is because the surface of polycrystalline is not much smoother than the mono crystalline cells.

These panels are shown below:

Figure 2.1.1.1 Poly-crystalline Panel

Figure 2.1.1.2 Mono-crystalline Panel

2.1.2 Solar Panel Specifications:


The solar panel, we are using is Poly-Crystalline. The description of PolyCrystalline panel is given above. Here, the specifications of the solar panel are given below: Maximum Power: Voltage at Pmax: Current at Pmax: Open Circuit Voltage: Open Circuit Current: Number of Cells: Cells: 100W 17.4V 5.77A 22.0V 6.06A 36 (3*12) Multi-Crystalline Silicon Solar cell

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The figure of our solar panel is given below:

Figure 2.1.2.1

The output voltages at different time and temperature are discussed in the next chapter under the name of Solar Testing.

2.2 Inverter:
As we have discussed inverter in the introduction section. Now we will look at how the inverter works and how we have designed it. But before it we have to understand the phenomenon of PWM and its various terms.

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2.2.1 Pulse Width Modulation:


By help of PWM, the speed of the motor can easily be controlled. The Width is controlled by the ON and OFF the signal provided. The PWM has a very important function in the speed controlling of the motor. The speed of motor varies with increase or decrease of the width of the wave. The big width will increase the speed of the motor while the small will decrease the speed. There are few terms which have to be discussed before wrapping up topic; these are as follows [2]: 1. Period: Time to complete Pulse Cycle. 2. Frequency: Time to generate pulses. (Generally taken in Hz) 3. Duty Cycle: Time in which the pulse is high or low.

Figure 2.2.1.1

We are using programmable IC 8051. By burning a program in IC we can generate the PWM. And to control the pulses width, the regulator is used. Now we will discuss about the inverter hardware, what we are using and of which type and specification.

2.2.2 Inverter Design:


Now for the inversion of DC to AC, we have to use the fast switching devices so that switching can be fast and make the AC wave properly. This switching device can be any MOSFET. Now to control the switching, the controller circuit has to be used. This controller circuit controls the speed of the load (i.e. motor) while the PWM is also generated by the help of controller circuit. For our project we have use IRFP460 MOSFET. These MOSFETs have the capability of High Current and High Speed Switching. The datasheet of the MOSFET [8] is given in appendix. The pin configuration of the MOSFET is given below:

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Figure 2.2.2.1

One of the problem of these MOSFETs is that they generates a lot of heat energy and because of that MOSFETs can be burned out so for that purpose the heat sinks should be used. As we are working on single phase inverter so we have to use four MOSFETs while if we want to work on three-phase inverter, we will use six MOSFET. The inverter we have designed work on the principle of H-Bridge. To understand, the working of H-Bridge let us consider the figure:

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Figure 2.2.2.2

H Bridge is built with the four MOSFETs which are performing the function of switching. When the switches S1 and S4 are closed, the switches s2 and s3 are open. It will provide the positive voltage across the motor. When the switches S2 and S3 are closed, the switches S1 and S4 are open. It will cause the reverse operation of motor as the voltage reversed. One thing has to be kept in mind that in any case S1 and S3 or S2 and S4 open at a same time as it will cause short-circuit on input voltage source. So for the proper function of H Bridge and inverter we have to make an extra circuit which will control the switching of MOSFETs. The controller circuit is discussed below:

2.3

Controller Circuit:

As we have discussed above that for the proper working of the inverter we need the controller circuit. This controller circuit controls the switching of the MOSFET. By this we can control the speed of the motor also. For proper description, first of all we will look at the diagram so that we can describe properly.

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Figure 2.3.1

2.3.1 Transformer
The transformer is an electrical instrument. It can be used to step-up or step-down the voltage depending on the one`s need. We will look at the basic working and phenomenon on which the transformer works. The voltage is stepped-up or stepped-down depending upon the turning of the coil on the primary side and secondary side of the transformer.

Figure 2.3.1.1

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Transformer works on the principle of Faraday`s Law of Induction. The secondary voltage can be found by using this equation:

While on the primary side, the instantaneous voltage can be as follows:


( )

Taking the ratios of these primary and secondary voltages we can have the equation, for stepping up or stepping down the voltage.

Whereas, the values used in these equations are: Vs= Secondary Induced Voltage Vp= Primary Induced Voltage Ns= Number of Secondary Turns Np= Number of Primary Turns d/dt= Magnetic Flux

The transformer is used for stepping down the voltage of 220V to 18V. This transformer voltage is used to properly working of the controller. The 18V is then sending to rectifier so that the micro-controller can work properly, as Micro-controller needs the voltage of 5V.

220 V

STEP DOWN TRANSFORMER

18 V

Figure 2.3.1.2

2.3.2 Rectifier
The rectifier, we have discussed above is used here. This rectifier is taking 18V AC input from the transformer and converting to the 18V DC output. The rectifier used for this project is D3SB60-03. The data sheet of the given rectifier in the data sheet chapter [3]. The figure of the rectifier is given below:

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Figure 2.3.2.1

The middle two pins are the AC inputs for rectifiers while the first and fourth pin is used for the DC output which is rectified by the rectifier. After the rectification, the voltage is then moved towards Voltage Regulator.

2.3.3 Voltage Regulator


Voltage Regulators usually have three legs, converting varying input voltage and produces a constant regulated output voltage. The most common part number starts with the numbers 78 and 79 and finish with the two digits indicating output voltage. The first two indicate the polarity of the voltage (either +V or -V) while the last two indicates the constant voltage. 78 are designed for positive input while 79 are used for negative input [4]. We have used LM7805 and LM7815 for our project which is shown in the figure below: The figure and the pin configuration of the regulator are given below:

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[5]

Figure 2.3.3.1

The pin configuration of the IC is shown below:

[6]
Figure 2.3.3.2

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TABLE 2.3.3.1

PIN NUMBER 1 2 3

FUNCTION Input Voltage (5-18V) Ground Regulated Output Voltage (5V)

NAME Input Ground Output

The capacitors are also used before and after the regulators as they are used to maintain the voltage constant.

2.3.4 Capacitor
A device used to store charge in an electrical circuit. A capacitor functions much like a Battery, but charges and discharges much more efficiently. A basic capacitor is made up of two conductors separated by an insulator, or dielectric. The dielectric can be made of paper, plastic, mica, ceramic, glass, a vacuum or any other non conductive material [7]. There can be two types of capacitors: (1) Bi-Polar Capacitors (2) Polar Capacitors

2.3.4.1

Bi-Polar Capacitors:

Bi-Polar capacitor is a type of capacitor that has no implicit polarity. It can be connected in either way in a circuit. Ceramic, Mica, and some electrolytic capacitors are Bi-Polar.

Figure 2.3.4.1.1

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2.3.4.2

Polar Capacitors:

Polar capacitor is a type of capacitor that has implicit polarity. It can only be connected in one way. Mostly the positive leg of the capacitor is larger in length than negative leg. It is quite easy way to understand the polarity of the capacitor.

Figure 2.3.4.2.1

The capacitors which we have used before and after the voltage regulators are of 1000F, 50V. These capacitors are used to maintain the voltage constant. The figure of the capacitor is given below:

Figure 2.3.4.2.2

2.3.5 PWM Controller Circuit:


Now to control the PWM wave, we have to make a special arrangement. In this arrangement, the regulator of 50 K-ohm, the voltage divider capacitor 103, a special type of IC, CD4047 while the program by which the PWM is generated and controlled is stored in the micro-controller IC AT89S51, of Atmel. This micro-controller gives the signal to the switching IC, IR2110.

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Now, let us see about all the components which we have used in the PWM circuit.

2.3.5.1 Regulator:
To control the width of PWM, we have to use the regulator. In this case, we are using the regulator of the resistance of 50K-ohm. It is six-legged regulator instead of three-legged, so that it can be better settled and dont move and make problem for the PCB board.

Figure 2.3.5.1.1

2.3.5.2 Voltage Divider Capacitor:


Voltage divider capacitor is the special type of capacitor which performs the function of voltage divider. We are using this type of capacitor of the value 103. The capacitor is shown below:

Figure 2.3.5.2.1

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2.3.5.3 CD-4047:
This IC plays an important role in the PWM. Its main function is the timedelay between the waves. The data sheet of the IC is given in the appendix. While the systematic diagram of this IC is:

Figure 2.3.5.3.1

2.3.5.4 AT89S51:
The AT89S51 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcontroller with 4K bytes of In-System Programmable Flash memory. We have programmed this micro-controller to generate the PWM. Hence, this IC is helpful in controlling the speed of motor. We are using of ATMEL company. This IC has 40 Pins. The pin configuration of the IC is as follows:

Figure 2.3.5.4.1

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Now look at the some of the pins which are important while using the micro-controller. These pins are: PIN-40: This pin is used for the supply voltage for the microcontroller. In our experiment, this voltage is taken from the voltage regulator (LM7805). Without giving this voltage, the micro-controller cant work. PIN-20: This pin is used for ground purposes of the IC.

PIN-9: This pin is used for the reset purposes. Whenever the IC has to be used, the IC should be reset. For the reset purpose, the reset button is used.

Figure 2.3.5.4.2

PIN-18-19: This pin is attached to the crystal oscillator which produces the frequency signal for the IC. Usually 11.0592MHz crystals are used for this purpose. 11.0592 MHz crystals are often used because it can be divided to give you exact clock rates for most of the common baud rates for the UART, especially for the higher speeds (9600, 19200). UART is a feature of the micro-controller useful for communicating serial data to the PC. IC BED: For the IC protection, the IC bed can be used. This bed has the same number of pins as of the micro-controller.

Figure 2.3.5.4.3

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2.3.5.5 SIP Resistor:


We have also used the SIP resistor. These resistors are used for a variety of purposes, like bus terminators, resistor ladder networks, pull up and pull downs. They are usually used in Micro-controller purposes. SIP means Single In Line Package. Its one end is often common.

Figure 2.3.5.5.1

The internal circuit of the SIP resistor can be shown as below:

Figure 2.3.5.5.2

2.3.5.6 IR-2110:
The IR2110 ICs are high voltage, high speed power MOSFET and IGBT drivers with independent high and low output channels. In our project, this IC is used to drive the MOSFETs [9]. This IC plays an important role in the inversion of AC to DC. The ICs diagram is as follows:

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Figure2.3.5.6.1

Now after the inversion of DC voltage to AC Voltage, the voltage is then passed to the transformer section where the AC Voltage is boost-up to 220-230V.

2.4

Transformer:

After the inversion, now we have to step-up the AC voltage to that voltage where the load can be easily work as the load usually runs at 220-230V. For the step-up purpose, we are using transformer, while the Quadruple circuit can be used. The transformer in this section is quite different from the controller circuit section as it takes different magnitude of the current. So for this purpose, we are using the transformer of 1A which is stepping up the voltage from 6V to 220V. When we performed the different experiments, we concluded that the lowest voltage taken from solar panel is around 6V, so we use this transformer.

Rectifier Transformer

Figure2.4.1

2.5

Rectifier:

Rectifier is another important part in this experiment. Rectifier converts the AC to DC, which flows only in one direction. It can be done by the help of diodes of high switching speed. The process of conversion is known as Rectification. Rectifier can be of two types: Half Bridge rectifier and Full Bridge Rectifier.

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2.5.1

Half Bridge Rectifier:

Half Bridge Rectifier is used to convert only half wave of AC. Only the positive cycle or negative cycle is passed through while one cycle is blocked by the diodes used in this process. As only one cycle is passed through the circuit so the output voltage is quite low as compared to full rectifier. The big problem of using half bridge rectifier is that it produces high number of ripples and another circuit is used to eliminate these ripples.

Figure 2.5.1.1

The waveform of the circuit is as follows:

INPUT

Figure 2.5.1.2

OUTPUT

2.5.2

Full Bridge Rectifier:

Full-wave rectifier uses four diodes that convert both the positive and negative cycles of AC voltage to DC. The Full Bridge Rectifier is mostly preferred over Half Bridge Rectifier as full wave is obtained rather than half wave. This is very important as the load usually requires full wave to work properly. The ripples in this method are not very dangerous for the load. Full-wave rectifier circuit diagram is as follows:

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INPUT

Figure 2.5.2.1

OUTPUT

2.5.3

Smoothing Of Wave:

The output of the rectifier is not usually smooth so smoothing of the rectified wave is very important. For the smoothing purpose of the rectified wave, the capacitor can be used. The Capacitor is attached to the output terminal of circuit so that the smoothing of the wave can be obtained easily. The capacitor which are using for the smoothing of wave can be seen on the figure 2.4.1. This Blue Color capacitor has been used for smoothing.

The general diagram for the smoothing circuit can be drawn as:

Figure 2.5.3.1

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2.5.4 Rectifier IC:


To solve the problem of diode`s usage, there is an IC which can be used for the rectification purpose. This IC is full bridge rectifier. It performs the similar function which the diodes scheme shown above in figure 2.4.2.1 performs. In this project, we have also use the same IC. This IC can be shown below:

Figure 2.5.4.1

The AC signal which has to be rectified is applied on the second and third point where as the DC rectified signal is obtained on the 1st and 4th point. The AC writing shows that the signal which has to be rectified is to be apply here while + and - shows that DC signal which is rectified can be obtained from here.

2.6

Inverter:

After rectification, we again pass the DC voltage through the inverter to invert the 230Vdc to 230Vac. The inverter here we are using is almost same as of the inverter we are using at the start of project. The only difference between this inverter and first inverter is that of frequency. The first inverter produces the frequency of almost 1kHz while this inverter is working on 50Hz.

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2.7

Load:

The load we are using here is single phase motor. This motor works perfectly when we connected to our load. While any load whose power is less than that of inverter power can be attached to our circuit.

2.8

PCB Design:

For our project we have designed our circuits on PCB. PCB stands for Printed Circuit Board. For this, we have designed the circuit diagram of our project portions. Proteus is the program by which we have designed the circuit diagrams for it. The circuit diagram of inverter and the controller circuit is as follows:

Figure 2.8.1

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The PCB designs for the controller circuit and the inverter are as follows:

Figure2.8.2

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Figure 2.8.3

After designing on the software, then we make on the PCB. For this we ourselves etched the board. For etching the ferric chloride acid is used. The pictures below, shows the scheme of etching of the board. With the help of our advisor, we also did the etching of PCB ourselves. For that purpose, we use following apparatus: 1. 2. 3. 4. Iron Ferric Oxide PCB board Photographic Paper (on which the design has to be printed)

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Figure2.8.4

The picture above shows the PCB`s with the design we have made. It has been printed on the board by the help of Iron using photo-paper. After that we put these PCB`s into the ferric chloride solution. This solution will remove all the copper except the area where the design has been printed.

Figure 2.8.5

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After this, we took out the PCB from solution and washed it by water. After that, we removed the carbon from the designed copper area by the help of petrol and brush. This will give us a PCB board ready to use. After that we drilled the PCB as design requirement by the help of drill machine.

Figure 2.8.6

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CHAPTER 3 SOFTWARE-PROGRAMMING
The programming which we have done for PWM control on AT89S51 is as follows: (We have use Keil software for the program and for burner )

#include <REGx51.H> #define on 1 #define off 0 sbit input0=P0^0; sbit input1=P0^1; sbit input2=P0^2; sbit input3=P0^3;

sbit output0=P1^0; sbit output1=P1^1; sbit output2=P1^2; sbit output3=P1^3; sbit output4=P1^4; sbit OnOffIndication=P2^0; unsigned char Port_data[90]={0x06,0x09,0x06,0x09,0x09,0x09,0x06,0x09,0x09,0x09, 0x09,0x09,0x09,0x09,0x09,0x09,0x06,0x09,0x09,0x09, 0x09,0x09,0x09,0x09,0x09,0x09,0x09,0x09,0x06,0x09, 0x09,0x09,0x09,0x09,0x09,0x09,0x09,0x09,0x06,0x09, 0x09,0x09,0x06,0x09,0x06,0x09,0x06,0x09,0x06,0x06, 0x06,0x09,0x06,0x06,0x06,0x06,0x06,0x06,0x06,0x06, 0x06,0x09,0x06,0x06,0x06,0x06,0x06,0x06,0x06,0x06, 0x06,0x06,0x06,0x09,0x06,0x06,0x06,0x06,0x06,0x06, 0x06,0x06,0x06,0x09,0x06,0x06,0x06,0x09,0x06,0x09}; unsigned int i=0; unsigned int y=0;
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void wait_a_second(void); /* void wait_a_second() { unsigned int x; for (x=0;x<33000;x++); } */ void intruptservice(void) interrupt 0 { P0=Port_data[i]; i=i+1; if(i>89) { i = 0; } //wait_a_second();wait_a_second(); }

main() { output0=0; output1=off; output2=off; output3=off; output4=off; //P0=Port_data[4]; IT0 = 1; // Configure interrupt 0 for falling edge on /INT0 (P3.2) EX0 = 1; // Enable EX0 Interrupt EA = 1; // Enable Global Interrupt Flag for(;;) { } }
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CHAPTER 4 SOLAR PANEL TESTING


For accessing the behavior of solar panel when the different loads are attached, we performed an experiment. In this experiment we made a board which contains different resistive load varying from No-Load to 10k. These resistances also vary the power ratings. The board is shown in the figure 4.1. We started our experiment at 6.00am while finish at 7.00pm. During this experiment, the voltage decreases due to the presence of clouds. The experiments have shown that the maximum voltage can be obtained when the solar panel is placed at 10degree tilt. So we make sure that the panel remains at 10degree tilt position.

DIFFERENT VALUES OF RESISTANCE (OHM)


5 ohm 20 ohm 80 ohm 200 ohm 500 ohm 1k ohm 3k ohm 10k ohm 10 ohm 50 ohms 100 ohms 400 ohms 800 ohms 2k ohm 5k ohm

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Figure 4.1

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Readings Of Voltage At Different Resistive Load Values

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16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 6:00 7:00 8:00 9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 hour

20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

hour

13:00
14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00 19:00

Graphs at Different Loads

No Load Voltage

5 ohms Load

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5 ohms Load

6:00 6:40 7:20 8:00 8:40 9:20 10:00 10:40 11:20 12:00 12:40 13:20 14:00 14:40 15:20 16:00 16:40 17:20 18:00 18:40 No Load Voltage

20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 hour

20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

10 ohm load

20

40

6:00 6:40 7:20 8:00 8:40 9:20 10:00 10:40 11:20 12:00 12:40 13:20 14:00 14:40 15:20 16:00 16:40 17:20 18:00 18:40

6:00 6:40 7:20 8:00 8:40 9:20 10:00 10:40 11:20 12:00 12:40 13:20 14:00 14:40 15:20 16:00 16:40 17:20 18:00 18:40

10 ohm load

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20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

80

50

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80

6:00 6:40 7:20 8:00 8:40 9:20 10:00 10:40 11:20 12:00 12:40 13:20 14:00 14:40 15:20 16:00 16:40 17:20 18:00 18:40

6:00 6:40 7:20 8:00 8:40 9:20 10:00 10:40 11:20 12:00 12:40 13:20 14:00 14:40 15:20 16:00 16:40 17:20 18:00 18:40

50

20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

200

100

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200

6:00 6:40 7:20 8:00 8:40 9:20 10:00 10:40 11:20 12:00 12:40 13:20 14:00 14:40 15:20 16:00 16:40 17:20 18:00 18:40

6:00 6:40 7:20 8:00 8:40 9:20 10:00 10:40 11:20 12:00 12:40 13:20 14:00 14:40 15:20 16:00 16:40 17:20 18:00 18:40

100

20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

500

400

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500

6:00 6:40 7:20 8:00 8:40 9:20 10:00 10:40 11:20 12:00 12:40 13:20 14:00 14:40 15:20 16:00 16:40 17:20 18:00 18:40

Time 6:20 7:00 7:40 8:20 9:00 9:40 10:20 11:00 11:40 12:20 13:00 13:40 14:20 15:00 15:40 16:20 17:00 17:40 18:20

400

10

15

20

25

20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 5

800

1k

44
1k

6:00 6:40 7:20 8:00 8:40 9:20 10:00 10:40 11:20 12:00 12:40 13:20 14:00 14:40 15:20 16:00 16:40 17:20 18:00 18:40 800

6:00 6:40 7:20 8:00 8:40 9:20 10:00 10:40 11:20 12:00 12:40 13:20 14:00 14:40 15:20 16:00 16:40 17:20 18:00 18:40

20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

3k

2k

45
3k

6:00 6:40 7:20 8:00 8:40 9:20 10:00 10:40 11:20 12:00 12:40 13:20 14:00 14:40 15:20 16:00 16:40 17:20 18:00 18:40

6:00 6:40 7:20 8:00 8:40 9:20 10:00 10:40 11:20 12:00 12:40 13:20 14:00 14:40 15:20 16:00 16:40 17:20 18:00 18:40

2k

20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

5k

10k

46
10k

6:00 6:40 7:20 8:00 8:40 9:20 10:00 10:40 11:20 12:00 12:40 13:20 14:00 14:40 15:20 16:00 16:40 17:20 18:00 18:40 6:00 6:40 7:20 8:00 8:40 9:20 10:00 10:40 11:20 12:00 12:40 13:20 14:00 14:40 15:20 16:00 16:40 17:20 18:00 18:40

5k

CHAPTER 5
RESULTS AND RECOMMENDATION
We connected the output of solar panel with our project. We were able to convert 18v to 220-230Vac by the help of our project. After that we connect the load (single phase induction motor) with it and the motor starts to operate. We also connected 60W bulb with our project and it lightened up. So we can attach any load to our project. We have made some conclusions while performing this project some of them are: Solar Panel is efficient in such a way that if customer use 100W panel than the solar panel can be efficient when the load is about 70% of the power of solar panel. We are using transformer for boosting the AC voltage in our project but we can also use voltage quadruple in place of transformer. We used AC source (220v) as input for controller circuits besides this we can also use output of solar panel as a input to control circuit. This project is just the small scale project, but similarly with the help of this project model we can design large scale project. By the help of the controller circuit we controlled the speed of the motor. This is one the salient feature of the project. While, the current can also be controlled with the help of controller circuit.

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APPENDIX-A Schematic Diagram

48

APPENDIX-B
References:
[2]: http://www.acroname.com/robotics/info/concepts/pwm.html [3]: http://www.datasheetarchive.com/D3SB60-datasheet.html (EIC Semiconductor, Inc.) [4]: http://www.eidusa.com/Electronics_Voltage_Regulator.html [5]: http://www.eidusa.com/Electronics_Voltage_Regulator.html [6]: http://www.eidusa.com/Electronics_Voltage_Regulator.html [7]: http://encyclobeamia.solarbotics.net/articles/capacitor.html [8]: http://www.datasheetcatalog.org/datasheet/stmicroelectronics/6179.pdf [9]: http://www.irf.com/product-info/datasheets/data/ir2110.pdf

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APPENDIX-C LISTS OF FIGURES


Figure Caption 1.1 1.2 2.1.1.1 2.1.1.2 2.1.2.1 2.2.1.1 2.2.2.1 2.2.2.2 2.3.1 2.3.1.1 2.3.1.2 2.3.2.1 2.3.3.1 2.3.3.2 2.3.4.1.1 2.3.4.2.1 2.3.4.2.2 2.3.5.1.1 2.3.5.2.1 2.3.5.3.1 2.3.5.4.1 2.3.5.4.2 2.3.5.4.3 2.3.5.5.1 2.3.5.5.2 2.3.5.6.1 2.4.1 2.5.1.1 2.5.1.2 2.5.2.1 2.5.3.1 2.5.4.1 2.8.1 2.8.2 2.8.3 2.8.4 Purpose Block Diagram of Project Total Maximum Panel Output Poly Crystalline Panel Mono Crystalline Panel Project Solar Panel PWM Important terms IRFP 460 internal circuit H Bridge Controller Circuit Transformer Step Down Transformer Rectifier LM 7805 Voltage Regulator Pin Configuration of LM7805 Bi-Polar Capacitor Polar Capacitor 50V 1000micro-farad Capacitor 50k Variable Resistor 103 Voltage Divider Capacitor Pin Configuration CD 4047 IC AT89S51 Pin Configuration Reset Button IC Socket SIP Resistor SIP Internal Circuit IR 2110 IC Transformer and Rectifier part of Circuit Half Bridge rectifier Half Bridge Rectifier Waveforms Full bridge Rectifier Circuit and Waveforms Smoothing of Wave circuit Rectifier IC Proteus design of Project PCB design of Inverter PCB design of Controller Circuit PCB Board 50

2.8.5 2.8.6 4.1

Ferric Chloride Solution for etching Drilling of PCB Board Panel Load Testing

APPENDIX-D DATASHEETS

B-1 CD4047 B-2 AT 89S51 B-3 IR 2110 B-4 IRFP 460

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