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Diversity Protection Techniques in Digital Microwave Systems

Several diversity protection techniques are available to reduce the impacts of multipath fading on the performance of radio transmission systems. Frequency diversity protection for an example takes an advantage of nature of multipath fading by using frequency selectivity. By separating two or more antennas the effect of fading are minimized simultaneously which is called Space Diversity, by Using of Dual ODU connected through a hybrid coupler in the same antenna where propagation conditions are noncritical to system performance this is a method of redundancy in which the primary and secondary systems run simultaneously when there a failure in the primary equipments which is called Hot standby Diversity. 1- Frequency Diversity Frequency diversity is a cost effective technique that provides equipment protection as well as protection from multipath fading, the frequency diversity uses the irrelevance of fading in different frequencies In frequency diversity systems, the correlation of two diversity received signals should be small. Only in this event, deep fading on two frequencies can be avoided in a given

path and good diversity effect can be implemented. The bigger the spacing of two frequencies is, the smaller the correlation of deep fading at the same time.

2- Space Diversity The system performance may be significantly improved by use of space diversity. Identical information is transmitted over separate paths. Whenever space diversity is used, angle diversity should also be employed by tilting the antennas at different upward angles. In space diversity can effectively solve (K factor) fading caused by interference from the ground reflected wave and direct wave and interference fading caused by the troposphere. The space diversity can save frequency resources, but the equipment involved is complex. Two or more sets of antennas and feeders are needed.

3- Hot Standby Diversity The hot standby configuration is often used to give equipment diversity (protection) on paths where propagation conditions are non-critical to system performance. This configuration gives no improvement of system performance, but reduces the system outage due to equipment failures. The transmitters and receivers operate at the same frequency. Consequently no frequency diversity improvement could be expected.

4- Hybrid Diversity Hybrid space diversity is a common receiving mode of the PDH microwave system. One station uses one or more antenna (one antenna can receive and transmit two main signals) and the other station uses two antennas (each can receive and transmit one main signal) and the other uses one antenna (one transceiver unit has one transmitter and one receiver). Hybrid diversity is an arrangement where a 1+1 system, this system act as space diversity.

5- Combined Diversity In many practical configurations a combination of frequency techniques is used, in particular the combination of space- and frequency diversity. Different combination algorithms exist.