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The single line diagram of a power system is shown in the Fig. 4.16. The line impedances in pu are

Bus ] matrix formulation is explained as given below:

also given. The step-by-step procedure for [Z

Figure 4.16: Single Line Diagram of the Power System for the example

Preliminary Step: The graph of the network and a tree is shown in Fig. 4.17. Elements 1,2,4

and 5 are the tree branches while 3, 6 and 7 are the links.

Step 1: The step-by-step [Z

a tree branch connected between nodes 1 and the reference node 0 and has an impedance of

z10 = j0.10 pu. This is shown in the accompanying figure ,Fig. 4.18.

118

Bus ] matrix is

The resulting [Z

(1)

(1)

Z

Step 2: Next, the element 2 connected between node 2 (q = 2) and the reference node 0 is

selected. This element has an impedance of z20 = j0.10 p.u. As this is the addition of a tree branch

Bus ] matrix. This addition is illustrated in Fig. 4.19.

it will add a new node 2 to the existing [Z

(1)

(2)

(1)

(2)

0

Bus = (1) [ j0.10 0 ] = (1) [ j0.1

Z

]

(2)

0

z20

(2)

0

j0.10

Step 3: Element 3 connected between existing nodes, node 1 (p = 1) and node 2 (q = 2),

having an impedance of z12 = j0.20 p.u. is added to the partial network, as shown in Fig. 4.20.

Since this is an addition of a link to the network a two step procedure is to be followed. In the

119

first step a new row and column is added to the matrix as given below :

(1)

(1)

(temp)

Z

= (2)

Bus

(`)

(`)

(2)

j0.10

0.0

(Z12 Z11 )

0.0

j0.10

(Z22 Z21 )

(Z21 Z11 ) (Z22 Z12 )

Z``

(1)

= (2)

(`)

(1)

(2)

(`)

where,

Z`` = Z11 + Z22 2Z12 + z20 = j0.10 + j0.10 0.0 + j0.20 = j0.40 p.u.

Bus ] matrix as given below:

Next this new row and column is eliminated to restore the size of [Z

[Z

0.0 j0.10

j0.10

[

] [j0.10 j0.10]

j0.10

j0.40

Hence, the impedance matrix after the addition of element 3 is found out to be :

(1)

Bus ] =

[Z

(1)

(2)

(2)

j0.075 j0.025

]

j0.025 j0.075

Step 4: The element 4 , which is added next, is connected between an existing node, node 2

(p = 2) and a new node, node 3 (q = 3). The impedance of this element is z23 = j0.30 p.u. and

it is a tree branch hence, a new node, node 3 is added to the partial network. This addition, shown

Bus ] to (3 3).

in Fig. 4.21, thus increases the size of [Z

120

(1)

(1)

Bus = (2)

Z

(3)

(2)

(3)

j0.075 j0.025

Z12

j0.025 j0.0.075

Z22

Z21

Z22

Z22 + z23

(1)

= (2)

(3)

(1)

(2)

(3)

Step 5: Element 5 is added next to the existing partial network. This is a tree branch connected

between an existing node, node 3 (p = 3) and a new node, node 4 (q = 4). This is illustrated

in Fig. 4.22.

Since a new node is added to the partial network, the size of [Z

impedance of the new element is z34 = j0.15 p.u. The new bus impedance matrix is :

(1)

(1)

Bus = (2)

Z

(3)

(4)

(2)

(3)

(4)

Z31

Z32

Z33

Z13

Z23

Z33 Z33 + z34

(1)

(2)

=

(3)

(4)

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

j0.075

j0.025

j0.025

j0.025

j0.025

j0.075

j0.075

j0.075

j0.025

j0.075

j0.375

j0.375

j0.025

j0.075

j0.375

j0.525

Step 6: Next,the element 6 connected between two existing nodes node 1 (p = 1) and node

4 (q = 4) is added to the network, as shown in the Fig. 4.23. The impedance of this element

is z23 = j0.25 p.u. As this is a link addition, the two step procedure is used. The bus impedance

121

matrix is modified by adding a new row and column as given below:

(1)

(1)

(temp)

Bus

(2)

= (3)

(4)

(`)

(2)

(3)

(4)

j0.075

j0.025

j0.025

j0.025

j0.025

j0.075

j0.075

j0.075

j0.025

j0.075

j0.375

j0.375

j0.025

j0.075

j0.375

j0.525

(Z41 Z11 ) (Z42 Z12 ) (Z43 Z13 ) (Z44 Z14 )

122

(`)

(Z14 Z11 )

(Z24 Z21 )

(Z34 Z31 )

(Z44 Z41 )

Z``

Substituting the values of appropriate [Z

intermediate impedance matrix is:

(1)

(temp)

Bus

(2)

= (3)

(4)

(`)

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

j0.075

j0.025

j0.25

j0.025

j0.05

j0.025

j0.075

j0.075

j0.075

0.05

j0.025

j0.075

j0.375

j0.375

j0.35

(`)

j0.025 j0.05

j0.075 j0.05

j0.375 j0.35

j0.525 j0.50

j0.50 j0.80

where,

Z`` = Z44 + Z11 2Z14 + z14 = j0.075 + j0.525 2 j0.025 + j0.25 = j0.80 p.u.

The additional row and column ` are to be eliminated to restore the impedance matrix size to

Bus ] matrix after the addition of element 6 is calculated as:

(m m), and the [Z

j0.075

Bus ] = j0.025

[Z

j0.25

j0.025

j0.025

j0.075

j0.075

j0.075

j0.025

j0.075

j0.375

j0.375

j0.05

j0.50

j0.025

j0.50

j0.075

j0.80

j0.375

j0.525

Hence,

(1)

Bus = (2)

Z

(3)

(4)

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

j0.0719

j0.0281

j0.0469

j0.0563

j0.0281

j0.0719

j0.0531

j0.0437

j0.0469

j0.0531

j0.2219

j0.1562

j0.0563

j0.0437

j0.1562

j0.2125

Step 7: Finally the element 7 connected between two existing nodes node 2 (p = 2) and node 4

(q = 4) is added to the partial network of step 6. The impedance of this element is is z23 = j0.40

pu. This is also a link addition, as shown in Fig. 4.24 and hence the two step precedure will be

Bus ] matrix. In the first step the Z

(temp)

is calculated after a row and a

followed to obtain the [Z

Bus

123

Bus as follows:

column are added to the exiting Z

(1)

(1)

(2)

(temp)

Z

= (3)

Bus

(4)

(`)

(2)

(3)

(4)

j0.0719

j0.0281

j0.0469

j0.0563

j0.0281

j0.0719

j0.0531

j0.0437

j0.0469

j0.0531

j0.2219

j0.1562

j0.0563

j0.0437

j0.1562

j0.2125

(Z41 Z21 ) (Z42 Z22 ) (Z43 Z23 ) (Z44 Z24 )

(`)

(Z14 Z12 )

(Z24 Z22 )

(Z34 Z32 )

(Z44 Z42 )

Z``

(1)

(temp)

Bus

(2)

= (3)

(4)

(`)

(1)

(2)

(3)

j0.0719

j0.02810

j0.0469

j0.0563

j0.281

j0.0281

j0.0719

j0.0531

j0.0437

j0.281

j0.0469

j0.0531

j0.2219

j0.1562

j0.1031

(4)

(`)

j0.0563 j0.281

j0.0437 j0.281

j0.1562 j1031

j0.2125 j0.1688

j0.1688 j0.5969

where,

Z`` = Z22 + Z44 2Z24 + z24 = j0.0719 + j0.2125 2 j0.0563 + j0.40 = j0.5969 p.u.

The additional row and column ` are to be eliminated to restore the impedance matrix size to

124

(m m), and [Z

j0.0719

Bus ] = j0.0281

[Z

j0.469

j0.0563

j0.0281

j0.0719

j0.0531

j0.0437

j0.0469

j0.0531

j0.2219

j0.1562

j0.0281

j0.0281

j0.0563

j0.1688

j0.0437

j0.5969

j0.1562

j0.2125

Hence,

(1)

Bus = (2)

Z

(3)

(4)

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

j0.0705

j0.0295

j0.0420

j0.0483

j0.0295

j0.0705

j0.0580

j0.0517

j0.0420

j0.0580

j0.2041

j0.1271

j0.0483

j0.0517

j0.1271

j0.1648

As can be seen that the final [Z

a reference node. As there are 7 elements is the network, 7 steps are required for the formation of

Bus ] matrix.

[Z

4.2.1

Bus ] :

Modifications in the existing [Z

If in an existing network, for which the [Z

Bus ] matrix can be easily modified

removal or line impedance alteration is carried out then the [Z

without any need of reconstructing the matrix from scratch.

Bus matrix be the final bus impedance matrix given for the network of

As an example, let the Z

Fig. 4.16. Next, let the element 7 connecting nodes 2 and 4 be removed from the network and it

Bus .

is required to find the modified Z

Removal of element 7 is equivalent to setting its impedance z24 to infinite. This can be obtained

org

add

by connecting a fictitious element z24

in parallel to the existing element z24

such that the resultant

result

impedance z24

is infinite i.e.

1

result

24

1

1

1

+ add =

=0

z

z24

org

24

or

org

add

z24

=

z24

= j0.40 p.u.

org

add

Hence, by adding an element z24

= j0.4 p.u. in parallel to z24

the removal of line between nodes

2 and 4 can be simulated. The new added fictitious element is a link addition between the two nodes,

p = 2 and q = 4 and is shown in Fig. 4.25 . Hence, this will require a two-step procedure. The

addition of the fictitious element 8 , which is a link, will introduce a temporary row and column.

125

(temp)

The Z

is given as:

Bus

(1)

(1)

(temp)

Bus

(2)

= (3)

(4)

(`)

(3)

(2)

(`)

(4)

j0.0705

j0.0295

j0.0420

j0.0483

j0.0295

j0.0705

j0.0580

j0.0517

j0.0420

j0.0580

j0.2041

j0.1271

j0.0483

j0.0517

j0.1271

j0.1648

(Z14 Z12 )

(Z24 Z22 )

(Z34 Z32 )

(Z44 Z42 )

Z``

(1)

(2)

(temp)

Z

= (3)

Bus

(4)

(`)

(1)

(2)

(3)

j0.0705 j0.0295

j0.0295 j0.0705

j0.0420 j0.0580

j0.0483 j0.0517

j0.0188 j0.0188

j0.0420

j0.0580

j0.2041

j0.1271

j0.0691

(4)

(`)

j0.0483 j0.0188

j0.0517 j0.0188

j0.1271 j0.0691

j0.1648 j0.1131

j0.1131 j0.2681

where,

add

Z`` = Z22 + Z44 2Z24 + z24

= j0.0705 + j0.1648 2 j0.0483 + (j0.40) = j0.2681 p.u.

126

j0.0705

Bus ] = j0.0295

[Z

j0.0420

j0.0483

j0.0295

j0.0705

j0.0580

j0.0517

j0.0420

j0.0580

j0.2041

j0.1271

j0.0188

j0.0188

j0.0483

j0.1131

j0.0517

j0.2681

j0.1271

j0.1648

(1)

Bus = (2)

Z

(3)

(4)

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

j0.0719

j0.0281

j0.0469

j0.0563

j0.0281

j0.0719

j0.0531

j0.0437

j0.0469

j0.0531

j0.2219

j0.1562

j0.0563

j0.0437

j0.1562

j0.2125

Bus matrix obtained in step 6 of the previous

The obtained Z

example, which is the impdance matrix of the network before the addition of element 7.

Bus matrix building algorithm without any presence of mutually

So far we have considered the Z

coupled elements. In the next lecture, we will take into account the presence of mutually coupled

Bus matrix.

elements while forming the Z

127

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