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Title

Inflammation

Aim

To distinguish the features of acute and chronic inflammatory cells.

Inflammation is defined as the local response of living mammalian tissues to injury due to any agent. It is the bodys defense mechanism to prevent or inhibit the invasion of hazardous agents as well as to remove the consequent necrosed cells and tissues. The agents that cause inflammations are :a) Physical agent b) Chemical agents c) Infective agents d) Immunological agents Introduction

There are two ways to classify an inflammation. They are :

Acute inflammation This type of inflammation is of short duration and represents the early body reactions and usually followed by repair.

Chronic inflammation This type of inflammation is of longer duration and occurs either after the causative agent of acute inflammation persists for a long time, or the stimulus is such that it induces chronic inflammation from the beginning.

1. A microscope is taken. Method 2. A slide was chosen and observed under the 40X and 100X magnifications. 3. The image from the slide was drawn and colored.

Abscess lung Abscess occurs when acute bacterial infection is accompanied by intense neutrophilic infiltrate in the inflamed tissue, it results in tissue necrosis. A cavity is formed which contains purulent exudates (pus). The process of where an abscess is formed is referred as suppuration. Alcoholism is the most common condition predisposing to lung abscesses. An abscess may be discharged to the surface due to build up of internal pressure or might need the aid of a surgeon. Usually abscess lungs will cause symptoms such as Cough, fever with shivering and night sweats . Affected individuals may also complain of chest pain, shortness of breath, lethargy and other features of chronic illness. Finger clubbing is present in one third of patients.

Question

Sarcoidosis a chronic disease of unknown cause that is characterized by the formation of nodules resembling true tubercles especially in the lymph nodes, lungs, bones, and skin. The disease is characterized by the presence of non-caseating epithelioid cell granulomas in the affected tissues.

Giant cell in inflammation Giant cells refer to the cells which are multinucleated and also bigger than the normal cells. Such giant cells exist naturally in our body such as osteoclasts in the bone. However, a giant cell in terms of inflammation refers to a stage where due to the failure macrophages to deal with particles to be removed, they fuse together and become multinucleated. There are four types of giant cells present in inflammation. a) Foreign body giant cells This giant cell contains numerous nuclei which are gradual in the shape and size and also appear to be similar to the nuclei of macro phages. Question These nuclei can be found throughout the cytoplasm. This cell can often be seen in infective granulomas, leprosy and tuberculosis. b) Langhans giant cells The giant cells present in tuberculosis and sarcoidosis. Their nuclei resemble the nuclei of macrophages and also epithiloid cells. They are arranged around the periphery or at the poles of the giant cells. c) Touton giant cells These giant cells consist of vascoulated cytoplasm due to the presence of lipid content. d) Asch offs giant cells This giant cell is derived from cardiac histilocytes and can be seen in rheumatic nodule. Text of pathology 5th edition by Harsh Mohan www.wikipedia.org

References