R f
Fig. 4. Tbe stability functions SM and SH as a function of flux
Richardson number corresponding tO the condition (P$ + Pb)IE = I
of Figure 3.
860 MELLOR ANO Y AMADA: TUR8ULENCE CLOSURE MOOEL
7
1,4
1.2
.Y
.. .,
o 7
4
0'' o.e
.
0.6
0.4 .
0.2
4
f .
0.10 o.oo o o.os 0.10
l
3
2
UNSTABLE STABLE
lj
.
, .......
'
'
 2.S  21) I.S 1.0 0.5 O 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
Fig. 5a. Comparison of lhe veloeily profile data of Busnger et
a/. [19711 with predicted values (solid curve). lnsert is de1ail near t
The fact that the basic model has the predictive capability
of extrapolating neutra! data into stratified regimes was
probably the most important finding [Mel/or, 1973) in the
development of the model.
Lewellen and Teske [1973) have also shown a favorable
comparison of their model with these data. They included
the di.ffusion term and did gct better agreement than we did
for q,., in the unstable region where diffusion is liable to be
importao!. However, they had to inseri a spccific Ricbard
son number parameterization into their model to obtain the
correct criticai Richardson number. Gambo [1978) also
obtained improvement in q,., in the unstable region by
including buoyancy terrns in (4) in a maoner described at tbe
end of section 2; bowever, agreement witb lhe stable data for
botb q,.., and <i>H was not as good as tbat sbown here.
It s hould be noted that the Businger data were also
evaluated to yield a von Karman constao! K of 0.35. some
what less than the more commonl)' accepted value of 0.40.
Wieringa [1980) discusses the issue, reevaluates l he data
taking into account tower interference, and argues in favor
of the value 0.40. The later value is used throughout this
paper.
6. T HE T URBULENT LENGTH ScALB EQUATION
We havc postponcd considcration of the equation for the
master length scale I so that the other elements of the model
were first justified on the basis of neutra! data and a direct
test of the model's predictive power, that is, the prediction
of turbulent stabilization in a densitystratified fl ow. The
factor 5
0
in (24) must also now bc determined.
Following Rotta (1951), we use the integral of the two
point correlation function to supply an equation for tbe
master length scale. The closure assumptions are complicat
cd, and we consider the result less convincing than the
previous assumptions and more likely to be amended in the
future. Tbe version we bave used for some time (see Mellor
and Herring 11973] for a general discussion) is
.!!._(qll)  !_[q/S1 _!... (qll)] = lE,[P, + Pb)
Dt
f. {1 +
(48)
For neutra! , homogcncous, dccaying grid turbulcnce where I
is much smaller than L, (48) along with (26) predicts the
initial pcriod dccay Jaw, q
2
o: t
1
5
1
, E
1
, and E
2
are empirical
constants to be determined. P mjght be preceded by anoth
er constao! if data can be found to unambiguously support a
value othcr than unity.
L is supposed to be a measure of the distance awa)' from
tbe wall as is spccified according to
C '(r) = _1 ff dA(ro)
2rr [r  rol'
(49)
which is similar to ide as offercd by Shir [ 1973) and Launder
et a/. [1975]. Here ris any point in lhe flui d domain bouoded
by solid wall at r
0
; dA(r
0
) is an elemental wall area. For a
boundary layer flow near an infinite plane wall , L z; for
channcl flow, L
1
z
1
+ (2h  z)
1
, where 2h is thc
distance separating the channel walls. lt can, by the way, be
sbown that a third term on tbe rigbt of (48) , bere represented
1.2
7
1.0
v.
6
0.4
0.2 5
O. IO 0.05 o
(
0 .10 .
.
3
I
2
1.
UNSTA&.E STABLE
"'
,f

'
2.5  2.0 I.S 1.0 0.5 O 1.0 2.0
'
Fig. 5b. Compar ison of the temperature profile da<a of Businger
er ttl. [19711 with predicted values (solid curve). Inseri is detail near
'=o.
MELI..Ok ANO Y AMADA! TVRBUI..ENCE Ct.OSURE MOOEL 861
by (c/181)&; (I/KL)
2
, is absolutely necessary, but the one
cbosen bere is one o f severa! altemativcs IN g and Spa/ding,
1972; IVo/fstein, 1970; Mellor and Hcrring, 1973; Lewelle11 et
a/., 1976: Roua, 1973). Ali one can say in the present case is
that, as we will see, it works well.
While onc cannot assen great conftdence in (48), we prefer
it ralher than the difl'erential equation for dissipation [Da/y
and Harlow, 1970: Ha,Yalic and Laundu, 1972: Lumley and
KJrajehNouri, 1974). The dissipation transpon equation is
an equation for lhe curvature of lhe twopoint , velocity
correlation function as the scparation dist.ance approaches
zero (for large Reynolds number, the transpon tenns, per se.
are negligible, as sbown by Tennekes and Lunoley I 1972)).
Ahematively, it is an equation for the integral oflhe spectral
density fuoction afer multiplication by lhe square of t he
wave number. tbus weighting the integral so thatlarge wave
number and smallscale turbulenee are emphasized. Thus it
seems fundamentally wrong to us to use an cquation which
describes the smaUscale turbulence to determine the re
quired turbulent macroscale. Operationally, however, afler
some terms are modeled, the dissipation transpor! equation
is a special case of a more general lcngth scale equation
(Mellor and Hurng, 1973; Lewelle11 et a/., 1976].
In subsequent discuss ions we wiU mention some calcula
tions using the levei 2 model and an algebraic expression of
the form
/cz
I a lo __::::__
kz + /
0
r lzJq da
lo ...
q dz
o
(50)
in place of(48). For boundary layers this works well, but it is
limited to boundary layers , and the emprica! constao! ,.
would depend on the type of layer, for example. a boundary
layer as in Figure 7 or an Ekman lnyer. Some studies actually
simplify (50) further so that I /
0
This will not produce a
logarilhmic velocity behavior near surfaces. Howcvcr, for
lhe case of an ocean surface mixed layer lhe additional
simplilication does not seem to impact mixed layer deepen
ing or temperature.
Boundary Conditions
We have post.poned stipulation of boundary conditions
until this time when the complete set of model diO'erential
equations a.re available.
For the mean velocity and temperature boundary condi
tion near a surface at z l<J, one either specilies stress and
heat flux ,
 (wu,)(_., , y, l<J) 'bl  (qiS., aU/az)
 (w8)(x, y, l<J) H  (qiSu iJEl/iJz)
(5 I}
(52)
or. near solid surfaces at rest, the numerical solution is
matched to
Tw (z  l<l )
U/..x, y, z) In
KUr t. MS
z+ lo> (S3a)
HP.., (z  l<l)
e(x, y, z)  9(x, y, to)   In
KU, tns
(53b)
.3..2
l
 .OI
/ t ,
,
b
.2 .4 .6 .8 1.0
t
Fig. 6. Channel ftow, Comparison of prcdicled mean velocity
and tuobulcnt intensity (solid tines) with data by Lat4frr [19SO] and
by Hanjalic as rccorded by Launder <1 a/. [197S). The circle s are
Lauffer's data.
wbere u/ = (To/)
112
, i = x, y, and and zus are lhe
roughness parameters; for s mooth surfaces, exp
( 4.9K), whereas z
11
sfzMs is a function of number.
Asymptotieally close to surfaces, ali equations for the
turbulence variances reduce to the levei 2 algebraic equa
tions. Furthermore, the buoyancy production tenns vanish.
Thus for the levei model we have from (44a)
q'(x, y, l<J) = 8
0
l/J u.' (54)
to whicb we add
q"l(x,y.to) = o (55)
on solid surfaces. For freestream conditions the mean
velocity and temperarure are specified. l f the frees tream
turbulence is known, that is specified. Otherwise. a very
s maU value is used. Solutions are quite insensitive to frec
stream values of q
2
1.
For tbe levei 4 and levei 3 models, additional boundary
conditions are obtained from (26H29) after replacing P
8
O, U/iJz = (uw)I(KU.,i.), and iJV/iJz  (vw)I(Ku,z); some
rcsults are given in (44b) and (44c).
Newral Channel Flow and Boundary Layer Flow
Calculations were made for channcl flow and a constant
pressurc boundary layer to assess s . S
1
and E
1
, E
2
1t
became apparent that one s hould set s, = s.: otherwisc thc
behavior of I in the center ofthe c hannel or at the edge o f the
boundary layer was unrealistic. To insure that I  Kl as z +
O, it may bc shown that E
2
= K'B
1
S
1
+ E,  I. The values of
 
862 M.fLLOR ANO Y AMADA: TUUULE.NCE CLOStJI.E MODEL
7
o
t.or,,r:==?'<>Po
oO
.8 0,..0
,.<:r
/
. 6
J=Z
'
'
'
.2 '
'
'
'
'
'
o
.0015
.0010
.0005
o
o
2
""o
..... 
o
.01 .L
T
o
........ o
2 4 .8 lO
+
Fig. 7. Boundary layer. Comparison ofthe prcdictcd mean vcloci
ty and turbulcnt intcnsity with data by Kleba,off[l955).
s. and E
1
are then chosen to optimize agreement belween
model results and data at lhe center and outer edgc of lhe
channel and boundary layer, respeclively. An agreeable
result was that lhe values s. = 0.2 and E
1
= 1.8 were
optimum for botb llows. Thus we obtain (S., S
1
, E
1
, E
2
) =
(0.2, 0.2, 1.8, 1.33) and the predictions shown in Figures 6
and 7. In boi h cases there is nearperfect agrecment with
measured values of  (uw)(z) and q(z). For the channel flow
case lhe observed and calculaled Reynolds stress distribu
tions are linear and are not shown.
The outer freestream turbulence levei for the boundary
layer ftow has been set at q/u, Q 0.07 as cstimated from
Klebanoff [1955}, but this may be a bit low. Two boundary
conditions for q
2
1 have been specilied and correspond to the
calculated solid and dashed !ines in Figure 7.
The separate components u', v', and w' are not shown,
since they do not enler in to the determination of E, . Agree
mcnt with data is quite good in this respect except that we
predict u' ; w' as discussed earlier. Away from walls this is
 

in agreement with lhe data, but near waUs there is some
disagreement in accordance with Table L
In unpublished work we have also calculated circular duct
flow after (26), (47), and (48) are cast in cylindrical coordi
nate form, and these calculations compared favorably witb
lhe duct flow data of Lat4 [1954) .
This is perhaps an appropriate placc to record the fact that
we have had occasional difficulty with the levei 2! model; for
some model simulations a discontinuity in velocity could
develop and persist. We will not detail lhe nature of lhe
problem here except to note that its occurreoce depends on
lhe specifics of linite dilferencing. Thus it occurs when
Reynolds stresses and mean velocities are staggered with
respcct to each orhcr but not when these variables are
located at tbe same grid points. It further occurs when (P, +
P)le attains large values (unrealistica!Jy greater than 2) as,
for example, when wind stress is impulsively applied tO an
ocean surface ioilia!Jy at rest with initially zero layer thick
oess. A modilied levei model [Worth.em and Mellor, 1980)
obviated the problem but required a complicated ileration .
More reccntly, however, we have reverted to the original
schemc (cquations (26H29)) after we learned that the prob
lem can be avoided by constraining the domain of depen
dence of the S,;(GM, GH) functions so as to exclude the
regions where (w
2
)/q
2
:s 0. 12 (lhe s haded region in Figure 3)
and where, according to the discussion in section 4, Uberoi' s
data present reason to believe that Rolta' s assumption fails.
Of course, one might accordingly revise Rona' s hypothesis,
but that step might better await further corroborative data. It
would also complicate lhe model and, it is belicved, unncc
essarily so for most practical problems.
The constraint we use on (34) and (35) is G n :s 0.033 and
G., :s 0.825  25.0 Gn.
7. FURTHEJI EOPHYSICAL APPLICATIONS
The models as described thus far, mainly in lhe context of
onedimensional simulations, have now matured sufficiently
so that these form the basis for other onedimensional
investigations to compare model predictions with laboratory
ftows and to generate new information oo boundary layer
responses. The closure models have also been incorporated
in to larger. threedimensional atmospheric and oceano
graphic numerical models. The following discussion will
highlight some of these applications.
Free Convection
With no alteration in l he model, levei 2! calculations are
performed to compare with the freeconvection experiment
of Wills and Deardorff [1974} wherein a beat flux was
imposed at the bollom surface of a lank of water after a
linear temperature gradient had been established in the tank.
Since there is no shear production, the Richardson number
changes abruptly from +<>o to oo at z a thc inversion
height.
Tbe calculated tempcrature and heat ftux very nearly
overlie the data in Figure 8 and havc not been ploued. A
possible exception is that the smaU, ncgative ftux oversboot
near tbe inversion beigh.t, z = z
1
, is underestimated by a
factor of 3 or 4. Note that the experimental heat tlux was
determined by integrating the lemperature tendency and
might be subject to error.
The predictions of (w
2
) and ( ') i.n Figures 9 and lO agree
well witb the data, whereas (u
2
) does oot. Furthermore, free
Meu..oR ANO YAMAOA: TuRBULENCE CLosuu Moou 863
60 13
...
'
'
'
..
'
'
'
'
'
..,..,
\\\
'
z
6
'
'
'fj o
'
'
'
'
o
'
OA
'
'
o 6 '
'
'
Ol
o
o
o 0.2 ...
..
9 ("C) OIMENSIONLE$$ Hf.AT FlUl
Fig. 8. Mean temperature and heat ftux profiles from the laboratory cxperimcnt of Willis and Deardorfffl9'74].
CaJculatcd profilcs wcre nearly concident wich tbcse data. Opcn data poinlS are atmospheric aircrafl measurements in
conditions thought to be similar to those of the laboratory cxperiment.
convection scaling 'laws' wbere (wl} (gfJHdl) and (IP}
H
2
(g{JHz) VJ as z+ O are seen to prevail for these quantilies
but not for as z + O. ln other words, both Lhe scaling
laws and the model fail to represent (u
2
) well near the
surface. As discussed by Sun and Ogura (1980], a rational
ization for this finding is that (u
2
) is dependent on both t and
z, thc ovcrall height of the boundary laycr.
lt should be noted that the sharp minimum in (8'} near t =
0.7t
1
would undoubtedly be modificd by a levei 3 model
calculation which includes diffus ion of ( 8').
Readers might wish to compare lhe results of Figur es 8. 9,
and lO with similar results obtained by wel/en e/ al. [1976],
Zeman ond Lumlq [1976), Sun and Oguro [ 1980], and Andre
ti a/. [1976b] . The lauer solved tbe aforementioned difficulty
wilh lhe (u
2
) problem by setting their length scale to a
constant proponion to t
1
and by matching their lower
boundary condit ions to the data.
1t should be noted that Willis ond Deardorff [ 1974] also
obtained data for (wq
2
)/2. If (pw) were zero, one could
compare t hose data witb the diffusion represented by ql S/
(qln.)laz in (24) (even though we formally neglected pressure
diffusion. it must, as discussed in seclion 2. be considered a
pan or lhe diffusion term (24) if observations indicate lha! pw
..
..
..
..
6
l
...
T
...
o
6
02 06
..
o"
6
03 OA
;;;
'I' 0). in which case tbe modcl appears to underestirnate lhe
measured (wt/}.
The observational determination of net turbulent diffusion
imponantly depends on lhe measured behavior of the dissi
pation. Since the buoyancy production must decrease linear
ly, or nearly so, with height, it may bc inferred tbat net
difl'usion is small if dissipation behaves s imilarly.
Unschow [1970] and Kuklwrfls and Tsvang [1977) ob
served dissipation rale profiles that were almost uniform
with height in lhe middle regions of the convective mixed
layer. Also, tbe explicit turbulent simulation model of Deor
datff[l974) produced pressure diffusion that was small and
velocity difl'usion tbat was comparable to dissipation. On tbe
other hand, nearly linear dissipation rate profiles wcre
observed by Yokoyama era/. [ 19771 over land and by Penne/
and LeMone [1974) over the tropical ocean.
Also. Caughey and Wyngaard (1979) have, in an atmo
spheric convection layer, measured buoyancy production.
dissipation, and turbulent velocity diffusion and by differ
ence determined that pressure diffusion is of opposite sign to
velocity diffusion and, in fact, lhey tend to caocel.
When tbe observational record i.s clarilied. lhe model
might be suitably modified.
,!.0.4
z,
0.2
6
o
o
'
w
..,
w,
..
..
00
o
Fia. 9. Horizontal and verticalturbulent energy compon<nts (solid symbols) by Willi.J and Dnrdorff[l974]. Open
data symbols are airc,raft measureme:ots, solid tines are calculated, and w.
864 MBLl.OR ANO YAMAOA: TuRBULENCE CLOSutt.e MODEL
1.0    
..
0.8
..
.:::
o .
o
N
O. A ~
..
0.2
o
0.1 lO
~
a.
Fg. 10. Temperature variance (solid symbols) by Willis and
Deardorff (1974]. Open data symbols are aircraft measurements,
solid lincs are calculated. and e. fllw .
It is reasonablc to cxpcct tbat s. in (26) is Richardsoo
number dependeo! as are, analogously, SM and SH We
have, in fact, computed the Wills and Deardorjf [1974)
experiment with s. = const = 0.2 and with s. o: SM (where
lhe constao! of proportionality is adjusled so that s. = 0.2 in
lhe neutra! flow limit). The difference in the calculated
results were not large.
e
COMPUTED
!hl
lDor 33+Dor 34 4IDoy 351
Forced Convection
The experiment whereby a shear stress was impulsively
applied to the top surface of stable, salinitys tratilied water,
tbcreby mixing Lhe top layer. has been perfonned by Karo
arrd Phillps [1969]. Qualitatively, the mixing process is
inhibited by Lhe stratification such that an abrupl density
change occurs across the interface separating strongly lurbu
lent and quiescenl fluid. Using the simpler, level2 version of
lhe model (ao algebraic length scale recipe aod neglect of the
turbulent kinetic eoergy tendency and diffusion terms) ,
Mellor and Durbin [1975) predicled these data quite weU,
and we expect that prediction will prevail when this latest
versioo of the model is applied. Other examples of mixed
layer dynamics are explored and a favorable comparison
with ocean observations in the North Pacific is included in
lhe paper by Mellor and Durbin. The levei 2! model has also
been favorably compared to the twolevel experiment of
Kamha era/. [1977) by Mellor and Strub [1980].
8. ATMOSPHIZRIC ANO 0cEANoGRAPHIC SIMULATIONS
The Wangara Dma Set
The present model has been compared with atmospheric
boundary layer data of C/arke er ai. [1971), whicb are called
the 'Wangara data.' The temperature variables in the previ
ous equations must now be interpreted as virtual potential
temperature.
Comparison of simulations and observations by Yami:zda
and Mellor [1975) are shown in Figures 11 13. The calcula
' I
: .
!.
,di
/;/
. /1
i '
./
. ~
i /j
I f
I ' I
I I '
1!2 I 18
/ ..
' .3 !
J
/
rl i
' .,
i
I . ;
, . ~ . ...
I :
' .:
' J
/ i
' I
' .
: I
I
1
18
i :
i. I
j> .
' .,.,.. 11 !
o 5 lO
!KI
15 20 5 10 15 20
O 5 10 15 2C
!KI
0900, doy 33 to 0300. doy 3A
IKI
5 lO 15 20
(KI
0900. dor 34 to 0300, doy 35
Fig. I I. Observed and calcutated atmosphcric boundary la.ycr and vertical and 1emporal variations of mean virtual
potential tcmpcraturc  273K. Units are degrccs Kclvin.
 
MELLO R ANO Y AMADA; CLOSURE MODEL
12 18 o 6 12 18
(h)
1Doy 30;Doy 1
.)5
15
1
' . I
fi
J \
, I !
{ \ /
\ \ /
J 1
I "
' I I
I '
I . ' I I
(t. l,
10 ..1
(mso<l)
'\;i
}
<
I . i (
\ i
I .
, : I
I \ .
, I
/ ..
f ), "
<"'; ,. i.
,, I
.. '
10
(m UI C
1
)
o
'
o
1100, doy 33to 0600, doy 3A
} I
:
i i\
, I \ \ .
v
A .
..
11
f i
' .
I I
' .
'L
..__ ...... . =;
15 10 ..1 o
(m s.c'
1
)
'
't> i
I )\
j., I
i?
)r
"!......,_.,_ \,
....... .

1S 10 ..1 O
lmsoc I)
1200, doy :).0 lo 0600, doy 35
Fig. 12. Observed and ealculated atmospllerie boundary layer and vert.ieal and lempc>ral varatioos of Lhe <lllilwarcl
mean wind component. Units are meters pe:r second.
tions shown in tbese figures used the algebraic lcngth scale
equation (50), eod of section 6, but we expect the use of (48)
would produce little change in lhe resuh. The calculatioos
IIS$Urne horizontal homogeneity so that altitude and time are
thc only independent variables.
A feature o f the velocity ficld prediction is the appearance
of ' the nocmrnal wind maximum' around midnight and near
z  200 m. The m<\ior effcct of tbe diurna! surface heating
cyclc can bcst be seen in Figure 14. where we show contours
of calculated turbulent kinetic energy. Further details are
provided by Yamada and (19751.
Pollutant Dispusion
Model equations devcloped for temperature may also be
applied to any scalar. such as a chemically inert pollutant.
Using thc horizontally homogencous wind field generated
for the Wangara simulation. Yamada (1977) has made a
threedimensional calculation o f the dispersion of a poUutant
point source located at various distances from lhe ground.
Figure 15 illustratcs the dispersion ofa source located at z =
40 m during lhe earty moming and afternoon hours. Tbe
moming, lowlevel inversion confines pollutants to ncar
surface a.ltitudes, whereas vertical mixing in thc aftemoon is
vigorous. as would be deduced from Figure 14. Olher
calculations, which include an assessment of grouod levei
conccntration as influenced by source beight. will bc found
in Yamada's paper.
One finding of inlcresl is that the effect of lateral diffusion
terms in lhe mean concentration equation is negligible ex
cept very close to lhe source. Lateral dispersion is dominat
ed by vertical variability of mean wind specd and direction.
Horirontal mean advective dispersion creates mean vertical
concentration gradients which are subsequenUy mixed
through vertical ditfusion.
Dobmy [1979] has also constructed a twodimensional
(vertical plane) model for pollutant transport based on the
levei and 3 models.
Tw& and ThreeDimensional Flow With Orograplry
As a firsl step toward I'Clllist ic treatment of teiTIIin elfects,
the airflow over single and double Gaussian mountains was
investigated [Yamada, t978b] . The governing equntions are
transformed in1o a temlinfollowing coordinate system in
order to simplify lhe surface houndary conditions. Figure
16a shows the horizontal wind veclors 1000 m ahove the
surface ofa Gaussian mountain 500 m high. Accelcration and
dcceleration of the horizontal wind speeds are seen on lhe
lee and upwind sides, respectively. Additionally, lhe airflow
diverges strongly as it approaches thc mountain and con
vergcs in lhe lee of the mountain. The covergence and
divergence in the horizontal wind fields result in vertical
motions computed from the continuity equation. A maxi
mum downward motion of2 m . is obtained approximately
3.5 km above the downwind slope of tbe mountain;
MELLOR ANO Y AMADA! TUR.BULENCE CLOSUJ.E MODEL
12
Ih r)
15
l O
:r:
0.5
lhr)
p
X
J
( l
\
li
18
"
I
l
1
\
.!
'\
I
j
I
I
i
'\_\,
I
i
.
.s o
5
i
r
'
i
..
.. ,
o
i
i
I
5
5
)
'
"
I
lO .s
,.,, \
' . \
. \
I
I
i
I
i
' I
i
" ' '
, l'li
..... ., \
';:;
I
\,
I
)
I
"
I
j
!
I
I
!
o
.to .5 o
l} (msec .. J
fOoy 331 lOa y Jl  10ay 35l 1200, clav 33 to OOO, dar Jl 1200, day J.4 10 OOO, clay 35
Fia. 13. Ot>served and calculated atmOSjlhaiC boundary laytr and vertical and ternpo<al variations of tbe northward
mcan wind componen1.
maximum upward motion is only 0.2 m s  o, a.s upward
motion occ urs over a grca1cr volume. The polentiallempera
lure in a venical plane lhrough the diagonnl AB in Figure
16a is shown in Figure 16b. The p01en1ial temperature is
increased by S"C in the Ice of lhe peak to subsidcnce
occurring on lhe 1ee slope or lhe moumain. See Yamada
[1978bl for further discussion. Recen1ly. more rea1istic to
pography is included in lhe 1wodimensional [Yamada,
1.5
. : .. : .::;:::
. : ,_: "":'
::'
_::;__;:.
:=.o:
,_......Day 33 +Day Jl    1IDay 35t
Fia. 14. Time and space varialion of compuled q' Uwice tbe
turbu_lent kinetic eoergy); unit.s are squnrc meters per second. The
stipplcd IIKOS indicate rcgions wberc 10 > < q' < 10> m
1
$ "
1
1982b) and threedimensional [Yamoda, 1981] models. and
lhe rcsults are compared wilh obscrvations. Tree canopies
are paramcterized in a relalively simple manner, but effccts
of bmh solar radialion and drag force are properly consid
ered [Yamado, 1982a) .
f}'ecu of Water Vapor
Exactly the same equations derived in the previous sec
tions are applicable for a moist atmosphere as longas phase
cbanges do no1 occur and provided lhat \irlual potental
temperature . defincd as
. = (I + 0.61 Q.,} (56)
is cverywhere substituted for . In (56), Q. is thc mixing
rut.io of water vapor, and a tilde indica1es an inslantaneous
value. In ali previous equalions lhe mcao and the fluc!Uation
of the virtual potential temperature, e. and o should
replace the mean and ft uctuation of potential temperalure. O
and 8. In addilion. conservation equations of lhe mean and
turbulence fluxes of waler vapor can be derived assuming
closure assumptions identical to lhose for the polen!lal
temperature are needed 10 oblain absolute tempera!Ure or
potentialtcmpcraturc. The resu1ting equations for lhe waler
vapor are also identical in form to those for the polcntial
lemperature. Thus , for example, replacing e ande by Q. and
q., respectively, in (23), (28), (29), and (31) yields lhe
required equations.
Burle I 1977) used the levei 3 mode1 to study temporal
MEu.o ANO YAMAOA: TuRBULENCE CLOSURE M ODEL 867
(a)
(b)
Fig. 15. (a ) Simulations o(pollutant dispenion from a source at
40 m above ground leveJ. The mean wiod, temperature. and t u r b u ~
lence field are thc same as in Figures 1114 at 1500 hours on day 33.
The box represcnts a 40 km by 40 km by 1200 m <lomain. (b) Samc"'
Figure ISa except the time is 0600 on day 34.
variations in lhe moist atmaspheric boondary layer an<l to
investigate mechanisms to explain observations of layers
which are well mixed thoroughly but far from wellmixed in
terrns of moisture.
Condenslllion
!f phase changcs occur. however, it becomes rather diffi.
cult to solve the cquations for the virtual potential tempera
ture and watcr vapor. since thcy are not conserved and
suitable stipulations of sourec (sink) terms are not known.
Tberefore we bave taken a different approach. One obvious
ly conserved quantity, even when phase chaoges occur, is
lhe total water content Q defined as
(57 a)
wbere Q
1
is lhe liquid water. Another conserved quaotity
uscd here is the liquid water potential temperature [Betts,
1973] ,, defined as
. er...
e, Q,
T C,
(S7b)
where L. and C, are lhe latent heat of evaporation and tbe
specific heat of dry air at constant pressure, rcspectively.
Therefore the conservation equations for the potential tem
perature as in (23) are replaced by identical equations for the
liquid water potenlial temperature and for total water.
In order to recover the watcr vapor and absolute tempera
ture fields, whlch are nccessary for determining buoyancy
/// // ./// /
Fia. 16a. Hori.zootal wind vectors at 1000 m above th<: surface
of a mountain in Figure 25. Tenain is contoured by dashe<l line.s with
an increment of L 50 m. 'rhe lowcs1 contour ls z. = 20 m.
effccts on the turbulence and for computing longwavc
radiation cooling of the atmosphere, we foUow Sonrmuia
and Deardorjf (19n] nnd Mellor (1977) and assume a joint,
Gaussian probability distribution for
1
and Qw. First, how
ever, we will derive equations for the various turbulence
momentS. The derivation of equations in detail has been
already given by Yamoda (1 978a) or Yamada Ofld Mellor
(1979]. Most of the equations for the turbulent moments are
similar to those discussed in the prcvious sections. For
example, (26) and (27) rcmain the same. Equation (28) is
virtually the same except that 8 is replaced by 8
1
so tbat
(u8,) E 312/q r  (uw) ii9/iit  (w8,) Wlzl
(uS,) e 3/,!q ( (IIW) IJe/ iiz  (wS,) iiV/ii z) (58)
 1 Jl6
.1 J12
~
"
  ~      ; J08
"'
~
N
 1 304
...
J:
"
..,
::1:
N
1 296
[)tS T ANC.r AL[)NG "  B (I< !.I)
Fig. t6b. Distribution of the potcntial tempcrature (kelvins) in a
vertical plane through the diagonal AB in Fi$ure 16a.
  
868 MELLOk AND Y AMADA: TuRBULENC.E CL.OSURE MOOeL
and (29) becomes
2
A, ae,
(11,) =   (w8,)
q az
(59)
ln addit.ion, equations for lhe fluxes and variancc of thc total
watcr may be derived, resulting in
(uqw) 3/,Jq l (uw) i!Q..Jiiz  (wqw) i!Uiiizl
(uqw)  3/,lq (  (uw) iiQ.Iiiz  (wqw) W/iiz) (60)
(wq . )  31:/q [ (w
1
} iiQJaz + fJg (8.,qw)]
and
" A: iiQw
(qw1   (wqw)
q az
(61)
Finally, the equacion for the cross correlation becwecn 111 and
q. is
iiQw ae, (!W.J
O (wlll)   (wqw)   2q (62)
ii z iiz A,
By using (59), (61) , and (62) we reduce to thc levei
model. Rowevcr, lhe following eondensation physics can be
used in tbe levei 4 or 3 models. In particular, Burk [ 1980,
1982( has applied the levei 3 model with condensation
physics in a s tudy of lhe turbulence structure parametcrs
which provides useful information in interpreting acoustic
optical or microwave propagation measuremcnts.
Unlike thc previous cases where phase changes do not
oecur, lhe revised set of equations h ave more unknown
terms than the number of equations, bccause of various
eorrclations involving thc fluctuation of virtual potcntial
tempcraturc. Thcrcforc additional cxpressions to relate
thcsc terrns (uJO,,). (11. 11,), and (ll.,q...) to known terrns are
necded. Rcaders are again referred to ramada [1978a) or
Yamada and Mllor [1979) for details of derivations. Only a
brief discussion and the final results are given here. Tbe
virtual temperature relation which includcs liquid water is,
instead of (56), . e (I + 0.61 Qw  1.61 (!
1
}. Togethcr
with (57b) we obtain
.  o + o.61 (! ..  1.61 '>(, + (63>
T C,
from which the mean is readi1y extracted to give
e.  ( I + o.61 Q.,  t.61 Q,>( e, + t Q) <64>
lffrom (63) and (64) we extract tbe ftuctuating part and take
moments, we obtain
/Kli;O.) a fJr(u,BIJ + f!w(Uftw) + /Muj(I)
P<lllll.) ; /Jr(llll) + f!w(!W.J + (M&,q,}
p(qw8J {Jr(q.,8,} + fJw(q., ') + /M,Q .t/t)
wherc higherorder moments are neglected and
fJr '" fJ(I + 0.61 Q.,  1.61 Q1)
fJ1 .. fJ (I + 0.61 Qw 3.22 Q,)  1.61 9,
[
e Lu ]
T C
9
fJ. . o .61 e, +   Q,
e L. )
T Cp
(6Sa)
(6Sb)
(6Sc)
(66a)
(66b)
(66c)
  
We are tberefore rcquired to determine (uj(/
1
), (9/Q,), and
(QwQt) to close the equation set. For the latter two quantities,
as detailed by Sommnia and [ 1977) and
[ 1977], one way is to assume a binorrnal disuibutioo for 8,
and Qw. which we signify by G(O,, Qw): we also assume 'fast'
eondensation pbysics aceording to Q
1
(Q.  Q,)H(Q., 
0.,), where H is the Heaviside opcrator and (!, is the
saturation spccific bumidity value.
Moments are then forrned such that
R ; J: rw H(()_.,  Q,)G((I1, q.,) d91 dq.,
is lhe cloud fract ion and
Q, e [ [ {Qw  Q,)H(Qw  QJG(IJ,, Qw) dlll dq.,
is lhe mean liquid watcr. For the turbulent momeots,
(4>Q,} = f_ r_ 4l<lt H(Q.,  Q.)G(B,, Qw) de, dq.,
where = 9, or q.,. H is zero when Qw < Q, and unity when
Q., > Q,. in which case Q
1
; Q.,  Q, . In the lattcr case we
expand (!, in a Taylor scries so that it is equated to
saturation specific humidily at thc mcan liquid potential
temperature Q,, plus terrns proporcional to 0
1
and Q
1
The
result is that the integrais may be worked oul and yield
where = 6
1
or q.,. The parameters a, b, and u, are
[
L]'
a "' I + Q,,T Cp
b o(TIII)Q,,,T
u,
2
; (a'(q.,
2
)  2ab(q,.ll,) + b
1
(f!,'))
(67)
(68)
(69)
(70a)
(70b)
(70c)
Q.
1
.r is obtai.ned from the ClasiusCiapcyron equation and is
thc derivative of lhe saturation s pecific humidity with re
spect to temperature and evalunted at the mean liquid
potentialtempcrature.
By assuming a trinorrnal probability distriboton whcb
includes as arguments u
1
as well as 8
1
and q.,, it may be
shown that (69) is also valid wherc tb u
1
With the use of the flux equations and (59), (61), and (62),
equation (70c) may be written in lhe following, computation
ally convenient form:
(71)
    =
MELLO ANO Y AMADA: TUkiULENCE CLOSUkE MODEL 869
Now successively inserting f/> ; u
1
, 0
1
and qw into (69)
provides necessary moments for insertion into (65aH65c).
The results for (u
1
9.), (9
1
0.), and (q O.) are thcn used in (58),
(60). and (62). The expression for ( wO.,) for use in (25b)
bc:comes
(3(w6,) = (/3r  {J,R' b){w6,) + ({3,. + {J,R' a)(wq) (72)
Finally, these results may be cas t in the forrn of (30a). (30b),
and (31) where, however, we write (0
1
w) and e, in place of
( Ow) and e and add a flux equation for (qw),
 (wqw} = Ku QJi!z (13}
Equations (33a), (34), (35), and (36) remain unehaoged
excepl for lhe fact that G" rnust be redefined so that
Cu = (f'lq
2
) {3g'
where t is defined by
(74a)
were discussed in detail by Yamada and Mt llor [1979}. The
BOMEX was cooducted over and in the tropical ocean near
the island of Barbados. The vertical profiles of computed
and observed mean wind speeds, water vapor, and virtual
tcmperature agreed reasonably well and are not sbown. The
results of the modelcomputed profiles of some turbulence
variables, the mean and variance of liquid water, and cloud
volume are shown in Figure 17. No data wcre availablc for
quantitativo comparison of these variables. Satellite photo
graphs, bowever, indicare lhat the computed cloud volumes
were slightly overestimated. One intcresting resull is seen in
the vertical profiles of the cornputcd turbulcnce energy and
eddy viscosit y in Figure 17. These variables exhibit severaJ
muima in the layers 1 3 km above tbe surface. lncreascs of
the computed t urbulencc encrgy and eddy viscosit y are
closely related with the increases or the liquid water. The
condensation process releases latent beat whicb produces
Jocally unstable layers, resulting in larger turbulence.
(741>) Cooling Pond Simulation
, ae, , aQ .
C ({Jr  {3,R b)  + (fJw + {3,R a) 
Z l
lt is uscful to note that as u, > O, the above formulism
reverts to a simple condensation model invol ving onl y mean
quaotitics. Sincc it may be shown that a(Q.,  Q,
1
) Qw 
Q, . we obtain R = H(Qw  Q,) and Q
1
; (Qw  Q, JH(Q. 
Q,) as u, + O, where, once again, H is tbe Heaviside
operator.
Cloud Simulation
The application of lhe cloud model is still very much in a
research stage, and de veloprnent is handicapped by lack of
data. However, a oncdimensional version ofthe present sel
of equalons including condensalion processes was used to
simulat.e the Barbados Oceanographic and MeteorologicaJ
Experiment (BOMEX) data [Holland and Rasmusson,
1973). Model results and cornparison with available data
2
o
o
. ,

'
/
,
(a)
.
.......... ___ ';!
'
I
.
.
o.s
r'
\
'
'
..
lO
q2/2 (m2 ,2)
.. ~ ....
'
o
,
.
.
KM
(b)
100 200
(m2 s"' )
A threcdimen.sional version of the model developed here
has beco uscd by Yamada [ 1978a, 1979) loevaluate quantita
lively the effec1s of a large cooling pond on the sum,unding
cnvironment. The time depcndent equations were integrated
to obtain a nearly stationary state of tbe circulation over a 2
km by 2 km square pond. Typical values observed for lhe
wind specd, ternperature, relative humidit y in the surface
layer, and water surface temperat ure were used to construct
initial values a.nd boundary coodit.ions. The water and land
temperaturcs were kept constanl lhrougbout the integration
at 1sc and IOOC, respectively. Figure 18a shows the
computed horizontal surface wind vectors at 0.2 m above the
surface. Wind speeds increased from 1.4 m s at the i nllow
boundary to 3.8 m s over tbe cooling pond. This accelera
tion of wind speed is caused by the dccrease of roughness
length over land (3 x 10
2
m is assumed) to t.hat over water
(d) {e)
o 0.4 o 0.4 o
Q!
(o ko"')
( q 2 ) ~
I
(g kg"') R
Fig. 17. BOMEX cloud simulation. (a) Simulaled turbulenee enc:JV, (b) viscosily coef!icients, (<) mixing ratio of
liquid water, (ti) rms of lhe variance of liquid woler, and () cloud fraction. Solid I ines are for 0600 hours and dashed
lines for ISOO hours on June 24.
870
MEU..OR ANO Y AMADA: TURBULE.NCE CLOSUR.E MOOI!L
' 4 1
ms

, , / / / , / / / ;
, / / / / / / , / '
%
/ /. / / / :/ /
,
/
J/ //1. / /
.
/
/,/// l.
/
,
)(///
.
/
l.
/
,
. .
/ .. :/ .. } /
,
, ,
, ,
;
/ / / / /
;
, , ,
2 3
OISTANCE X IN KM
Fia. 18a. Horizon1al wind vectors at 0.2 m above the surface. Thc
boundary of the cooling pond is indcated by dashed !ines.
(S x tos m, a typical value computcd from 0. 16u,
1
/g, wbere
u, is a friction velocity) and by the air circulation induced by
lhe temperalure diffcrcocc between the land and the pond.
Convcrgence and divergence in the horizontal wind distribu
tons rcsuh in lhe vertical wind distribution (Figure 181>) in a
vertical plane. A maximum upward motion of J.S em s
1
is
computed over the downstream edge of lhe cooling pond.
Global Atmosphuic Simularions
The levei 2i mndel, wilh lhe algcbraic length scale cquation
described previously, has now beeo incorporated into the
general cireulation models of the National Oceanographic
and Atmospheric Administration's Geopbysical Fluid
Dynamics Laboratory. Currently, onc such mndel repre
sents the global at mosphere with horizontal resolution of
about 4 tatitude and longitude and 18 vertical leveis; the first
tive leveis are assi8ned to lhe lowcr 2 km.
Tbesc calculations produce an enormous amount of num
bers. Calculacions extracted from a paper by Miyakoda a11d
Sirutis 11977] are shown in Figure 19. They are zonally
averaged plots of temperature, zona! velocity, and KM "' /q
"' ;;;
365
182
X
o 4 5 6
OI STANCf: IH kM
F"13. 18b. Oislribution of W in a venicaJ plane lhrouah 11>e
d;.,onal AB shown ill r,gure 18a. UniU are centimeters pc:r
second.
SM. Synoptic detail is l herefore averaged out of thc plots.
Nevcnheless, one can identify the troposphere, tropopause,
and strnt.osphere in Figure 19a; in Figure 19b lhejet weams
are evidenl.
Ouanographic Simularioi&S
The models we have described have been applied to
oceanograpbic problems. The effect of salinity can be incor
poratcd in. say, the levei 2! mndel by simply setting {3(wO. )
= {3,(wd) + {3.(ws}. wherc (w6} is the potential temperature
llux and (ws) is the salinity Oux; fJ. and {3, are the corre
sponding coeflicients or lhcrmal expansion. 1t can be shown
that KH obtained in (32b) applies to both potential tempera
t ure and salinity. Funhermore, (34) and (35) are unchanged
so long as {3 aejaz {3
6
ae l ilz + {J, aSiilt in (33b).
The levei 2 mndel was applied by Mellor alld Durbin
[1975) to occan mixed layers and seemed to perform weU
wilh respect to labor.ltory simulations and also seemed to
simulate data obtained at station PAPA in the North Pacific.
1t has been applied by Wearher/y and Martin [1978) to the
study of ocean bo1tom layers and by Adams and Weatlrerly
[1981] to tbe study of bouom sediment tmnspurt. Simcms
[1980] has used the model to llindcast che seasonal variation
of horizontaUy averaged temperature profiles in Lake Ontar
io using measured winds and storagederived swface heat
flux. The calc.ulated temperarure profiles were in close
agrcemcnt with observation. A similar study was made by
Klein 11980], and agreement was obtained with winddriven
mixed layer deepening data obtained in the Mediterranean.
Klein [ 19801 also performed severa] useful sensitivity srudies
conceming tbe etrect of windforeing frequencies. Mixcd
layers when forced with the resonant, inertial frequency will
deepen much faster than when forced with higher or lower
frequencies.
A paper by Clancy and Martn [1981] presages lhe role of
turbulent closure modcls in operationally forcasting tbe
properties of ocean surface mixcd Iayers. 1'hey also used the
simplest levei 2 model. Ooe of their eonclusions is that
forccast errors are more associated with initialization fields
(combining climatology and expendable bathylhermograph
drops where available) and surfacc boundary conditions
(derived from lhe Navy's meteorologjcal model) than wi th
inadequacy of model physics. Further discussion of the
needs and potential for operational ocean forecasting can be
found in the work by Elsberry and Garwood [ 1980]. Gar
wood 11979] has also made available a general review of
mixed layer dynamics a nd mixed layer models.
More recently. the levei 2! mndel h as been applcd to
tbreedimcnsional ocean simulation by Blumhtrg and Mtllor
[1980). However, some twodimeosional (x, z) caleulations
were also included in thcir paper. Thus Figures 20 and 21
illustrale the results of an impulsively imposed alongshore
wind stress. Figure 20 is a homogeneous upwelling event,
whereas Figure 21 is a densitysrratiRed upwelling event.
The role of stratification in confining mixing to surface and
bonom layers is readily apparem. Also. in Figure 21. one
will observe the formation of a nearshore (x a 2 km) front
and baroclinic jet. Foo [ 1981 I has presented a more compre
hensivc s tudy of nenrshore upwelling a nd frontogenesis
using a levei 24 mndel.
1t should be that in th.is applicalion tbe masler lenglh
scale equation (48) works quite well. lt is integrated through.
out lhe entire computational domain and yiclds both surface
MtLI.OR Al'lt> y AMADA: TuuULEHCE MODEL 811
11m
40
..__ ________
30
(a)
20
c >00 _)
10
s

O NP
Eq SP
11m
40
(b) 20
10
o
SP
Fig. 19. Zonally averaged vnrinblc contours from lhe global a1mospheric simulation by Mlyakodn a11d Sinlllt [1977]
in March. (a) Virtual potentjoJ tempcrature. Units are deg:rees Kelvin. (b) Eastward velocily contours. Units u.re meters
per second. (<) Loe
10
or K.,i(cm
2
s
1
).
layer and bottom layer master lengths appropriate to each
layer.
Figure 22 sbows comparison between observed tempera
ture data and calcularion for rhe annual cycle in upper layers.
The observed data are the climatologjcal temperature pro
files in lhe Gulf or Mexico. Data from hydrographic surveys
are averaged by month. The data are tben areaaveraged
throughout the basin. Salinity profiles are also obtained but
play a minor dynamical role in the Gulf. The model is dl'iven
by winds obtaincd from sbip repons and averaged in a
similar fashion. Drag cocfficients very close to tbose recom
mended by Bunker [1976) were used to obtain surfacc stress
statistics i ., i
7
, and 1rl. where the overbar bere represents
lhe average of ali data in a given monlh and on an average.
The actual imposed wind slress oscillatcs (with a 4day
period) in magnitude and dircction so thatlhe resulting f .. fy,
and ltl match the data. The imposed surface heat Aux was
simply extrac1ed from the data so that the heat storage
(vertical in1egral of temperature) of lhe calculalion and data
agree. (Nore tbal for the same heat storage many profiles are
possiblc including, at onc exlreme, very large summenime
temperarure confincd to a vcry thin surface layer.) The final
resull is that observationally predicted temperature profiles
compare quile weU. Further details and an account ofa fully
tbreedimensional model applied to the Gulf of Mexico are
found in a report by 8/umbug and Mellor [1981).
sn MEu.oa ANO Y AMADA: TUUULENCe CLOSURE M OOEL

Distaoce Otishore (km)
Fig. 20. A hom011eneous event induced by an along
sbore wind slress of2.0 dynlcm directed into the plane ofthe paper.
The wind stress h8$ been impo>Md for 6 hours . The onsbore (U
negative) and offshorc (U poltive) isotactos are dcpicted in the
upper portion ofthe figure, while lhe alongshore (V positivc into tbe
plane ohbe pape r, V nogative out ofthe plane oftbe paper) isotacbs
are depioted in the lowcr panion.
9. DtSCUSSION
A turbulence model has been developed which is n:lative
ly simple and which can be applied to a wide variety of
engineering and gcopbysical nows.
   li.J ....     ;
5 r
  17.$     
DISllru Oll>tac (km)
s
......
...

2 4 6 10 12
We separare the sludy of the model into (I) the group of
closun: assumptions propOsed by Rona, extended to include
temperature (or any other scalar) and den.sity stratification,
and (2) the master lcngth scale.
The rules of lhe game we an: playing, at least until lhe
pn:sent, an: to obtain ali empirical constants from neutra!
data and then see if the modcl can predict stabilization or
destabilization ofturbulent lields dueto dcnsity stratification
in a gravity field and, in sepa.rate studics, due to ftow
curvature and olhe r body elfects. The constants in
(12), one of which is not indcpendent , are unambiguously
related to simple neutra! now data, and computer solutions
are not required lo identify these constants. The remaining
constants are von Karrnan's coostant " and the three con
stants in (48), one of wbich is not independent. Trial and
error computer solutions have determined these last two
independent constanls.
Tbe model and the fixed sct of constants seem to perform
weU in predicting diverse neutra! flows. The samc model.
with no alteration, appears 10 predict densitystratified flows
in a manner which far exceeds expcctation prior ro 1973.
The various models. leveis 4. 3, aod 2, n:present
decrcasing complcxity and decreasiog requrements for com
puter time and storage. For one (vertical) and pcrhaps two
dimensional model simulations. aoy vcrsion is aO'ordable.
However. for large, threedimcnsional. atmospheric or
oceanographic numerical modcls the levei 4, cenainly, and
the levei 3, probably, must yicld to eithcr the level2i or lhe
levei 2 closure model on tbe basis of computational econom
ICS.
The levei 2 model has received the greatest exposure in
the literature, partly because of computer cconomy and
partly because it is relatively easy to program. For most of
our own work we use the levei 2i model. This requires lhe
solution of equations for</ and </1. over and above the usual
prognostic equations for mcan velocity, temperature, and
.
12
Distanc:e Ofbhlre (\m)
Fig. 21. A stntified upwelling evcnt induced by an. atonvbore wind stress of I .O dynlcm directed into the plane or
tbe paper. This wind 5tress has been imposcd for 12 hours. The direclion ofthe iso1achs is tM samc as in Figure20. The
in.itial temperature distribution is denoted as T
0
.. .. _ .. 
' r"
..

,.
MELLO R ANO Y AMADA: 1'URBULSNCE CLOSUJ.E MOOEL
873
no
II M A II II A SO " D
22<1. The climato!oskal, V11riation
of tempera<ure in lhe GuJf of Mexico.
humidity for lhe atmosphere or salinity for tbe ocean. lt has
a grealer prediclive range than the levei 2 model, and the
length sca.lc cquation, although the most empirical element
of lhe complete modcl. does seem 10 perform in a more
satisfactory manncr than the simplc algebraic equation asso
ciated with the levei 2 model. For example, in ocean
simulations, ali equat ions may be integrated top 10 bottom
and generally include separate, surface and bottom mixed
layers bounding nonturbulem How. The protolype example
of a singte boundary layer bounded by nonrurbulcnt Oow is
lhe laboratory How in Figure 7. On the other hand. in
shallow water. where surface and bottom layers merge. the
lenglh scale equation performs well, as was seen in the
prototypical merged layer case of cbannel ftow in Figure 6.
1t is important to realize that tbe simpler models cannot, in
principie, account for some How bebavior. For example.
Uberoi's experimenl requires the fulJ levei 4 model to
o
20
z
rmi 10
_.,
22'l
100
llll
110
110
rls1
 li)
. !OI)
120
M M J
Fia. 22b. 1\todel imulalion ofthe timedepth varialion oflempera
cure in the Oulf of Mex.ico.
accouot for the retum to isotropy for a homogeneous,
inilially anisotropic flow field where shear and buoyancy
production are nil. The leveis 3 and 2j models will correctly
account for the decay of lurbulent kinetic energy, but ali
energy components will be declared equal. Finally, lhe levei
2 model, for t he same flow. will yic.ld 1.cro turbulent kinetic
energy. Since spatial difl'usion of energy is lacking, it will
also yield zero turbulent kinelic energy at the center tine of
channcl ftow, conlrary lo observalion. Nevertheless, in
many geophysicaJ applications lhe levei 2 model works quite
well. since mixing events are generally dominated by the
shear or buoyancy produclion tcrms in the 1urbulent kinet ic
energy equation.
llcla!owldgmmu. Tbis research was supported by lhe Air
Force Office of Scientilic Rcsearch under granl AFOSR 79.0118. by
lhe National Occanic aod Atmosphcric Admins1r01ion under grant
04702244017 (G.L. I>l. ), aod by lhe U.S. Departmenl of Energy' s
ASCOT program ( f. Y .).
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