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HIGHER MATHEMATICS.
A TEXTBOOK FOR
EDITED BY
MANSFIELD MERRIMAN,
Professor of Civil Engineering
in
Lehigh University,
AND
ROBERT
S.
WOODWARD,
in
Professor of Mechanics
Columbia University.
NEW YORK:
JOHN WILEY
London:
1898.
& SONS.
Limited.
Copyright,
1896,
BY
MANSFIELD MERRIMAN
AND
ROBERT
S.
WOODWARD.
Y
PREFACE.
In the early part of this century it was possible for an industrious student to acquire a comprehensive if not minute knowledge of the entire realm of mathematical science. The
of that time, like Lagrange, Laplace, and were about equally familiar with all branches of pure Gauss, and applied mathematics. Since that epoch the tendency has been constantly towards specialization and additions to pure
;
theory along with extensions of applications have been made with increasing rapidity, until now the mere quantity of information available presents a formidable obstacle to the simul
taneous attainment of the breadth and depth of knowledge which characterized the mathematician of a generation ago.
would appear, however, that this obstacle is due to the bewildering mass of details rather than to any considerable Hence the increase in the number of fundamental principles.
It
who seeks to gain a comprehensive view of the mathematics of the present day needs most of all that sort of guidance which fixes his attention on essentials and prevents him
student
in the pursuit of
non
During the past twenty years a marked change of opinion has occurred as to the aims and methods of mathematical The old ideas that mathematical studies should instruction.
be pursued to discipline the mind, and that such studies were ended when an elementary course in the calculus had been In our best covered, have for the most part disappeared.
classical
in
IV
PREFACE.
is
now given in the sophomore year, while lectures and work in pure mathematics are continued during the seminary It is with the hope of meeting the junior and senior years.
calculus
existing
class
demand
be used
in
such upper
editors enlisted the cooperation of the authors in the task of bringing together the chapters of this
book.
and
Each chapter, so far as it goes, is complete in itself, intended primarily to give a clear idea of the leading principles of the subject treated. While the authors have been
is
guided by general instructions issued by the editors, each has been free to follow his own plan of treatment. It will be found
that certain chapters adopt the formal method usual in textbooks, while others employ what may be called the historical
and
method. glance at the table of contents will that the chapters of the work present a considerable variety of subjects, thus affording teachers and students an
intuitive
show
maybe
and
are given for solution, numerical examples of the application of theory to physical science are freely introduced, and the footnotes set forth much sugtastes.
Numerous problems
The
Editors.
Readers
any remaining
January
i,
errors
1898.
CONTENTS.
Chapter
I.
Article
I.
2. 3.
Page
3
5
The Regula
Falsi
4.
5.
6
8
6.
7.
8.
10
13
15
9.
17
19
21
24 27
28
31
15.
Conclusion
Chapter
II.
DETERMINANTS.
Article
1.
Introduction
33
2. 3.
Permutations
Interchange of Two Elements Positive and Negative Permutations The Determinant Array 1 Determinant as Function of n Elements of Determinants Examples
Notations
34
35
4.
5.
36 36
6.
7. 8.
37
38
39
9.
10.
11. 12.
Second and Third Orders Interchange of Rows and Columns Interchange of Two Parallel Lines
40
42
43 43
Two
VI
CONTENTS.
by a Factor Line of Polynomial Elements Composition of Parallel Lines Binomial Factors Page
44
44
45
Cofactors; Minors
18.
19.
20. 21.
46 47 49
51
52 54
55
27.
28. 29. 30. 31.
Raising the Order Solution of Linear Equations Consistence of Linear Systems The Matrix Homogeneous Linear Systems Co factors in a Zero Determinant Sylvester's Method of Elimination
56
58
60 60
62
63
The
Multiplication
Theorem
Product of
Two
65 68
69
Chapter
III.
PROJECTIVE GEOMETRY.
Article
1.
70
72
2. 3.
Elements
at Infinity
72
74
:
4.
5.
74
77 80
6.
7.
Harmonic Elements
Projectivity
8.
9.
82
87
88
91
10.
11.
15.
Center and Diameter Plane and Point Duality Ruled Quadric Surfaces Cross Ratio
94 96
98
104
Chapter
IV.
HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS.
By James McMahon,
Article
1.
2. 3.
4.
Correspondence of Points on Conies Areas of Corresponding Triangles Areas of Corresponding Sectors Characteristic Ratios of Sectorial Measures
107
109
109
no
CONTENTS.
Article
5.
Vll
6.
7.
Page
8. 9.
no in in
112
10.
11. 12.
13.
114 116
116
118
14.
15.
119 120
122
123
16.
17. 18. 19.
Exponential expressions.
...
124
125
20.
21.
22.
127 128
128
129 130
131
26.
27. 28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
Graphs of Hyperbolic Functions Elementary Integrals Functions of Complex Numbers Addition Theorems for Complexes Functions of Pure Imaginaries Functions of x f *> in the Form X\ iY
132
135
138
140
141
143
*45
33.
34. 35. 36.
37.
The Catenary The Catenary of Uniform Strength The Elastic Catenary The Tractory The Loxodrome Combined Flexure and Tension
Alternating Currents Miscellaneous Applications Explanation of Tables
14?
*
148
*49
x
50
151
*53
158 l6
38. 39.
Chapter
V.
HARMONIC FUNCTIONS.
E. Byerly,
By William
Article
1.
2.
3.
l6 9
172
4.
5.
in
174
x
77
l8 3
6.
7.
l88
x92 T 94
8.
Vlll
CONTENTS.
9.
Article
Page 196
198
10.
11. 12.
20a
202 205
13.
14.
15.
Problems
in
Zonal Harmonics
Additional Forms
207
208
16.
17. 18. 19.
Development in terms of Zonal Harmonics Formulas for Development Formulas in Zonal Harmonics Spherical Harmonics.
Bessel's Functions.
209 212
213 213
215
22. 23.
24.
25.
Development in Terms of Bessel's Functions Problems in Bessel's Functions. Bessel's Functions of Higher Order Lame's Functions
Tables
217
220
221
221
222
Chapter VI.
Fiske,
Article
1.
Definition of Function
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Representation of Complex Variable Absolute Convergence Elementary Functions Continuity of Functions Graphical Representation of Functions Derivatives
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Conformal Representation Examples of Conformal Representation Conformal Representation of a Sphere Conjugate Functions Application to Fluid Motion
Point at Infinity Integral of a Function
236
238
244
245
.
246
250
256 257
261
19.
Reduction of Complex Integrals to Real Cauchy's Theorem Application of Cauchy's Theorem Theorems on Curvilinear Integrals
Taylor's Series Laurent's Series Fourier's Series
262
264
267
20. 21.
22. 23.
269
271
273
24. 25.
274
Critical Points
278 282
26.
284
CONTENTS.
Article 27. Weierstrass's
28.
IX
Theorem
Page 287
292 298
30.
300
Chapter
VII.
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS.
By W. Woolsey Johnson,
Professor of Mathematics in United States Naval Academy.
Article
I.
2.
3.
303 305
307
308
311
4.
5.
6.
7. 8.
9.
Exact Differential Equations Homogeneous Equation The Linear Equation First Order and Second Degree Singular Solutions Singular Solution from the Complete Integral
Solution by Differentiation Geometric Applications; Trajectories
312
314
317
320
322
325
10.
11.
12. 13. 14. 15.
327
330
333
The Two
First
Integrals
16.
17.
Linear Equations Linear Equations with Constant Coefficients Homogeneous Linear Equations
Solutions in Infinite Series
336
338
342
18. 19.
344
20.
Systems of Differential Equations 349 First Order and Degree with Three Variables 352 Partial Differential Equations of First Order and Degree... 355 359 Complete and General Integrals 362 Complete Integral for Special Forms Partial Equations of Second Order 365 Linear Partial Differential Equations 368
Chapter
VIII.
Professor of Mathematics
Article
1.
2. 3.
374
375
4.
5
6.
7. 8.
Sum Sum
of
Two Weighted
Points
378
381
386
390
392
Planimetric Products
The Complement
399
X
Article
9.
CONTENTS.
Equations of Condition and Formulas Stereometric Products
Page 405
410
10.
11. 12.
The Complement
in Solid
416
419
Chapter IX.
VECTOR ANALYSIS
and QUATERNIONS.
Lehigh University.
By Alexander Macfarlane,
Lecf.urer in Mathematical Physics in
Article
1.
Introduction
425
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8. 9.
Addition of Coplanar Vectors Products of Coplanar Vectors Coaxial Quaternions Addition of Vectors in Space Product of Two Vectors Product of Three Vectors Composition of Located Quantities
Spherical Trigonometry Composition of Rotations
426
432
439
443
444
449
453
457 463
10.
Chapter X.
Woodward,
Article
1.
Introduction
467
471
2.
3.
Permutations Combinations
Direct Probabilities
473
4.
5.
6.
7. 8.
Theorem
Inverse Probabilities
Probabilities of Future Events
9.
Theory
of Errors
490
491
10.
Laws
of Error
11.
12.
13.
14.
493
Theory
Chapter XI.
Article
1.
Introduction
508
511
2.
3.
4.
5.
Theory of Numbers Irrational and Transcendent Numbers Complex Numbers Quaternions and Ausdehnungslehre
513
t
515
517
CONTENTS.
Article
6.
7.
XI
Theory
of Equations
Page 519
524
8. 9.
Determinants
Quantics Calculus
526
52S
531
10. 11.
535
539 543
Theory
of Functions
16.
17.
18.
and Least Squares Analytic Geometry Modern Geometry Trigonometry and Elementary Geometry NonEuclidean Geometry
Probabilities
550
552
558
563
565
o
19.
Bibliography
568
57 1
Index
HIGHER MATHEMATICS
Chapter
I.
Lehigh University.
Art.
1.
Introduction.
In this Chapter will be presented a brief outline of methods, not commonly found in textbooks, for the solution of an
Graphic, numeric,
and algebraic solutions will be given by which the real roots of both algebraic and transcendental equations may be obtained, together with historical information and theoretic
discussions.
algebraic equation is one that involves only the operaIt is to be first freed from radicals so as tions of arithmetic.
An
make the exponents of the unknown quantity all integers; the degree of the equation is then indicated by the highest exponent of the unknown quantity. The algebraic solution of an
to
algebraic equation is the expression of its roots in terms of the literal coefficients this is possible, in general, only for linear, quadratic, cubic, and quartic equations, that is, for equations
;
of the
first,
is
numerical
equation
coefficients real
[CHAP.
I.
above mentioned the roots of numerical equations may be computed from the formulas for the algebraic solutions, unless
they
fall
real
An
+ax
x
nx
j
a 1x
i n ~'
f
f
an 
+a
is,
o,
and, for brevity, the first member will be called f(x) and the The roots of this equao. equation be referred to as f(x)
x which
satisfy
it,
that
those values of
that reduce f(x) to o. When all the coefficients alt ati . . .aM are real, as will always be supposed to be the case, Sturm's
real roots,
equal, as also the number of real roots lying between two assumed values of x, while Horner's method furnishes a con
is
of trigonometry or of logarithms,
example, ^(~
COS;tr
>
or a 2x
of
general method for the literal solution \these equations exists but when all known quantities are
xb*
= o. No
expressed as real numbers, the real roots may be located and computed by tentative methods. Here also the equation may
be designated asf(x)
= o,
apply equally well to both algebraic and transcendental forms. The methods to be given are thus, in a sense, more valuable
than
Sturm's theorem and Horner's process, although for It should algebraic equations they may be somewhat longer.
be remembered, however, that algebraic equations higher than the fourth degree do not often occur in physical problems, and that the value of a method of solution is to be measured not
merely by the rapidity of computation, but also by the ease with which it can be kept in mind and applied.
Prob.
1.
(a
+ x)* +
unknown
x)l
=
all
2b to an
integers.
quantity
Art.
2.]
GRAPHIC SOLUTIONS.
Art.
2.
Graphic Solutions.
of the real roots of
algebraic equations
two simultaneous be found by the methods of may plane analytic geometry when the coefficients are numerically expressed. For example, let the given equations be
**
Approximate values
+y = a\
x*
 bx = y  cy,
The
c\
the
first
representing a circle and the second a hyperbola. and OY, the circle is de
OX
a.
coordinates of the
OA = \b
and
AC = \c,
the
while
its
diameter
BD = *J &
from which
two
branches
may
be described.
The
^=
and
I,
= 4,
and
3,
there
x
y,
two
real
values
for
one branch
here
of the hyperbola
Op
Om
is
pq
the negative value of y. When the radius a is so large that the circle intersects both branches of the hyperbola there are four real values of both x and y.
By a similar method approximate values of the real roots of an algebraic equation containing but one unknown quantity may be graphically found. For instance, let the cubic equation 3 This may be x \ ax b = o be required to be solved.*
written as the two simultaneous equations
y
pp. 4749
x\
ax
\b,
Vl
IV,
[CHAP.
I.
their
The
curve
I
= x*
/
J>4?
table of cubes
then
OB
is
laid off
equal to
b,
and
OC equal
to a/b, tak
^___nl
The
line
joining
B
b
and
C
is
cuts
the
the
will
ax
= o.
If
BC
algebraic equations of higher degrees may be graphicFor the quartic equation ally solved in a similar manner. Bz C o, it is best to put z A*x, and thus z* Az*
Some
reduce
it
+ +
#*
bx
o;
y
the
first
= x* + x\
may be drawn
y=bx +
once for
all
c,
of
which
upon crosssection
paper, while the straight line represented by the second be drawn for each particular case, as described above.*
may
This method
tions
;
is
also applicable to
many
is readily plotted by help ax is a straight line passing In the same way ax x* = o gives the
= y=
y = x%
the parabola represented by the intersections of which determine the real roots of
= a* and
values of
the
real
roots
of
the
,
(Ans.
equation
arc
x
456
8 sin
.)
o.
[
159
430
and
a^
* For an extension of
see Phillips and Beebe's
this
method
to the determination of
imaginary roots,
iphic Algebra,
New
York, 1882.
Art
3]
THE REGULA
FALSI.
Art.
3.
The Regula
for
Falsi.
One
of the oldest
is
methods
an equation
ple that
if
the rule
known
It depends upon the princitwo numbers *, and x% be substituted in the expression/^), and if one of these renders/^) positive and the other renders it negative, then at least one real root of the equation Let the figure represent a f(x) = o lies between x and #s
x
.
The point X, part of the real graph of the equation y /{x). where the curve crosses the axis of abscissas, gives a real root of the equation f(x) o. Let OA and OB be inferior and
OX
trial
which are determined either by superior limits of the root or by the method of Art. 5.
OX
Let
Aa
of
OC
is
Now
compute
Cc and
closer
to the root
OX.
Let x and x^ be the assumed values OA and OB, and let x i) and/(;tr2 ) be the corresponding values oi f(x) represented
by Aa and Bb, these values being with contrary signs. Then from the similar triangle AaC and BbC the abscissa OC is
x%
~
A*t)A*.)
*^
%
,
A**)A*y
another value
As
an example
trial
be found by
ham ben
let
*This originated
in India,
and
its first
publication in Europe
Esra, in 1130.
h,
i~
7 iT
[CHAP.
For
=
and
2,
f{x)
=
falsi
5,
and
for *,
is
1.8,
there
found x 3
/) = + 4304;
1.90 nearly.
Again, for
with
jTj
1.90,
f(x
;r 4
z)
f(x^) give
= + 0.290,
1.906,
which
correct to the
third decimal.
sin x 0.5 = o. example let f[x) = arc;r shows that there is but one real root,, Here a graphic solution and that the value of it lies between 85 and 86. For x, 85V and for x^ = 86, /(.r 2 ) = f 0.00342 then 0.01266, fix ) o 00090. Again, by the rule x = 85 44', which gives f(x ) = combining the values for x^ and ,r3 there is found x\ = 85 47',
As
a second
which gives /(^ ) = Lastly, combining the values 0.00009. for x^ and x t there is found x b = 8547 4, which is as close an
4
/
tables.
In the application of this method it is to be observed that the signs of the values of x and f(x) are to be carefully regarded, and also that the values of f(x) to be combined in one
have opposite signs. For the quickest the values of f{x) to be selected should be those approximation having the smallest numerical values.
operation
should
Prob.
4.
Compute by the
Also those of x*
sin
2X
= o.
xb
0.25
= 0.
Art.
4.
that devised
by Newton
in
1666.*
of
real
in the figure represents a o. root of the equation f(x) Let OA be an approximate value of
curve,
OX
/b
to the curve; then
OB
is
OX^
I
269, Vol.
1779),
is
given
in
somewhat
different form.
Art.
4.]
the tangent
bC be drawn
tion to
the process may be continued. df(x)/dx. Let/'(*0 be the first derivative of/(jtr); ox,f\x) x OA in the figure, the value of f(x ) is the ordiFor x
is
aBA
this tangent
is
also
Aa/AB.
(2(7
Hence
by
AB = /*,)//'(*i)
and accordingly
(9j5
and
are found
which
to
is
Newton's approximation
is
By a
For example,
ative is/'(;r)
let
f(x)
10^.
+ 5^
}
= o.
The
first
deriv
$x*
f
Here
it
may
be found by
trial
x
that
2
1.92.
For x 2 is an approximate value of the real root. = 60, whence by the rule x = 5, and /'(#,) /(*,) =
a
Now
for
x^
1.92
are
found
/(#)
0.6599
1.906,
and
is
which
As
the
second example
derivative
is
let
f(x)
first
f\x) =
by
= x* + 4 sin = o.
;tr
Here
2x
4 cos x.
An approximate
by a graphic solution is .*= u^cx/. For .*, = 1.94, 1.94, corresponding to about as 0.03304 and /'(*,) = 53 2 3> whence by the rule /(.*:,) a second application x = 1.9328, which x>= By 1.934.
value of
either
trial
x found
or
corresponds to an angle of
In
uo
54f
the application of Newton's rule it is best that the assumed value of x, should be such as to render /(*,) as small
as possible,
will fail
if
and
maximum
or
and
b.
It
and algebraic equaapplies equally well to both transcendental that the rule itself is readily kept in mind tions, and moreover
by help
of the diagram.
8
Prob.
5.
[CHAP.
I.
braic equation x*
+6=
f
o.
arc
0.
Art.
5.
roots of an equation are of two kinds, real roots and imaginary roots. Equal real roots may be regarded as a special class, which lie at the limit between the real and the imaginary. If an equation hasp equal roots of one value and q equal roots of another value, then its first derivative equation has 1 1 roots of the first value and q roots of the second p
value,
The
and thus
all
common
to both primitive
the equal roots are contained in a factor and derivative. Equal roots may
hence always be readily detected and removed from the given For instance, let x* gx* \ ^x \ 12 = o, of which equation.
the derivative equation
factor of these
is
^x*
\%x
~
=o
as
is
equation are
+2
The problem
of determining the
number
of the real
and
imaginary roots of an algebraic equation is completely solved by Sturm's theorem. If, then, two values be assigned to x the
number
of real roots
between those
limits
is
theorem, and thus by a sufficient number of assumptions limits may be found for each real root. As Sturm's theorem is known
to
all
who
it
will
be here
given, but instead an older method due to Hudde will be presented which has the merit of giving a comprehensive view
of the subject,
abscissas
any equation y = fix) be plotted with values of x as and values of y as ordinates, a real graph is obtained
intersections with the axis
whose
OX give the
* Devised by Hudde in 1659 and published by Rolle de Lagrange, Vol. VIII, p. 190.
in 1690.
Art.
5.]
Thus
in
OX for
represents
= fix)
has points of
A, and
inflection points
marked B.
Now
let
the
first
deriva
tive equation
dy/dx=f'(x) be formed and be plotted in the same manner on the axis O'X'. The condition f'(x)= o gives
the abscissas of the points A, and thus the real roots O'X' give To ascertain if a o. limits separating the real roots of fix)
real root
of
are to be substituted infix): if the signs oi fix) are unlike in o lies between the two the two cases, a real root of fix)
limits
;
if
lie
between
those limits.
In like
manner
f
d*y/dx* = f"{x)
limits
the second derivative equation, that is, be plotted on O" X" the intersections give
if
>
real roots of
f\x)
o.
It
is
also
seen that the roots of the second derivative equation are the abscissas of the points of inflection of the curve y = fix). To illustrate this method let the given equation be the
quintic fix)
 $x* +6x + 2 = o. The first derivative 6 = o, the roots of which are equation is /'(*) = 5x* i$x* +  1.59, 0.69, +0.69, 4 1.59. Now let each approximately
=
x*
in
the values
 00
o,
and
00
and
:
let
10
[CHAP,
I.
bs
oo
I.59,
 O.69,
O,
+ O.69, +
+4.7,
I.59,
00
/(*)=
00,
+2.4,
0.6, +2,
+1.6,
and
+00.
1.59,
Since f{x) changes sign between x one real root lies between these limits
=
;
00
^=
0.69
between x
=
;
1.59
and x^
0.69,
one
between
these limits
between x
and
= o,
one
between these limits; since f(x) does = o and x A = 00 a pair of imagisum of which lies between f 0.69
,
and
00
As
roots e*
For x
;r
= i and e* = = 00 /(jr)
,
o,
^
***
=
;
00
is
negative; for e*
= i, /(^)
is
is
negative

for
f
00
f[x)
is
negative.
real roots.
The equation
**
=o
has, therefore,
no
first
When
the
derivative equation
second, third, and following derivatives may be taken until an equation is found whose roots may be obtained. Then, by
working backward,
limits
may be found
In
in succession for
the
the
many
is
cases,
it is
difficult,
method
Zx
and one
in
some
may
fail
of great theoretical
Show
Show
x that e
+ e~
4
1
Prob.
that x*
{
= o has
x+
two
real roots,
Art.
6.
An
degree
may
be written
:
first
member, thus
xn
+ a.x" + a x +
1
M ~2
+a
n _x
+a
Art.
arid
6.]
11
if all
numfirst
bers, this
The
by /(V)
= o.
the equation
following principles of the theory of algebraic equations with real coefficients, deduced in textbooks on algebra, are here recapitulated for convenience of reference
:
The
(i)
If
is
is
divisible
x
by x
xt ;
and conversely,
equation.
(2)
(3)
f(x)
is
divisible
by x
x lt then x
is
a root of the
An equation of the n th degree has n roots and no more. xn are the roots of the equation, then the prodIf x x%%
x ,
is equal tof(x). a the sum of the prodequal to ucts of the roots, taken two in a set, is equal to f # 2 the sum of
x
uct (x
(4)
t)
(x
xn )
the roots
is
x \
the products of the roots, taken three in a set, is equal to so on. The product of all the roots is equal to an and to f a n when n is even. odd,
(5)
a3
and
is
when n
=o
ing
equation lack
occur in pairs of
the
form/
(7)
qi where / represents
sign
is
equation of odd degree has at least one real root whose opposite to that of a n
.
An
equation of even degree, having a n negative, has at least two real roots, one being positive and the other negative.
(8) (9)
An
complete equation cannot have more positive roots than its terms, nor more negative roots than
in signs.
If all roots
permanences
(10)
be
many
posi
and
as
many negative
roots as permanences. f
In an incomplete equation, if an even number of terms, 2w, are lacking between two other terms, then it has at least 2m say
*
By substituting y
remove
\py
so as to
the second
fifth
terms by means of a quartic equation. The law deduced by Harriot in 1631 and by Descartes
12
[ChaP.
I.
imaginary roots; if an odd number of terms, say 2tn f i, are lacking between two other terms, then it has at least either 2tn f 2 or 2m imaginary roots, according as the two terms have like or unlike
signs.*
(11) Sturm's
real roots,
provided
that they are unequal, as also the tween two assumed values of x.
(12) If a r
is
number
if
as
is
the
greatest negative
real roots lie
between the
is
(13) If an
efficient,
the
first
all changed and (as \} !j0ui*m&y 5*7 negative and a r the greatest negative co
is
1
into
x, then
ar
then a r
first
is
If
a k be
the
coefficient after
is
changed into
&
then a* /v/w
1 is
found by placing x = z~ and thus obtaining an equation f(z) whose roots are the reciprocals of f(x) = o.
=o
is
z r where r (15) Horner's method, using the substitution x an approximate value of x enables the real root x to be comx ,
x
The
be also modified so as to apply to the computation of imaginary roots after their approximate values have been found. t
The
older method of Hudde and Rolle, set forth in Art. 5, is however one of frequent convenient application, for such algebraic
equations as actually arise in practice. By its use, with principles (13) and (14) above, and the regula together falsi of Art. 3, the real roots may be computed without any
assumptions whatever regarding their values. For example, let a sphere of diameter and
specific gravity
* Established by
DuGua;
see
Art.

7.]
transcendental equations.
13
float in water,
mersion.
The
and let it be required to find the depth of iimsolution of the problem gives for the depth v
As
D=
3^
f
2 feet
and
equation
2.6
is
=o
is
to be solved.
The
first
derivative equation
3**
6x
is
=o
2.
found
The
than
excludes the
first
and
last root,
By
(13)
and
that
it lies
between
and the second isto be computed. is about 0.5, so and 2. For x = 0.5, /(jr,) = j 1.975,
1.4;
falsi
#,= 1.35.
decimal,
Prob.
of
0.408, and combining this with x, the 1.204 f eet which, except in the last
8.
The diameter
is is
and which
10 feet
38.x:
to
whose length is 200 feet discharge 100 cubic feet per second under a head
of a waterpipe
real
ft>
M>
given
101
3!
= o.
7.
the
root
of
x.
the
'
quintic

equation
JL
"
$2.
:i
21
^v
Art.
Rules
(1)
Transcendental Equations.
to (15) of the last article have no application to trigonometrical or exponential equations, but the general prin
25 may be always used in attempting their solution. Transcendental equations may have one, many, or no real roots, but those arising from probciples
and methods
of Arts.
lems
in
Two
examples
be presented.
cylinder of specific gravity g floats in water, and it is If required to find the immersed arc of the circumference.
this
be expressed
in circular
measure
sin
it is
cedental equation
f{x)
2ng =
14
[CHAP.
I.
cos x derivative equation is I o, whose root is any even multiple of 2n. Substituting such multiples in f(x) it is found that the equation has but one real root, and that
The
this lies
is
substituting \n, \it% and n for x, further found that this root lies between f n and n.
between o and
2;r;
it
a particular case let g 0.424, and for convenience in using the tables let x be expressed in degrees; then
As
fix)
=x = 166
57
.2958 sin
152
.64.
=ss
x
Now proceeding by the regula falsi (Art. 3) let x 180 and and /(.r =58. 16, whence ^=135, giving /(*,) =+ 27 36
.
2)
166
For x
f(x 3 )
.469,
is
an
approximate value of the root. Continuing the process, x is found to be i66.237, or in circular measure ^=2.9014 radians.
tal tension of a
a second example let it be required to find the horizoncatenary cable whose length is 22 feet, span 20 feet, and weight 10 pounds per linear foot, the ends being sus
As
pended from two points on the same level. If / be the span, s the length of the cable, and z a length of the cable whose weight equals the horizontal tension, the solution of the problem leads
to the transcendental equation the numerical values,
7 (10 e
is
s=
L
2z
1
2z )
\e
z,
or inserting
IOV
 e~ T )z
first
is\
O
is
The
L
derivative equation
/<(*)
10/ = V e*)+[e>+e
i_\
')
is
= Q,
less
x
and
real root
than
about
Assume n =15, then /(.s^) =0.486 and f\z ) =0.206, whence by Newton's rule (Art. 4) z = 13 nearly. Next for
2
z^
= =
13, /(#,)
=
13.
0.322,
/'(<&,)
whence z
13.1.
Lastly for z 3
f(z 3 )
=0.0012 and
= 0.3142,
whence
13.096,
6 e
which
e
is
The
2 sinh 6,
this
equation
where
I02 1
hyperbolic functions.
Art.
8.]
algebraic solutions.
9.
15
Prob.
Show
2x
o has but
one
real root,
Prob.
2x\ log
10.
and compute its value. Find the number of real roots of the equation 10 000 = o, and show that the value of one of them is
499574
Art.
8.
Algebraic Solutions.
Algebraic solutions of complete algebraic equations are only possible when the degree n is less than 5. It frequently
happens, moreover, that the algebraic solution cannot be used to determine numerical values of the roots as the formulas
expressing them are in irreducible imaginary form. Nevertheless the algebraic solutions of quadratic, cubic, and quartic
equations are of great practical value, and the theory of the subject is of the highest importance, having given rise in fact
to a large part of
modern
algebra.
solution of the quadratic has been known from very early times, and solutions of the cubic and quartic equations were effected in the sixteenth century. complete investigation of the fundamental principles of these solutions was, how
The
ever,
given by Lagrange in 1770.* This discussion showed, th if the general equation of the n degree, f{x) =0, be deprived o, that the of its second term, thus giving the equation /(j)
first
is
given by
y=
in
cos,]
oo\
oo
~^ni
>
which n
is
cession, each
go is, in
. .
.
suc
e n ~\
and
Slt sit
s M _, are
are determined
instance,
if
by an equation
3
degree.
For
the equation
00
is
are
e,
l,
gd=
i + i/ 11! =
go
= iiV 3 = e
*>
Lagrange
* Memoirs of Berlin Academy, 1769 and 1770; reprinted in CEuvres de See also Traite de la resolution Vol. II, pp. 539562.
(Paris, 1868),
16
[CHAP.
= h+s
3
>
y%
s2
5
^i
+ e\
iyi
es,
which
5,
and
9).
equation (Art.
go are the n roots of the binomial equation n be odd, one of these is real and the others if n be even, two are real and n are imaginary 2 are imagi1 o are f 1 and 1 those nary.* Thus the roots of go* 1 o are given above those of go* of go 1 o are
The n
1
values of
If
;
oo
= o.
*b
I, fI
!>
an d
2
,
where
is

i
1,
isv/
i
Go
= o the
e, e
1,
real root
e
3
,
denoted by
4
;
to find
=0
by
giving
4
1
GO
\GO\GO\GO\l=
O,
which being a reciprocal equation can be reduced to a quadratic, and the solution of this furnishes the four values,
= j(l+ V5 + fC 10+2^
= i(i+
1
3
<?
^5
3
^10 +
1,
2V5),
where
it
will
be seen that
5
e.e
and
e .e
as should
be
1.
method
let it
by
this
general
x
and
let
+ 2ax + b =
a,
(
o,
it
x be
replaced
by y
thus reducing
b)
to
y_
Now
the product of
(
a*
_
y
x
o.
f s t
and y %
s%%
whence
y
a
s^)
and (y
f%
st ) is
f  s = o.
Thus the value
*
of j
is
first
degree,
The values
1
of a> are, in
center which divide a circle of radius unity into n equal parts, the
GOi
vector
See Chapter X.
Art.
s
7
9.]
17
a*
and since x
1
\y,
equation are
*x
=  a + y/d
b,
th
*9
=a
JlF^lt,
which
is
degree upon which the solution of the equation of the n th degree depends is called a resolvent. If such a resolvent exists, the given equation is algebraically solvable but, as before remarked, this is only the case for
;
The equation
n. Show
that
the
six
6 th
roots
of
unity are
f i,
^J,
i(i V=^).
the result
cubic be
All methods for the solution of the cubic equation lead to commonly known as Cardan's formula.* Let the
x
and
let
f $ax* f
Tfix
+ 2c =
o,
(i)
a for
y + 3fy+2c=o,
B and C are
b,
7
(i')
in
B=a +
Now by
1
C=a*
es,
%ab
c.
(2)
the Lagrangian
1
method
y
,
are
y =zs
in
+S
and
e
a
y, ==
eV9
7,
e^ 2
which
are the imaginary cube roots of unity. of the roots, and remembering that
1
and

f
= o,
of
and
s2 there are
which
9
s9
= (CV#+Cy.
published by Cardan in 1545.
(3)
first
18
[CHAP.
I.
One
therefore
is
/i
= (r c+/FF?')
is
+H* ^ +
/
,
"*)*.
and
this
algebraic solution of the cubic equation (i) hence conand C by (2) in terms of the given coefficients, sists in finding
The
and then by
(3)
Finally,
*, =
(*,
*.),
*,= *,=
When B
is
9
ft*.
* i(s,
(4)
3 ( Sl
roots.
C* is negative the numerical solution of the not possible by these formulas, as then both s and j a are in irreducible imaginary form. This, as is well known, is
cubic
k
+
f
s^
C*
is
s^
**,
are equal, and there are two equal roots, a while the other root is xx 2O.
xt
=x =
3
f
When B
f
is
and
two imaginary
cubic
roots,
and formulas
(2), (3),
(1).
and
= o, = +4 whence by comparison with (1) are found a = 1.5, b Then from (2) are computed B = 1.75, c^+3.125. c 2.5. These values inserted in (3) give s = +0.9142, ^ = 1.9142 ^ = + 2.8284. 1.0 and ^ thus s 4 s = Finally, from (4)  1.0 = +0.5, x = 1.5 = 2 + 2.4495/, x, = 1.5 +0.5 + 1.4142 V^~3 /:= ^ = 1.5 + 0.5 1.4142 4 ~3 = 2 2.4495/,
x
%
4.5^
+ \2x
this case
is
possible
C/
4/
ART.
10.]
19
o.
Prob.
Compute
5.76.x
the roots of x*
2x
of x
f
o.6^
13.
+ 4.32 =
5=
o.
its altitude 6 inches and the diameter of placed with vertex downwards and one fifth of its volume is filled with water. If a sphere 4 inches in diameter be then put into the cone, what part of its radius is immersed in the water ? (Ans. 0.5459 inches).
Prob.
cone has
It is
its
base
5 inches.
Art.
10.
The quartic equation was first solved who separated it into the difference of two
in 1637 resolved
it
1545 by Ferrari,
squares.
Descartes
two quadratic factors. Tschirnhausen in 1683 removed the second and fourth terms. Euler in 1732 and Lagrange in 1767 effected solutions by
into the product of
roots.
to be found in
The methods
similar, first
and Lagrange, which are closely reduce the quartic to one lacking the second term,
of Euler
y + 6B/ + 4Cj> + D = o;
and the general form
of the roots being taken as
3
,
= + Vs + V7 + V7  VI,  V7 y, = + V7
y
x
3,
y y
2
3 ,
+ $Bs* + i(9^ 9.
)*
~ iC* = o.
is
Thus the
solvable
by
Whatever method
final
formulas, deduced by the author in 1892, will result.* Let the complete quartic equation be written in the form
x"
(1)
20
First, let g, k,
[CHAP.
g=a*b, h=b
Secondly,
let /
c'
2abc
+ dg,
k=
%acV\d.
(2)
be obtained by
h
VF+J*)*
\2gL
(3)
Thirdly, let u,
and
v
be found from
(4)
u=g+/,
Then
= 2gJ, w = 4u* + $k
x
#
x
x
= = = =
+ Vu + ^v + Vw, a + Vu *v + Vw,
a a
(5)
Vu
Vu
\
Vy
Vw,
Vw,
Vv
in which the signs are to be used as written provided that 3 c is a negative number; but if this is positive all 2a lab
radicals except
Vw
made
is
for the complete theoretic but they enable numerical solu(1), whenever (3) can be computed, that is, when
ever A* \k*
positive.
roots.
For
If
%
two
real
four imaginary roots J? f k is negative, and the irreducible case arises where convenient numerical values cannot be obtained, although they are correctly represented
by the formulas.
As an example
and
let
it
let
/ and
q,
be required to find the length of an inscribed recwhose width is m. If x be this length, this is a root of tangle
the quartic equation
_ (#
__ tf __
m )x
i
+ ^pqmx
(/ + tf
n?).*
= o,
and thus the problem is numerically solvable by the above formulas if two roots are real and two imaginary. As a special case let p = 4 feet, q = 3 feet, and m == 1 foot then
;
x*
2jx'
f
48^
24 = o.
*"
41.
On** '*
"M
ART.
11.]
QUINTIC EQUATIONS.
(i)
21
By
and
comparison with
are found a
(2),
3
^=24.
Then from
is
^=
is
+ V3.6067.
= o, b =+ g
1
,
41.,
^
(3)
= + 12,
4
an(j
Thus ^* j
positive,
and from
the value of /
12.6067,
From
161.20.
(4) are
and
w= +
x x x
x
Then, since
(5),
x9
A
+ V'12.607+ 12.697 = + 4.085 =  0.945 + V12.607  12.697 = + 0.945 + 0.30/, = 0.945 V 2.607 12.697 = + 0.945 0.30/,
0.945
feet,
1
= =
0.945
1/12.607
+ 12.697 =
5.975 feet,
Each of evidently the required length. these roots closely satisfies the given equation, the slight discrepancy in each case being due to the rounding off at the third
is
decimal.*
Prob.
14.
Compute
xA +
'jx
+ 6 = o.
{Ans.
1.388,
1. 000, 1.
194
1.
701/.)
Art.
11.
Quintic Equations.
fifth
The complete
ally solvable, nor
equation of the
is it
degree
is
equation be
x*
o,
and by
substituting
/+ S#/+SCf+SDj> + 2E =
according to Art.
$*
*
for
let
it
be reduced to
o.
The
8,
y,
y,
y*
y*
y>
in which
if
e, e',
6**i
t,
*>
are the imaginary fifth roots of unity. Now the several products of these roots be taken there will be
e
3
.
e*
civil
Howe
22
[CHAP. I*
found, by
Art.
6,
ments
s lf s
4
s3
and
s<,
namely,
B = s,s
C
*i**
+ ^W.
degree for
s 1 si
s^s 3
s,
50,
V< + *,V. + ^
V + ^Vt)
4
>
However, by taking quantity, a resolvent of the 6th degree is obtained, and all efforts to find a resolvent of the fourth degree have proved unavailing.
or s*
unknown
Another line of attack upon the quintic is in attempting to remove all the terms intermediate between the first and the last. By substituting y* + py \q for x the values of p and q be determined so as to remove the second and third terms. may by a quadratic equation, or the second and third by a cubic equation, or the second and fourth by a quartic equation, as was first shown by Tschirnhausen in 1683. By substituting y* {py* f qy f r for x, three terms may be removed, as was shown by Bring in 1786. By substituting y*\~Py \ qy \ry\f for x it was thought by Jerrard in 1833 tnat f ur terms might be removed, but Hamilton showed later that this leads to
y
tion
published a more extended investigation leading to the same conclusion.* The reason for the algebraic solvability of the
quartic equation may be briefly stated as the fact that there exist rational threevalued functions of four quantities. There
are,
however, no rational fourvalued functions of five quantities, and accordingly a quartic resolvent cannot be found for
*
Jordan's Traite des substitutions et des equations algebriques; Paris, 1870.
ART.
11.]
QUINTIC EQUATIONS.
23
of the quintic of these is the
There are, however, numerous special forms whose algebraic solution is possible. The oldest
quintic of
De
Moivre,
f + SB/ + $&y + 2E = o,
which
sx
is
equations
then
=: s s x 4
and
t
s,
2
,
and
s A are
found, and
=s
are
e's 1
s,"
\ s t
or
y
while
the
=
4
es%
.
e\
eV 4
and j 6
+ e^
if
If
+ e\ y = eV, + e ^ B + ^ be negative,
3
,
4 ,
this quintic
has
one
real
roots.
When any
by the four
element equations, exists between s st st s4 the quintic is solvable algebraically. As an infinite number of such relations
may be
stated,
it
number
of
In each case of this kind, however, the cosolvable quintics. efficients of the quintic are also related to each other by a
certain equation of condition.
solution of the quintic in terms of one of the roots of its resolvent sextic was made by McClintock in 1884.* 6 6 By this method ^ x s2 \ s3 \ and ^ 4 are expressed as the roots of
,
The complete
a quartic in terms of a quantity / which is the root of a sextic whose coefficients are rational functions of those of the given
quintic.
Although
it
is,
of
numer
By means
shown by Hermite in 1858. For this purpose the quintic is reduced by Jerrard's transformation to the form x $dx\2e = o, and to this form can
however, be solved, as was
b
also be
reduced the
degree.
modular equation of the sixth Other solutions by elliptic functions were made by
elliptic
24
[CHAP.
I.
and by Klein in 1884.* These methods, the help of tables, have not yet been sysby though tematized so as to be of practical advantage in the numerical
Kronecker
feasible
computation of
roots.
+
b
= Vt  2 E. =
of
exists
Prob. 16.
Compute
3
the roots
f
also those of y
ioy
2oy + 6 = o.
Art.
12.
Trigonometric Solutions.
When a cubic equation has three real roots the most convenient practical method of solution is by the use of a table of If the cubic be stated in the form (1) of sines and cosines.
Art. 9, let the second term be removed, giving
f + $By +2C= o.
Now
suppose y=2r sin
3
0,
C
0+2i
= o,
and by comparison with the known trigonometric formula 6 sin 6 \ 2 sin 30 = o, 8 sin' 6
there are found for r and sin 30 the values
r
in
=V
always
By
sin
30
C/
B\
which
B is
Now sin
y
2
= 2r
= 2r
sin (120
6),
= 2r
sin (240
0),
When
is
is
possible.
pp. 4876.
fV
Art.
12.]
trigonometric solutions.
25
For example, the depth of flotation of a sphere whose diamis 2 feet and specific gravity 0.65, is given by the cubic  3*2 2.6 = o (Art. 6). Placing x = equation x* 1 this y reduces to/ 0.6 = 0, for which B = i and C 37 =+0.3. Thus r = 1 and sin 30 = Next from a table of sines, 0.3. 30 = 17 27', and accordingly 0=5 49'. Then
eter
+ +
y y
Adding
1
=2 =2
sin
49/
sin 125
J,
= 2 sin
*
a
245
x
and
= + 1.203
= + 2.622
= 0.825
feet
first
evidently, from the physical aspect of the question, the of these is the required depth. It may be noted that the
number 0.3 is also the sine of 162 u', but by using this the three roots have the same values in a different order.
the quartic equation has four real roots its cubic reIn this case the formulas of solvent has also three real roots.
Art. 10 will furnish the solution
if
When
The
quartic
Then
=V
k,
;
sin
30
=
is
h/r\
and 30
is
thus
values of
/
x
r sin
/f
= r sin(i2o +
of u, of v,
0),
/s
= r sin
(240
0).
and of
those selected which give u, w, and v ties. Then (5) gives the required roots of the quartic.
As an example,
Art. 10, and let/
= 4 feet, q =
>
m=
156
Vi$
feet;
then the
quartic equation
jr
is
i_5i jr
+ 48 VT$x
= 0.
26
[CHAP.
I.
Here a
"
o, b
8J,
=+ 8, ^=
3$ to be
*f*,
jL
Next work
/
now
sin
is
found to be
i607
/,
0.7476; hence from the table 3$ = 4823 and // The three values of / are then computed 40
+ 4f,
and that of
,
by logarithmic
tables,
and found to
/,
be,
/4
= + 1.250,
of
?/,
= + 3.1187,
w are
= 4.3687.
it is
v,
and
obtained, and
seen that
only those corresponding to lx will render all quantities under these quantities are u the radicals positive 1 9.75, v 575>
;
=
x
and
*, =
w=
192.0.
Then
8.564,
x,
=+ 2.319,
= + 1.746,
= + 4.499
feet,
which only the second and third belong to inscribed rectangles, while the first and fourth belong to rectangles whose
of
Trigonometric solutions of the quintic equation are not b a, and the quintic of possible except for the binomial x
general trigonometric expression for the root its second term isy=2r 1 cos^,+2r2 cos at vof a quintic lacking and to render a solution possible, r and r2 as well as cos d
x
,
De
Moivre.
The
in
:
equations of the sixth or twelfth degree in fact r, is the same as the function s s t of Art. II, and r* is the same as s^s 3
.
x
Here cos#, and cos# may be either circular or hyperbolic cosines, depending upon the signs and values of the coefficients
2
of the quintic.
Trigonometric solutions are possible for any binomial equation, and also for any equation which expresses the division of
an angle into equal
parts.
,
Thus the
which
roots of
+ =0 are
1
i sin
m 30
in
m
5
1, 2,
and
3.
of
$x*\$x
2 cos
= o are
4.
2 cos
(m
72+$)
o, 1, 2, 3,
and
Prob.
Compute by
the quartic
xA
+ 4#
24^
76^
29
= 0.
(Ans.
6.734,
1.550,
+ 0.262, + 4.022).
Art.
13.]
real roots by
1 8.
z
series.
2?
Prob.
$bx
+ 5^ x
when
b
the roots
0.2864,
and
e=
Compute
1.3952*
0.752798.
(Ans.
1.7940,
oWI,
i97 10 )
Art.
13.
in
Real Roots by
Series.
The
value of
as an infinite series.
any algebraic equation may be expressed Let the equation be of any degree, and
first
power
by dividing by the coefficient of the term containing the of x let it be placed in the form
a
= x+ bx + cx + dx' f ex*+fx* +
%
z
Now
By
let it
= a + mc? + na
\
pa
\
qc?
inserting this value of x in the equation and equating the coefficients of like powers of #, the values of m, n, etc., are
x=a 
ba'
{(i4b
(42^
84
V+28V+28^ 
>jbe 7cd
+ f)a
+.
.,
In order is an expression of one of the roots of the equation. that this series may converge rapidly it is necessary that a
apply this to a cubic equation the coefficients d, e,f etc> % 0.6 o; For example, let x to o, 3* x hence a = 0.2^ form is 0.2 this reduced to the given \x\
f
To
are
made equal
o, c
J,
= and x = 0.2 + i
then
.
0.2
+i
0.2
etc.
= + 0.20277,
which
is
decimal place.
the value of one of the roots correct to the fourth This equation has three real roots, but the
one of them
found
is
equation
one root approximate values are known. Thus, l.6 there results an about +1.6, and by placing 0.0218,. whose root by the series is found to be in
if
their
x=y +
x
%
and hence
+ 1.62 18
is
is
another root of
J. B.
3*
*This method
given by
Mott
in
The Analyst,
28
[Chap.
I.
Cardan's expression for the root of a cubic equation can be expressed as a series by developing each of the cube roots by
the binomial formula and adding the results. Let the equation be y* J ^By \ 2C o, whose root is, by Art. 9,
^
*
in
v
'
2 2
2.5.8,
2.3.4
2. 5. 8. 11.
14, 2.3.4.5.6
/'
which r represents the quantity (* O/Sw* If r the equation has two equal roots and the third root is 2( C)$. If r is numerically greater than unity the series is divergent, and the solution fails. If r is numerically less than unity and
sufficiently small to
make a quick convergence, the series will serve for the computation of one real root. For example, take % 2 and C 6 6x the equation x o, where 3
hence r
+ =
B=
1/8
1,
is
2.8845(1
is
0.00051
0.00032)
2.846,
which
In comparatively few
cases, however,
other series for the expression of the roots of equations, particularly for trinomial equations, have been devised. One of the oldest is that given by Lambert in 1758, whereby
Many
the root of
xn
+ ax
=o
ascending powers of b/a. Euler and Lagrange. These series usually give but one root, and this only when the values of the coefficients are such as to
render convergence rapid.
Prob. 19. Consult Euler's Anleitung zur Algebra (St. Petersburg, and apply his method of series to the solution of
a quartic equation.
Art.
14.
A comprehensive
equations by
series
ART.
14.]
29
this
means
By
method
all
the roots, whether real or imaginary, may be computed from a The following is a statement of the method as single series,
applied to trinomial equations
:
Substitute
= nAx + B be the given trinomial equation. = By and thus reduce the equation to the form ' = nay + where a = A/B Then B positive, the
Let x
n n n~ k
if
is
by the
l
series
= co {co * a + oo 1
l
2k
(i
2k\ n)c?/2
\oo
^{\
4k\n)(i
4k\2n)(\
4^+3^/4 !+...,
in
If,
which
0,1
however,
represents in succession each of the roots of unity. n is negative, the given equation reduces to
= nayn ~
1,
if
co
be
n convergent the value of a k~ H thus for the quarmust be numerically less than k~\n k) the value of a must and k where n tic y* 3, 4 1, 4ax
may be
be
less
than 27*.
/=
in
apply this method to the cubic equation x'=z$AxB\ Bx. It then becomes n 2, and put y 3 and k place and the series is I where a A/B\ lay
To
y=
co
+ Go*a
$Goa*
+ iafa*
(
which the values to be taken for co are the cube roots of 1 3 2x For example, let x 5 =0. or 1, as the case may be. Here #=0.228, this reduces toy =0.684 y+i.
Placing
co
y= $*x,
and as
this is less
is
convergent.
Making
i,
the
first
root
y sss
American
I J
0.2280
O.OO39
+ O.OOO9 =
I.2250.
p. 3; also
I,
SO
[CKAP,
I.
+iV
root
is
3, go
is
3,
found to be
is
found to
Lastly, multiplying
II3 6
=  1.047
x
3
V^,
to
=
i
= o. 2^ + 5 =0 reduces
2x
5
I,
0.684J/
1,
for
which the
series is convergent.
Here
go are,
*
in succession,
y = 0.388
+i
3>
anc
the three
roots are
+4 ~ 3 y= 0.777
J
'
and
1. 1 37*'.
When
fails
all
real,
The given equation can, because the series is divergent. k roots by one however, be transformed so as to obtain n of the general series and k roots by another. As application
an example,
tion this
is
let x*
243^
f
For the
first
applica
x=z S_
243
for which n
330
243'
and k
2.
To make
place
ss
v,
whence a
= 330 /3.243'.
8
These values of
k,
inserted in the above general value of y, and go made unity; thus ^=0.9983, whence x x =1.368 is one of the roots. For
is
to be written
Art.
for
15.]
conclusion.
31
which n
= 2 and k =
3.
Placing
243*7,
tms becomes
whence #
values of
and
go is
110/243', and the series is convergent. These and a are now inserted in the formula for y, n, k, 1 in succession, thus 1 and made giving two
values for y, from which x^ 14.86 and other roots of the given cubic.
McClintock has
method applicable
The equation
na
.
is
also given a similar and more general to other algebraic equations than trinomials. reduced to the form y n na (J>y 1, where
<py
Then
denotes all the terms except the first and the the values of y are expressed by the series
last.
^=(+
(w I
"0^.^+^
~M
^^
n
~w
(0^)
n
.j
+{^in
^^ ^i\+
when
the conver
which the values of go are to be taken as before. The method is one of great importance in the theory of equations, as it enables not only the number of real and imaginary roots
to be determined, but also gives their values gence of the series is secured.
Prob. 20.
quartic x*
all
+*+
this
= 0.
Art.
While
15.
Conclusion.
equations as
in college textbooks, yet the to it has prevented the discussion and debrief space allotted Chief among these velopment of many interesting branches. of is the topic of complex or imaginary roots, particularly their graphical representation and their numerical computation. are required in the solution Although such roots rarely, if ever, is a matter of problems in physical science, their determination
commonly given
of
much
theoretic interest.
It
may be
mentioned, however,
32
[CHAP.
I.
that both the regula falsi and Newton's approximation rule may, by a slight modification, be adapted to the computation
of these imaginary roots, approximate values of
first
them being
obtained by
trial.
A
which
method
of solution of numerical
algebraic equations,
may
in deriving
Graffe in 1837, and exemplified by Encke in 1841.* It consists from the given equation another equation whose
roots are high powers of those of the given one, the coefficients of the latter then easily furnishing the real roots and the moduluses of the imaginary roots. The method, although
without doubt one of high practical value, as logarithmic tables are used throughout; moreover, Encke states that the time required to completely solve an equation of
little
known,
is
the seventh degree with six imaginary roots, as accurately as can be done with sevenplace tables, is less than three hours.
algebraic solutions of the quadratic, cubic, and quartic equations are valid not only for real coefficients, but also for
The
imaginary ones. In the latter case the imaginary roots do not The method of McClintock has the necessarily occur in pairs.
great merit that
it
nary coefficients;
Prob. 21.
tion
it
is applicable also to equations with imagiconstitutes indeed the only general method
in
Compute by McClintock's
1
ix
= o.
equation x
e*
= o.
x cosh.* ji o, and also the answers see Crelle's Journal fur Mathe(For
pp. 162.)
XXII,
*See
Art.
1.]
INTRODUCTION.
33
Chapter
II.
DETERMINANTS.
By Laenas Gifford Weld,
Professor of Mathematics in the State University of Iowa.
Art.
1.
Introduction.
early as 1693 Leibnitz arrived at some vague notions regarding the functions which we now know as determinants.
this subject, the first account of which is contained in his correspondence with De L'Hospital, resulted simply in the statement of some rather clumsy rules for elimiin
As
His researches
nating the unknowns from systems of linear equations, and exerted no influence whatever upon subsequent investigations in the same direction. It was over half a century later, in
formulated an intelligible and general definition of the functions, based upon the recognition of the two classes of permutations, as presently to be set forth.
first
Cramer
Though Cramer failed to recognize, even to the same extent as Leibnitz, the importance of the functions thus defined, the
development of the subject from this time on has been almost continuous and often rapid. The name " determinant" is due
to Gauss, who, with
Vandermonde, Lagrange, Cauchy, Jacobi, and others, ranks among the great pioneers in this development.
Within recent years the theory of determinants has come
into very general use, and has, in the hands of such mathematicians as Cayley and Sylvester, led to results of the greatest
interest
and importance, both through the study of special forms of the functions themselves and through their applica*
tions.*
list
of writings
on Determinants
is
given by Muir
in
Quarterly Journal
34
DETERMINANTS.
[CHAP.
II.
Art.
2.
Permutations.
The
be arranged
various orders in which the elements of a group in a row are called their permutations.
may
Any two
orders
:
elements, as a and
ba.
ab and
third, as
in
c,
of these
two permutations
;
three ways
or after both
thus giving
manner an additional element may be introduced into each of the permutations of i elements in (i \ 1) before any one of them, or after all. Hence, in ways general, if Pt denote the number of permutations of i eleelements.
In like
:
ments,
jP4
Now,
P = 3x2x1=3!;
%
hence
That
the
all
number
of permutations of n elements
is
!.
For
If
is
an
even number.
the elements of any group be represented by the different letters, a, b, c, ., the alphabetical order will be considered
. .
If
:
represented by the
same
a tt a
or thus
a',
is
a", a'"
.,
series.
elements, whether adjacent or not, standing in their natural order in a permutation constitute a permanence
Any two
in
standing
inversion.
the reverse of the natural, an in the permutation daecb, the permanences Thus,
is
;
an order which
into
of the elements of a group are divided even or positive permutations, in which the number of inversions is even and odd or negative permu
The permutations
two
classes, viz.:
tations, in
is
odd.
ART.
3.]
35
When
number
the elements are arranged in the natural order the of inversions is zero an even number.
#,,
Thus, the even or positive permutations of the elements a a % are a <z 2 a 3f #a a 3 alf a a, # a
t 3
;
Art.
It will
3.
Interchange of
that
if,
Two Elements.
now be shown
Let q and
be the elements
all
Then, represent
ing collectively
P those which
%
fall
the elements which precede these two by between them by R, and those which follow
of the
by
any permutation
group
may
in
be written
PqRsT.
Of
the elements R
supposed to be r
of
"
number,
let
q,
q,
s,
represent
h the
i
number
"
"
"
"
j
k
"
"
lower
higher
"
"
s.
"
order of the elements qRs or T. can affect their relations to the elements of either Then, passing from the order PqRsT to the order
It is evident that
no change
in the
PRqsT
changes the number
this to the order
of inversions
by
{h
i)
PsRqT
again changes the
j
number
of inversions
by (J
(
k)
I,
the
'
minus
Sign
(
bdng USCd
in the
aS q
Ser
is,
0rder than S
The
total
change
number
in
of inversions
due to the
inter
question
therefore,
36
DETERMINANTS.
i
[CHAP. IL
But since
=r
h and k
== r
j\ this
may be
written
A h +J ~
which
is
r)
all
admissible values of
//,/,
and r
Hence, the interchange of any two elements in a permutation ch anges the number of inversions by an odd number, thus
changing the class of the permutation.
Art.
4.
Of
all
the permutations of the elements of a group, one and one half odd.
this,
To
tation.
prove
write out
all
the permutations.
in
Now choose
each permu)
any two
of the elements
The
result will
But each
the new.
tations as
Prob.
(i)
i.
either set,
is,
bcdea
a"
a* a'
(2)
m vi
II iv;
(3)
fteyZafi;. (8) F.Tu. M. Th. W.; (7) x x xt x;x;x% xt Prob. 2. Derive the formula for the number
(4)
a"
a'"; (5)
\
(6) (9)
knimlj; 52413;
fiKviX.
of permutations of
n elements taken
Prob.
3.
at a time.
(Ans. n\/\n
m)\.)
How many
may
Show Art.
natural order
n\/tn\(n
m)\.)
4.
Prob.
that o!
1.
(
y\~y\[
.'!:_.
5.
elements arranged in n vertical ranks or columns^ and n horizontal ranks or rows, thus
n*
.
Assume
a( a,"
a^
'
a "
(M)
Art.
6.]
determinant as function of
n*
elements.
37
In this array all the elements in the same column have the same superscript, and those in the same row the same subscript. The columns being arranged in order from left to right, and
the rows likewise in order from the top row downward, the position of any element of the array is shown at once by its
indices.
Thus, a"'
is
in
fifth
row
a n(M) diagonal passing through the elements a/, a%", that passing is called the principal diagonal of the array (M) the secondary diagonal. The posia n \ a n . '\ #, through
.
The
tion occupied
position.
by the element a/
is
Art.
6.
Determinant as Function of
n*
Elements.
The
dl a;'
f
ai aj
a^ a^
a
{n)
a'
is
a"
ments called
as follows
:
used in analysis to represent a certain function of its n* eleThis function may be defined their determinant .*
them
in
This product
is
Now
undisturbed. To such of possible way, leaving the superscripts the n\ resulting terms as involve the even permutations of the to those involving the odd subscripts give the positive sign
;
term
in
every
first
employed by Cauchy
in
1815.
See Dostor's
38
DETERMINANTS.
[Chap.
II.
permutations, the negative sign. The algebraic sum of all the terms thus formed is the determinant represented by the?
given array.
Art.
7.
Examples of Determinants.
a.
a:a m
a% a
pansion,
~ a
t
l
its
ex
~ a
tti
x
a a2 as
x
It is evident,
f
<z a
a^a^al"
a 'a,"a9
x
'"
 a^a^a;".
+a
a^
(2}
its
of the
and only
one,,
neous function of
with respect to minant. Thus,
respectively.
follows that every complete determinant is a homogeThe degree of this function, its elements.
its
elements,
is
(1)
and
(2)
The
article
is
definition of
once more
complete development
a
x
a b
x
cx
a, b, c3
a% b%
c%
a, b A c t
d dt d d
x
+ a bj d + a bf/l
x
a b% cK d
x
b,c,dt f
a b t c3 dz
x
afi^d,
afi c% d%
x
aJ> x c %
+ +
f
aj> x c k d%
f
a 3 b c^di
x
ab
3
c 4 d^ \ aj> c z
x
+ +
f
ajb % c
a%bfxd%
a% bj d
K
d a bcd aj>j d
aJb A c
A 9
x
aJb % c
%
d c d aJ> aJb c d
x
\ ajb,1 c x
K
d d aJ) c d a 6,c d
t
A
(3)
Art.
It
8.]
NOTATIONS.
3D
the columns are ranked
will
be noticed that,
in this case,
Art.
8.
Notations.
is
Besides the notations already employed, the following very extensively used
:
U
0*1
0,8
2
'
'
01.
0*
0, a m
This
is
a
;
the
first
subscript
indicating the rank of the row, the second that of the column. Thus the element # is in the second row and the third column.
The
letters are
Instead of writing out the array in full, it is customary, when the elements are merely symbolic, to write only the prinThis is called cipal term and enclose it between vertical bars.
the umbral notation.
is
nth.
order
written
or,
#n
22
>
These
last
two forms

are sometimes
still
further abridged to

a
^oectively.
Prob.
nants:
5.
and

a hH
w
though he
a, b
in this
same manner,
made no use
of the array.
40
Art. 9]
4L
in
shown
in the figure.
ele
ments
tive
lie
on
lines parallel
to __,
*
f
The
result
is
Ap
plying the method to the determinant just written gives a K c% a Atv a b. c iVs ajb^ aj.c, aj>x c% After a little practice the repetition of the first two rows will
I
be dispensed with. The above methods are especially useful in expanding determinants whose elements are not marked with indices, or
in evaluating
No
such sim
ple methods can be given for developing determinants of higher orders, but it will be shown later that these can always be
(i)
h b
f
c
g f
(4)
(s)
*,.r,
(7)
cos
(8)
cos
42
DETERMINANTS.
[Chap.
II.
Art.
10.
in
Any
term
{H)
x
j
may
be written
**'
a!
a .()
I, 2, 3,.
.
in
which hij
./is
some permutation
of the subscripts
.
.n+
/. Also, let Designate by u the number of inversions in hij v be the number of interchanges of two elements necessary to bring the given term into the form
.
.
a
in
(<?)
W
in
(0
pqr
/ is
", '",
odd.
This permutation is even or odd according as v is even or But u and v are obviously of the same class that is,
;
hij
and the term will have the and pqr / are of the same class same sign, whether the sign be determined by the class of the
permutation of the subscripts when the superscripts stand in the natural order, or by the class of the permutation of the
superscripts
of the subscripts
is
natural.
It follows
same development
of the determinant
array will
Art.
6,
if, instead of proceeding as indicated in the superscripts of the principal term be permuted, the
be obtained
subscripts being left in the natural order, and the sign of each of the resulting terms written in accordance with the class of
the permutations of
its
superscripts.
Passing from one of these methods of development to the other amounts to the same thing as changing each column of
the array into a row of the same rank, and vice versa. Hence, a determinant is not altered by changing the columns into cor
Thus:
a"
aj a n
"
.
am
()
a n{n)
a^>
a,
ART.
11.]
LINES.
43
Whatever theorem,
columns.
alike
Art.
If
11.
any two
term of the expansion, the indices which correspond to these lines. Since this changes the class of each permutation of the indices in question from odd to even or from even to odd, it changes the sign of each term of the expansion, and therefore
that of the whole determinant.
It follows
if
any
line of a
determinant
be passed over ;// parallel lines to a new position in the array the new determinant will be equal to the original one multiplied
by
m
(
i)
to the leading position over the (k i) preceding rows, and by passing the /th row This the sth column over the (s i) preceding columns.
{s)
The element ak
may be brought
is
multiplied
by
l)*+*,
(_
which changes
even.
its
,)*
(_ i)~
(
s)
is
odd or
The when (k
{s) is called a positive position position occupied by a k a negative position when {k s) is odd. s) is even
;
Art.
12.
Two
in
A determinant
is
equal to zero.
44
DETERMINANTS.
will in
[Chap.
II.
no way
alter its
The
value then,
13.
if finite,
Art.
Multiplying by a Factor.
Multiplying each element of a line of a determinant by a given factor multiplies the determinant by that factor.
Since each term of the development contains one and only one element from the line in question (Art. 7), then multiplying each element of this line by the given factor multiplies each term of the development, and therefore the whole deter
contain a
common factor,
*.,
the elements of any line of a determinant this factor may be canceled and written
;
thus
# 31
m a. ma
2i
a,
a m ..ma ni
.**
which the elements of any line have a common ratio to the corresponding elements of any parallel For this common ratio may be written line is equal to zero. Its outside the array, which will then have two identical lines.
determinant
in
value
is
equal to zero.
Art.
14.
A determinant
the
sum
of
sum
having a line of elements each of which is two or more quantities can be expressed as the two or more determinants.
of
Let
{b
*.
+b bj + b:> {b>>
b:
,,,)
.
Cx
(1)
ct
c3
a3
{Bt
b + b
'
...)
if
be such a determinant.
Then,
i
B =b
i
bi^br.
Art.
15.]
45
is
A
cj
ak
ah
hi c s
ip
.
ah
.
bl
;
b(' cj
. .
2)
the expansion of A are obtained by permuting the subscripts h, i,j\ ... of a h B{ But permuting at Cj the same time the subscripts of the terms in the second member of (2), and giving to each term thus obtained its
in
.
The terms
proper
J = \a B^...\
1
\aAc ...\\a
3
b;c % ...\
+ \aA' c
,
...\...
Art.
If
15.
each element of a
determinant be multiplied by
ment
a given factor and the product added to the corresponding eleof any parallel line, the value of the determinant will not
;
be changed thus: a u a a lt
.
av
a>
*n *
#
On
2
+ ***)
+ ma
ni )
x
;
#*, '!
#, #, "H2 "M3
0*,
(a M%
a nn
appear upon resolving the second member into two determinants (Art. 14), one of which will be the given deThis
will
lines.
In like
of parallel lines
may
be com
in any way the elements to which added multiples of corresponding elements from other For example, a l>n is equivalent to parallel lines.
the value of
are
*n
(^11
..
 ma * +'")
*!*
a xn
m(a
i?
+ Xa +
15 )
.)
46
DETERMINANTS.
[Chap.
II.
Art.
16.
Binomial Factors.
is is
A
and
determinant which
b,
of
such that
if
vanishes, contains {a
^)asa
a*
For example,
a\r
b
Jee
p*
1
9pp
is divisible
bq
q
+r
r
by
{a
b).
To prove this, let the expansion of any such determinant be written in the form
A
the coefficients
,
= m,
iy
j
m & + wiP? +
x .
m m
tn
being independent of
a.
Now
Hence,
when
is
o = m + mjb
%
\
mj?
= m {a  b) + m,(a* t
F) +...
is
b),
the theorem
proven.
:
(0
x
o
X y
o
(2)
my mnz nz
(3)
+
b
c c
a
a
b
+
c
a \b a
(4 )
*_t a
c
+a
Art.
17.]
cofactors
minors.
47
x 1 x ix 3
1
1
a y a y
b
x
b
b
a y^
43
DETERMINANTS.
[Chap.
II.
row of the array (Art. 7). If, therefore, in selecting the elements for any term, any other element than a/ be taken from the first column, the one taken from the first row must be zero. Hence, the only terms which do not vanish are those which
contain the element a/.
Moreover,
in the
an
.a
()
(2)
There are
written
class of the
{n
1)!
,V/"
such terms, any one of which may be a ^ n) tne s,*S n being determined by the
1, t f
j\
I.
But
since this is of the same class as the permutation of the (n 1} a t (n \ a^al'a" subscripts i,j\ .'../, the sign of any term,
.
is
sponding term,
ax
'
a" a/"
a2
the same as the sign of the corren) of the expansion of (2). ,a} Hence,.
\
(3)
.
a 7 #a
Art.
18.]
development
in
terms of cofactors.
is
49
The
(is
1)*+*, is
intrinsic,
i.e.,
included in
which
The
cofactors
:
of
follows
An =
50 group.
DETERMINANTS.
In
all
[Chap.
II.
nX{n
is
i)! or
;/!
dif
Hence,

a^ = aiAi + a^'A,"

+ aj*Ai*\
.
(i)
a

==
0VA
+ **AP +
Ai
n
\
+ aPAt
(i) or (2),
(2)
Any
be
re
Since, in
A k\
or
A^,
A^
s)
are themselves
determinants, they may be resolved into determinants of an order still one lower in the same manner. By continuing the
process any determinant may ultimately be expressed of determinants of the third or second order, which
easily
in
terms
may be
9).
A=
For example,
I
a b%
t
c3
4
4
A =
a,
c*
Upon
same formula
this
becomes
Art.
19.]
51
Prob.
to
52
Similarly,
DETERMINANTS.
[CHAP. II.
p and
fl,^
+ aiA +
Cauchy's
+ *ia.CP =
o.
Art.
It is
20.
Method of Development.
frequently desirable to expand a determinant with reference to the elements of a given row and column.
n) and the given row Let the determinant be A a} and column the ht\\ and pth respectively. Then is A h(p) the
 
the two
p)
given
lines.
The
cofactor of
{s
any element a
s)
of
will
be
designated by
(n
2).
\ this being
The
required expansion
may now be
:
obtained by
means
due to Cauchy
mf*
2,
.
.
= mJ*AP 2aPaiBP.
.
(i)
in
which k
.
I,
I,
f I,
.
n,
and
I, 2, ..
./
i,
that
of
{s)
is
the
of
.
the
expansion
which contain
{p)
.
These terms are included in ah A Now, every term in the expansion which does not contain ah must contain some other element ah from the /ith. row and also some other from the pth column, and thus contains the prodelement a p) uct ali ai But this product differs from ah ak only in the order of the superscripts and is, therefore, in the expansion of
ak
{s)
{f>)
{s)
p)
s)
{p)
{s)
A, multiplied by an aggregate of terms differing in sign only Bk is the coefficient from that multiplying a h ip) a k Hence, in the required expansion. of ah a k
(s)
i$)
(s)
{p)
[p)
gives (n
i)
terms of A.
{s)
{s)
There
taining (n
(n
i)
I
\
ah a k(p) Bk each coni)* such aggregates as terms. The formula therefore gives 2) a n terms, which is the complete (n i) {n 2)
,
\
!
expansion.
When
the expansion
is
Art.
20.]
53
ments
of the first
explicitly,
\a W
first
(2)
in
which
(s)
i)*
+s .
Cauchy's formula is particularly useful in expanding determinants which have been bordered such as
;
Q
u a \\ a \i a \%
i
(3)
U % a%x a
u % a 3l a
3,
ait
a S3
Applying formula
(2) to this
determinant gives
Q =
"
^22 ^23
54
(4)
DETERMINANTS.
Art.
22.]
55
written
Prob. 25.
Show
may be
J==la. w
6A ah W daW
22.
Sa^a^
d*J
da^da^
Art.
' the elements at
Since, in the expansion of the determinant (1) of Art. 17 aj do not appear, these may be replaced
t
.
.
T, without
changing the
a/ o a % a,
o
a,
,
o
()
a/ o
au'aj'aj"...a
Similarly,
Ta" a"
()
...a
O
o
G*," o
*,'*,"*.'" ...*,<>
%
...
R La '"...a
a n(M) u
. .
which Q, R,
and Z,
Finally,
^aJ'...aH ?r <*i
n) 
'
a,
o
t
o o
Qa
a' ni <* hi a" u
"...o
arii u (MI) o u
T N...C a^
that
the elements on one side of the principal diagonal are zeros the determinant is equal to its principal term, and
is, if all
may be
replaced
By what
precedes,
.
x
in,
t
an
a n ()
Ta'..a, ()
56
DETERMINANTS.
[Chap.
II.
may be
expressed
as a determinant of the order (n \ i) by bordering it above by a row (to the left by a column) of zeros, to the left by a
of elements chosen
arbitrarily,
and
con
By
may
be expressed as a
the elements on one side of the secondary diagis the value of the determinant ?
a h
h b
g u
o
o
t
f
c
v o
g f
U V
o
{s)
w
o
t
w
o
s
{k)
a s and au {k) o is Prob. 28. A determinant in which a k Prove that every skewsymmetric detersaid to be skewsymmetric. minant of odd order is equal to zero.
r
Art.
23.
Of the many analytical processes giving rise to determinants the simplest and most common is the solution of systems of
simultaneous linear equations. a ;x>
+ a;>x" = kJ
:
by the methods
a; a,"
 a^r
"
*/*,"
*
Art.
23.]
57
numerator of the fraction giving the value of x' is formed from this denominator by replacing each coefficient of x' by the corresponding absolute term. Similarly for x"
.
The
difficulty of solving
ordinary processes of elimination increases rapidly as the number of equations is increased. The law of formation of the
roots explained above
is.
will
now be shown.
Let such a system be written
a> x f a ,"x"
f
<*?
a n 'x'
" <' x
+ +
4
*w*w =
n)
*,
+<
.
{n)
">
>
(I)
.
+ aj'x" +
D=
+ a^x =
()
* ()
Kn
Now
equations
the coefficients of
these
thus
a a
x
()
x
()
an
a,
s)
M
a,}
and
let
A^
be the cofactor of a
in
this
determinant.
The
function
i
+ a w AJ +
(Art. 18)
.
+ a,}* A ^
n
is
equal to
D when/ = s
Af\ Af\
.
to zero
when p and
are
equations by
of
respectively, the
sum
of the
in which resulting equations is a linear equation x is equal to Z>, while those of all the other
the coefficient
unknowns
vanish.
The sum
jR*
is,
therefore,
K Af*
M
+ *AW +
a*
,
.
+K A
is
S)
'
2)
of this equation
what
D becomes
& by
upon
k9
58
tf
;b
A<6. a.

Art.
24.]
59
obviously depend upon some relation among the coefficients. This relation will now be investigated for the case of [n i) linear equations involving n unknowns. Let the equations be
+ ... + <*
v()
_
K.
*v + ... +
If
=/cK
the above equations are consistent the values of the obtained by solving any n of them must satisfy the
equation.
unknowns
Solving the
preceding article, obtained in the last equation, and clearing of fractions, the result reduces to (Art. 18)
y
. .
remaining n equations by the method of the xP* thus substituting the values of x', x"
first
.
E~
a/ an
a n+i
.
()
= o,
(*)
+i
^+i
which
is
the condition to be
fulfilled
by the
coefficients in order
may
be consistent.
linear equa
Hence the condition of consistency for a set of tions involving a number of unknowns one less than
of equations
is
the
number
absolute terms, written in the same order as in the given equaThis determinant is called the resultant* tions, shall be zero.
or eliminant of the equations.
x\y
= o, x
y{z
= 2,
= 4, x\y\z = 6
o.
60
DETERMINANTS.
[Chap.
II.
Art.
25.
The Matrix.
Assume
greater than
al'x p...
an 'x'
ajx'
+ af>j* =
*,, 1
+ .:. + aM*P> = K +
. . .
nt
+ a^x = K
r.
The
minant
consistency of these equations requires that every deterof the order (n+ i), formed by selecting (n i) rows
from the array whose elements are the coefficients and absolute terms written in order, shall be zero.
the elements of the array expressed thus
If
:
fulfill
a/ ...a:
o;
()
x
<)
*
. .
.
a r() u
.
K,
/C.
Kr
the change of rows into columns being purely arbitrary. The above expression is called a rectangular array, or a matrix.
Art.
26.
homogeneous
thus
al x> 4.
.,
. ;
.J.
a**&*
= o, ]
o.
J
au'
x'
+ a^x^ =
= o/E.
Representing the determinant of the coefficients by E, the general solution, as given by the formula (3) of Art. 23, is
x^
That
is, all
tions have
the unknowns are equal to zero, and the equano other solution than this unless
E = o.
Art.
26.]
61
But
only
in
the
knowns may
becomes
unknown is obtainable indeterminate form o/o. The ratios of the unbe readily obtained, however. For, dividing each
{s
X*
JT^
1 *
jwr
t^i
xw
r a
M
{s+ J >
2>
r< w >
xis)
t
t^
  ^.
Now
the condition
(2)
E = o establishes the
1)
consistency of the
ratios (Art. 24),
equations
involving the {n
x>_
unknown
&>
'" x^
*P
'
x^
x<*>
'
" x
'*'
;
o the given equations (1) are consistent that is, Hence, if ii the values of the above {n 1) ratios obtained by solving any of them will satisfy the remaining equation. Any n (;/ 1)
among themselves the ratios thus determined " x are will satisfy the given equations. Thus, if x x " Xx \ A being any n such quantities, so also are \x A x
quantities having
{n)
',
Q
y .
(u
factor whatever.
The determinant
geneous
the system. When the
of
homo
linear equations
unknowns
of equations is greater than the number the conditions of consistency are expressible in
number
the form of a rectangular array, as in Art. 25. As an example, consider the five equations
2x
2>y
+2= x +y
>
4*
z
y
first
~~
>
7X
+W+*~
o.
= o,
$x
Sy
+z=
_3
5
62
DETERMINANTS.
[Chap.
II.
or
x\y\z\\2
:3
5;
and any three quantities having these ratios will satisfy the two equations, as 10, 15, and 25. That the third equation is consistent with the first two is shown by the vanishing of the
determinant
23 1=0. 4 7 3
1
I
1
the equations are consistent the determinant of the coefficients of any three of them must vanish that is,
If all
;
4
= o.
Art.
28.]
SYLVESTER
METHOD OF
is
EI
WINATION.
63
any
Art.
Let
it
28.
Sylvester's
Method of Elimination.*
equations
a% x%
+ ay
f
ax
x
+ a, =
\
O,
by fThis
will
= o.
be done by what is called the dialytic method, the invention of which is due to Sylvester. Multiplying the first of the given equations by x, and the second by x and x* successively, the result
is
viz.:
ax
%
a 3 x*
\
ay a x a ay + ay + a x by f b x + b bx b x + by
\fx
f
f
by + b x" + by
x
= o, = o, = o, = o, =a
The
eliminant of
x, x*,
involving the
four
unknowns
x\ and
(Art. 24)
64
DETERMINANTS.
first
[Chap. IL
(m
\
i)
powers of
x.
The
eliminant of these equations is a determinant \ n), which is of the nth. degree in terms of
the coefficients of the equation of the mt\\ degree, and vice The law of formation of the eliminant is obvious. versa.
in
homogeneous equations.
As
let
it
$*y
9J
first
=o
x
and
3^
jxy
6y x
;
= o.
the second
Dividing the
by y\ and multiplying by
X X
equations involving
,
X
,
r,
and
Eliminating
E~
25 09
o
o
o o
376
o
376
,376
consistent.
the vanishing of which shows that the two given equations are
x+y+2Z=g, x+y
x y
2Z
z=o, 2xy\z=$, *
z
3)'+ 22=1;
=0,
o,
(3)
 xf = ix*y
2x
{y
= o, 2X 2y +  5/ = o. Sx*y + Sx/
y
42
$y
o;
= o,
4W
= o,
+1)
2iv
+x
[i
5V
+ * = o..n]
+<**<*>*<">
+a
:
(n
+W
::
5s o,
:
prove
that
*':...: x
(n)
x< n+1)
M'
M M M<n+
:
where
Art.
29.]
66
i)'
*M
column
M~
a/ ...
a n '... a
a<*>
a^
M+1)
a***
r
Prob. 34.
From **+*?
p
66
DETERMINANTS.
result of
[Chap.
II.
The
such transformation
is
%
>
(.Ai (*. Ai
o
(3)
The vanishing
of the determinant
*A,
tf
a
+ ** *n*n + ad>
x*
;
(4)
is
is,
the condition that the equations (3) may be consistent that the condition that they may have solutions other than
the equations (3) may be consistent because of the consistency of the equations (1), in which
,
ux
=O=
(Art. 26).
a%% an
vanishes.
thus having no solution other than x =. o (3) will still be consistent if the equations if the determinant
= x%y
(2) are
that
is,
KK
vanishes.
(6),
<
6>
vanishing of either of the determinants (5) or It follows therefore, causes the determinant (4) to vanish.
(5)
The
(6)
that
and
and since
their product
and
the determinant
are of
. ,
the coefficients an
blx ,
the same degree with respect to . . r, they are the only factors.
.
Hence,
a x\ a xi
Art.
29.]
67
The
follows
may be
described as
the determinant \p ltH \> which is the product of determinants \a 1>n and \& un \, first connect by plus signs two the elements in the rows of both \a 1>n and b 1<n Then place the first row of \a un upon each row of \b 1>n in turn and let
\
To form
each two elements as they touch become products. This is the first row of \pu \. Perform the same operation upon \b hn
\
with the second row of \a hH to obtain the second row of \p 1>n and again with the third row of tf 1)M to obtain the third row
\
\
fA.; etc
Any
element of
Pks
this
product
is
*Ai
+ a**K +
+ **A..
(9)
the two determinants to be multiplied together are of different orders the one of lower order should be expressed as a determinant of the same order as the other (Art. 22), after
When
rule
of
is
applicable.
The product
columns, instead of by rows as above. In this case the result Thus the product of the deis obtained in a different form. terminants (5) and (6) by columns is
a iA%
Prob. 41.
(1)
+ a*A*
a iA*
+ a*&*
:
Form
(3)
Art. Prob. 42. Generalize the last example (see Prob. 22,
18).
Prob. 43.
By
68
DETERMINANTS.
of
[Chap. Ik
the
sum
of four squares.
Art.
30.
process explained in the preceding article may be apwhat is conventionally termed the product of two rectangular arrays. It will appear, however, that multiplied to form
The
plying two such arrays together by columns leads to a result radically different from that obtained when the product is
and
M.A.
,AAs
is
The product
=
of these
by columns
a
x
*.Ai
+ aj^
J>x >
+ aj>
%l
aj u
^.3^13
+ aj>
%l
*iAi
+ *t'Ai
A
is
#iAs
iAi
&*J>*t
The determinant
uct of
of
two determinants formed by adding a row of zeros to one the given rectangular arrays and a row of elements chosen
In general, the product by columns of two rectangular
arrays having
rows and
ft
is
rows,,
J'
lAl
+ *lAi + *lA.
*xxK
At
iAi
a^a x%
In the same
+
manner
it
*,A.
&*A*
a,, a.
KA
bj>.
may be shown that the product by rows of two rectangular arrays having m rows and n columns, m being less than n, is a determinant of the m th order, which may be expressed as the sum of the n \/m {n m) determinants
!
Art.
31. J
RECIPROCAL DETERMINANTS.
69
of the arrays by deleting {it m) columns, each multiplied by the determinant formed by deleting the same columns from the other array.
Art.
31.
Reciprocal Determinants.
replacing each element of a
given determinant by its cofactor is called the reciprocal of the given determinant.* Thus, the reciprocal of
a,, a.
IS
AA
**
.A.
.A,
a,a
av
A 21" 22 A
nl
.
dnxdni.
(1,
A Am
two determinants
is
The product
6.4=
of these
(tn\Au\.
.\~a nn
Am
a n iA<n\.
.\a nn A 2n
a m A n \\
\a nn
A nn
is
while
Hence,
6.
= So...
o d
. .
.
o (w)
<T,
6'
oH o
<?
That
equal to
is,
is
its (n
i)
power.
* The term reciprocal as here used has reference to the algebraic transformation concerned in the passage from point coordinates to line coordinates, called
reciprocation.
The
reciprocal of a determinant
is
adjugate.
70
PROJECTIVE GEOMETRY.
[CHAP. Ilk
Chapter
III.
PROJECTIVE GEOMETRY.
By George Bruce Halsted,
Professor of Mathematics in the University of Texas.
Art.
i.
'
1.
A
'
line
by two points on
it
is
called
straight.'
2.
On any two
join.'
their
3.
it is
A surface
'
called a
plane.'
lie all on one and only one plane, their 'junction.' on a plane, so does their join. 5. If two points lie 6. The plane, the straight, and the point are the elements
4.
Any
in projective
7.
straight
It
points.
primal as the point. It is the 'bearer is the bearer of any planes on it.
of
any points on
it.
It
is
8. Just so the plane is an element coeval with the point. It the bearer of any points on it, or any straights on it.
9.
A point A
'
is
it
or any plane
called
on
it.
10.
point which
is
their
cross.'
* This Chapter treats Projective Geometry entirely by the synthetic method. Metric relations are not considered, and nothing is borrowed from Analytic
Geometry.
ART.
1.]
71
all
11.
with the
same
their
copunctal.'
lie
12.
'
Any two
meet.'
planes
13.
meet are
14.
it
point in
15.
common,
pass.'
Any
and only one point, their apex.' 16. While these elements, namely, the plane, the straight, and the point, retain their atomic character, they can be united into compound figures, of which the primal class consists of
three forms, the
17.
*
'
range,' the
'
flatpencil,'
the
'
axialpencil.'
The aggregate
'
of all points
18.
'
called a
sect.'
19.
The aggregate
is
called a 'flatpencil.'
point.'
20.
The common
plane
'
cross
4
is
called the
'
pencil
The common
is
called the
pencilplane.'
piece of a flatpencil
called an
angle.'
bounded by two
of the straights,
as
sides,' is
21.
'
The aggregate
of all planes
on a straight
is
called an
*
axialpencil/ or 'axial.'
Their
common
meet, the
of
axis,' is
their bearer.
22.
sides, is
by two
its
planes, as
23.
24.
of,
it is
No
use
is
made
of motion.
If
moving point
its
is
spoken
to be interpreted as the
mind
of
shifting
attention.
25.
When
in a pencil,
some
single elements of
so,
a pencil. Just the complete pencil, may yet itself be called may be called a range. certain costraight points
separate
72
PROJECTIVE GEOMETRY.
[CHAP.
III.
Art.
26'.
2.
'
project from a fixed point (the projectionvertex ') a figure, the original,' composed of points B, C, D, etc., and straights b, c, d, etc., is to construct the projecting
'
' ' '
'
To
straights
the
'
'
projecting planes
Mb, Mc,
and
Md.
Thus
obtained a
new
figure
'
composed
'
of straights
planes, all
27.
on M, and called an
'
eject
ju
of the original.
'
To
cut
'
'
by a
fixed
plane
of
(the
pictureplane
/?,
')
figure, the
subject,'
made up
Thus
is is
planes
y,
/*/?,
6,
etc.,
jud,
and
straights
b, c, d, etc., is
py,
and
'
the passes
posed
of straights
and points,
' '
all
on
}x,
and called a
'
cut
of
(the
Axial projection. To project from a fixed straight m projectionaxis '), an original composed of points B, C, D,
construct the projecting planes
etc., is to
is
Thus
obtained a
called an
new
'
figure
composed
'
of planes all
on the axis m,
and
axialeject
of the original.
29.
To
cut
by a
fixed
/3,
straight
etc.,
m
is
(to 'transfix
')
a subject
composed
mft,
of planes
y, #,
my, md.
'
The
'
cut obtained
by transfixion
a range on
'
'
the
transversal
m.
fixed
30.
(7\)
primal figures are called projective when one can be derived from the other by any number of
Any two
Art.
31.
It is
3.
Elements at
for every
is
Infinity.
in
assumed that
element
either of the
in
always an element
each of the
*Pascal (162562) and Desargues (1 5931662) seem to have been the first to derive properties of conies from the properties of the circle by considering the fact that these curves lie in perspective on the surface of the cone.
Art.
3.]
elements at infinity.
73
'
32.
On
each straight
is
at infinity,'
or
'
figurative' point.
The
proper
'
points.
Any
point going either way (moving in either sense ') ever forward on a straight is at the same time approaching and receding
from
its
point at infinity.
its
The
straight
is
compendent through
'
point at infinity.
33.
34.
Parallels
'
are straights on a
in
it
common
point at infinity.
Two
sect
proper points
and a
through the
it
proper point in
('rays').
infinite. Its figurative point and a divide a range into two sects to the infinite
35. All the straights parallel to each other on a plane are on the same point at infinity, and so form a flatpencil whose penSuch a pencil is called a parallelflatcilpoint is figurative.
'
pencil.'
36. All points at infinity
on a plane
Its
lie
on one straight at
infinity
or
figurative
straight.*
is
straight in
same plane have all a the straight at infinity on which common, namely, are the figurative pencilpoints of all these pencils.
37.
Parallelflatpencils
on the
38.
Two
is
called parallel.
39. All the planes parallel to
figurative straight,
infinity.
and so form an
axial
is
whose axis
is
at
Such an
called a parallelaxial.
and
all
on
is
common
Prob.
to
1.
all parallelaxials,
since
it is
From each
cutting.
infinity.
* This statement should not be interpreted as descriptive of the nature of In the Function Theory it is expedient to consider all points in a
74
PROJECTIVE GEOMETRY.
[CHAP.
III.
Art.
41.
4.
when every element with one and only one element of the other. paired Correlation is a onetoone correspondence of elements. The paired elements are called 'mates.'
figures are called
Two
is
correlated
'
of each
42.
Two
other.
one mate
in
each of the others, and these two are thus so paired as to be themselves mates.
a plane, any theorem of configuration and determination, with its proof, gives also a like theorem with its
43.
On
proof,
straight, join
with
is
termed a
Prob.
'
principle of duality.'
is
Each
'
of
two
9
figures or theo
rems so related
called the
'
dual
of the other, f
2. When two coplanar ranges ///, and m are correlated as 9 cuts of a flatpencil M, show that the figurative point of v or Q 9 or of the the one is mated, in general, to a proper point
>
other.
Prob.
1'.
3.
2'.
3,.
Two coplanar straights determine a flatpencil on their cross. Two coplanar flatpencils determine a straight, their concur/ Two points bound two explemental sects.
'
'
Prob. 4. To draw a straight crossing three given straights, join the passes of two with a plane on the third.
Art.
44,.
5.
'
'
polystim
a system of
'),
44'.
'
'
polygram
is
a system
(*
n coplanar points
all
('
('
dots
with
of n coplanar straights
sides
'),
the
they determine
Assume
that
no
with
no three
* Culmann's Graphic Statics (Zurich, 1864) made extensive use of duality. Reye's Geometrie der Lage (Hannover, 1866) was issued as a consequence of the
Graphic Statics of Culmann.
f In Analytic
of the
Geometry the principle of duality consists in the interpretation same equation in different kinds of coordinates point and line or point
Art.
5.]
75
In each side
fans, going
concur (n
1)
ing (n
1) sides.
So there are
i)/2 connectors.
n(n
3,
i)/2 fans.
the
in
connectors
intersect
45'. For n greater than 3, the fans will concur in straights other
points other than the dots. Such intersections are called 'codots.'
46,.
than the
are called
46'.
sides.
'
Such concurs
diagonals.'
There are
i)(n
There are
i){n
n(n
2){n
3)/8 codots.
n(n
nals.
2){n
3)/8 diago
Proof of
connectors.
[n(n
46,.
i)/2
These connectors
i)/2
i)/2][(
;
i]/2
= n(n
i)(;z
 n
2)/8
i)/2
points
things,
i.e.,
the
number
Now
repeated (n
1) in
2)/2
times; or the
number
points not codots, i.e. in dots, is n{n Therefore the number of codots
2
2)/2.
n(ti
i)(;/
n
a
2)/8
n{n
i)(
2)/2
= =
47,.
[n(n
(/*
i)/8][^
\){n
n24(n 2)]
3)/8.
47'.
2){n
A set of
n connectors may
set of
;/
fans
may be
be selected in several ways so that two and only two contain each one of the n dots. Such a set of connectors is called a
*
'
two and only two contain each one of the 71 sides. Such a set
of fans of fans.
48'.
is
called a
'
complete
set
complete
48,.
set
of connectors. are
(n
1) 1/2
There
There
are
1)
\/2
complete
sets of connectors.
complete
sets of fans.
Proof of
single
48,.
(
dot
In a polystim of n dots there are through any and hence (0 i){n 2)/2 1) connectors,
pairs of connectors.
pair, as
BC and
BE.
76
PROJECTIVE GEOMETRY.
[CHAP.
III.
The number
from
{n
2 connectors)
to
E
is
through A, D, F, G>
(n
3)
!,
being {n
3)
such dots],
i.e.
3) things.
Hence
the
BC and BE
[n
3)
Therefore the
sets of connectors
(
is
I)(
_ 2)[( _ 3) !]/ 2 _
49'.
_
is
j) !/2 .
In
any complete
set
of
fans, when n
and
' '
the
(/2 + i)th
'.
'
are
even, the first and ' the (/2+i)th are called opposite.'
called
x
.
opposite
'
'
Each
pair of opposite
fans.
Each
in
concur
three
'
These three
the
'
codots
'
determine
codottristim
of the tetra
diagonaltrigram
of the tetra
stim.
gram.
correlated polystims whose paired dots and co51. dots have their joins copunctal are called 'copolar.'
52.
Two
Two
and
tersect
4
correlated polystims whose paired connectors inhave their intersections costraight are called
coaxal.'
53. If
two noncoplanar
For
since
therefore
intersect
on
For
The
these four points are coplanar. three planes ABA'B', ACA'C\ BCB'C are copunctal. Hence so are their meets AA\ BB\ CO,
intersects
55.
since
AB
AB
taking the angle between the planes evanescent, is seen that coplanar coaxal tristims are copolar and then by reductio ad absurdum that coplanar copolar tristims are coaxal.
By
56.
If
are said to be
two coplanar polystims are copolar and coaxal they complete plane perspectives.' Their pole and
*
Art.
6.]
'
harmonic elements.
center of perspective' and the
'
77
axis of
two coplanar
58.
points are all copunctal (on the pass of the straight V F2 with the picture plane), and the intersections of paired coni
nectors are
all
5. In a hexastim there are 15 connectors and 45 codots. In a hexagram there are 15 fans and 45 diagonals. Prob. 6. If the vertices of three coplanar angles are costraight,
make three tetragrams whose other diagonals are copuncby threes four times. [Prove and give dual.] Prob. 7. The corresponding sides of any two funiculars of a given system of forces cross on a straight parallel to the join of the poles of the two funiculars.
their sides
tal
Art.
59.
lie
6.
Harmonic Elements.
If
Fundamental Theorem.
on different planes whose meet is on no one of the eight dots, and if five connectors of the one intersect their mates,,
then the tetrastims are coaxal.
fixed
pairs of tristims
by the
If
are copolar.
60.
Hence the
five intersections
of
coplanar
case can be
depend upon the other by substituting for one 6f the tetrastims its image on a second plane meeting
to
first
made
the
five intersections.
61.
If of
If
two
a figurative straight, the theorem reads : correlated tetrastims five pairs of mated connectors
is
are called
'
harmonic
points,' or
78
PROJECTIVE GEOMETRY.
if
[Chap.
III.
a harmonic range,'
'
the
first
tetra
stim while the other two are on the connectors through the
third codot.
63.
By
harmonic point
if
in order are
A, B,
C,
third through
B to
cross these at
CK, crossing
join
AM at N.
K and M respectively.
from B.
straights through
A, and a
Join
A BC separated
64. In projecting from a point not coplanar with it a tetrastim defining a harmonic range, the four harmonic points are projected by four coplanar straights, called harmonic
'
harmonic
axialpencil.'
harmonic primal figure gives always again a harmonic primal figure. 67. By three elements of a primal figure, given which is the
66. Projecting or cutting a
is
completely determined.
ART.
6.]
HARMONIC ELEMENTS.
79
two points made codots from the other two. Yet it may be shown that the two pairs of points play identically the same
role.
First,
arated two
from the definition of four harmonic points each sepmay be interchanged without the points ceasing to
be harmonic
codots.
[or,
if
A BCD
is
ADCB, CBAD,
and
CDAB\
Second, to prove that in a harmonic range the two pairs of separated points may be interchanged without the four points is a harmonic range ceasing to be harmonic [or, if
ABCD
(and therefore
the joins
also
is
BADC
O
third codot
draw
AO
and CO.
MN
new
points, S, T, U, V, respec
The
tetrastim
KTOS has
B; hence
In like
for
its
two codots
and
C,
and
TS
of
UV
MVOU must
B and D are
The
pass through D and LUOT and VNSO through B. Therecodots of a tetrastim STUV with the remain
a connector
separated points
B and
D.
and
are called
'
To
accessible cross
80
PROJECTIVE GEOMETRY.
[Chap.
III.
'
at
D and D'
Through
straights crossing ndXB and B\ and draw Join Z>Z? and Z/i?', crossing on A. Through third straight crossing any
B"
'
at Z>".
>'",
LM
The
tetrastim
XBMD
XB'LD'
does
makes AB'C'D'
AB"C"D".
and cutting the eject are costraight.* C", C", and Prob. 9. Through a given point to draw with the straightedge a straight parallel to two given parallels.
a harmonic as range, But projecting AB"C"D" from X, by AB'D' gives a harmonic range. Therefore
Prob. 10.
To
inconstructible join
determine the cross of a given straight m with the x of two given points and N'. Join any two
points on m with JV and N' giving b and b' on JV d and </' on N*i Join the crosses db and </'' On a take by 0.
y
f
N
A
joinin b"
in
and with
quired.
T/
d"
b'
d" and
8,
<W
by
/.
Then Im
is
[From
range.
Prob.
by
duality.]
monic
12. On a given straight determine a point from which the of three given points form with the given straight a harmonic ejects
Prob.
pencil.
Art.
70.
7.
Projectivity.
Two
If
jective.
primal figures of three elements are always proone be a pencil, take its cut by a transversal. If
the bearers of
ABC
and
AB C
' '
AA\
'.
BB\ CC\
and cut these joins by a transversal, ;/z. Then ABC and A'B'C are two cuts of the axial mAA' mBB' mCC
,
Surveying may be solved by the application of the preceding principles, but such application has not been found advantageous in See Gillespie's Treatise on Land Surveying, New York, 1872. practice.
in
* Numerous problems
Art.
7.]
projectivity.
81
If
projection vertices
at
M and
,
M\
Join
MB
.
and
Join
&'\ join
at
MC and M' C
Then
M B\ crossing
f
A A'
any two
crossing
.
crossing at
C"
B" C"
AA'
A".
ABC and
A' B'
71. If any four harmonic elements are taken in one of two projective figures, the four elements correlated to these are also
harmonic.
For both
ejects
and cuts
themselves harmonic.
72. Two primal figures are projective if they are so correlated that to every four harmonic elements of the one are
For and cuttings which derive A' B' the same projectings from ABCv\\\ give D from D. Therefore A'B'CD, is harmonic. B C D' is harmonic. Therefore D is D But by hypothesis
C
1
'
'
'
'.
73.
If
two primal
a consecutive order of
a bearer.
74.
Two
projective
cannot bound an interval containing no such element, since they must harmonically separate one without it from one
within.
75.
Two
'
'
perspective
if
cuts of the
same
flat pencil. flat pencils are perspective if cuts of the same axial Two axials are perspective or ejects of the same range. pencil, if ejects of the same flat pencil.
Two
A
flat
range and a flat pencil, a range and an axial pencil, or a pencil and an axial are perspective if the first is a cut of
the second.
76,. If two projective ranges not costraight have a selfcorrelated point A, they are perspective.
76'.
flat
82
PROJECTIVE GEOMETRY.
[Chap.
III.
Let the join of any pair of f cross the correlated points at V. join of any other pair
BB
CC
Let the cross of any pair of correlated straights bb' join the cross of any other pair cc' by m.
Cutting the two given
cils
flat
Projecting
the
two
given
are
pen
ranges from
tive
V, their ejects
by
since
straights
they are projective and have the three points tna, mbb\
mcc' selfcorrelated.
VA,
lated.
VBB\ VCC'
Art.
selfcorre
8.
77r
If
two
coplanar
If
two
coplanar
non
of
' '
correlated
'
straights
form a
gree,' or
'
78,.
If
two copunctual
non
78'.
If
two
flat
copunctal
non
of
correlated
*
straights
order,' or 'cone.'
All results obtained for the conic range or the conic pencil are interpretable for the cone or cone of planes, since the eject of a conic is a cone and the cut of a cone is a conic.
79.
8o,.
On the cross A of
of correlated straights a
80'.
On
of correlated points
and
of
Art.
8.]
83
of the projective
pencils
x
.
The ejects
abc and a b x c x
x
bb
and
cc x .
Any
joined
point with
D
V
by
of
d,
u,
is
then
correlated
to
the
of
straights
d
x
The
cuts
ABC
and
ABC
X
Any
D joined to
its
so de
being projective and having a pair of correlated points A, A coincident, are perspective, both
x
p K,
a straight of
2f
BB
and
cc,.
the join
DVV
The
pencilpoints V, Vx
8i'.
The
bearers u, u
their
of the
cross
uu
is
VV
is
at
its
pencilpoint.
84
82,.
PROJECTIVE GEOMETRY.
[Chap. Ill
The
x
lated to
VV
its
82'.
The
is
to u u
x
gent' at V.
on
V is
the conic.
83^
On
any
on
83'.
On any
of
the
is
its
straight a
join q with
V VV
X
From
}
VV AMZ
P.
join
of
84'.
From
the
five
The
cross
of u with the
cross
DD
qy
rlt of
,
K conThe
given
or p.
of u
join
with the cross up, and the join dx of V with the cross u p are copunctal with w 2
of
x
x
in a conic inter
Therefore
the
three
codots
'
in
three
Pascal
This hexastim has sixty Pascal straights, since it has sixty complete sets of connectors. 85,. The ejects of the points of a conic from any two are projective.
86,. five
chon
complete
The
By
is
of
its
points a
By
is
conic
87,.
conic
87'.
may be
may be
and three
If one given the join of the pencilstraight points, then four points and a tangent at one of them are given.
lated
straights.
is
points. If one given point is the cross of the bearers, then four straights
Art.
8.]
85
completely deits
conic
is
them a conic
termined.
88'.
is
88^ By three
points
By
three of
straights
two of them
completely deter
mined.
as a
whose
pairs
nonconsecutive
fans
connectors
determine by their
tangent at the opposite dot. Thence follows the solution of the problems
90^ Given
five
points
of
90'.
Given
five straights of
9 1 j.* pair of
The
hexastim
with
The hexagram
The
tactpoints gives: The concurs of the two opposite pairs in every complete set of fans of a tetra
gram with
on opposite
Or:
sides.
a conic has each pair of codots costraight with a pair of fanpoints of the tetragram of tangents at the dots.
conic has each pair of diagonals copunctal with a pair of connectors of the tetrastim of contacts
on the
sides.
The
92,.
figure
for
91,
and that
for 91'
are
identical,
and
The
tangents of a conic
* Due
to Maclaurin, 1748.
86
93.
all
PROJECTIVE GEOMETRY.
[Chap. III.
The
on a curve, a
points of a conic range may now be conceived as, conic curve,' their bearer. The straights of
'
the
corresponding
conic
pencil,
may
on
now
this
also be conceived
as all
are their
Consedual to
and
ity
tant extension.
immediately from
all
conies are
may
two points
'hyperbola with none,
95.
If
at infinity.
With two
is
curve
called
ellipse.'
gents to 'without'
*
the
curve;
if
none,
within
'
the curve.
all
The
contact
point on a tangent
is
'
on
'
the curve
* The generation shows that a straight cuts the curves in two points and Hence the that from any point two tangents to the curves may be drawn.
curves are of the second order and of the second class, that
is
with the conies of analytic geometry. o,. Analytically the equations P\XQ P' f XQ' o, where P, Q, P', (7 are linear functions of point coordinates,
represent two projective pencils, the correlated rays corresponding to the same Hence the locus of the intersection of correlated rays is reprevalue of A. sented by PQ' Q o, a seconddegree point equation. Projective ranges
'
are represented by
= R XS
j
o,
R'
AS'
= o,
where R,
The envelope
represented by
The
R S'
R' S
= o,
Theorie der Kegelschnitte, 1866, and in Chasles' Geometrie superieure, 1852. For the analytic treatment see Clebsch, Geometrie, vol. 1, 1876.
Art.
9.]
87
gent are without the curve. Every straight in its plane contains innumerable points without the curve, since the straight crosses every tangent.
of them,
Prob. 13. Given four points on a conic and the tangent at one draw the tangent at another.
Prob. 14. If the n sides of a polygram rotate respectively about n fixed points not costraight, while {n 1) of a complete set of fanpoints glide respectively on (n 1) fixed straights, then every remaining fanpoint describes a conic*
Prob.
of
15.
the
connectors with
tangents
at
the
opposite
dots
are
costraight. f
Prob. 16. If two given angles rotate about their fixed vertices so that one cross of their sides is on a straight, either of the other
three crosses describes a conic. \
Prob. 17.
straights
on
figurative points.
Art.
96.
9.
Taking every tangent to a conic as the dual to its own contactpoint fixes as dual to any given point in the plane one polar,' of which the point is the particular straight, its
'
'pole.'
polar of
Z
B
reference to any given conic, to construct the any given point in its plane. Put on the given point two secants crossing the curve, one at A and D, the other at
97.
With
and
C.
The
X and
as
Y of ABCD
is
the polar
of Z,
must always be the cross 5 of the tangents at A and D, and also the point which D and A harmonically separate from Z (given by each of the variable
change
this polar, since
it
Varying on
either
secant,
ZBC,
does not
tetrastims
98.
BXCY).
join of
The
is
on
a conic
*
f
\
Due to Braikenridge, 1735. From Pascal dual from Brianchon. Given by Newton in Principia, Book
;
I,
lemma
xxi,
conic.
88
conic,
PROJECTIVE GEOMETRY.
[CHAP.
III.
is
two.
Any
point
is
polar
by
the conic.
with ruler only the tangents to a conic from a point without, join it to the crosses of its polar with the
99.
To draw
conic.
ioo,.
Two
points
are
called
100'.
Two
'conjugate' with reference to a conic if one (and so each) is on the polar of the other.
ioij.
are
tactpoint
point.
io2j.
tangent.
The
points of a range
102'.
The
are
pencil
conjugates on
103'.
bearer.
the
all
'
polars of
the
With reference to a given the 'kerncurve,' the poles conic, of all tangents on a second conic
conic
make
is
bearer
make
is
conic.
Prob. 18. Either diagonal of a circumscribed tetragram is the polar of the cross of the others. Prob. 19. A pair of tangents from any point on a polar harmonically separate
it
from
its
pole.
Prob. 20.
Art.
10.
Involution.
throw
')
first
any two be interchanged, then the other two, the result jective to the original.
[That is, ABCD a BADC a Let ABCD be a throw on m.
eject
is
pro
CDAB
a DCBA.~]
it
by a
straight (m')
on A.
from
V.
Cut
this
is
AB'CD'.
by
Now
C.
The
V B is
Art.
10.]
involution.
89
B'BVH. Project B'BVH from D and cut the eject hyui. The cut is B'AD'C, which is perspective to BADC.
105. Two projective primal figures of the same kind of elements and both on the same bearer are called conjective.' When in two conjective primal figures one particular element has the same mate to whichever figure it be regarded as be'
AA'BB'
is
projective to
A'AB'X, then by
104,
AA'BB'
projective to
lated,
106.
Two
conjective
('
mutually paired
ple,
coupled
form an
'
Involution.'
For exam
the points of a range, and, on the same bearer, their conjugates with respect to a conic, form an involution. Every
eject
and every cut of an involution is an involution. 107. When two ranges are projective, the point at
is
infinity
its
of either one
*
vanishing point.'
' '
108. When two conjective ranges form an involution the two vanishing points coincide in a point called the center of
the involution.
109. If
two
An
were three
selfcorrelated, all
would be
selfcorrelated.
a primal figure of four elements is projective with a second made by interchanging two of these elements, they harmonically separate the other two.
HO.
If
ABCD
from
Fand
by a
90
straight on A.
PROJECTIVE GEOMETRY.
[Chap.
III.
The
cut
AB'CD'
tive
is
projective
to
is
ABCD,
projec
which by hypothesis
to
So
VCC
is
on the
of the joins
DB' and
BD'.
of the tetrastim
VD'XB' while A
',
So and C
and
are codots
through C, in. If an involution has two double elements these sepaLet A and C be rate harmonically any two coupled elements.
the double elements.
therefore by
1 1
Then ABCB'
is is
is
projective to
AB'CB
no ABCB'
involution
harmonic.
completely determined by two couples. 7\ A'AB' ... is For the projective correspondence AA'B completely determined by the three given pairs of correlated elements, and since among them is one couple, so are all corre2.
.
An
lated elements couples. 113. When there are double elements, then the elements
no couple are separated by those of another couple. Inversely, when the elements of one couple separate those of
of
another, then the elements of every couple are separated those of every other, and there are no double elements.
114'.
by
The
are cut
by any transversal
in
*Due
to Desargues, 1639.
Art.
It.]
9t
Let
QRST
connectors
RT and
be a tetrastim of which the pairs of opposite QS, ST and QR, QT and RS are cut by
in
and A',
and
',
C and C\
'
From
5.
the projectionvertex
the ranges
are perspective.
But
Therefore
ACA'B'
and
6?
projective to
ABA'C, and
therefore
(
to^'C042?(
are i? and
115.
i?',
104).
^4'
and
are coupled, so
105)
To
C of
The
an involution of
which
at R.
RS
cuts the
of a point involution of
which two
couples
AA'BB'
are given.
and iV on m are harmonically sepaProb. 22. If two points rated by two pairs of opposite connectors of a tetrastim, then so are they by the third pair.
Prob. 23. To construct a conic which shall be on three given points, and with regard to which the couples of points of an involution on a given straight shall be conjugate points.
Art.
11.
116. Four points on a conic are called harmonic if they are projected from any (and so every) fifth point on the conic by four harmonic straights.
two conies are called projective when so correlated that every four harmonic elements of the one correspond to four harmonic elements of the
117.
A conic
and a primal
figure or
other.
If a conic range and a flat pencil are projective, and element of the one is on the correlated element of the every conic is projected from other, they are called perspective.
118.
every point on it by a flat pencil perspective to it. Inversely the pencilpoint of every flat pencil perspective to a conic is,
on the
conic.
S2
119.
PROJECTIVE GEOMETRY.
[CHAP.
III.
pencils respectively Therefore any three perspective .elements in one can be correlated to any three elements in the other, but this completely pairs all the elements.
to
120.
Two
flat
Two
two
at most
121.
selfcorrelated elements.
in
Two different coplanar conic ranges with a point V common are projective if every two points costraight with
correlated.
V.
pencil on
;
For both are then perspective to the flat Every common point other than V is selfcorrelated but V only when they have there a common tangent. They can have at most three selfcorrelated points.
122. If a flat pencil
V are
V and conic range k are coplanar and but not perspective, then at most three straights of projective the pencil are on their correlated points of the conic but at
;
least one.
For any
flat
pencil
M perspective
in general a
and with it determines must have in common with k every point which lies on its correlated straight of V, So if more than three straights of V were on their correlated points of k, the conies would be identical and V perspective to k.
Again, since every conic is compendent, and so divides its plane into two severed pieces, therefore the two different conies
if
to k
M must
it
at P.
and so
MP are
on
k.
In case they do not cross at their common point M, the corresponds to the common tangent at M, and so straight
VM
to the point
123.
correlated to
it
on
k.
projective conic ranges on the same curve form an involution if a pair of points are doubly correlated. Besides be any other two correlated and the couple V let
Two
AA
X
points, so that
B B B corresponds AA
x
to
u.
AA
and
BB
call U,
and
its
polar
A AB r The Project AA B
x
cross
of
from
Br
Art.
11.]
93
X X
Project
A AB
t
from B.
The
ejects
are projective, and having the straight selfcorre) (or The crosses of their correlated elelated, so are perspective.
X X
costraight.
X
BA
X
with
its
BA
is
known
cross of
is
AA
with
BB
BA
X
with
BA
on
u.
of
CU
Therefore the point C correlated to C with the curve. So C and C are coupled.
x
.
is
the cross
124. If
copunctal on the
involutioncenter.'
conic ranges, if these ranges form an involution, so do the all costraight pencils, and the crosses of coupled tangents are
on the
'
involutionaxis.'
pencils forming an involution are cut by each Two of their straights in two ranges forming an involution.
So two conic
two
of an involution,
it is
cut
by
the involutionaxis.
127.
To
same
x ,
x
conic.
Let A, B,
A B C
be any kv
The
projective
flat
pencils
AA
to a range on selfcorresponding, hence they are perspective of AB and A B with the cross of AC the join u of the cross
X
94
PROJECTIVE GEOMETRY.
[CHAP.
this join
III.
and
C.
The
and
n are the
selfcorrelated points of
k and k
on a conic, the six points where a straight not on a dot cuts the conic and two pairs of
128. If the dots of a tetrastim are
opposite connectors form an involution. For the two flat pencils in which the two crosses of
with the conic, P, Pi9 and two opposite dots R, T, are projected from the other two dots Q, S, are projective, and consequently so are the cuts of these
flat
X
pencils
X
X
by
X
tn\
that
is,
PBP A PBP A
X
a PA P B 7\P B PA
X X
But
PA P B A P B PA
X
X
Therefore
129,. Conies on which are the dots of a tetrastim are cut by a transversal in points of an involu
tion.
At
its
is
transversal
The double
of
point.
straights touch
at the
two
those conies
pencil
those conies.
Prob. 24. The pairs of points in which a conic is cut by the straights of a pencil whose pencilpoint is not on the conic form an
involution.
Art.
130.
12.
the
'
center
'
of that
pole of a straight at infinity with respect to a certain conic is the center of the conic.
131.
'
'
The
The
is
on the centre of
133. If a straight
the
crosses
is
called a
'
chord.'
is
The
134.
center of a conic
the center of
all
chords on
it.
The
centers of
all
diameter are
135. Two diameters are conjugate of the figurative point on the other.
when each
is
the polar
ART.
12.]
95
136.
The tangents
137. The joins of any point on the conic to the crosses of a diameter with the conic are parallel to two conjugate diameters.
138. Of two conjugate diameters, each is on the centers of the chords parallel to the other and if one crosses the conic, the tangents at its crosses are parallel to the other diameter.
;
center of an ellipse is within it, for its polar does not meet the curve, and so there are no tangents from it to the
139.
The
centre of a parabola is the contact point of the The centre of a hyperbola lies without the figurative straight. The tancurve, since the figurative straight crosses the curve.
curve.
The
gents from the center to the hyperbola are called asymptotes.' Their contactpoints are the two points at infinity on the
'
curve.
140. If a
diameter which cuts the curve be given, the tanbe constructed with ruler only, and so
straights conjugate to the diameter.
Every flat pencil is an involution of conjugates with Hence the pairs of conjugate diamto a given conic. respect eters of a conic form an involution.
If
the conic
is
totes
Hence any two conjugate diamof a hyperbola are harmonically separated by the asympand since the hyperbola lies wholly in one of the two
explemental angles made by the asymptotes, one diameter cuts the curve, the other does not.
one pair of conjugate diameters of an ellipse is always separated by any other pair. Any one pair of conjugate diameters of a hyperbola is never separated by any other pair.
142.
Any
and
tangent to a hyperbola cuts the asymptotes at A then the contactpoint B is the center of the sect AC, since the tangent cuts the harmonic pencil made by the diameter through B the conjugate diameter and the asymptotes, in
143. If a
y
ABCD where D
is
at infinity.
Just so the
96
PROJECTIVE GEOMETRY.
is
[CHAP. IIL
is
it
is
the center
As many
structed
With
ruler
points as desired of a conic may be conthe ruler alone. by the aid of one fixed conic all problems solvable by
and compasses can be solved by ruler alone, that is, by pure projective geometry. For example Of two projective primal figures (say ranges) on the same bearer, given three
:
These
Project the two ranges from any point ejects are cut by the conic in
selfcorrelated
points by
127.
The ejects cut the bearer of the Project these from V. original ranges in the required selfcorrelated points.
Prob. 25. Find the crosses of a straight with a conic given only
by
for
five points'.
its
is
The join of the other extremities of to the join of their centers. parallel
Prob. 28. In an ellipse let CA, CB with the curve.
f
.
and B be crosses of conjugate diamThrough A' the cross of the diameter conjugate to CA with the curve draw a parallel to the join AB. Let Then CB' is the diameter conjugate it cut the curve again at B to CB.
eters
Art.
146!.
13.
On
146'.
On
a point are
oo
1
00
planes,
'
pointfield.'
147,.
a
1
'
planesheaf.'
147'.
The
oo
planes of a sin
The
have on them
all
gle range
have on them
3
the
so
planes of planespace;
are just oo
there
Pointspace
is
tridimensional.
Art.
13.]
97
is
148.
With the
of four dimen
sions.
On
a plane are
oo
straights,
1
On
On
a point are
oo
straights,
straightsheaf.'
00
1
planes,
a straight are
00
3
00
points,
and so
00
straights.
2
and so
2
straights.
oo
2
On
each of the
00
points on straights of a
00
On
each of the
oo
2
planes on
straights.
149'.
Two
Two
an
Two
Two
axialpencil
range on
planes
151'.
their join.
15
j.
Two
bounding
bounding
sect.
points
determine a
152'.
A
it
not on
pass.
i53j.
A
it
not on
determine a plane.
An
flat
plane not on
153'.
on
its
mine a
pencil.
pencil.
154'. Three points determine a plane, their junction. 155'.
a pointfield.
156'.
iVo
coplanar straights
Two
copunctal straights
are copunctal.
157.
are coplanar.
Any figure, or the proof of any theorem of configuand determination, gives a dual figure or proves a dual theorem by simply interchanging point with plane. Thus all the pure projective geometry on a plane may be read as geometry on a point.
ration
Prob. 29. If of straights copunctal in pairs not then all are coplanar.
all
are copunctal,
Prob. 30. On a given point put a straight to cut two given straights. Prob. 31. If two triplets of planes afty, a' ft'y' are such that the meets fty and ft'y', yoc and y'a\ aft and a' ft' lie on three
yy'
planes a", ft", y" which are costraight, then the meets <xa' y ftft\ are coplanar.
98
PROJECTIVE GEOMETRY.
[Chap.
III.
Prob. 32. Describe the figures in space dual to the polystim and
the polygram.
Art.
158.
14.
The joins of the correlated points of two projective whose bearers are not coplanar form a ruled system ranges of straights no two coplanar. For were two coplanar, then two points on the bearer tn and two on the bearer m would all four be on this plane, and so m and m coplanar, contrary
x
x
to hypothesis. 159. Let the straights n,n iy // 2 be any three of the elements of a ruled system, and iV2 any point on ;/ 2 Put a plane on iV2 and the straight n if and let its pass with n be called N. The
.
straight
NN^
cuts n> n iy
n.2 all
three.
Q)
as
axis produces
which having three planes m 2 n, sponding, are identical. Therefore every pair of correlated points of the ranges on m and ;;/, is coplanar with ;;/ 2 that
x
is,
By varying
all
the
oo
the point N^ 00 straights are obtained, all cutting straights of the original ruled system and making
on every two projective ranges. Of the straights so obtained no two cross, for that would make two of the first ruled system
coplanar.
a 'ruled
Either of these two systems may be considered as generating Each of the surface,' which is the bearer of both.
is
two systems
completely determined by any three straights From of the other, and therefore so is the ruled surface also. the construction follows that the straights of either ruled
the straights of the other in projective ranges. So any two straights of either system may be considered as bearers of projective ranges generating the other system, or
system cut
all
two
each point of this ruled surface are two and only straights lying wholly in the surface (one in each ruled
On
Art.
14.]
99
is
system).
also
surface.
So a plane on one
on another straight
of this
161. If in the
two generating
bolicparaboloid.'
The
is
join
of
these figurative
common
cuts the surface in a straight and so has a second straight in with the ruled surface.
That a hyperbolicparaboloid has two straights in common with the plane at infinity may also be proved as follows
:
n,
and let Call the bearers of the generating ranges m and lt n be any two elements, and /the element at infinity. By 159 the ruled surface may be considered as generated by the
x
But all these straights straights on the three elements n, n /. must be parallel to the same plane, namely, to any plane on/. On /and each one of these straights put a plane these planes
x
a parallelaxialpencil, and cut any two of the original elements in projective ranges with the figurative points correlated. Therefore the figurative straight joining the figurative
points of n and
162.
#, is
make
From
plane.
same
Such planes
is
are called
asymptoteplanes.'
hyperbolicparaboloid completely determined by two nonand an asymptoteplane cutting them. To coplanar straights
get an element cut the two given straights by any plane parallel to the asymptoteplane, and join the meets.
163.
Three noncrossing
same
Let m, plane, completely determine a hyperbolicparaboloid. be the given straights. The passes of planes on tnv ///, %
100
PROJECTIVE GEOMETRY.
[CHAP.
III.
with
and
whose
system.
But from the hypothesis one of these planes is parallel to both m and m.. Therefore their points at infinity are correlated and the ruled surface is a hyperbolicparaboloid.
164. If
axially
projected from the bearer of the other, two projective axial pencils are formed, with those planes correlated on which are If A, A be correlated the correlated points of the ranges.
l
the meet of correlated planes. Thus two projective axial pencils with axes not coplanar genIf the whole figure be cut by a plane, erate a ruled system.
points, then the straight
1
AA
is
two projective
will
flat
pencils,
So every plane
cuts
it
straight not wholly on the surface can cut it in more than two points. The surface is therefore of the second degree
Hence no
(quadric).
the plane at infinity cuts the ruled surface in a pair of If not, it is called a straights, it is a hyperbolicparaboloid.
If
fig
allel to
For the figurative plane cuts the hyperboloid of one nappe in a conic curve, but cuts the hyperbolicparaboloid in two straights and each of the copunctal straights
;
goes to a point of the figurative cut. 165. Each straight in one ruled system of a hyperboloid of
ART.
14]
101
one nappe
loid
Of the
straights on a hyperbolicparabox
,
Let n and n any two elements of parallel. one ruled system, be the bearers of the generating ranges R and R,. If V is the vanishing point of R, then the straight on
no two are
V parallel
1
to n
is
But
Fis
itself
a figurative point.
is
Any
'
straight of
'
called a
167!
guidestraight
A
of
ruled system
its
is
ruled system
is
pro
any two
guidestraights in
its
guide
projective ranges.
For
if
m,
m m
it
and in projective ranges the system, the planes on m^ cut joins of whose correlated points are the elements of the ruled be projected axially from t system. Again, if the points on and * the meets of the planes so correlated are the ele1
ments
168.
Four
if
harmonic
harmonic points by one (and so straights three straights, no two coplanar, by every) guidestraight. By a fourth harmonic is determined lying in a ruled system with
they are cut in four
the given three and on a fourth harmonic point to any three costraight points of the given three.
of one cutting the ruled surface in a straight n of the other ruled system and consequently also in a straight ruled system has in common with the surface no point not on
169.
A plane
For any straight from such a point cutting both these straights would lie wholly on the ruled surface and so therefore would their whole plane, which is impossible. Any third straight coplanar with m and n on their cross has no second point in common with the surface and so
one of these
straights.
;
is
a tangent,
m and n
is
102
PROJECTIVE GEOMETRY.
[CHAP. IIL
The number
and on
a given straight equals the number of points the straight has in common with the ruled surface, that is two so the ruled
;
surface
170.
is
from any projectionvertex Fnot on it. The eject consists of two copunctal projective flat pencils. The plane of any two correlated straights is on an element of the ruled system. All
such planes form a cone of planes.
points of contact of these planes with the ruled surface The planes tangent to a ruled surface at are a conic range. the points on its cut with a plane form a cone of planes.
cut of a hyperbolicparaboloid by a plane not on an element has on it the meets of the plane with the two figu171.
The
The
rative elements,
is
and so
in
on the plane,
is
is a hyperbola except when their cross which case it is a parabola. The figurative
plane
a tangent plane.
172. The planes tangent at the figurative points of a hyperboloid of one nappe are all proper planes, copunctal and forming a cone of planes tangent to the asymptotecone of the
'
'
hyperboloid.
Each element
to the asymptotecone
is
parallel
Any
it is
nappe cuts
plane not on an element of the hyperboloid of one it in a hyperbola, parabola, or ellipse, according as parallel to two elements, one, or no element of the asympis,
totecone, that
rative conic
173.
If
according as
it
has
in
common
with the
figu
they generate
general a
'
plane cuts in one point at least and three at most. For a plane cuts the ruled system in a conic range perspective to it,
of
which
in
lie
on the correspond
The
is
Art.
14.]
103
of the
ruled.
two so united ruled systems is one most noteworthy discovered by the modern geometry.*
figure of
175.
The
Let u lt
find the straights crossing four given straights. u % u t be the given straights. Projecting the range on ux from the axes u 2 and u % gives two axial pencils, each
u.t ,
,
To
and consequently projective. The meets of perspective to their correlated planes are all the oo straights on u ,u^, u %r and form a ruled system of which u lt u 2 u z are guidestraights.
t
The two
'
projective axialpencils cut the fourth straight u K in [Two projective primal figures of the conjective ranges.
'
If
now
uK
in
a straight
is
the same point, which consequently is a selfcorrespondSince there are two ing point of the two conjective ranges. such (the points common to u t and the ruled surface), so there
are
two
given that for the two selfcorrelated points of two conjective ranges.
straights (real or conjugate imaginary) crossing four Their construction is shown to depend on straights.
straights,
what
is
common
the space of points, what is common to three points?' and its dual in the space of planes, what is common to three planes?
of the
problem
in
their
and
Prob. 34. Three diagonals of a skew hexagram whose six sides are on a ruled surface are copunctal. are Prob. 35. If a flat pencil and a range not on parallel planes on the points of the range parallel to the projective, then straights a hypercorrelated straights of the pencil form one ruled system of
bolicparaboloid.
104
Prob. 36.
PROJECTIVE GEOMETRY.
[CllAP. III.
What
is
Art.
176.
15.
CrossRatio.
integer, fraction,
or
may
be correlated to
one point of a straight, without making any use of measurement, without any comparison of sects by application of a unit He gets an analytic definition of the crossratio of sect.*
'
'
Then this expression is applied to four copunctal straights. Then is deduced that the number prefour costraight points.
viously attached to a point on a straight is the same as the crossratio of that point with three fixed points of the straight. Thus analytic geometry and metric geometry may be founded
without using ratio in its old sense, involving measurement. Thus also the nonEuclidean geometries, that of BolyaiLobachevski in which the straight has two points at infinity, and that of Riemann in which the straight has no point at infinity,
be treated together with the limiting case of each between them, tire Euclidean geometry, wherein the straight has one
may
infinity.
and reverting to the old metric usages where an angle is an inclination, a sect is a piece of a straight, and any ratio is a number; distinguishing the sect AC from CA as of opposite
*
sense,' so that
AC =
CA, the
ABCD
where
and B, called conjugate be looked upon as the extremities of a or externally by C and again by D.\
* Von Staudt
in
ratio
Beitrage zur Geometrie der Lage, 185660, determines the makes the metric geometry a consestated in the Mathematical Colis
is
370 A.D.
The
crossratio
Traite des propriety projectives, 1822, which distinguishes sharply the projective
.Art. 15.]
crossratio.
105
177. If
un
ABCD
punctal on V, then
A C/BC= A A VC/AB VC or A C/BC = iA V. VC sin (ac)/\B V. VC sin (be). AD/BD = A A VD/ABVD = iA V. VD sin (ad)/bV. VD sin (bd).
[A BCD]
Therefore
^/sin (&/)]
Thus
on any
flat pencil V[abcd] or axial be taken the crossratio of the cut ABCD
Two
As
1.
infinity,
AD/BD
is
ap
proaches
equals
180.
The
[ABCD] when
ABC,
figurative
A C/BC.
Given three costraight points
to find
D so
that
On any ma)' equal a given number n ( or ). on C take A' and B' such that CA'/CB' =n; A' and straight B' lying on the same side of C if n be positive, but on opposite sides if n be negative. Join AA', BB', crossing in V. The For if parallel to A' B' on Fwill cut AB in the required D. D' be the point at infinity on A'B\ and ABCD be projected
[ABCD]
from
V, then
A' B'CD'
is
so
,
[ABCD]
181. If
[A' B'CD']
=A
C/B Cn.
then Z\ coincides with Z>. be complete plane perspectives, four figures costraight points (or copunctal straights) in one are equicross with the correlated four in the other. Let O be the center of
[ABCD]
two
= \ABCD^
182. If
any pair of correlated points and N' another pair of correlated points lying on the straight OMM' whose cross with the axis of perspective is X. Then [OXMN] = [OXM'N'].
iV^
M and M' be
[OM/XM]/[ON/XN] = [OM>'/XM']/[ON> /XN'\ Therefore [OM/XM]/[OM' /XM'] = [ON/XN]/[ON' /XN']. That is, [OXMM'] = [OXNN']; or the crossratio [OXMM']
'
That
is,
106
is
PROJECTIVE GEOMETRY.
all
[CHAP. IIL
constant for
on a straight
OX on
OLL
Next
let
the cross of
LM
if
and
L M'
'
OXMM'
is
cross on some point Z of the axis XY, therefore be projected from Z, the cut of the eject by OY
;
is
OYLL'. So \dXMM']=\_dYLLJ]
constant for
It is called
all
or the crossratio
\OXMM'\
the 'parameter' of the correlation. When the is harmonic, and two i, the range parameter equals correlated elements correspond doubly, are coupled, and the
OXMM'
correlation
183.
is
'involutorial.'
When
is
the correlation
is
involutorial
the figurative point on a perpendicular to the perspective axis of perspective, this is called the 'axis of symmetry/ and
the complete plane perspectives are said to be
184.
'
symmetrical.'
When
the correlation
is
involutorial
perspective is figurative, then the center of perspective is called the 'symcenter,' and the complete plane perspectives are said to be symcentral.'
'
With the
to
it.
Prob. 37. In a plane are given a parallelogram and any sect. ruler alone find the center of the sect and draw a parallel
Prob. 38. The locus of a point such that its joins to four given points have a given crossratio is a conic on which are the points. Prob. 39. If the sides of a trigram are tangent to a conic, the
joins of two of its fanpoints to any point are conjugate with respect to the conic.
Prob. 40. If from any point of the sect between the contactpoints of a pair of tangents to a parabola straights be drawn parallel to these tangents, the join of their proper crosses with the tangents
will
be a tangent.
ART.
1.]
10?
Chapter IV.
HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS.
By James McMahon,
Assistant Professor of Mathematics in Cornell University.
Art.
1.
To
prepare the
given on the relations between hyperbolic sectors. The method adopted is such as to apply at the same time to sectors of the ellipse, including
bolic functions a preliminary discussion
the circle;
the hyperbolic and circular functions will be obvious at every step, since the same set of
of
in
connection with either the hyperbola convenient to begin with the theory of correspondence of points on two central conics of like species, i.e. either both ellipses or both hyperbolas.
or the ellipse.*
It is
To
1
2 B^ conjugate radii of any other central conic of the same species be two points on the curves; and let their coordilet 2
1
, ;
be conjugate
obtain a definition of corresponding points, let radii of a central conic, and O^A 2
O A lt
x
P P
l , x ,
be (x
jp,),
(x 2
j/2 );
then,
by analytic geometry,
9
~
a,'
'
b?
ai
6,'
W
is
* The hyperbolic functions are not so named on account of any analogy " The with what are termed Elliptic Functions. elliptic integrals, and thence
the elliptic functions, derive their
name from
... To
because we employ the name hyperbolic function to de. disadvantage; note cosh u, sinh u, etc., by analogy with which the elliptic functions would be ." (Greenhill, Elliptic merely the circular functions cos <p, sin cp, etc.
. .
.
Functions,
p. 175.)
108
HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS.
if
[Chap. IV.
Now
the points
P P
1
,
be so situated that
(2)
a,'
b*
the equalities referring to sign as well as magnitude, then If are called corresponding points in the two systems. 3
P
Q
P
Q
tri
angle
O Q are said to correspond respectively with the These definitions will apply also sector and triangle 7 O^Q^. then referred when the conies coincide, the points x 2 being to any two pairs of conjugate diameters of the same conic.
x
x
P P
,
In discussing the relations between corresponding areas it convenient to adopt the following use of the word " measure": The measure of any area connected with a given central conic is the ratio which it bears to the constant area of the triangle
is
of the
same
x
conic.
x
x
of the sector
A OP
is
the ratio
sector
triangle
A OP A OB
x
Art.
3.]
109
and
x x
is
x
A OP
and
A OB
x
x
regarded as positive or negative according as are at the same or opposite sides of their
x
common
initial line.
Art.
2.
P Q be (x ,y (x ',y '\ and let those of their correspondents P g be (xit y ) (x^y/); let the PfiJ2i De T T and let the measuring tritriangles P O Q A O B A O B be K K and their angles aolt g? angles
For,
let
The <
iii
i i
ii
the coordinates of
x ,
),
lt
it
%
2 ;
then,
and
analytic geometry, taking account of both direction of angles, areas, and lines,
by
magnitude
T\
gd x
_ x,
a
i
K\
7\
i^A sm
y^ __ */ y^
&i
i
'
&i
l
_ j(xjr 'xM
t
sin
a>,
_ x\
a2
y/
bt
_ x^^
a t b^
(3)
\<*J>* sin g? 2
Therefore
J3.
= ~\
Art.
The
For
areas of corresponding sectors have equal measures. conceive the sectors Sl9 S, divided up into infinitesimal
;
corresponding sectors then the respective infinitesimal corre. sponding triangles have equal measures (Art. 2) but the of these infinitesimal given sectors are the limits of the sums
;
triangles,
hence
^ ^ k = k;
x x x
(4)
ures
In particular, the sectors A O Pxs A,0,P2 have equal measfor the initial points A l9 A, are corresponding points.
;
It
may be proved
if
points of two equalmeasured sectors correspond, then their terminal points correspond.
absurdum that
the
Thus
if
any
radii
OA
x
x ,
O^A, be the
initial
lines of
x x,
two
t
equalmeasured sectors
whose terminal
radii
are
OP OP
110
HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS.
[CHAP. IV.
are corresponding points referred respectively to the pairs of conjugate directions Ot lt O B and vA v O^B^;
xJ
2
tken
P P
x ,
that
is,
*i
y:
y*
Prob.
i.
x
P\QV
POQ
x x
is
P Q
lt
re
common
x ,
is
equal to
angle.
elliptic
Art.
4.
Let
A OP =
x x
PM
X
vS,
x
let
x
O
x
M = x MP
x
ordinate to
xi
OA
X
i.e.
parallel
x
x
to
the
tangent
at
OB
bx
xja yjb
x
,
the given sectorial measure S /K These ratios are constant both in magnitude and sign for all sectors
teristic ratios of
of the
situ
Hence there exists a functional relation beated (Art. 3). tween the sectorial measure and each of its characteristic
ratios.
Art.
5.
and its complementary triangle are measured by the two characteristic ratios. For, let the triangle A O P and its complementary triangle P O B be denoted by
triangle of a sector
x
x
The
x ,
7V; then
K
^^
l
sino?
_^
(s)
ART.
7.]
ELLIPSE.
Ill
Art.
The
for
all
are
the same
in
Let/*,,
and a
circle, referred
dix
and
A0,B^,
right angles
let
K,
1/7
'
(6)
= cos 1
at
hence, in the
ellipse,
sin
bn
[*.
= *,
by Art.
^
cos
= sin
measure of the
4, b x
K,
Prob.
4.
(7)
Given x
A1O1P1.
Prob.
Also find
5.
is
its
area
when a
3, a?
elliptic sector
6o.
whose
ratios of
an
elliptic sector
measure
Prob.
6.
down
its triangle.
(See Art.
Art.
7.
The
may
be
cosh
= sinh
two
;
lines
ratio of the
on the
left is
called
112
HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS.
[CHAP. IV.
S /Kv
x
the
two equations
X _
cosh u
7^ =
sinh u
(8)
serve to define the hyperbolic cosine and sine of a given sectoand the hyperbolic tangent, cotangent, secant,, rial measure u and cosecant are then defined as follows
;
tanh u
= =
sinh u
cosh&
7,
,
coth u
cosh&
sinh
i
w
(9>
>.
sech u
csch u
cosh u
sinh u
The names
"
hsine," M
of these functions
may
htangent," etc.
Art.
8.
the six functions there are five independent relations, so that when the numerical value of one of the functions Four of is given, the values of the other five can be found.
Among
these relations consist of the four defining equations fifth is derived from the equation of the hyperbola
(9).
The
< K
giving
cosh*
11
'
sinh &
1.
(10}
By
a combination of
2
some
ary relations
by cosh
u,
coth u
= sech = csch
u.
Equations
the
function in terms of
any other.
For example,
2
coth u
tanh u
sech u
=J
tanh
u,
Art.
8.]
113
cosh u
=
V
i
I
,
sinh u
=
y
I
tanh u
,
tanh #
tanh 2 # tanh u
tanh #
csch u
a/
The ambiguity in the sign of the square root may usually be removed by the following considerations The functions cosh u, sech u are always positive, because the primary char:
acteristic ratio
x /a
x
the abscissa
M
x
is
OA
x
and
on which
ever branch of the hyperbola may be situated; but the functions sinh u, tanh u, coth u, csch u, involve the other characx
is positive or negative according as or opposite signs, i.e., as the measure y and b x have the same u is positive or negative hence these four functions are either Thus when any one of the funcall positive or all negative.
teristic ratio
x
y /b
x
which
?/,
csch
u,
coth
in
no ambiguity
;
is
but when either cosh u or sech u is hyperbolic functions is ambiguity as to whether the other four functions given, there
shall
be
all
positive or
all
negative.
as the ratio of
line^C=
tanh u
then
=y
b
114
HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS.
[Chap. IV.
u.
Prob. 7. Express all the hyperbolic functions in terms of sinh Given cosh u = 2, find the values of the other functions.
Prob.
8.
r,
10,
n,
that
cosh&>
sinh
u,
cosh#>i,
tanh u
<
<
1.
Prob.
and area of sector A OP = 3; find the sectorial measure, and the two characteristic ratios, in the elliptic sector, and also in the hyperbolic sector; and find the area of the triangle A OP. (Use tables of
cos, sin, cosh, sinh.)
9.
1, let
OA = 2 OB=i, AOB =
,
6o,
Prob. 10. Show that coth u, sech u, csch u may each be expressed as the ratio of two lines, as follows: Let the tangent at make on the conjugate axes OA, OB, intercepts OS n\ m, in R, let the tangent at B, to the conjugate hyperbola, meet
OT =
OP
making BR =
I;
then
coth u
Prob.
l/a,
sech u
m/a,
csch u
is
n/b.
u.
n. The measure
of segment
AMP
sinh u cosh u
Modify
8, 10.
this for
the ellipse.
Modify
also eqs.
1014, an d probs.
Art.
9.
it
is
ations,
convenient,
in
rectangular hyperbola, whose and to take the conjugate principal axis OA as the common initial
of a
radii are equal,
line
of
all
the
sectors.
The
sectorial
00,
to
f
00
comes in from infinity on the lower branch, and passes to infinity on the upper
branch
;
that
is,
OP
tion
y
is
x,
swings from the lower asymptotic posiIt is here assumed, to the upper one, y = x.
the sector
but
as
proved
A OP
becomes
infinite
P passes
to infinity.
u,
any position
ART.
9.]
115
of
a,
0P
it is
cosh
o=l,
become
sinh
0,
tanh
0=0,
//,
(15)
and that
sinh u
cosh
go
00
sinh
00
co
tanh
00
1.
(16)
Again, as u changes from zero towards the negative side, cosh u is positive and increases from unity to infinity, but
sinh u
negative and increases numerically from zero to a and tanh u is also negative and increases negative from zero to negative unity hence numerically
is
infinite,
cosh
00)
= 00
sinh
(
00)
00,
tanh
00
1.
(17)
and
are tabulated at the end of this chapter. general idea of their manner of variation can be obtained from the curves in
abscissa,
Art. 25, in which the sectorial measure u is represented by the and the values of the functions cosh u, sinh u, etc.,
The
Thus
relations
of
u and of u are
8.
cosh
sech
() = + ()= +
(
cosn u
sech
>
smn
csch
(~~ u )
~~
sm ^ u
csch
>
?/,
tanh
u) =
()=
(
u,
>
J
(18)
tanh
u,
coth
= u)
coth
u.
from
u,
Prob. 12. Trace the changes in sech u> coth u, csch u, as u passes 00 to } 00 Show that sinh #, cosh u are infinites of the
.
is infinite.
(It will
infinites of
an order
Prob. 13. Applying eq. (12) to figure, page 114, prove tanh
tan
u,
A OP.
116
HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS.
[CHAP. IV.
Art.
10.
Antihyperbolic Functions.
The equations
cosh
u,
y r
t
//,
sinh
tanh
u,
etc.,
may
u
also be expressed
cosh 1
x
,.
sinh
_1
y
,
tanh 1 T,
etc.,
is
the sectorial measure whose hyperbolic cosine is the ratio a" etc. or " u is the antihcosine of x/a," etc.
;
to
u,
determined from the equation cosh u = m, where m is a given number greater than unity, u is a twovalued function of m. The symbol cosh" 1 tn will be used to denote the positive value
of
u that
satisfies
1
symbol sech"
satisfies
the equation cosh u m. Similarly the will stand for the positive value of u that
The
;;/,
signs of the
1
other
same
as the sign of m. Hence all of the antihyperbolic functions of real numbers are onevalued.
Prob. 14. Prove the following relations:
cosh" 1
/^
sinh" 1
Vm*
1,
sinh" 1
//*
=
,
cosh" 1 Vm*
f
1,
the upper or lower sign being used according as _1 1 cos" Modify these relations for sin negative.
.
is
positive, or
2,OB i,AOB 6o; find 15. In figure, Art. i,let OA the area of the hyperbolic sector AOP, and of the segment y 1 is 3. from the tables for cosh.) if the abscissa of (Find cosh
Prob.
AMP
Art.
(a)
11.
To
sinh
cosh (u
= = cosh u v)
//
sinh v,
v.
cosh v
sinh u sinh
I
)
09)
Let
OA
AOQ
sector
be any radius of a hyperbola, and let the sectors AOP, v is the measure of the have the measures u, v\ then u
be the radii conjugate to OA, OQ; Let OB, the coordinates of P, Q, Q' be (x j/,), (x, y), (x' y') with reference to the axes OA, OB; then
QOP.
OQ
and
let
ART.
11.]
ikr
117
[Art.
5.
sinh
= sinh _
sector
^
sin
z>
K^Ji
^)
x
<
_
~~
j^i
x
yx
x
;
\a x b sin a?
b ax
b ax
= sinh
& cosh
cosh u sinh #
cosh (u
^)
cosh
SeCt r
^P =
y
b:
triangle
/W
bx
[Arfc
$>
KxyyS) sin
Jtf,^ sin g?
&?_
y ^ _#<
^
a
x
a;
(20)
but
hence
z>.
cosh (u
v)
= cosh u
is
cosh ^
sinh u sinh
is
In the figures u
positive
and v
positive or negative.
Other figures
in
may may
similar figures
be drawn, and the same language win apply, that the second equation of (20) will be x'/a y/b except
x
x;
therefore
sin (u
cos {u
(b)
cos u sin
f
v,
v.
sin
u sin
To
sinh (u
cosh
v,

(21)
S
by changing v into
118
HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS.
for sinh
(
[CHAP. IV.
and then
v) t
cosh
v),
writing
sinh
v,
cosh v
To prove v
(
that tann
= (uv) = itanhtanhv
v
'
(22) ; V
Writing tanh
s>)
=s
cosh (u
v,
v)
eq. (22)
is
ob
=
.
2,
cosh
3,
find cosh (u
\ z>).
1.
2.
3.
Prob. 17. Prove the following identities: 2 sinh u cosh sinh 27/ 2 2 2 1 f 2 sinh u 2 cosh u cosh 211 sinh ^ cosh'tt 2 2 1 2 cosh #, cosh u 2 sinh . 1 cosh u
= =
+
,
,
+
z/
1.
4.
tanh }*
.
=
1
sinh
5.
6.
sinh 2U
sinh 3#
7. '
cosh
4'
cosh u tanh u
= cosh
=
1
/cosh :
i\*
.
sinh u
1/
tanh u
3
j
= 4 cosh'tf
3 cosh ^.
t,
tann #
sinh z;)=cosh (& f v) sinh (# jsmn )(cosh v (cosh u=v= 9. Generalize (8); and show also what it becomes when a 2 2 2 2 sin 7. sinh ^: cosh a: sin v 10. sinh ^: cos'_v
8.
v).
.
11. 12.
cosh 1 /#
sinh
_1
cosh _1
sinh
1
>z
==
cosh~ 1 \_mn
_1
y(m
1
i)(tz
i)J.
sinh
[w y
?
yi + *?i
(22),.
Prob. 18.
What
Prob. 19. Modify the identities of Prob. 17 for the same purpose.
Art.
12.
Conversion Formulas.
To
prove that
cosh
cosh u
j+ cosh u
1
2 cosh \{u
\
u 9 ) cosh \(u
&,)
2)
u 7),
9 ),
cosh u t
j
2 sinh \{u
x
sinh #, sinh #,
sinh
it,
sinh u %
+ + +&
sinh (#,~
cosh J(,
sinh
(?/,
# a ), # a).
^
a)
Art.
13.]
limiting ratios.
it
119
From
follows that
v)
z/,
and
v
= 2 cosh & cosh cosh + v "" cosn (&?>) = 2 sinh & sinh v, = 2 sinh & cosh v, sinh (& sinh ( ^) 2 cosn w smn ^> sinh (# + z ~~ smn (^ ~ *0 v = u %t u = \{u + then by writing u\v = u iy u
cosh (u
(
f
v) J)
cosh (u
f
f
z^)
a ),
(,
# 2 )>
Prob. 20. In passing to circular functions, show that the only modification to be made in the conversion formulas is in the algebraic sign of the righthand member of the second formula.
smn
2
+ cosh av r:
cosh 2U
,
f
cosh av
f sinh av
2
cosh
cosh av
y).
.*
2
sinh
.*
2
.y
2
cosh
2
sinh ^.
2
ji>.
cos y
+ sinh * sin
Art.
13.
Limiting Ratios.
approaches zero, of
tanh u
u
in form.
To
sinh u
By
u> u>
tanh u
and
if
^ <
sinh u ^
<
u
cosh u
sech u
<
tanh U
<V
= _
I,
sech
=: i,Tience
Hm. tanh ^
u
==.0
1.
u == o
(24)
\V
120
HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS.
[Chap. IV.
Art.
14.
To
prove that
^(sinh
(a)
ft)
du
d(cosh
ft)
= =
cosh
ft,
(*)
du
d(tanh
ft)
sinh
ft,
w
(rf)
du
<^(sech
2/)
= sech
=
2/,
(25)
du
d(cotri
ft)
sech u tanh
ft,
w
(/)
(<z)
du
<f(csch
ft)
csch
ft,
du
ft,
csch u coth
ft.
Let y
= sinh + ^ w ~~ smn * jy = sinh = 2 cosh \{2u ^) sinh \Au, .sinh JJ Ay ~ = cosh f $;
(ft
j
.,
ZJft)
Take the
limit of
both
sides, as
Au
= o,
ft)
'
and put
lim
lim.
Ay
(ft
ft,
sinh
lim.
\Au 7 A iAu
dT(sinh u)
du
= cosh
ft.
()
Similar to
(a).
dftanh u) ~
dfa
d
'
sinh
2/
ft
<& cosh
cosh u
2
sinh
8
8
ft
cosh u
cosh
=
?/
sech*
Art.
15.]
121
j(V)
.
sinh
"
(/)
Similar to
(e).
It thus appears that the functions sinh u, cosh u reproduce themselves in two differentiations and, similarly, that the circular functions sin u, cos u produce their opposites in two
;
differentiations.
In this connection
it
may be
frequent appearance of the hyperbolic (and circular) functions in the solution of physical problems is chiefly due to the fact
that they answer the question What function has its second derivative equal to a positive (or negative) constant multiple of the function itself ? (See Probs. 2830.) An answer such as
:
y = cosh mx is not, however, to be understood as asserting that mx is an actual sectorial measure and y its characteristic ratio but only that the relation between the numbers mx and y is the
;
same
as the
known
and
its
relation
bolic sector
characteristic ratio
Show
(b), (d).
Prob. 26.
Show from
their derivatives
and
Prob. 27. Find the derivative of tanh u independently of the derivatives of sinh u, cosh u.
Prob. 28. Eliminate
dy/dx
= m?y.
and prove
tial
=A that d^y/dx' =
y
down
cos
mx
f
B sin
mx,
my.
equations
d*v
d*y
d*y
122
HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS.
15.
[CHAP. IV.
Art.
^(sinh
(a)
x)
dx
l
Vx*
x)
__
i
+i
w
(A W
d(cosh.~
dx
1
^(tanh x)
"1
dx
4coth~ ^) _ dx
1
1
 *_]*<,'
(26)
i
(d\ 1 ^
i
?3TJ^
i
w
,
^(sech
*)
<r
1
* Vi
#)
I
.
^(csch
x Vx*
(#)
+
&,
Let
ss sinh"" #,
then
= sinh
dx
= cosh
</
=
{b)
Vi
+ sinh
&
udu
Vi
\
x* du,
du
= <&:/ VT+1?.
2
Similar to
(a).
(c)
Let
tanh" x,
2
then
.r
(i
tanh
&)afo
(i
(d) Similar to
(c).
("
4f:, =sK)=7/&')'%iij(e).
1
(/) Similar to
Prob. 31. Prove
^(sin" x)
_
Vi
_ ~
1 1
d(cos~
x)_
Vi
dx
^(tan
1
1'
dx
1
x*
x)
djcot x)
dx
+ x*
dx
+x*'
Art.
16.]
123
_,x
dx
.
^cosh
x 
dx
</tanh
x
a
=
a'
adx
l
~
,
x 5 _\x <a
1
</coth
# =
a
dt^tr
"1
xs
a Jx>m
x is real, prove that coth* Prob. 34. When tanh and conversely; except when x 1. nary,
1
is
imagi
sinh"
cosh
1
x
,
^,
when x
cc
Art.
16.
For
this
/()
= Ao) +
+2
',
y"(o)
+ j,
/'"(o)
+
.
.,
sinh
.;
,...,
hence
sinh u
=u+
2
u*
+ j u"
4
:
f
(27)
and
similarly, or
by
differentiation,
cosh u
& H 214! a +
r
(28)
By means
cosh
u, can be computed and tabulated for successive values of the independent variable u. They are convergent for all values
is
in
the
first
case
2){2n
u /{2n
>
\){2n
2),
and
in
the second
less
case
u*/(2n
3),
than
may
124
HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS.
[CHAP. IV.
:
From
tanh u
sech u
u
i
\u
j
T jU
f
j^V*'
6
+ +
.,
(29)
i
These four developments are seldom used, as there is no observable law in the coefficients, and as the functions tanh u, sech u, coth u, csch &, can be found directly from the previously
computed values
of cosh u, sinh u.
Prob. 36. Show that these six developments can be adapted to the circular functions by changing the alternate signs.
7^
cosh u
Art.
17.
Exponential Expressions.
(27), (28)
+ sinh u = + u 4 2!
sinh u
1
ri?
3!
+ 4! u* +
%
u
,
cosh u
uA
1? 2!
u*
3!.
+ r^* ^4!
u
(>
e~
u
,
hence cosh u
tanh u
J(^
+ e~%
e
u,
sinh #
e~
u
),
= eu
sech u
2
e \e'
u
r
u,
(3)
etc.
e \e~
The
u,
cos u are
cos u
\e +e~
e
ui
ui
ui
),
sin
(***
e~
ui
(i
=V
1)
exponential development
This
will
be more
28, 29.
fully
numbers, Arts.
Art.
18.]
expansion of antifunctions.
125
Prob. 37. Show that the properties of the hyperbolic functions could be placed on a purely algebraic basis by starting with equations (30) as their definitions
;
sinh
(
2
u)
1,
sinh u, sinh (u
,
cosh
u)
cosh
j
u,
cosh u
2
sinh
u=
+ v) = sinh
^
2
u cosh v
cosh u sinh v%
.
^ (cosh
Tj
mii)
= tn
cosh mu,
sinh
(sinh
mu)
'
=m
sinh mu.
f
)*.
= cosh
nu f sinh nu.
u,
written
how
to
= Aeu + Be~ u where A, B are arbitrary constants show determined, B in order to derive the expressions for cosh u y
y
,
;
equation d y/du*
= y,
sinh u, respectively.
[Use
eq. (15).]
Prob. 40. Show how to construct a table of exponential functions from a table of hyperbolic sines and cosines, and vice versa.
log,,
(cosh u
f
sinh u).
is
Prob. 42. Show that the area of any hyperbolic sector when its terminal line is one of the asymptotes.
infinite
Prob. 43.
2
From
= eu + e~ u prove
(n
n_1
(cosh #)
4)^4..
.,.
and examine the last term when n is odd or even. Find also the corresponding expression for 2* _1
(sinh u)
Art.
.
18.
1
Expansion of AntiFunctions.
x) j
Since
tdTsinh
7tt^ = _Iy + Ii 2
I
fw = (i+ "
,
9N
24
,._I3I je 246
> .
hence, by integration,
sinh
23' 245
z T"T" 2467
1
>
V3
/'
the integrationconstant being zero, since sinh" x vanisheswith x. This series is convergent, and can be used in compu
126
tation, only
HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS.
[CHAP. IV.
x >!,
^sin
is
when x < I. Another series, convergent when obtained by writing the above derivative in the form
dx
i i
2 X*
4_I3I_I3iI, T 2 4^ 2 46/ r,
2 t
"I
"J'
.
..
sinh"
C+log x+ 2x 2
~l
2
4 4**
,+i 2
1 4 6
3.
i.
6
(32) y
6;tr
development
of similar
form
is
1
x; for
rf(coshx)
_t=1 /
_iW
eosh^C+log.I^Ii^Ilii...,
(33)
In in which (7 is again equal to log, 2 [Art. 19, Prob. 46]. 1 order that the function cosh ^ maybe real, x must not be
less
than unity; but when x exceeds unity, this series vergent, hence it is always available for computation.
is
con
Again,
*
^^
tanh"
1
^1+^ + ^4 *+.,
9
and hence
= x+*
3
f \x*
5
I* +7 +
7
(34)
From
sech
1
derived:
= cosh 1
x
x
x*
=C
log 5
I.3.* 
2.2
2.4.4
\ 2.4.6.6
1.3. 5. X D
9
. .
.
, \ (35) K0DJ
ART. 19
127
csch
J
= sinh
IJ_lI.1J_I!I_L_i
2 $x* 2
4 $x
246
jx
;
(36)
= tanh I = I +
Show Show
L
+ JL. +
L
..
( 37)
that the series for tanh 1 x, coth 1 x, seen 1 x, that one or other of the two developments of the
is
available.
Art.
19.
Let
therefore
cosh
1,
u,
I
then
vx
x\ \ x
u,
cosh u
f
= sinh u; sinh u = eu
I
,
and
Similarly,
j
Vx
i).
(38)
(39)
Also
V"
!
(40)
csdi"
sinh" 1 !
log
+ Vl + x
X
l.
(41)
Again,
let
128
HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS.
[CHAP. IV.
Prob. 47. Derive from (42) the series for tanh" 1 .*; given in (34). Prob. 48. Prove the identities:
log*=2tanh"
log sec
log tan
=tanh _1
1
2
=sinh" ^(^
^ _1)=cosh" l(^+^ _1 );
1
'
x
x
== 2
tanh
2 tanh'
2jc
tan*(ar
j
ix);
tanh 1 cos 2^
20.
sinh 1 cot
Art.
The correspondence
cussed in Arts. 14.
same
now convenient
correspondence that
species.
may
,
exist
between sectors of
v a on any hyperbola and ellipse, are said to with reference to two pairs of conjugates O A correspond
Two
1 ,
points
P P
,
,.
and O^A %
respectively,
when
(44)
xja
and when
jj/ x
,
= ajxv
sign.
jj/ 2
The
sectors
A O Piy
x
x
sign and have their primary characteristic ratios reciprocal. Hence there is a fixed functional relation between their re
The elliptic sectorial measure is called spective measures. the gudermanian of the corresponding hyperbolic sectorial
measure, and the latter the antigudermanian of the former. This relation is expressed by
or
= gd S,/K, v = gd u, and u = gd
SJK,
1
#.
(45)
Art.
21.
The
gudermanian
cos
v,
for since
=
a,
cosh
u,
=
a,
(see Arts. 6, 7)
in
which
u,
and
elliptic sectors,
Art.
22.]
gudermanian angle.
cosh u
sinh u
sec
*
129
hence
v,
1
[eq. (44)]
= VsecV = tan v tanh u = tan v/szc v = sin v, coth u = esc v, sech u = cosz/, csch u = cot z\
The gudermanian
if
(46)
is
sometimes useful
in
computation
for
sinh u be given, v can be found from a table of instance, natural tangents, and the other circular functions of v will give the remaining hyperbolic functions of u. Other uses of this
= sec _1 (cosh u) = tan _1 (sinh u) = cos 1 (sech u) =sin~ (tanh u), 1 1 gd~ v = cosh (sec v) = sinh (tan v) = sech" (cos v) = tanh _1 (sin v). = ^n, gd o = o, gd 00 = Jzr, gd( 00) gd" 0=0, gd^iar) =00, gd (l ) =
1
7r
Prob
52.
Show
that gd u
and gd~
x z'
are
odd functions of
u, v.
From
the
first
= tan \v.
tanh" J (tan u)
J
gd
2fc,
= ^ gd _1 2^.
Art.
If
22.
Gudermanian Angle
a circle be used instead of the ellipse of Art. 20, the gudermanian of the hyperbolic sectorial measure will be equal
to the radian measure of the angle of the corresponding circular This angle will be sector (see eq. (6), and Art. 2, Prob. 2).
gudermanian angle but the gudermanian function v, above defined, is merely a number, or ratio and this number is equal to the radian measure of the gudermanian angle 6, which is itself usually tabulated in degree measure thus
called the
;
as
i%ov/7t
(47)
130
HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS.
[Chap. IV.
ed
Take the
principal radius
.
OA
initial
OP
line, of
is
u;
from M, the foot of the ordinate of P, draw tangent to the circle whose diameter is the transverse axis;
MT
is
then
AOT
Prob. 56.
never exceeds 90
Prob. 57. The bisector of angle M bisects the sector (see Prob. 13, Art. 9, and Prob. 53, Art. 21), and the line AP. (See Prob. 1, Art. 3.) Prob. 58. This bisector is parallel to TP, and the points T,
AOT
A OP
Prob. 59. The tangent at ordinate of T, and intersects Prob. 60. The angle
P
is
foot of the
Art.
Let
then
23.
gd
u,
u,
gd
_1
v,
cosh
sinh u du,
du, sec vdv.
(48)
therefore
^(gd
v)
Again,
therefore
dv
d(gd u)
sinh u
= =
cos v du
sech u du
sech u du.
(49)
y
y
= =
gd
u,
f
tanh u sech u
gd
u,
y y
= =
sin v
+ gd"
v,
tan v sec v
f
gd
1
v.
* This angle was called by Gudermann the longitude of u, and denoted by lu. His inverse symbol was It; lnus u H(^)' (Crelle's Journal, vol. 6, 1830.)
Lambert, who introduced the angle 0, named it the transcendent angle. (Hist, Hottel (Nouvelles Annales, vol. 3, 1864) de l'acad, roy de Berlin, 1761). called it the hyperbolic amplitude of u, and wrote it amh u, in analogy with the Cayley (Elliptic amplitude of an elliptic function, as shown in Prob. 62.
Functions, 1876)
made
by attaching
in
name
of the mathematician
it
extensively
theory of
elliptic
Art.
24.]
series for
gudermanian and
its inverse.
131
first
kind"
in
the form
J
k
Vi
/c
sin
0'
is,
=
show
u
cos
am
u,
(mod.
when K
=.
1,
y
am
= =
gd~ 0,
sech
u,
tan
am u am &
gd u
sin
am
tanh
&,
sinh u;
elliptic
functions sin
am
u, etc.,
is
degenerate into
unity.*
Art.
24.
= ugd'z, = v +
g du
(50) (5i)
constants of integration appear, since gd u vanishes with and gd" ^ with v. These series are seldom used in compuu,
1
No
tation, as
gd u
is
by means
of tables
gd u
= tan 1 (sinh
u),
gd
z>
sinh
1
(tan v)
cosh
( sec
v )>
To
gd"V
* The relation gd u
= u,
1),
= gd u,
name
the function
= am
u,
(mod.
led Hoiiel to
gd
u,
In this the hyperbolic amplitude of u, and to write itamh u (see note, Art. 22). connection Cayley expressed the functions tanh u, sech u, sinh u in the form
sin
gd
u, cos
gd
u, tan
gd
u,
u,
eg
u,
u, tg u, to
correspond
tan
am
cos
am
u,
am
u.
Thus tanh u
It is
sg u
sn u, (mod.
well to
note that
neither the
elliptic
received their
special case.
names on account
132
therefore
sec v
HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS.
[Chap. IV.
tan v
=
#)
sinh u,
,
f
sinh u

= eu
sin
*"
cos ($7t
sin (J
f
cos v
tan (iw
+ iv),
(52)
t
v)
gd
r.
,
'?,
^ Prob.
,
gd 2 63. Evaluate
# U
u~\
,
5
f
gd
V
.
z>~
(
l=o
sin
_}v=o
fifth
order,
is
an infinitesimal of the
\n
+ \v = tan"VM
25.
\n
\v
tan"V" M
Art.
Drawing two rectangular axes, and laying down a series of points whose abscissas represent, on any convenient scale, successive values of the sectorial measure, and whose ordinates represent, preferably on
the same scale, the corresponding values of the
locus traced
be a
Art.
25.]
133
ure varies.
The equations
:
Full Lines.
Dotted Lines.
A
B C
D
Here ^
is
= y= y= y=
cosh x,
sinh x,
tanh x,
= y = y=
y
seen
csch
x x x
coth
gd
x.
u,
and y
for the
It is
y are numbers, or ratios, and that the equation x merely expresses that the relation between the y numbers x and y is taken to be the same as the relation between a sectorial measure and its characteristic ratio. The
cosh
numerical values of cosh//, sinh u, tanh?/ are given in the tables at the end of this chapter for values of u between o and
4.
For greater values they may be computed from the developments of Art. 16.
The
sech u
=
<
1,
csch u
coth u
=
tanh u
cosh u
sinh u
cosh u
sinh
(
sech u
>
I,
tanh u
cosh
(
>
u)
I,
gd u
>
\n,
etc.;
u)
tanh
cosh
= u) =
sinh u,
tanh
sinh sinh
(
u,
gd
u)
= cosh u, = gd u,
csch
(
etc.;
0=1,
= 0,
00)
tanh
= 0,
,
(o)
=00
etc.;
cosh
00)
= 00,
00
tanh
00)
1,
etc.
dy/dx = cosh x,
Its direction
sinh x is given by the equation slope of the curve y that it is always positive, and that showing the curve becomes more nearly vertical as x becomes infinite.
The
of curvature
is
sinh x,
is
nega
The point of inflexion is tive, and upward when x is positive. at the origin, and the inflexional tangent bisects the angle
between the axes.
134
HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS.
[Chap. IV.
The
by (Py/dx
sech
is
i),
is
given con
cave downwards or
upwards
\ 4M' \^
.
8 according as 2 tanh
x i is The inpoints
the
inflexional
tangents
are
1/2.
The curve y
csch
is
when x
not
*$,
is
C
that
is
so small as
.1.
The
only curves
.1,
but
it is
till
.881, y =
y
I.
= csch x, y = sinh x
y=
10
Art
26.]
ELEMENTARY INTEGRALS.
cosh
*
135
2;
gd x
= x+
sinh
= U~
"
'
\n.
Prob. 70. Show which of the graphs represent even functions and which of them represent odd ones.
Art.
26.
Elementary Integrals.
The
14, 15,
23:
Hyperbolic.
Circular.
,
1.
sinh u
du
cosh
Ain
u du
=
=
cos u
2.
y cosh
udu
sinh 0,
/"cos u
du
sin #,
3.
Aanh udu =
/ coth u
log cosh
a,
Aan udu
/ cot
^/
log cos
4.
du
log sinh
log sin
5.
/csch #</#
sa
log tan
cosh^csc
),
6.
/ sech u du
I sec
udu
gd
1
&,
,/^
a
osh,f,
.
=cos1
,
9. *
=tan ,*
1
* Forms 712 are preferable to the respective logarithmic expressions (Art. 19), on account of the close analogy with the circular forms, and also because they involve functions that are directly tabulated. This advantage
appears more clearly
in 1320.
136
HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS.
[CHAP. IV.
r dx l
10.
/ *
x*aJ x>a
a
=COth,
1 ,
a
i
, v / a **
.
aa h xr dx
.
=a
cot
1
, a
/
l2

dx
,
=
2
seen
x
,
P
/
=
J
sec
x
CSC
' ,
From
derived:
may be
/dx +
Vax*
v==
= +
ax
dtfT f
b
%
,
Vacb
.
a positive. ac> V
'
.
.
; '
=cosh~
#
,
Va
Vb'ac
1 
^positive,
ac<b;
cos
ax \,
b
,
a
1
Vtfac
"
a negative.
b
/dx
v <r
=
#
**"+2t*+<
i
^^
<2^4^
ax
tan
\
yz=y
ac>
\
Vbac
coth1
=
Thus
>
,/Ti^ Vbac
a
,
^+
>
,
/^
_^
f~^ZT~Zn\
1
=coth (*
,
2)1
=coth 2
coth^
P^+
dx
=tanh(^2)J r tanhotanhX. 5 )
=
5494
(By interpreting these two integrals as areas, show graphically that the first is positive, and the second negative.)
IK. D
(ax) Vxb
.
2
.
Vab
tanh
lxb
\ /
\J
7, ab
y
.5080
and similarly
for
tanh 1
(.3333)
Art.
26.]
elementary integrals.
2
137
or
tan
xb
7
,
\l
or
b
coth \ /
2
,
, 1
lxb
(Put
=z
and apply
9, 10.)
dx
(a^Vb^^T^^
2
lbx \/b^'
2
ox
Vba
coth
. .,
lb/ <^ /
*'
,
or
tan
'l
.
\/
/.*:
1
;
yV By means
a cosh
a *? dx
= *(*  a
)*
 a
cosh" .
is
easily
made
to depend on 8. It may also be obtained by transforming the expression into hyperbolic functions by the assumption
#,
when
a* I sinh'
udu=
i)du
and a sinh
by
{.r
a 9 )*.
The
it
evident, as
bolic
segment
sector
AMP
is
OMP
and a
,
OAP.
2
g.
/V  *)*</* = *(rt
 x'f + tf
sin" .
i 9.
20.
yv + ^>^ = =A Aec
3
^
I
**)*
+ J* sinh_i J
2
1
0^/0
+ tan2 ^)*^ tan ^ = i tan 0(i + tan 0)* + J sinh" = sec tan + 4 gd" 0.
t
1
(tan 0)
21.
sech
</=
What
Show
J
sech
tanh u
j
4 gd
?/.
Prob. 71.
Prob. 72.
is
that / (tf*
2 bx
+ <r)fe reduces
138
respectively:
HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS.
[Chap. IV.
when a
is
and when a
< b*
when a
is
negative
>
/ sinh u tanh u du
sinh
gd u
/
Prob. 74. Integrate
(J?
cosh u coth u du
=
1
cosh
+ log tanh
+
2X
+ 2^ + 5)"^,
Prob. 75. In the if be the length of arc measured from the vertex, and the angle which the tangent line makes with the vertical tangent, prove that the intrinsic equation of 3 1 the curve is ds/dcp 2p sec <p, s p sec (p tan f/gd 0.
(*"
+ $fdx.
Prob. 76. The polar equation of a parabola being r referred to its focus as pole, express s in terms of 0. Prob. 77. Find the intrinsic equation of the curve y/a
a sec*\Q y
cosh x/a%
f or /
1
cosh n xdx;
by parts
.*
dx, tanh"
1
.*:
dx,
of reduction for
^^:
Art.
27.
As vector quantities are of frequent occurence in Mathematical Physics and as the numerical measure of a vector in terms of a standard vector is a complex number of the
;
form x\iy,
in
which
x,
are real,
and
stands for
1;
it
becomes necessary
in treating of
any
meaning of these operations when performed on such generalized numbers.* The geometrical definitions of cosh//, sinh u, given in Art. 7, being then no longer
it
applicable,
is
* The use of vectors in electrical theory is shown in Bedell and Crehore's The advantage Alternating Currents, Chaps, xivxx (first published in 1892).
of introducing the
into the differential equaProc. Elec. Congress, 1893; while the additional convenience of expressing the solution in hyperbolic functions of these complex
tions
is
shown by Steinmetz,
is
numbers
exemplified by
American
Institute
Electrical
Art.
27.]
139
cosh (x f iy), sinh (x iy\ a suitable algebraic meaning, which should be consistent with the known algebraic values of cosh x, sinh x, and include these values as a particular case
when y
assigned should also, if possible, be such as to permit the additionformulas of Art. u to be made general, with all the consequences that flow from them.
= o.
The meanings
Such definitions are furnished by the algebraic developments in Art. 16, which are convergent for all values of u, real or complex. Thus the definitions of cosh (x J iy), sinh (x f iy)
are to be
cosh (x
iy)
= + L(x + iy)' + 2
i
I
fx
'
iy)'
+
(52)
sinh (x
iy)
= (x+ iy) +
+ ^(x
+ ...
+
come
From
sinh (x
tion,
these series the numerical values of cosh (x iy\ iy) could be computed to any degree of approximaare given.
when x and y
\
=a =c iy)
f ib,
f id.
The
7,
eq. (9).
may
be,
cosh
u)
= =
cosh u
sinh
u) =
sinh
u.
du
cosh u
sinh #,
r
du
sinh #
= cosh
7=
cosh
mu
m* cosh mu,
rr
sinh
w =
m* sinh
/.+
*It
is
to be
borne
braic operators
in mind that the symbols cosh, sinh, here stand for algewhich convert one number into another; or which, in the lan
guage
of vectoranalysis,
turning.
themselves in Mathef The generalized hyperbolic functions usually present 2 2 matical Physics as the solution of the differential equation d'^/du <, where <p, m, u are complex numbers, the measures of vector quantities. (See
=w
Art. 37.)
140
hyperbolic functions.
[chap. iv.
Art.
28.
The additiontheorems for cosh ( f v), etc., where u, v are complex numbers, may be derived as follows. First take u, v
as real numbers, then, by Art.
II,
v\
cosh (u \v)
hence
i,(
= cosh
.)
+ (* +
,
^+
3
)("
+3 V+)
^ are any real numbers. It This equation is true when be an algebraic identity. For, compare the terms must, then, of the rth degree in the letters u, v on each side. Those on the
left
are
\(u\ v)
right,
when
collected,
form an rthdegree function which is numerically equal to the former for more than r values of u when v is constant, and for more than r values of v when u is constant. Hence the terms
of the rth degree on each side are algebraically identical functions of u and v.* Similarly for the terms of any other degree. Thus the equation above written is an algebraic identity, and
is
true for
all
values of
its
u, v,
whether
it
real or
complex.
Then
symbol,
follows that
{
cosh (u
f 7;)
= cosh u cosh v
v,
sinh u sinh v\
(53)
and by changing v
cosh (u
into
v)
cosh u cosh v
is
sinh u sinh
v.
(54)
In a similar manner
sinh (u
v)
found
cosh u sinh
v.
sinh u cosh v
(55)
In particular, for a
complex argument,
(56)
cosh (x
sinh (x
iy) = cosh x cosh iy + sinh x sinh iy,) = sinh # cosh 27 cosh sinh iy. /y)
;tr
* '* If two rthdegree functions of a single variable be equal for more than r values of the variable, then they are equal for all values of the variable, and are
algebraically identical."
Art.
29.]
141
sin u, cos u,
u,
Prob. 79. Show, by a similar process of generalization,* that if exp u \ be denned by their developments in powers of then, whatever u may be,
sin (u
f
v)
cos
f v)
exp
(z*
+ v)
3
u sin
z>,
sin v,
cosh u
sinh u
[
cosh &
cosh &
sinh
sinh
u) f
u)],
)].
Art.
29.
cosh u
=
=
\
T u*
I
7 u*
4
. ,
2!
4!

sinh #
&

tU*
3!

f
. ,
5*
put for
ty,
then
.
cosh iy
sinh z>
=
= =
/ + JLy _
=
.
cosjj/,
(57)
z>
+
~
(z
+ ^ +
4
*\y
and,
jj/
z)/
+ ~j\f tan
j/.
=*
.J
sin j,
(58)
(59)
by
division,
tanh
* This method of generalization is sometimes called the principle of the " permanence of equivalence of forms." It is not, however, strictly speaking, a
"principle," but a method; for, the validity of the generalization has to be demonstrated, for any particular form, by means of the principle of the algebraic identity of polynomials enunciated in the preceding footnote. (See Annals of Mathematics, Vol. 6, p. 81.)
f
cal
with t*
," which
is
identi
142
HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS.
[Chap, IV.
to interchange hyperbolic
and
circular
cosine of a pure imaginary is real, and the hyperbolic sine and tangent are pure imaginaries. The following table exhibits the variation of sinh u, cosh u,
The hyperbolic
tanh
u
u,
exp
u,
Art.
30.]
functions of x
cosh (x
sin (x
/
f
iy in
the form
/.*),
X+
*#),
Y.
143
iy)
*
cos (#
(j> =F
*#).
a;
Prob. 84.
From
the productseries
for sin
derive that
for
sinh
sin^
=
=
4J)(i^)(i^ )...
5
sinh
*(,
J)(,
+ ,) ( + pp)
x
..
Art.
30.
Functions of *
+ *>
in
By
the additionformulas,
cosh (x
sinh (#
iy)
cosh
;tr
cosh y/
cosn iy
f
sinh
sinh sinh
iy,
iy>
f~ iy)
smn *
+ cosn
*
= sin y, sinh cosh zj = cos y, but = cosh x cos y \i sinh x sin 7, hence cosh (x iy) sinh (x yO = sinh x cos J + cosh # sin y. c Thus cosh (x + iy) = a + ^, sinh (x iy) # = cosh cos y, # = sinh ^ sin y, = cosh x sin j. = sinh x cos 7,
zj/
f
(60)
f
if
\
\ id,
then
^r
(61)
<^
From
this chapter
Writing cosh z
on Argand diagrams, in complex numbers the usual way, by the points whose coordinates are (x, y), {X, Y); and let the point z move parallel to the jaxis, on a
given line
tions
= Z, where z x z, Z be represented Z
f iy,
Z = X\ iY;
let
the
will describe
an ellipse
is
my
(sinh
my
foci is
and which,
as the
parameter
unity.
144
Similarly,
if
HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS.
[CHAP. IV.
the point z move parallel to the ^raxis, on a given will describe an hyperbola whose equaline y n, the point obtained by eliminating the variable x from the equations tion,
X= cosh x cos
n,
Y=
sinh
sin n, is
X*
(cos
F
(sin
nf
nf
and which, as the parameter n varies, represents a series of hyperbolas confocal with the former series of ellipses.
close intervals
;
These two systems of curves, when accurately drawn at on the Z plane, constitute a chart of the hyperand the numerical value of cosh {in f in) can be bolic cosine read off at the intersection of the ellipse whose parameter is with the hyperbola whose parameter is n*
85.
that, in the case of sinh (x J iy) % the above two are each turned through a right angle. Compare the chart of sin (x iy). iy) 9 and also of cos (x i sin ay sinh 2X , , x Prob. 86. Prove the identity tanh (* iy) cos 2 cosh 2jC
Prove
+
,
\ iy),
= a + ib
be written
in the
+ "
modulus
as r(cos
2
i sin 6),
r exp W, then
2
cos
j^
sinh x,
iy)>
iy),
exp (x
+
+
/.
\
Prob. 89.
also sinh
The
is,
functions sinh
sinh (u
2tn)
(u+^irt) =i
(
cosh
/?r)
#,
sinh u, cosh
u,
;.
Prob. 90. The functions cosh"V/z, sinh~V/ have multiple values at intervals of 2in, but each has a unique value (called the principal n for the value) in which the coefficient of i lies between o and
\n and
* Such a chart is given by Kennelly, Proc. A. I. E. E., April 1895, and is used by him to obtain the numerical values of cosh {x\iy) sinh {x\iy), which present themselves as the measures of certain vector quantities in the theory of
alternating currents.
The
chart
is
but
it is
available for
all
Art.
31.]
the catenary.
145
Art.
31.
The Catenary.
is
A flexible
curve in which
inextensible string
of equilibrium
action of gravity.
it
It is
hangs.
AP
T
be the weight of unit length, and s the length of arc measured from the lowest point A then ws is the weight of the portion AP. This is balanced by the terminal tensions,
;
Let
in the horizontal
tangent.
vertically gives
T cos
in
H,
T sin
ws
s
ws,
which
is
tan0=i=ir=,
where
c
is
written for
H/w,
;
is
the
dy
_s
c'
.
ds
dx _
c
ds
Vs'
dx
dx
,
.
Y
.
+
=
c*'
x c
= sinh 1
s
c
x
c
, sinh
s
c
dy y j, dx v
x
cosh ,
c
which
axis of
is
x drawn
The
following trigonometric
:
method
= c sec d(p hence dx, = = dss'm 0, = <;sec tan (pd<p; thus x=c gd" <f>,y = c sec 0; dy, = sec gd x/c = cosh x/c and whence y/c = sec = tan gd x/c = sinh x/c. s/c
d(t>
;
1
The
" intrinsic
equation," ds cos 0,
c tan 0,
;
Numerical Exercise. A chain whose length is 30 feet is suspended from two points 20 feet apart in the same horizontal find the parameter c, and the depth of the lowest
;
point.
146
HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS.
[CHAP. IV.
The equation
by putting 10/c
s/c
= z,
= sinh lo/c, which, = sinh^. By examthe graphs of/ = siting, y = of this equation z = 1.6, nearly.
1,5,3,
is
To
find a closer
approximation to the
in the
form f(z)
sinh z
i.$z
o,
then,
by the
.0244,
.0024,
tables,
/(1.60)
=
=
2.3756
/(1.62) == 2.4276
/[1.64)
2.4806
it is
= = =+
.0206;
o,
whence, by interpolation,
z
1.622
1,
10/z
is
and
6.1649.
The
ordinate of either of
y/c
cosh x/c
cosh 10/c
cosh 1.622 1
2.6306,
16.2174,
=y
10.052$ feet.*
be drawn from the foot of the Prob. 92. If a perpendicular is equal to the conordinate to the tangent at prove that is equal to the arc AP. stant c and that Hence show that
MN
is the involute of the catenary, and has the propthat the length of the tangent, from the point of contact to the erty axis of x, is constant. (This is the characteristic property of the
the locus of
NP
MN
tractory).
Prob. 93. The tension at any point is equal to the weight of a of the string whose length is equal to the ordinate/ of that portion
point.
Prob. 94.
feet
An
wide and 10
feet high;
arch in the form of an inverted catenary f is 30 show that the length of the arch can be
z
=1,
25
sinh
z.
Chap.
I,
Art. 7.
in the
Encyclopaedia
Art.
32.]
147
Art.
If
the area of the normal section at any point be made proportional to the tension at that point, there will then be a
constant tension per unit of area, and the tendency to break will be the same at all points. To find the equation of the
curve of equilibrium under gravity, consider the equilibrium of an element PP whose length is ds, and whose weight is gpaods,
f
where
go is
is
This
balanced by the difference of the vertical components weight of the tensions at Pand P\ hence
d(T sin
(p)
d(T cos 0)
therefore
= gpoods =o
;
T cos
H, the tension
if
and
T= //sec 0.
go
=
sin
be the section at the lowest point, T/H sec 0, and the first equation
0)
becomes
Hd(sec
or
= gpoo
ds,
sec <pds,
cd
c
tan
sec
stands for the constant H/gpoo^ the length of string is equal to the tension at the {of section oo ) whose weight lowest point hence,
where
ds
c sec <pd(p,
s/c
gd'0>
Also
dx
hence
= c tan
d(p
is
is
Prob. 95. Using the same data as in Art. 3 r find the parameter gd s/c (The equation x/c < and the depth of the lowest point. becomes s, 10/V gd 15A, which, by putting 15/V gives
148
HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS.
[Chap. IV.
gd
f(z)
=f = gd z
z.
From
*,
the graph it is seen that z is nearly 1.7. If then, from the tables of the gudermanian at the
end of
this chapter,
= + .0447, 1667 = + .0129, /( 75) ii79 6 1.2000 = 1804 /(1.80) = .0196, z = 1.7698 and c = 8.4755. whence, by interpolation, Again, and 1.1799 radians y/c = log* sec x/c but x/c = 10/c = 1.1799 = 67 36' 29"; hence y = 8.4755 X .41914 X 2.3026 = 8.1798, the
/(1.70)
I
1.
1780
1.
1333
1.
1.
required depth.) Prob. 96. Find the inclination of the terminal tangent.
Prob. 97.
Show
go,
Prob. 98. Prove that the law of the tension T, and of the section at a distance s, measured from the lowest point along the
is
curve,
H=
is
GD
<z>
= cosh
,
; %
c
and show that in the above numerical example the terminal section
2.85 times the
minimum
section.
Prob.
W= H
An
=c
99. Prove that the radius of curvature is given by cosh s/c. Also that the weight of the arc s is given by sinh s/c, in which s is measured from the vertex.
Art.
33.
elastic string of
ral state is
uniform section and density in its natususpended from two points. Find its equation of
equilibrium. Let the element dcr stretch into ds; then, by Hooke's law, ds dcr(i f A.T), where X is the elastic constant of the string
ds,
= gp coder,
=.
Accordingly, as before,
d(T sin
and
hence
in
which
pi
Art.
34.]
THE TRACTORY.
ds
s/c
a
149
therefore
^(sec
f
sec3 0)^0,
= tan
f
/*(sec
tan
+ gd"
0),
which
of the
is
o. The coordinates x, y catenary when }x may be expressed in terms of the single parameter by put2 ds cos ting dx f jx sec (p)d(p, <r(sec 2 ds sin dy /* sec 0) sin <:(sec ^0. Whence
common
= =
_1
x/c
gd
//
tan 0,
j/c
= sec
yu
tan 2 0.
result of
These equations are more convenient than the eliminating 0, which is somewhat complicated.
Art.
34.
The Tractory.*
the equation of the curve which possesses the that the length of the tangent from the point of conproperty tact to the axis of x is confind
To
stant.
tangents
c,
such
let
that
PT=P'T' = = t\ draw TS
to FT',
is
and
OT
perpendicular
then
if
evident
that
from ds by an infinitesimal of a higher order. Let FT make with OA, the axis of y; then (to the first order of an angle
infinitesimals)
=
is
TT'
t
cos 0; that
is,
cf)dt y
= c gd
i
1
0,
1
sin 0),
= c cos 0.
all
This
* This curve
p. 242)
;
in Schiele's antifriction
i,
theory of the skew circular arch, the horizontal projection of the joints being a tractory. (See "Arch," Encyclopaedia Britannica.) The gd t/c furnisher a convenient method of plotting the curve. equation <p
and
in the
150
values of x,
HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS.
[CHAP. IV.
as
The
value of
s,
ex
pressed
ds
in
= ST = dt sin
=
tan
cpd(fi,
=c
log,,
sec 0.
At
=
1
The
=
If
1
gd
(cos
1
J
sin (cos
\
cosh
1
/i
.
= gd u,
jy
& be put for //*:, and be taken as independent variable,. u tanh u, y/c =. sech #, s/c log cosh #. x/c
/=
2C t
.265SY,
.*
1.0360*:.
0= 75
is t
= cl
35', s
1.3249^,
Show that the evolute of the tractory is the catenary. Prob. 92.) (See Prob. 102. Find the radius of curvature of the tractory in terms and derive the intrinsic equation of the involute. of ;
Prob. 101.
Art.
35.
The Loxodrome.
the surface of a sphere a curve starts from the equator in a given direction and cuts all the meridians at the same
angle.
On
To
:
in latitudeandlongitude co
ordinates
AM, AN in
let
J/jV
the points
Q;.
PR
;
be a parallel of
lati
tude let OM x, MP = y = dx, RQ = dy, all in radian measure and let the angle MN MOP=RPQ = a; then tan a = RQ/PR, but PR = MN cos MP* hence dx tan a = dy sec y, and x tan a = gd y, there being^
;
_I
gd (x tan
a).
Art.
36.]
151
To
OP:
ds
= dy esc a,
whence
= y esc a.
To illustrate numerically, suppose a ship sails northeast, from a point on the equator, until her difference of longitude is 45, find her latitude and distance
:
Here tan a
radians: s
40.980.
If
I,
andj/
= gd x = gd \n =
radii.
gd (.7854}= .7152
is
=y
V2
1.0114
The
latitude in degrees
modified as follows
tion
the ship set out from latitude y l9 the formula must be Integrating the above differential equa:
(^,, j/,)
and (x yt ) gives
g d ">2
 O tan
1
gd">iJ
hence
gd~y =
7
gd
^,
 <X when the initial latitude and the differThe distance sailed is equal to given.
fi) csc
radii,
a radius being 60
In this projection the meridians are parallel straight lines, and the loxodrome becomes the straight line y' x tan a, hence the relations between the coordinates of f x corresponding points on the plane and sphere are x
Mercator's Chart.
=
~
y'
is
= gd
"
;
y.
Thus the
latitude
name
"
is
y and of y' being given in minutes. A chart y constructed accurately from the tables can be used to furnish graphical solutions of problems like the one proposed above.
Prob. 103. Find the distance on a
(30
rhumb
line
N, 20
E) and (30
S,
40
E).
Art.
36.
A beam
other, and
that
is
builtin at
P at
Q
the
also subjected to a horizontal tensile force apfind the equation of the curve plied at the same point; to Let x, y be any point of the its neutral surface assumed
by
152
HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS.
[Chap. IV.
end as
bend
Px. Qy ing moment for this point notation of the theory of flexure,*
dx*
dx
=
l
?i*{
mx).
m=P
Q
2
,
Q EI
which, on putting/
mx =
u,
zxAd %y/dx %
=d
n/dx becomes
whence
that
is,
f
j
The
must be
arbitrary constants A,
are to be determined
by the
terminal conditions.
zero,
At
y=o;
hence
and
dx
but at the fixed end,
I,
and dy/dx
= o,
hence
B=
and accordingly
y
m/n
cosh
nl,
= w^r
x
;;z
sinh
;
nx
~.
cosh nl
To
of the fixed
end by putting
deflection
=
v
/,
giving
= mil
tanh/z/). '
of a castiron beam,
Prob. 104.
Compute
the deflection
2X2
inches section, and 6 feet span, builtin at one end and carrying a load of 100 pounds at the other end, the beam being subjected
to a horizontal tension of 8000 pounds.
[In
this
case
/=
4/3,
E=
*
15
io
6
,
Q = 8000, P =
100
hence n
^5(72
deflection
= ^(72
50 tanh 1.44)
1/50,
m=
1/80,
4469)
34* inches.]
Art.
o7.]
alternating currents.
153
Prob. 105. If the load be uniformly distributed over the beam, say w per linear unit, prove that the differential equation is
= @y ~ ^ wx^ or = n *(y  mx fa and that the solution isy = A cosh nx B sm\\nx \mx
EI
~ci?
l
*)>
\
\
^.
ti
Show
also
how
to
Art.
37.
Alternating Currents.*
In the general problem treated the cable or wire is regarded as having resistance, distributed capacity, selfinduction, and although some of these may be zero in special leakage
;
cases.
circuit
The
of
any description
insulated.
in
and the general solution will inwhich the receiving end is either
grounded or
electromotive force may, without loss of generality, be taken as a simple harmonic function of the time, because any periodic function can be expressed in a
The
which
may
differ
in
be
supposed to have given values at the terminals of the receiver and the problem then is to determine the E.M.F. circuit
;
and current that must be kept up at the generator terminals and also to express the values of these quantities at any intermediate point, distant x from the receiving end the four
;
viz.:
G
It is
coefficient of leakage, in
shown
in
standard works
footnote Art. 27.
* See references
\
in
Kennelly denotes these constants by r, /, c, for G, and he uses C for current. coL, K for ooC, Thomson and Tait. Natural Philosophy, Vol
of Sound, Vol.
I.
g.
I.
p. 40;
Rayleigh, Theory
p. 214.
p. 20;
154
function a sin
HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS.
(pot \ 6)
[CHAP. IV.
a and angle Q, then two simple harmonics of the same period 27t/gd, but having different values of the phaseangle 0, can be
combined by adding their representative vectors. Now the E.M.F. and the current at any point of the circuit, distant x from the receiving end, are of the form
e
=e
sin (oot
j #),
=i
sin (oot
j
6'\
(64)
values t v and the phaseangles 0, 0\ These simple harmonics will be represented by the vectors ejd, ijd' whose numerical measures
in
which the
all
maximum
<?
are
functions of x.
complexes j sin 0'), which will be denoted by e, i. The relations between e and l may be obtained from the ordinary equations f
di
,
are the
^de
de
_.
di
,^
for, since
de/dt
ooe
cos
(oot f 0)
\
^n) >
then
dfe/dfr will
/0
fl
\n
and
di/dx by the sum of the two vectors Ge /0, Cooe /0 \n ; whose numerical measures are the complexes 6V, jooCe\ and thus the relations similarly for de/dx in the second equation
;
e, 1
are
5 = (<?+>cy,
*In
f
= (*+>)*
(66)t
electrical theory the symbol j is used, instead of i, for / 1. Bedell and Crehore, Alternating Currents, p. 181. The sign of dx
is
is
changed, because x
leakage, G,
is
The
coefficient of
metry.
%
These
relations
derives
them from
first
have the advantage of not involving the time. Steinmetz For instance, principles without using the variable /.
he regards
to
i,
R f joaL
when
in
applied
with
Kennelly
calls
R+
in
quadrature
f
JaoC the
which
is
Art.
37.]
alternating currents.
155
(67}
and thus
^~,
by
now convenient
to define
two constants
m ^m
i
by the
equations*
w = R +jgdL)(G +jooC)
>
m?
= (R +JgoL)/(G +J&Q
then be written
(68)
and the
differential equations
may
=A
cosh
?#;tr 
B sinh
;/z.r,
= A'
cosh
;;z;tr
f~ i?'
sinh
mx
for subcoeffi
the equations
(66),
and equating
(G+jgdC)A = mB\
whence
B'
let
(G+ja>C)B
A'
= mA\
= A/m v
= B/m =
. x
Next
i,
at the receiver,.
whence
B = mj
e
B'
= E/m
mx
E=
= E cosh mx + mj sinh =
i
mx,

I cosh
f
~E sinh mx.
(7o>
variable length
f
* The complex constants m, ;i are written z, y by Kennelly; and Steinmetz writes v for m. x is written Z 2
, .
the
See Art.
14,
156
If desired,
HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS.
[Chap. IV.
these expressions could be thrown into the ordinary complex form X\jY, X' \jY', by putting for the letters their complex values, and applying the additiontheorems
quantities X, Y, X', Y' would then be expressed as functions of x and the repre 2 2 sentative vectors of e, i, would be e /0, i /#', where e' ;
and
cosine.
The
=X
#,
= X" +
Y'\ tan 6
For purposes
mulas
(70) are the most convenient, when either a chart,* or a table,f of cosh u> sinh u, is available, for complex values of u.
2 ohms per mile, Prob. 106. \ Given the four lineconstants: 20 millihenrys per mile, 1/2 microfarad per mile, 0; and given go, the angular velocity of E.M.F. to be 2000 radians
R=
L=
C=
= 40 ohms, conductor reactance per mile; R \jooL = 2 + 40/ ohms, conductor impedance per mile; 00C = .001 mho, dielectric susceptance per mile; G + jooC = .001/' mho, dielectric admittance per mile; 000;' ohms, dielectric impedance per mile; {G\jooC)~ = = [R jooL){G \jooC) .04 .0027, which m
ooL
l
\
f
is
the
measure of .04005
/177." 8';
therefore
m=
l
34'
= .0050 + .2000/,
ohms
per mile.
an ab1
,
mm = m/(G + jooC) =
Next
5/'
let the assigned terminals conditions at the receiver be: 1000 volts, whose phase may be taken o (line insulated) and as the standard (or zero) phase; then at any distance x, by (70),
/=
E=
= E cosh mx
1
y
sinn
x
mx
in
which
mx
is
an abstract complex.
Suppose it is required to find the E.M.F. and current that must be kept up at a generator 100 miles away; then
* Art. \ See Table II. 30, footnote. The data for this example are taken from Kennelly's article. %
Art.
37.]
alternating currents.
157
(.5
20/'),
e=
but,
iooo cosh
89,
by Prob.
cosh
+ 20/), = 200(40 /)' sinh + + 20/) = cosh (.5 + 20/ 67tj) = cosh + 1.15/) = .4600 + .475/
(.5
1
(.5
(.5
obtained from Table II, by interpolation between cosh and cosh (.5 1.2/); hence
(.5
1.17)
460
6),
where log tan 6 = log 475 log 460 = .0139, = 460 sec # = 625.9 volts, the required E.M.F. *,
Similarly sinh (.5
+
= 45
55',
and
207)
= .2126 +
1.02807V
and hence
l
~2
(4046
+ 20607)
6/'
where
#'=
47
sin 6'),
= 2.77
Next
e
be required to find
f
e at
8;
then
1.67)
=
>
10007
smn
C4 + '3j')f
Interpolation be
by subtracting %7tj\ and applying Prob. 89. l tween sinh (o 07) and sinh (o j) gives
sinh (o
Similarly

.037)

= 00000
I
J
.029957.
.030047'.
sinh
(.1 f
ZJ)
ooo4
j
last
two gives
=^(cos
0\jsin #),
.12530, 6
126
51',
<?,
=
x
29.99 sec I2 ^
'
==
01
Again,
e ==
let it
be required
to find e at
=
4~
16; here
=
cosh
= .9970 4"
j\
6/)
1.0020 4 .0067;
hence
and
where 6
100144.87
180
17', ^,
is
1001 volts.
a distance of about
the
same
as
at the receiver,
but
in
opposite
158
phase.
HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS.
Since
e is
[CHAP. IV.
which the phase is exactly 180 is n/,2 15.7. Similarly the phase of the E.M.F. at x = 7.85 is 90 There is agreement in phase at any two points whose distance apart is 31.4 miles.
for
which the line feeds into a receiver circuit, and suppose the current is to be kept at 50 amperes, in a phase 40 in advance of the electromotive force; then/
5o(cos 40
)
and
e
j
.y)x
+ (7821
f .2j')x
0),
where This is
10730 volts, the E.M.F. at sending end. 113 times what was required when the other end was insulated. 17 Prob. 107. If the receiving end be grounded, that is if =0; and if a current of 10 amperes be caused to flow to ground; find
33', e
l
6=
the E.M.F. and current to be kept up at the generator. Also compute these quantities, and their phases, at the distances 7.85,
15.7, 31.42, 94.25 miles
Prob. 108. If selfinduction and capacity be zero, and the receiving end be insulated, show that the graph of the electromotive force is a catenary. Prob. 109. Neglecting leakage and capacity, prove that the
solution of equations (66)
is
1
/, e
= E+
(R
+ jooL)Ix.
how
the sending end, show equations (65), (66) are to be modified; and prove that 1 _ _ sinh m IQ sinh mx, 1 7 cosh mx cosh mx a
Prob.
no.
If
x be measured from
=E
~E
mx
where
Art.
1.
38.
Miscellaneous Applications.
The
The
tf(sinh
y = J/(cosh+logtanhJ), in which M=
2.
length of the arc of the logarithmic curve length of arc of the spiral of
ax
is
i/loga, sinh w
=y/M.
Archimedes r
= aO
is
=
3.
0.
In the hyperbola x^/a* y /& 1 the radius of curva2 2 ture is p=(a* sinh u{d>* cosh iCf/ab', in which u is the,
measure
4.
of the sector
A OP,
i.e.
cosh u
= x/a,
sinh u
y/b.
ART.
38.]
MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS.
parallel plane at a distance
is
159
5=
is
2ii)/2e,
wherein b
the
and/ parameter of generating ellipse. length of the arc of the parabola 2px, measured from the vertex of the curve, is / i/(sinh 2u\2u), in which sinh u tan 0, where is the inclination of the termiy/p
ey/p,
The
nal tangent to the initial one. 6. The centre of gravity of this arc
is
given by
411)
;
llx
=/ (cosh
a
i),
64/y
p* (sinh 411
is
5= 2n yl.
its ter*
pi
The moment
is
same
3
arc about
minal ordinate
I=
pi\_x/(x
2x)
{
^T p N], where
is
JV
8.
\ sinh 2u
\ sinh 4
\
^ sinh 6u.
The
given by
4fy=
in
its
2
<r
sin h
2u
;
cosh u
1),
which u
= x/c
3
about
terminal abscissa
/ = /^ (tV
9.
sinh
3?/
sinh u
11
cosh
11).
of bars are given in RayApplications to the vibrations Vol. I, art. 170: to the torsion of leigh, Theory of Sound, to the flow of heat prisms in Love, Elasticity, pp. 16674; Fourier Series, pp. 7581 to wave and electricity in Byerly,
;
motion
Bassett,
in fluids in
Rayleigh, Vol.
arts.
I,
Appendix,
384; to
p. 477,
and
in
Hydrodynamics,
120,
in
the
theory of
Maxwell, Electricity, arts. potential in Byerry p. 135, to NonEuclidian geometry and many other subjects
and
and VI. Several Gunther, Hyperbelfunktionen, Chaps. V are worked out in Laisant, Essai sur les numerical examples
in
1724;
fonctions hyperboliques.
160
HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS.
[CHAP. IV.
Art.
In Table
y
39.
Explanation of Tables.
I
y
sinh u cosh u
the numerical values of the hyperbolic functions tanh u are tabulated for values of u increasing
.02.
When
u exceeds
4,
Table
IV
which
cosh (x
iy)
=a
ib>
sinh (x
iy)
= c zh
id,
and the values of a, b, c, d are tabulated for values of x and of y ranging separately from o to 1.5 at intervals of .1. When interpolation is necessary it may be performed in three For example, to find cosh (.82 f 1.342') First find stages. cosh (.82] i30 by keeping at 1.3 and interpolating between
:
jj/
= .8 and* =
.9
(.82
i4*)>
by keeping y = .8 and x
cosh (.82
in
at 1.4
and interpolating between the entries under .9, as before; then by interpolation between
1.31)
and cosh
at .82.
(.82
1.42) find
is
cosh( .82
f 1.342),
which x
is
kept
The
table
available for
all
values
of y,
however
\
great,
by means
of the formulas
sinh (x
It
2in
= sinh^r,
x
is
cosh (x\2i7t)
greater than
1.5,
= cosh
x, etc.
sel
dom
= a =F
x
tb,
sin
(y
ix)
is
= d .ic
by
given
d),
exp
in
iy)
= ac
i(b
which the signs of c and afare to be taken the same as the sign of x, and the sign of i on the right is to be the product of
the signs of
x and
of
on the
left.
gd
manian angle
0=
180
v/ir, as u changes
explanation of tables.
from
.1.
I
161
to 2 at intervals of .05,
and from
2 to
4 at
In Table
cosh
u,
IV are given the values of gd u, log sinh u, log as u increases from 4 to 6 at intervals of .1, from 6 to
.2,
7 at intervals of
and from 7 to 9
be
at intervals of
.5.
more extensive
In the
may
made
to the tables* of
first
Gudermann,
the Guderman
ian angle (written k) is taken as the independent variable, and increases from o to 100 grades at intervals of .01, the corre
sponding value of u (written Lk) being tabulated. In the usual case, in which the table is entered with the value of u, it gives
circular functions
by interpolation the value of the gudermanian angle, whose would then give the hyperbolic functions
of u.
When
is
is
is
polation
not reliable.
To remedy
inconvenience Gu
dermann's second table gives directly log sinh u, log cosh u> log tanh u, to nine figures, for values of u varying by .001 from
2 to
5,
and by
.01
from
to 12.
e*
and
e~ x to nine sig,
varies
10,
by
.001
I
from o to
.1,
by
.01
from o
these
to
2,
by
.1
from o to
and by
from o to 500.
From
Geipel and Kilgour's handbook gives the values of cosh;tr, sinh x, to seven figures, as x varies by .01 from o to 4. There are also extensive tables by Forti, Gronau, Vassal, and there are fourplace tables in Byerly's Callet, and Hoiiel
;
in
Wheeler's Trigonometry.
In the following tables a dash over a final digit indicates that the number has been increased.
in Crelle's Journal, vols. 69, 18312 (published separately Theorie der hyperbolischen Functionen, Berlin, 1833). Glaisher in Cambridge Phil. Trans., vol. 13, 1881. Geipel and Kilgour's Electrical Handbook.
Gudermann
title
under the
162
HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS.
Table
I.
[Chap. IV.
Hyperbolic Functions.
u.
Art.
39.]
TABLES.
163
Table
u.
I.
Hyperbolic Functions.
164
Table
II.
HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS.
Values of cosh
(x
[CHAP. IV.
(x
4
iy)
and sinh
iy).
Art.
39.]
tables.
Table
II.
165
Values of cosh
(x f iy)
and sinh
(x f
iy).
16G
HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS.
Table
II.
[CHAP.
(x f
iy).
IV*.
Values of cosh
(x
+ iy)
and sinh
Art.
39.]
tables.
Table
II.
167
Values of cosh
(x f iy)
and sinh
(x
\iy.)
168
HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS.
Table
III.
[Chap. IV
ART.
l."
169
Chapter V.
HARMONIC FUNCTIONS.
By William
E.
Byerly,
Art.
1.
What
is
known
and development
as the Harmonic Analysis owed its origin to the study of concrete problems in various
branches of Mathematical Physics, which however all involved the treatment of partial differential equations of the same
general form. The use of
first
suggested by
Daniel Bernouilli
1753
in
his
vibrations of stretched elastic strings, although Bessel's Functions had been already (1732)
one end; and Zonal and Spherical Harmonics were introduced by Legendre and Laplace in 1782 in dealing with the attraction of solids of revolution.
was greatly advanced by Fourier in 18121824 in his remarkable work on the Conduction of Heat, and important additions have been made by Lame (1839) anc by a
The
analysis
The
problems which
170
HARMONIC FUNCTIONS.
;
[CHAP. V.
dt
ox
oxl
ox*
"*"
ay
;
&*
u>
which
is
Laplace's equation
and
homogeneous
solid.
Of these Laplace's equation (3), and (4) of which (3) is a special case, are by far the most important, and we shall concern ourselves mainly with them in this chapter. As to their interest to engineers and physicists we quote from an article
in
The
"
There
the same in problems on heatconduction, motion of fluids, the establishment of electrostatic or electromagnetic potential, certain
motions of viscous
fluid,
in a conductor, vibrations of
The
if
we
more,
if
obtained
by any person, that answer is at once applicable to analogous problems in all the other departments of physics. Thus, if Lord Kelvin draws for us the lines of flow in a simple vortex, he has drawn
for
Lord Rayleigh
which
is
us the lines of magnetic force about a circular current: if calculates for us the resistance of the mouth of an
ART.
1.]
171
less skill
and
solving problems in heatconductivity 01 the strains in prismatic shafts. How difficult it is to express exactly
the
magnetic problems, he
and
yet
how
easy
it
is
to
perfectfluid analogy!
How
easy, again,
it is
when
transmitting alter
nating currents
viscousfluid analogy, or even the heatconduction analogy! " Much has been written about the correlation of the physical sciences; but when we observe how a young man who has worked
almost altogether at heat problems suddenly shows himself acquainted with the most difficult investigations in other departments
of physics,
we may say
sciences
lies in
~ a ,/diu
W^ay + aW*
av
av\,
in
the Attraction
Gravitation, and
in Electrostatics
(3) is
any external point {x, y, z\ due to any distribution of matter or of electricity; in the theory of the Conduction of
Heat
in a
homogeneous
solid f
is
point in the solid after the stationary temperatures have been established, and in the theory of the irrotational flow of an
incompressible fluid % V is the Velocity Potential Function and (3) is known as the equation of continuity.
If
we
(3)
si
"49 ^ d
1
sin'
0B<p' J
n_ c W
. '
rrt
Boston. * See Peirce's Newtonian Potential Function. See Fourier's Analytic Theory of Heat. London and
Brunswick.
New
1895.
York, 1878
172
HARMONIC FUNCTIONS.
if
[CHAP. V.
and
we
*V
r\^\^Z^Z=o.
1
(6)
In the theory of the Conduction of Heat in a homogeneous solid,* u in equation (4) is the temperature of any point {x, y, 2) of the solid at any time t, and a is a constant deter
Art.
2.
general solution of a differential equation is the equation expressing the most general relation between the primitive variables which
The
consistent with the given differential equation and which does not involve differentials or derivatives. general solution will always contain arbitrary (i.e., undeteris
is
a relation
between the primitive variables which is consistent with the given differential equation, but which is less general than the
general solution, although included
Theoretically,
in
it.
be obtained
the general solution particular values for the arbitrary constants or particular functions for the arbitrary functions but in practice it is often
;
easy to obtain particular solutions directly from the differential equation when it would be difficult or impossible to obtain the
general solution.
(a) If a
problem requiring
is
determinate, there must always be given in addition to the differential equation enough outside condidifferential equation
all the arbitrary constants or functions that enter into the general solution of the arbitrary
equation
tial
in dealing with such a problem, if the differencan be readily solved the natural method of proequation
;
and
ART.
2.]
175
cedure
is to obtain its general solution, and then to determine the constants or functions by the aid of the given conditions.
happens, however, that the general solution of the differential equation in question cannot be obtained, and then,,
if determinate, will be solved, if by any solution of the equation can be found which will also satisfy the given outside conditions, it is worth while to try to get particular solutions and so to combine them as to form a
It often
means a
result
which
without ceasing
A differential
if
degree were regarded as algebraic unknown quantities. If it is linear and contains no term which does not involve the dependent variable or one of its derivatives, it is said to be linear and
first
it
would be
its
of the
all
derivatives
homogeneous.
All the differential equations given in Art.
I
homogeneous.
(c)
If
given homogeneous, linear, differential equation, the product formed by multiplying this value by any constant will also be a value of the dependent variable which
will satisfy
which
satisfies a
the equation. the terms of the given equation are transposed member, the substitution of the firstnamed value
to
For
to the
if
all
first
zero
first
which there
may
first
The remaining
equation
is
satisfied.
the given differential equation, for if the sum of the values their sum will satisfy the equation in the equation, each term of the sum in question is substituted
satisfies
174
HARMONIC FUNCTIONS.
[CHAP. V.
terms which must be equal to zero, and therefore the sum of these sets must be zero.
(e)
generally possible to get by some simple device solutions of such differential equations as those we particular have collected in Art. I. The object of this chapter is to find
It
is
methods
any
of so
satisfy
which enter into the expression of these conditions in terms of normal forms suited to the problem with which we happen to be dealing, and suggested by the form of
tion of the variables
we
equation.
These normal forms are frequently sines and cosines, but they are often much more complicated functions known as
Legendre's Coefficients, or Zonal Harmonics; Laplace's .Coefficients, or
drical
monics;
Art.
3.
Problem
in
Trigonometric Series.
problem
:
As an
n centimeters
thick
is
heated throughout
to a uniform temperature of ioo degrees centigrade; its faces are then suddenly cooled to the temperature zero and are kept
at that temperature for
5
seconds.
What
will
be the tempera
time?
Given
a*
=0.185
in
C.G.S. units.
Take the
and the axis
origin of coordinates in
of
one face of the plate perpendicular to that face, and let u be the
in
the plate
suppose the flow of heat to be directly across the plate so that at any given time all points in any plane parallel
shall
We
ART.
3.]
PROBLEM
IN
TRIGONOMETRIC
SERIES.
175
to the
Then
it
o and
=0, and
Art.
I,
reduces to
^=^.
Obviously,
(1)
= u = u =
ioo
when
o,
(2)
(3)
;
o when ^ o when
.r
= o, =
?r
(4)
(2), (3),
and
(4).
We
we
tion
is
shall begin
linear
by getting a particular solution of (1), and which always succeeds when the equaand homogeneous and has constant coefficients.
u
Assume*
tute in
(1)
v', where fi and y are constants; substiand divide through by e^ x+yi and we get y = # 2 /f
eP
and
if
x eP +y* is
a solution of
(1).
then a solution of
(1)
value of
11
this solution
is
with advantage.
is
xi
a solution of (i\ as
also
By
(d),
Art.
2,
u
is
= e+**
is
e~ a
W cos px
2<
(5)
a solution, as
also
* "m*
f.
= *V
Sin
^
It
6)
and
/* is
entirely arbitrary.
must be tested
by substituting
f
in the equation,
i
and
is
justified
if it
leads to a solution,
The
letter
will be
used to represent 4/
1.
176
HARMONIC FUNCTIONS.
[CHAP. V.
By giving different values to p. we get different particular solutions of (i) let us try to so combine them as to satisfy our conditions while continuing to satisfy equation (i).
;
it px is zero when x = o for all values of n if yu is a whole number. If, then, we write is zero u equal to a sum of terms of the form Ae~ aimn sin mx, where m is an integer, we shall have a solution of (i) (see {d), Art. 2)
e~ a ^ n sin
jjl
when x =
which
satisfies (3)
and
(4).
Let
u
this solution
ait
be
4ait
=A e~
1
sin
x
.
+ A,e~
(7)
sin
2x
+ A e~
3
9an
sin
3*
+ ...,
(7)
A lt A %i A tf
When
u
If
t
= o, =A
sin
+ ^s sm
2;r
+ ^3 sin
A^
$x
+
.
(8)
form
series
l%
in (7) to
have
(2)>
and
all
and
(4).
We
shall
prove
sin
" sin
^x
~
f
sin
%x
x between o and x
n.
Hence our
solution
is
^[f^ sin
+ e~
of u
9aH
sin
3*
+V
25 " 2 '
sin
5*
. . .

(9)
To
to
we have only
seconds.
when x
and
As
there
no object
in
more than
the
first
I,
we have
to
of
Art.
4.]
problem
in
zonal harmonics.
a3
10
177
400
7t
7 log a
e~ an
where
= 0.185
and
5.
log
log 400
2.6021
colog
10 10
colog e**
.
=
=
9.5059
9.5982
,
10 10
^ =
f"
9.6040
10
g ^
=1.7062
50 8.
= 0.4018
of
n centimeters
the breadth of the plate had been c centimeters instead it is easy to see that we should have needed
.
x
nx
sin
+ A, sin
,
2nx
+ A, sin
,
%nx
+ ....
Prob. 1. An iron slab 50 centimeters thick is heated to the temperature 100 degrees Centigrade throughout. The faces are then suddenly cooled to zero degrees, and are kept at that temperature for 10 minutes. Find the temperature of a point in the middle of the
slab,
at the
end of that
time.
Assume
.
that
.
4/  sin
ttx
r
\7tx
sin
~ sin
?rx
,
from x
o to
c.
Art.
4.
As
a second
example
Two
equal thin hemispherical shells of radius unity placed together to form a spherical surface are separated by a thin
air. charge of statical electricity is placed upon one hemisphere and the other hemisphere is connected with the ground, the first hemisphere is then found to be at poten
layer of
tial 1,
At what
the other hemisphere being of course at potential zero. " field of force" due to potential is any point in the
shall use spherical coordinates
the charge?
We
and
shall let
Fbe
the
potential required.
Then Fmust
178
HARMONIC FUNCTIONS.
[CHAP. V.
we take
is
rftrV)
dr"
9
.
Si (
"^ sin 6
"4) _
dV
r
(l)
V=/(0)
where /(d)
when
and f(6)
I,
(2)
if
< 6 < ,
=O
if
<6<
ir.
Equation
an
(2)
infinite distance
and the implied conditions that V is zero at and is nowhere infinite are our conditions.
To
which
is
we
is
shall use a
method
where
generally effective.
Assume*
6,
that
V = RG
we
get
and
a function of 6 but
not of
rd\rR)
dr*
d \ sm
6
de)
.
(3)
R
Since the
first
sin 6
dd
and the
member
second does not contain r and the two members are identically Let us call this equal, each must be equal to a constant.
constant, which
is
\ 1)
then
R^
r
d%rR)
w^ro^r = m{m+l);
1
,
s '"
de)
whence
,'
m(in
\
i)R
= o,
(4)
dJ smedQ\
\
and
lel
^Te'^e
* See the
first
+ *0*+i)e. = o.
(5)
Art.
4.]
PROBLEM
(4)
IN
ZONAL HARMONICS.
179
Equation
d'R
rji
0,
Its
complete
R
Equation
(5)
=.
Arm + Br~ m \
(6)
ent variable to
x where x
'
cos
0.
It
becomes
1
( dx\J r[
^S] + m{m +
)&
= 0l
is
(7)
known
We
tive
(7)
;//, which is wholly undetermined, to posiand we can then get particular solutions of whole values,
shall restrict
Assume*
coefficients.
.
that
can be expressed as a
sum
or a series of
Let
2anxn
i)a n x
n 'J
and substitute
n(n
f
in (7).
M
We
get
n
2[n(n
i)<V
+ m(m + i)a x =
n
]
o,
(8)
where the symbol 2 indicates that we are to form all the terms we can by taking successive whole numbers for n.
Since
(8)
of x, the
coefficient of
xk must
,
vanish.
(k
Hence
o,
and
If
a k+ ,
fe)
now any
taken,
If
= k = m,
set of coefficients satisfying the relation (9) k 1Ea kx will be a solution of (7).
be
then ak+%
= o,
first
a k+i
= o,
etc.
* See the
180
Since
it
HARMONIC FUNCTIONS.
will
[Chap.
V..
if
we
(9) in
the form
.
**
( IO>
I)'
We
*""
Um  A
2,
~
m(in
2\2mi)
_ ~ m(m
\){m
a""
2)(m
3)
~2.4.(2m i)(2^3)
*m%
$)(m
"" ~~
If
is
~ m(m
is
i)(m
2)(m
2.4.6. (2m
even we
a. t .
i)(2m
 z){2m 
4)(m
5)
5)
""
'
etC
'
m
am
see that
if
odd, with
xm L
mitn
2. {2m
I
1)
\x
1)
9 m.
,
mjm '
i)(m
 2)(m  3)
i)(2m
3)
2. 4.
^_ _
t
n
"'J'
(2m
where a m is entirely arbitrary, is, then, a solution found convenient to take a m equal to
of (7).
It is
(2m
and
it
i)(2w
3) ...
will
when
.r
=
.
@
than
is
a function of
x and
xm
It is usual to write it as
Pm (x).
Pm (x)
from the
We
formula
2m 
)(
2m
 3)
\
r 1m
.
Mm2.
1)
[J
*f(
i)(m2)(ms)
i)(2m
3)
^ m _<
,j jx
2.4.
(2;;z
ART.
4.]
181
We
Pjx)
x
= or P (cos 6) = P {x) = x or P^cos 6) = cos  I) or P (cos 6) = J( 3 cos Plx) = (3* P (x) = i($x>  3*) or P (cos 60 = i(5 cos 0 3 cos 6\ (12) ^W = K35^ 30^ +3) or P (cos 0) = 4(35 cos #  30 cos + 3), ~ 70x* + 15*) or ^.(*) = K6 3* = K63 cos 70 cos #+ 15 cos /'.(cos 0) We have obtained Q == /^(.ar) as a particular solution of (7), and Q = Pm (cos 6) as a particular solution of (5). Pm {x) or Pm (cos 0) a new function, known as a Legendre's Coefficient,
I,
0,
i),
I
6>
61
6). j
is
many important
problems.
is
V'=
is
rm
Pm (cos 6)
6)
a particular solution of
(1),
and r m Pm (cos
6)
V = A P (cos
satisfies (1), is
6)
6)
(13)
reduces to
6)
6)
3
when
(14)
1.
v= Af,(cos6) r
satisfies (1), is
AfXcosd)
r*
PJjcos0) z r
~*
r.
(15)
is
equal to zero
If
when
not infinite at any point without the sphere, 00 and reduces to (14) when r r 1.
then
(14),
form
A,, get the value of Ffor a t within the sphere, and in (15) to get the value of Fat a point point without the sphere.
place of the
,
... in (13) to
182
HARMONIC FUNCTIONS.
shall see later (Art. 16, Prob. 22) that
if
[CHAP. V.
We
o
f(0)
for
<
<
and f{6)
o f or
<
<
n,
solution
is
(f)
+ I? 2
at
^
C0S
^
<">
an internal point
and
V=
^+4 r \\P 2r
=
7 {cosB) 8 2 r \pU:ose) J 3V
+I7^?^C0S *)
?t an external point.
If
< l8 >
and
= o,
(17) reduces to
To two
is
decimal places
F=
0.68,
=
4
o
at potential 0.68.
If r
and
(18)
and Table
I,
at the
end of
this,
chapter, give
5,
7t
is
at potential 0.12.
is
a instead of unity,
(18).
we
and
Art.
5.]
PROBLEM
2.
IN BESSEL's FUNCTIONS.
18o
Prob.
ameter
is
One half the surface of a solid sphere 12 inches in dikept at the temperature zero and the other half at 100 de
is no longer any change of temperature within the sphere. Required the temperature of the any point center of any point in the diametral plane separating the hot and
;
cold hemispheres
axis of
symmetry
of points 2 inches from the center and in the and of points 3 inches from the center in a di
50
73.9; 26.i
77.i
22.q.
Art.
5.
Problem
in Bessel's Functions.
:
take the following problem a cylinder 2 feet in diameter and 2 feet high are kept at the temperature zero, and the upper base at 100 degrees centigrade. Find the temperature of a
point in the axis one foot from the base, and of a point 6 inches from the axis and one foot from the base, after the permanent
state of temperatures has been set up.
If
or, representing the temperature by u and observing that from the symmetry of the problem u is independent of 0,
;
base
in
the
(1)
184
HARMONIC FUNCTIONS.
;
'
[CHAP. V.
contain r
therefore the
is
first
member
we can
cannot.
write
(5)
Hence each
member
of (5)
a constant, and
R
when
7
~dr*
+ rR
d*Z dz
dr~~
Z dz
=~
1
'
jj
is
entirely undetermined.
Hence
and
^Z
x
o,
(7) x 7
d*R
\dR _+__ +
x
,*
= 0L
general solution
is
(8)
Equation
and
2
,
its
(
(9)
it
by
letting //r
.
= x, and
becomes
,
<
d*R
u + * =sa 25?+52F
.
\dR
I0N >
Assume, as in Art. 4, that 7? can be expressed in terms of whole powers of x. Let R = 2a n x n and substitute in (10).
We
get
2[n(n
\)a n x
n "
+ na x
n
n 
J
<V M] = o,
x.
true,
The
coefficient of
~*,
must, then,
vanish, and
k(k
or

+ ka + a ^ + ^_ =
h
2
= o,
(11)
o,
whence we obtain
^_ =
3
k*ak
as the only relation that need be satisfied by the coefficients in order that 2akxk shall be a solution of (10).
R=
If
= o,
a k _^
0,
ak _
0,
etc.
We
= o as
Art.
5.]
186
If
i
HARMONIC FUNCTIONS.
[CHAP. V.
S,/.(Mxr)
ITO
"=
Linnr(^
"1

'
(I5)
satisfies (i)
(2), (3),
and
(4).
We
it
/Ax)
= 
*& ax
J
(l6)
~
for values of
\w/wyiu&i + iUK) +
r
''
<
I.
Hence
=
is
200
r /.(^r)
sinh
sinh
(/i,*)
L^/,0^)
At
^
1
7.(w)
sinh
(/y )
"*"
* '
(2/i.)
^/X^)
sinh
(2//,)
J ^ 7>
"
= o, z =
sinh
(17) reduces to
_i_
= 200 r
___iiiih
/i,/
1
^
(
L^/X/O
L/ij/,0*,)
sinh (2/1J
()"t)
sinh
2 /0
"J
'J*
cosh
"
/*,
/i./X/iJ'cosh
/7,
since
If
7 () =
we
III, at
and sinh
(2.ar)
2 sinh
^ cosh
x.
and
use a table of Hyperbolic functions* and Tables II the end of this chapter, the computation of the
is
value of u
easy.
We
have
/i(/0 = 0.5190
colog
"
^=2.405
= =/X^)
yU 2
5.52O
0.3402
9.2581
0.4683/*
10
colog
"
/*,=
10
/.(*.) =
10
coshyw a
7.9037
10
10
9.1567
* See Chapter IV, pp.
tions.
10
7.6301W
on hyperbolic func
Art.
5.]
= ^y =
1 1
O.1434
0.0058
0.1376;
a=i3.8
At
the point r
= J, z =
7^>
I,
(17),
reduces to
,,icef
~
I
^^
/i,/, (^9 )
I/i f
L MxJiiMd cosh
/*,
cosh
1 J
10
10
10
=  0.1678
188
harmonic functions.
[chap. v.
Art.
6.
The Sine
3, it is
Series.
As we have
seen in Art.
sometimes important to be
able to express a given function of a variable, x, in terms of sines of multiples of x. The problem in its general form was first
and its solution plays an important part in most branches of Mathematical Physics.
{1822),
Let us endeavor to so develop a given function of x,/{x), sin x, sin 2x sin $x, etc., that the function and the series shall be equal for all values of x between o and n.
in
terms of
We
fix)
an
=a
;
sin
+#
sin
2x
f
sin
$x
f~

an
sin
nx
(1)
shall hold
O and n
any n arbitrarily chosen values of x between good for we have only to substitute those values in turn
for
in (1) to get
n equations of the
first
For instance,
3 Ax,
<i).
.
nAx, where
Ax
=
n\1
a
in
We get /{Ax) = a
sin
Ax + #
Ax f ^
sin
2Ax f a
f
sin
sin
$Ax
nAx,
6 Ax
an
s
J[2Ax)
=a
sin 2
f{$Ax)
=a =a
sin 3
Ax f
sin
^Ax f a
sin
an
3
sin
1. .
(2)
\
/(nAx)
sin
n Ax
f
a^ sin
2nAx
sin 3z/jtr
sin
4
an
M^r,
^ equations of the first degree, to determine the n coefficients a a t a% an Not only can equations (2) be solved in theory, but they can be actually solved in any given case by a very simple and
x ,
,
Art. 6
the sine
series.
189
a,n
ingenious method due to Lagrange,* and any coefficient be expressed in the form
can
am
T2E A kAx)
K ~n
sin (*
A*)
(3)
If
now n
is
for
which
(i) holds good will come nearer and nearer to forming a conand the limiting value approached by a m will tinuous set probably be the corresponding coefficient in the series required
;
all
values of
x between
zero and n,
Remembering
question
is
that (n
+ \)Ax = n,
easily seen to be
am
=  ff{x) sin
tnxdx,
(4)
This value can be obtained from equations (2) by the lowing device without first solving the equations
:
fol<
Let us multiply each equation in (2) by the product of Ax and the coefficient of a m in the equation in question, add the form of the resulting equation equations, and find the limiting
as n increases indefinitely.
The
sin
coefficient of
any
.
a,
aK
in
is
kAx
sin
mAx Ax + sin
\ sin
2k Ax uk Ax
+ i)Ax =
sin
.
ar,
is
/
but
it
sin
kx
mx dx
k)x
cos(^
+ *)x]dx = o
* See
Series
190
HARMONIC FUNCTIONS.
[CHAP. V.
The
A*(sin
coefficient of a m
3
2
is
2
+ sin
nmAx).
ysin
o
w^ .dx =
2
The
first
member
sin
;;/
is
/{Ax)
J^r
2m Ax Ax +
.
mnAx
z/^r,
and
its
limiting value
is
fix) sin
mx.dx.
by the
final
Hence the
as n
is
equation
increased
/ fix) sin
mx dx =
.
# wt
Whence
as before.
tf
= J
fix) sin
mx.dx
(5)
This method
equation
f{x)
is
practically the
same
a
as
multiplying the
=a
sin
f
a^ sin
2x
f
sin
$x
(6)
tt.
by
important to realize that the considerations given in no sense a demonstration, but merely estab
lish a probability.
elaborate investigation * into the validity of the development, for which we have not space, entirely confirms the results n the o and x formulated above, provided that between x
An
Art. 6
the sine
is
series.
infinite
191
num
It is to
y=fix)
need not follow the same mathematical law throughout its length, but may be made up of portions of entirely different
curves.
lines
a sine series.
As an example
Here
1.
am
=
.
/sin
mx dx
.
/[
/
sin
ir
mx ax =
T
cos
mx
.
sin
mx .dx
m (1
if
cos nnt)
w
(
m [1
l) ] J
m
if
is
even
is
=
Hence
I
m
.
odd.
sin
4 /sin x
(
$x + ^+ sin
xx
+^
sin
,
Jx
+...).
(?)
It is to
be noticed that
c.
(7)
for
any constant
It
is,
_4f/ sin;r
Prob.
sin
3*
s in
$*
..
4
Show
Tsin
2\
7t
w
,
.
(a)
x
.
=
.
sin
2
jc
2x
Li
+
.
sin
4X
4
sin
J
.
(*)/W =
.,.
4 Tsin
sin
![_
r+1
,
%x
sin 5 a:
nx
+J
192
HARMONIC FUNCTIONS.
[CHAP. V.
if
f(x)
= x f or o < x <
, and f(x)
=n
f or
 < x
<
tt.
w /(*) =
2
Tsin
jc
2 sin
2.2:
sin
xx
sin s.x
2 sin 6jc
sin nx
if
fix)
(</)
for o
<x<
71
,
and /(#)
7t
o for
2
<x <
/r.
sinh
sinh
x
tt
=
sin
2
n
(e)
x
5
sin
2x
\
sin
xx
17
sin
ax
10
x*
=
?7 sin
x
Z[\t
7 sin
7.
~
\J
?J
sin 3
*~
sin
*+
J*
Art.
The Cosine
Series.
in a series
last article.
Assume
j\x)
b^\b cos
x
x \ &,
f
(1)
To
by cos
mx .dx
I b cos
w
mx
dx
= o.
and k are not equal.
I b k cos
kx cos
w^ dx=o,
.
if /
/7t
b m cos
2
#z;tr
dx
#w
if
#z is
not zero.
it
Hence
if /
w =
/ / f(x)
cos
mx ,dx>
(2)
is
not zero.
Art.
7.]
the cosine
get b multiply
(i)
a
series.
193
to n.
To
Jb.dx
IT
Z>
7T,
1 b k cos
kx dx
.
= O.
IT
Hence
which
if
~Jf{x)dx
(3)
is just half the value that would be given zero were substituted for m.
by formula
(2)
To
(1) is
usually written
f(x)
= ib + b
cos
cos 2x
+b
cos 3*
.,
(4)
(2) will
Prob.
5.
Show
7C
x between o and
,
7t
w
,
.
* w
=
x
!(7+7
8 /cos 2X
l
/,n
(4) /[*).=
COS
7.X
COS KX
);
cos6x
cos io#
\
J,
if
/(*)
, .
=
..
a:
for o
<x<
2
and f{x)
COS 3^
=
,
7T
x
<3:
for
2
<
n;
1,2 W /M  j+jH
%
/COS
.#
COS
s
)'
for
if
/(*)
for o
<x<
and fix)
=o
1
 < x <
2
7T f 1)
n^
(^) sinh
= 21
n
(cosh
n
2.2:
1)
(cosh
cos
\
(cosh
1)
cos
(cosh
COS
j
1)
cos 3*
\;.
n*
/cos
COS 2X
3JC
cos 4X
194
HARMONIC FUNCTIONS.
[CHAP. V.
Art.
Since a sine series
of an
8.
Fourier's Series.
an odd function of
the development in such a series must hold good from
is
odd function
ft
of
x
it
=
is
to
ft,
o,
where
easily seen that the series what the value of the function.
if
necessarily zero,
no matter
see that
In like manner
its
ft
we
f{x)
is
an even function of
valid from
development
in a cosine
series
must be
to
ft.
be developed into a Trigonometric n and n. series to which it is equal for all values of x between be the given function of x. It can be expressed Let/(^) as the sum of an even function of x and an odd function of x
Any
function of
x can
jy)=
=Q identically; but
Mz* + M^k=Jl
'
'
(I)
A
no t changed by reversing
the sign of
x and
is
when
we
^
2
is
sign reversed,
and
is
consequently an odd
Therefore for
J\ x ) h J\
j
all
values of
x between x
\b % cos
n and n
2x
_ _^ =
ft t/
o
__
ft
cos
+
.
cos ix
where
bm
cos
mx dx
and
A*) i
A

) '
=a
sin
x f #
,.., +
3
sin
2x
^ 3 sin $x
f
where
am
2 ft
}f(x)j\^^
2
X) sin
.
'
mx
.
.
dx.
Art.
8.]
Fourier's series.
little.
195
Jy
'
'
U/
It
X 2
^cos
mx. dx
It
j
o
Ax )
cos
mx dxJ
;r,
rJA
o
x)
;

J
but
ir
if
we
replace
^ by
we
f{
get
cos
jA
x) cos
w* dx=
w
x)
fnx.dx^
JAX
*
Q0S inx.dx,
fl
an d we have
In the same
I
It
Ax
cos
w;lr
dx
the value of a m to
I
it
Ax
+
\ir
sm mx >dx.
Hence
Ax =  +
)
&o
^i
cos *
sin
^a
cos
2;p

tf,
a^ sin
+ ^ cos 3^ f 2# ^s sm 3 X +
f~
>
2)
where
#w
J Ax
7T
cos
w;tr
d*>
(3)
and
and and
this
tc.
tf
sin ** w = lfA*)
*
x between
(4)
development holds
of (2)
is
known
as a Fourier's Series.
are special cases of
of Arts.
6 and 7 x from
1
in Fourier's Series.
Show
that for
1
all
values of
to
n
.
2 sinh 7rf~i
7t
cos #4
2
.1
5
cos
2.*
\_2
10
cos $x\
.1
17
cos4#+..
~]
196
2
,
HARMONIC FUNCTIONS.
sinh
it
[CHAP. V.
Ti
sin
sin 2JC 4
sin
3^
sin
4*
\
Prob.
7.
Show
*,
8,
can be written
COS (2* COS (3*
1
f(x)
=
COS#,
+C
2
COS (X
fix)
+C +
<T
 A)
A) +
where.
Prob.
8.
cm
(,
)*
and
fim
= tan"
8,
~"
Show
can be written
sin
(
f(x)
= ~c
2
sin /5 9
+c
sin (*
+ A) + +c
and
fim
'.
2X
+ A)
+ /? +
3)
.
sin (3a;
1
where
cm
{a
J + b,*)*
= tan'
Art.
9.
In developing a function of
is
=
Let
n and x
it
it.
Let us see
be required to Trigonometric Series which shall be equal to f(x) for c. c and x of x between x
all
values.
7t
X,
c,
which
is
equal to
z
)
n when x
and to n when x
c.
f(x)
(2), (3),
= /(
and
(4).
We
have
cos *
sin
f[~z)
=
2
+*
\
+^
f
cos 2 *
sin
2^r
#2
+^ +^
.
cos $ z
sin
+ 3# +
(1)
where
bm
J f\zj cos mz
<&,
(2)
Art.
9.]
extension of Fourier's
series.
197
and
and
(1)
'
am
//(
n
A
n
sm
m%
dz
(3)
to z
n.
(1)
Replace z by
f(x)
value in terms of
cos
c
x and
f'
becomes
b u,t
f
cos
*
.
\
0^
o 3 cos J
'
+ a sm+tf,sm
l
+ a, sin
+..,.;
(4)
and
(2)
and
(3)
= =
y
c
/(*) cos
jdx>
(5)
and
(4)
ff( x x =
c
sin
^rdx,
x
(6)
c to
c.
In the formulas just obtained c may have as great a value as we please so that we can obtain a Trigonometric Series for
f(x) that
will
an interval as we
It
this interval c
its
is
increased indefi
approach as
00
integral
x)da, which
known
as a
Fourier's Integral.
So that
+00
so
/(*)
 x)da
(7)
of
of Fourier's Integral and for examples use in Mathematical Physics the student is referred to Riemann's Partielle Differentialgleichungen, to Schlomilch's
its
Hohere Analysis,
and
to
Byerly's
Fourier's
Series
and
Spherical Harmonics.
198
Prob.
9.
HARMONIC FUNCTIONS.
[CHAP.
Show
9,
can be written
f(x)
ct cos
+c
cos
(
Ay +A cos
3
^^/?,j
3
+ , cos(^/? )+...,
where
Prob. 10.
C*
= (" + bm y
and
/?,
=
9,
tan" 1
.
Show
can be written
/(*)
c% sin Po
sin
(^T
+ Aj +
'1
sin
(^ + AJ
^.
where
^=
)*
and
/? w
tan 1
Art.
10.
Dirichlet's Conditions.
In determining the coefficients of the Fourier's Series representing f(x) we have virtually assumed, first, that a series of the required form and equal to f(x) exists
it is uniformly convergent ; the results obtained as only provisionally established.
It
is,
finite
to
7t
of (finite) discontinuities, or of
maxima
or
n and x
Art.
for all
and that Fourier's Series only, is equal to f{x) n and ?r, excepting the values of values of x between
8,
and the
values.
that
if
c is a
value of
corresponding to a
when x
iJQ[A* + )+/(
x
)];
and
is
that
when
= c is = n or
it
$'[/(*)
+/(
*)].
This proof was first given by Dirichlet in 1829, and may be found in readable form in Riemann's Partielle Differentialgleichungen and
in Picard's Traite
d'Analyse, Vol.
I.
Art.
10.]
dirichlet's conditions.
deal of light
is
199'
A good
we
trigo
construct
y=a
sin
x and y
=a
sin
same
abscissas,
we
shall ob
y=
If
a sin
1
x f
%
a^ sin 2x.
now we
construct
x
y
a2
=a
sin
f
those
of y = a
sin
x
t
f
y
By
=
x
sin
a9
sin
2x
\
a%
sin $x.
=a
sin
+#
sin
2*
tf
sin
$x
sin
^x
'
200
tion to this curve.
HARMONIC FUNCTIONS.
[CHAP. V.
In each figure the curve y the series, in question are drawn in continuous and the approximations
and the preceding approximation and the curve corresponding to the term to be added are drawn in dotted lines.
lines,
Prob. ii. Construct successive approximations to the series given in the examples at the end of Art. 6. Prob. 1 2. Construct successive approximations to the Maclaurin's
Series for sinh x,
namely x
x\
x
j

Art.
(a)
11.
at potential zero,
tential
is
Three edges of a rectangular plate of tinfoil are kept and the fourth at potential I. At what po
any point
in
the plate
solve
is
Here we have
to
I,
a^+
subject to the conditions
W=
"
>
(I)
V=
o when x
"
= o, = a, y = o, y =
x
t
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
Working as in Art. 3, we readily get sinh/?jj> sin fix, sinh fiy cos fix, cosh /3y sin fix, and cosh fiy cos fix as particular values of satisfying (1).
sinh
^
Cc
sin
^
CL
and
(4).
V = ^\
is
[sinh
^Lsinh^ a
^~+
'
sinh^
3 sinh
*1
it
*L*
a
1
"I
sin
+ T
when y
J
=
b.
(6>
reduces to
See
ART.
11.]
201
(b)
a given plane
The differential equation for the small transverse vibrations of a stretched elastic string is
as stated in Art.
i.
Our conditions
if
of
y y
^
o when
=
=
"
x *
/
o,
= =
=
(2)
(3 )
(4) (5)
/,
y
Using the method
of (1)
=fx
3,
"
o.
of Art.
we
y j
= =
sin
#r
/for
sin
a fit,
tf/?/",
cos
sin
and
y = y =
sin
/far
cos
tf/^,
sin
j cos
.
and
(4).
am
mnx
1
sin
cos
mnat
;
,
\p)
where
am
= j Cf{x) sin ^^
;
dx
(7)
is
for
it
reduces to/(*)
when/ = o. See
Art.
at
what potential
Prob. 14.
kept
what
Two opposite edges of a square sheet of tinfoil are at potential zero, and the other two at potential unity Ans. 0.5. is the centre of the sheet ? potential
at
;
Prob. 15.
Two
202
HARMONIC FUNCTIONS.
[CHAR V.
kept at potential zero, and the other two at potential unity. what potential is the centre of the sheet ? Ans. 0.5.
Prob. 16.
harpstring
is
At
Show
that
if
player's finger to a distance b from its position of equilibrium and then released, the form of the vibrating string at any instant is given
by the equation
2bn
(n
1
^
)
nnt
mnx
sin
cos
m7iat\ mnat\
>
Show from this that all the harmonics of the fundamental note of the string which correspond to forms of vibration having nodes at the point drawn aside by the finger will be wanting in the complex note actually sounded.
iron slab 10 centimeters thick is placed between and two other iron slabs each 10 centimeters thick. The temperature of the middle slab is at first 100 degrees Centigrade throughout, and of the outside slabs zero throughout. The outer faces of the outside slabs are kept at the temperature zero. Required the temperature of a point in the middle of the middle slab fifteen minutes after the slabs have been placed in contact. Given a % = 0.185 m C.G.S. units. Ans. io.3.
Prob. 17.*
An
in contact with
Two iron slabs each 20 centimeters thick, one of which temperature zero and the other at 100 degrees Centigrade throughout, are placed together face to face, and their outer faces are kept at the temperature zero. Find the temperature of a point in their common face and of points 10 centimeters from the common face fifteen minutes after the slabs have been put together. Ans. 22.8 15.! ; i7.2.
Prob. 18.*
is
at the
Art.
In Art.
12. t
as a particular solution of Art. 4] by the device of assuming Legendre's Equation [(7), that z could be expressed as a sum or a series of terms of
4,
determining the
coefficients.
We
Art.
12.]
203
by an
entirely different
method.
potential function for any point (x, y, z) due to a unit of mass concentrated at a given point (xx ,yx% ,) is
The
V=
and
[(3),
(I)
this
Art.
must be a particular solution of Laplace's Equation is easily verified by direct substitution. 1], as
transform
(i)
If
we
to spherical coordinates
1
we
get
V=
Vr
=
sin 6 sin d x cos
2rr,[cos
cos B
\
(00,)]
+r
%
x
(2)
Art.
i].
x >
x
the given point (x xt y z ) is taken on the axis of X, as it must be in order that (2) may be independent of 0, 0, O, and
If
^=
is
r* V,,
2rr, cos
4.
.v
+r
.
x
13)
^('"V
and
if
08
*+)"*'
(4)
is
less
than
r,
2^1
cos 6
can be developed
 be this series,
1
into a convergent
power
series.
Let 5?/
6.
/,
Then
V=2pm r
I
w
is
solution of
Art.
4.
in the equation, and rememSubstituting this value of bering that the result must be identically true, we get after a
slight reduction
204
but, as
HARMONIC FUNCTIONS.
[CHAP. V.
we have
= cos
6 reduces this
Art. 4]. Hence we infer that the coefficient of the mth. power of z in the development of i 2xz\z*)~ iz a function of x that will satisfy Legendre's >(i
to Legendre's equation
^equation.
(i
2XZ
+ Z )"* =
2
[i
2(2X
*)] *,
;
and can be developed by the Binomial Theorem the coefficient m of z is easily picked out, and proves to be precisely the function of x which in Art. 4 we have represented by Pm (x), and have called a Surface Zonal Harmonic.
We
if
have, then,
t l 2xz+S)*=P,{x)+Pl(x).*+P,(x).S+PJLx).e+.. (5)
the absolute value of z
If
(I
is
less
than
I.
x=
I, (5)
reduces to
9
l
.
_ 2g+ j?)i = P (l)+P (t).i+PJil).S+ />(!) *> + but (1  2*+ f)*=(i*) =i+s+ J +*>+...;
1
hence
Pm (l) =
Surface Zonal Harmonic
I.
(6)
Any
two
of
may
Pu
(*)
= O,
(7)
which
is
easily obtained,
is
and
is
value of x
given.
z,
and we get
il
Avhence
^1
2XZ\S y
or by
(I
 2*8 +
+ (s
(5)
+)=
0.
(8)
ART.
13.]
PROBLEMS
(8)
is
IN
ZONAL HARMONICS.
205
Now
power
of z
must vanish.
identically true, hence the coefficient of each n Picking out the coefficient of z and
writing it equal to zero, we have formula (7) above. By the aid of (7) a table of Zonal Harmonics is easily com
P (x) =
1,
and
P {x) =
x
x.
Such a
table
cos
is
given at the
end of
this chapter.
Art.
13.
In any problem on Potential if Fis independent of sa that we can use the form of Laplace's Equation employed in
Art. 4, and
if
the value of
Fon
or as
can be expressed as
2am rm
^ 3+I> we
or
V^^ ^'^
As an example,
of electricity placed
lar disk,
tial
be required to find the value of the PotenFunction at any point in the " field of force" due to the
let it
and
charge.
The
from
its
centre
is
<T
M
4#7T Va*
.
and
all
See Pierce's
61).
The
x from
V = M cos*.x
2a
x*
+ a*
,
v ' (1)
206
HARMONIC FUNCTIONS.
[CHAP. V.
of (i)
is
power
M cos
2a
x* x*
 a*
+a
.
MYn
x*
x*
;.
Hence
lJi>.(cos )+...] 5
is
(4)
if
<a
<0
and
<
, as
is
F=
jj
 VP, (cos + 
P (cos
t
0)
lJ/>.(cos)
+ ...]ifr>,
(5)
The series in (4) and (5) are convergent, since they may be obtained from the convergent series (2) and (3) by multiplying the terms by a set of quantities no one of which exceeds one
in absolute value.
Pm (cos
The
6)
always
lies
article that
Prob. 19. Find the value of the Potential Function due to the attraction of a material circular ring of small crosssection.
integration,
ring.
and
M
=
is
if
is
At any point
in space, if r
<
Vm
and
if
y [/'.(cos
>
c
1 0) 
p,(cos 6)
+ 1^ /,(* 60 
],
ART.
14.]
ADDITIONAL FORMS.
I
2
207
T=  f^ (cos 6) C
Lr Art.
14.
3 P (cos 2
6)
+ 2 ^ r (cos 0) 0>
T
.
4V 4
'
.1 J
Additional Forms.
have seen in Art. 12 that m (x) is the coefficient of (#) m in the z 2xz\ #*)* in a power series. development of (i
(l
We
2XZ
~
Z*)
= =
01
[I
*(*'
+
K
e~
1
')
+
^*0
(I
**')"
]* "*
(i
ze ')*
and
(i
their
product
will give a
is
development
for
2xz
+ z*)~l.
The
m coefficient of z
PJcos
6)
1
=
I
i)
n 2C0sw,g
+2
Wl
i.(2 W .)
C08
^
2) g
3
(*)
I.2.(2Wl)(2W3)
V cos(
_ 4) g + 17
I
1 J
(I)
is odd the parenthesis in (1) ends with the term conif is even, with the term containing cos o, but cos taining in the latter case the term in question will not be multiplied by the factor 2, which is common to all the other terms.
If
Since
positive,
all
member
#
of (1) are
its
Pw (cos
has
its
maximum
value
when
= o, and
value then has already been shown in Art. 12 to be unity. 1. Obviously, then, its minimum value cannot be less than
we integrate the value of Pm {x) given in (11), Art. 4, (b) If times in succession with respect to x, the result will be
differ
tound to
from
'35
^^.
^ {2m)\
(
2m
0/
171th.
\x*
W m
i) '
t.
by terms m
than the
Hence
PJfi
^^~
I*
(*)
208'
HARMONIC FUNCTIONS.
Other forms for
[CHAP.
VI.
(c)
Pm {x\
m
i)
stration, are
PJ
^~
=
m
>
dx
tv + y + /
i_
(3 >
IT
PJx)
\f\* +
Vx^i
(4)
P,(*)
= l/
^j/
#
[*
.
.
V T
COS 0] m+1
(j)
(4)
and
(5)
and integrating.
Art.
15.
Development
as in Art. 4,
in
Whenever,
we have
Function given on the surface of a sphere, and this value depends only on the distance from the extremity of a diameter,
it
of
of 6 into a series
Aflcos
or,
d)
+ ^(cos + Aflcos +
6)
0)
AJ>.{?)
is entirely analogous to that of development treated at length in Art. 6 and may be solved by in sineseries the same method.
The problem
Assume
for
1
1
f(x)
1.
(1)
<x <
1.
Multiply (1) by
Pm (x)dx and
1
integrate from
to
We
1
get
_
(2)
Art.
16.]
209
We
show
i
in the
next
article that
j
i
i
Pm (x)Pn (x)dx = o,
unless
m=n
and that
f[PJx)ydx 1
^.
1
Hence
It is
(3)
the method
we have used
mining
Am
in
Am
amounts
essentially to deter
Ax)
and
==
+ A P {x)
n
shall hold
I,
good for n \ I equidistant values and taking its limiting value as n
of
is
x between
indefinitely in
creased.
Art.
16.
We
have seen
Art. 4 that z
= Pm (x)
f
is
a solution of
Legendre's Equation
j\ (1
x*)
m(m
+ 1)2 =
o.
(1)
Hence
and
^[(l
(l
 x*)
^?]
(3)
o,
(2)
i[ ^2^]+^ +I ^ W =a
Multiply
(2)
(3 >
by
PW
W and
by
and
integrate.
We
have
\m{m + I)  n(n +
210
HARMONIC FUNCTIONS.
[CHAP. V,
=[^K.)"f
1
^)<.^'i
];,
1
by integration by
parts,
o.
i
Hence
unless
O,
(6)
m=
n.
If in (4)
we
integrate from
to
instead of from
to
\r
we
Pm (x)P* (x)dX= n
"* v
'
/(;
r=i)
I.
~,
n(n\
(7)
i)
and as a special
unless
m=
get
o.
i
To
f[Pm {x)Jdx
is
not particularly
difficult.
By
(2),
1
Art. 14,
*
~i
flP4*)7d*^ttf
v
'
dx~
dx
dx
9>
1
By
successive integrations
a
by
dx__(^
i)
m contains (x*
1)*
as a factor
if
k < m, and
Art.
16.J
211
that
dx* m
= (2m)l
we
get
i
1
*'
1
f{x*
i
i)
m dx
f(x
i
m
i)
(x
+
i)
i)
m dx
=
m\i
fix J
v
' i)
\ {x+ r
m+1dx
{2tn)\
+U
2
(
+l
(m
\y
!'
I}
(2m
1)
Hence
i
/W)]W* = ^rj.
'
<i I)
Prob. 20.
Show
m\
that /
Pm (x)dx = o
x

if tn is
even and
is
not zero
( i)"^
m\m\
357M
\)
if
is
odd
.4.6
..
.(m
i)
Prob. 21.
Show
that^ [AC*)]V*
x.
2m \
'
Note that
[^(tf)]*
is
an even function of
Prob. 22.
,/(.*)
==
o from
to
= o,
and
Prob. 23.
Show
that i?(0)
= ^ Bm Pm (cos
0)
where
i?w
fF(d)Pm (cos
6) sin
dd.
212
Prob. 24.
esc 6
HARMONIC FUNCTIONS.
Chap
V
Show
that (cos
y [1 +
Show
a
!
(j)V,
(?)
+ 9(^5) A(cos
0)
"+
.].
See
Prob. 25.
that
(2 "
**
=
1.3.5
.(a
+I )[
l}/>
<
+ (in  7
1
2JL
~^
(x)
/>._,(*)
+ ...].
Note that
t/
fx Pm (x)dx
n
1
2 "V//
/
.1
fx* ^
1
x
dx m
\'~
^"dx,
_i
method
Prob. 26.
at
Show
and
if
that
if
V is
any point
imbedded
ling matter;
'
/{&) when r
in attracting or repel
a,
2jJ^Pm{a
V) if
r>
a,
where
Am =
Show
^Jff{0)P
2
if
;
nt
Prob. 27.
that
V= c
when r
=a
F=
if
<#
and
F=
r
if
>
dr.
Art.
17.
Formulas
in
Zonal Harmonics.
The
tion
following formulas which we give without demonstramay be found useful for reference
:
^^= (2ni)P..,(x)+(2ns)PU')+(2n1
9)PU'}+(i)
fp{x)dx =
(3)
Art.
19.]
spherical harmonics.
213
Art.
18.
Spherical Harmonics.
In problems in Potential where the value of Fis given on the surface of a sphere, but is not independent of the angle 0, we have to solve Laplace's Equation in the form (5), Art. I, and
by
it
can be
proved that
V = rm cos n<b
where
ju
sin
M
,
and
V=
r^~^>
= cos
6,
(5),
Art.
1.
The
factors multiplied
by
known
as
Tesseral Harmonics.
They
are functions of
and
6,
and they
play nearly the same part in.unsymmetrical problems that the Zonal Harmonics play in those independent of 0.
YJji, 0)
is
= A.Pm(p) +
m=i
l (A
cos
+B
sin
0)sin
^*
(IfA.
P jM
known
as a Surface Spherical
Harmonic
and
V=r~Ym
(fii,<p)
and
V = ^1
1.
(,
<p)
The
the Spherical Harmonic, as is also a form m (cos y) known as a Laplace's Coefficient or a Laplacian y standing for the angle between r and the radius vector r, of some fixed point.
;
refer
For the properties and uses of Spherical Harmonics we the student to more extended treatises, namely, to
Art.
19.*
Bessel's Functions.
in Art. 5 that
i
Properties.
We
have seen
= J {x) where
/.w = iJ + i^  ir ? J^
* The student should review Art.
5
+ .
(1)
214
is
HARMONIC FUNCTIONS.
[CHAP.
^+^ + *=
.
d*z
dz
0:
(2 >
Harmonic
JA) ~
is
dx
2L
2.
4^2. 4
2
.
2. 4
order,
.6\8^
Kl)
called a Bessel's
Function of the
first
and
is
dx*
+ x dx ^+(>^=>
f
(4>
which
is
table giving values of (x) and /,(^) will be found at the end of this chapter. If we write J&x) for z in equation (2), then multiply through by xdx and integrate from zero to x, simplifying the
resulting equation
by integration by
parts,
we
o,
get
xdj%(x)
or, since
J (x)
x
dx AT (J

+ fxj,{x)dx =
dx
fxj,(x)dx
= xJSx).
(2),
(5)
If
we
by
xi
ji
gration
by
parts,
we
get
or
fx(/l*)ydx
f [(/.(*)) + (/,(*))"].
'
(6>
Art 20.]
If
215
we
x by fix dz
2
in (2)
1
it
becomes
dz
(See
(8),
Art.
5).
Hence z
= J^x)
(j)J
Q
t
is
a solution of
(/* L x)
(7).
If
we
substitute in turn in
^ x) and /
K
for
z,
mult
equation by
x/ (^ x),
first,
the second by
x/ (/uK x)
simplify by integration
by
JxJl^xK x)J^x)dx
^KaJljA,a)f^ K a)~}x aJl^ K a)J^}x,d)\
K
(8)
Hence
/,(/**)
if /i K
and
// t
= o,
= o,
or of
or of
im/Aim)
a
\J (iia)
= o,
o.
J xJ^Kx)JX^x)dx =
:
(9)
We give without demonstration the following formulas, which are sometimes useful
ir
J (x) =
x
 fcos(x
n
cos
cp)d(p.
(:o)
J (x) = 
I sin
cos (x cos
<p)d<p.
(11)
and
(3).
Art.
(a)
20.
a special case of the following The convex surface and one base of a cylinder of radius a and length b are kept at the constant temperature zero, the
The problem
temperature at each point of the other base is a given function of the distance of the point from the center of the base re;
216
HARMONIC FUNCTIONS.
[CHAP. V.
Here we have
to solve Laplace's
Equation
in
the form
or
(see Art.
5),
r dr
oz
=o u = o
when
"
u=f(r)"
u
= o, r ~ a, z = b.
(1),
(2)
.
and proceeding
of
as in Art.
we
get,
if
/*,,/*,,//,,..
are roots
(3)
/.(/**)
= o,
%
z
and
f(r)
= AJ
Ml r)
(4)
r;
r)
'
'
(5
'
instead of keeping the convex surface of the cylinder at temperature zero we surround it by a jacket impervious to when r heat the equation of condition, 21 a, will be re
()
If
placed by
= O when r = a,
oV
.
or
if
=
r
sinh (^iz)/
a,
(^ir)
by
=o
when
dr
that
is,
by
/xj^a)
/:(/"*)
o
(6)
.
or
If
= o.
are roots of
now
If
in (4)
and
(5) /Jt
/*,,/*,,..
= o when
= a will
be
or
\hu
O when r
= a, h
of surface conductivity.
Art.
21.]
development
in
217
If
becomes
r
P/Af**)
+ hj^jxr) = o
ahj^d)
,
when
o.
.
=a
or
If
H*/i(j<"*)
(7)
(7), (5) will
now
in (4)
and
(5)
yw,
//,
yw 3
are roots of
 o, = /iW
/.(*)
>
(8)
(9)
and
have each an
xJ (x)
x
\Jlx)
=o
(10)
infinite
number
The
from the table for Jix) and /,(#) at the end of this
chapter.
Art.
21.
Development
now
in
We
article.
shall
Let
Ar)
fjtt
,
(1)
o,
^ ^
,
etc.,
being roots of
of
MaSXM<*)
= o, or Vo(^) = o.
(/*tf)
of /,(//#)
or
To determine any coefficient A k multiply (1) by rj (jii k r)dr and integrate from zero to a. The first member will become
a
frf{r)/.{n t r)dr.
Every term
19,
of the second
member
will vanish
by
(9),
Art.
At
fr\J,(fi,r)Ydr.
JrUAwWr = jjf4./J&J*t=
by
(6),
j([/.(w*)]"+[y.(w*)]')
Art. 19.
* See Riemann's Partielle Differentialgleichungen,
97.
218
HARMONIC FUNCTIONS.
a
[Chai\ V.
Hence
A =
k
The development
Arts. 6 and 15).
If J* t
,
(i)
= o to r = a
(2)
(see
Mt
o{/ (jua)
o
= o,
reduces to
Ak
7uh&%J'rJW*Jvyir
oi/ (jia)
t
'
(3)
o, (2)
reduces to
If /i,,
(2)
ju 3
M%y
roots of
^aj {^a)
x
\J%{j*a)
o,
reduces to
^ =
4
(5)
=
a
frf{r)Jl^k r)dr=
by
(5),
(4)
reduces to
Art. 21.]
development
ix
219
Prob. 29. An iron cylinder one meter long and 20 centimeters diameter has its convex surface covered with a socalled nonconducting cement one centimeter thick. One end and the convex
in
surface of the cylinder thus coated are kept at the temperature zero, Given that the conthe other end at the temperature of 100 degrees.
ductivity of iron is 0.185 and of cement 0.000162 in C. G. S. units. Find to the nearest tenth of a degree the temperature of the middle point of the axis, and of the points of the axis 20 centimeters from each end after the temperatures have ceased to change.
Find also the temperature of a point on the surface midway between the ends, and of points of the surface 20 centimeters from each end. Find the temperatures of the three points of the axis, supposing the coating a perfect nonconductor, and again, supposNeglect the curvature of the coating. Ans. ing the coating absent.
O
Or>
;
15 .4
40
.85
72 .8
OoO 15
;
.3
40
.7
72 .5
o .0
.0
.3.
Prob. 30. If the temperature at any point in an infinitely long cylinder of radius c is initially a function of the distance of the
point from the axis, the temperature at any time must satisfy the
equation
du ~
3 a (d*u ( 3
1
\
du\
I
(see Art.
1),
since
* it is
clearly in
dependent of z and
<p.
Show
that
+ Af"*j far) +
%
.,
where,
the surface of the cylinder is kept at the temperature o and Ak is the value zero, //, // 9 , M 3 , . are roots of J^pc) if the surface of the given in (3) with c written in place of a cylino and A k is obare roots of JJju) der is adiabatic /* //,, jtf 3
if
, .
.
tained from (4); and if heat escapes at the surface into air at the tem> ^JX^ C ) perature zero /*,, ju a j/t , ...are roots of pcjjj**)
,
and
Ak
is
obtained from
(5).
Prob. 31. If the cylinder described in problem 29 is very and is initially at the temperature ioo throughout, and the
long con
is kept at the temperature o, find the temperature of a point 5 centimeters from the axis 15 minutes after cooling has begun ; first when the cylinder is coated, and second, when the coating is Ans. 97.2 o.oi. absent. Prob. 32. A circular drumhead of radius a is initially slightly
;
vex surface
distorted into a given form which is a surface of revolution about the axis of the drum, and is then allowed to vibrate, and z is the
membrane
at
220
HARMONIC FUNCTIONS.
satisfy the equation
[CHAP. V.
must
^3
+
/
~j,
ditions z
/
when
a,
o when
/^<tf
)
o,
and
= /(r)
/i 9 tf
when
o,
show
that 2
= A^J^y)
. .
.
cos
+ AjXl*/) cos
an(*
where
/*,, fi %% f*% ,
are roots of
jX^a
^* nas
tne value
that if a drumhead be initially distorted as in not in general give a musical note that it may be problem 32 that in this case the initially distorted so as to give a musical note that the periods of the various vibration will be a steady vibration musical notes that can be given are proportional to the roots of o, and that the possible nodal lines for such vibrations (x)
Show
will
it
/.(*)
o.
Art.
If in a
22.
o when
the problem
is
easily solved.
If in (2),
responding solution z
= cosh (Mz)/ (Mr) we replace M by we z = sin (/xz)J (/uri) and z = cos (Mz)f (M r i)
(1),
as particular solutions of
and
is real.
^T
fc=i
knz
where
A k =r
9.
knz
I
f(z) sin
7
dz
>
(2)
by
Art.
knri\
b
7
I
Hence
= "^
k7TZ^\
sin
r
(3)
is
Art.
24.]
lame's functions.
221
J (xi)
will
of this chapter.
Prob. 34. A cylinder two feet long and two feet in diameter has bases kept at the temperature zero and its convex surface at 100 degrees Centigrade until the internal temperatures have ceased
its
Find the temperature of a point on the axis half way between the bases, and of a point six inches from the axis, half way between the bases. Ans. 72. i; 8o.i.
to change.
Art.
23.
Bessel's Functions of
Higher Order.
If we are dealing with Laplace's Equation in Cylindrical Coordinates and the problem is not symmetrical about an axis, functions of the form
**
very much
**
'
2r(*+l)L
2'(+l)
2\2\{?l+
1)0+2)
the same part as that played by (x) in the play are known as Bessel's Functions of preceding articles. They the nth. order. In problems concerning hollow cylinders much
enter,
known
as Bessel's Functions
For a very
is
;
and Spherical Harmonics for a much more complete treatment to Gray and Matthews' admirable treatise on Bessel's Functions.
referred to Byerly's Fourier's Series
Art.
24.
Lame's Functions.
Complicated problems in Potential and in allied subjects are usually handled by the aid of various forms of curvilinear coordinates, and each form has its appropriate Harmonic Functions,
which are usually extremely complicated. For instance, Lame's Functions or Ellipsoidal Harmonics are used when
solutions of Laplace's Equation in Ellipsoidal coordinates are Toroidal Harmonics when solutions of Laplace's required
;
Equation
in
For a
HARMONIC FUNCTIONS.
[Chap. V.
TABLES.
223
224
HARMONIC FUNCTIONS.
Table
II.
[Chap. V.
Bessel's Functions.
TABLES.
225
Table
n
III.
226
[CHAP, VI.
Chapter VI.
Fiske,
in
Columbia University.
Art.
If
1.
Definition of Function.
of them,
when any
values whatsoever are assigned to the others, suffers any restriction in regard to the values which it can assume the quantities are said to be " independent."
If
one quantity
is
to
several independent quantities, that whenever particular values are assigned to the latter, the former is required to take one or
another of a system of completely determined values, the former is said to be a " function " of the latter. The quantity or
quantities upon the values of which the value of the function " " of the independent variables depends, are said to be the
function.
function
is
when
signed to the independent variables there corresponds but one " value of the function. It is said to be " ^valued when to
every set of values of the independent variables n values of the function correspond.
The "Theory
of Functions
"
has
among
its
objects the
study of the properties of functions, their classification according to their properties, the derivation of formulas which exhibit the relations of functions to one another or to their independ
Art.
2.]
227
Art.
A variable
real
and imaginary
values.
w
V
by
is
is
I,
complex
u\v
u and v being
real.
It is cus
tomary to denote
tity thus
:
V
If
i,
iv.
zero,
is
real
if
is
zero,
is
pure imaginary."
A quantity z = x
i
\
iy
is
when
x
between every pair of values which it takes, c = a f ib and c * = a *~\~ M% tne value of z varies in such a manner that x and y pass through all real values intermediate to a and #a b and b respectively.
x ,
x give to a variable quantity z iy a graphical representation by drawing in a plane a pair of rectangular axes and constructing a point whose abscissa and ordinate are
It is usual to
= +
To every value of z will correrespectively equal to x and y. a point and, conversely, to every point will correspond spond
;
point and value, then, may be interchanged without confusion. When z varies continuously the
a value of
z.
The terms
"
"
This graphical representation is line. of the highest importance. By means of it some of the most complicated
propositions
sion.
may be
By
0,
r sin
where r
is
a positive real
z
is
= r(cos 6
f i
sin 6)
The quantity
z.
is
called the
(^J,
It will often
z.
be written
and
223
[CHAP. VI.
function is sometimes considered for only such values of each independent variable as are represented graphically by the In the study of functions points of a certain continuous line.
of real variables, for example, the path of each variable
resented by a straight or y o.
line,
Art.
3.
Absolute Convergence.
means
of infinite series
The
is
representation of functions by
tions.
that
problems, in fact, it is only by means of series possible to determine functions satisfying the condi
many
tions assigned
results..
Frequent use
be made
Theorem.
convergent series, the given series is convergent. wQ \ w Let the given series be r (cos 0, i sin # ), w, r (cos 6 a in which w
W=
r
=
x
f
wn \
By
R=
+r +
+ +r +
n
i sin #,)
is
terms being all positive, the sum of its first m convergent. terms constantly increases with m, but in such a manner as to approach a limit. The same will be true necessarily of any
series
formed by selecting terms from R. The sum of the is composed of two parts, terms of the series
first
W
x
r cos 6o
z{r sin 6
+ r cos 6 + r sin 6 +
X
x
+ rm + rm
_, _x
cos 9m .
sin #,_,),
and each of these in turn may be divided into parts which have all their terms of the same sign. Every one of the four parts
thus obtained approaches a limit as m is increased for the terms of each part have the same sign, and cannot exceed, in absolute value, the corresponding terms of R. Hence, as m is
;
increased, the
limit
;
sum
of the
first
tn
terms of
approaches a
series, is said to
Art.
4. J
elementary functions.
i.
229
*
. .
Prob.
Show
'
I
I.
+
+V +
+ zn +
is
absolutely convergent,
<
Art.
4.
Elementary Functions.
In elementary mathematics the functions are usually considered for only real values of the independent variables. In the case of the algebraic functions, however, there is no difficulty in assuming that the independent variables are complex.
The theory
fore,
is
of elimination
radicals. Every algebraic function, theredefined by an equation which may be put in a form wherein the second member is zero and the first member is
rational
and entire
in
its
independent variables.
Besides the algebraic functions, the functions most often occurring in elementary mathematics are the trigonometric and
exponential functions and the functions inverse to them. The definitions, by which these functions are generally first intro
duced, have
familiar series,
e*
pendent variables
no significance in the case where the indeare complex. However, the following
C0S2=
z __+_+....,
z*
a
3
I
.9
'
z
J
1
.
7i
which have been established for the case where the variables are real, furnish most convenient general definitions for exp z,
cos
z,
and
finite
sin
z these series being absolutely convergent for value of z. Defining the logarithmic function by
%
e\o%
it
ex p (Jog g}
follows that
a*
= ezl s
sa
exp(z log
a).
230
[CHAP. VL.
The
of definition
tan z
sin 2
Art.
5.]
continuity of functions.
231
variables
quantities of moduli less than some determinate positive quantity 3, the value of the function is altered by a
by
quantity of modulus less than any previously chosen arbitrarily small positive quantity e.
is
said to be con
tinuous in a given region of the plane upon which its independent variable is represented, if it is contiuuous at every point
in that region.
From the
principles of limits,
it
follows that
uct are continuous at that point. quence, every rational entire function of z
is
continuous at
finite point every such function can be constructed from z and constant quantities by a finite number of additions, subtractions, and multiplications.
every
for
Let a function of a single independent variable be continuous at c, and let it take at that point the value /, different
from
zero.
Suppose
also that at
/ \
At.
Then
At
At
At

t{t+ At)
/

If it
be assumed that
<
,
\t\(\t\\At\y
and
will,
if
\jt\<
up
l+e\t
Hence
at a point
if
c,
a function
its
if
is
at
once that
is
It follows reciprocal is also continuous at c. two functions are both continuous at c, their
c,
ratio
continuous at
232
at that point.
[CHAP. VI.
But every
rational function of z
It is
may
its
be expressed
as the ratio of
two
entire functions.
therefore continuous
denominator
vanishes.
gZ
Hence
if
\Az\<\,
\A Z \'
member
is
is
zero
when
all
Hence exp z
that cos z
continuous for
finite
\Az\ apvalues
Prob.
5.
z.
Show Show
and
sin z are
continuous for
all
finite
values of
Prob.
6.
that tan z
is
Art.
It
6.
was shown
it is
any onevalued
function.
For example,
if
w =jf[z)
x
u
ff
iy of the
iv of the function.
of the point
independent variable will correspond a point " This point u f iv is called the u image If w is a continuous function of z, then f iy.
in
every continuous curve in the ^plane will have an image the wplane, and this image will be also a continuous curve.
f
iv
x" f
f
2ixy.
Here
Art.
7.J
DERIVATIVES.
f
233
x*
y and v =
2xy.
spond determinate values of x and y and consequently determinate values of u and v, this expression falls under the general definition of a function oiz.
It is
evidently continuous.
Every
of
it
straight line
is
=
1
parallel to
the axis of
Prob.
7.
the function u
x*
~~
^"
+ 2txy.
Show
that
no two curves
Art.
Let
tt>
7.
Derivatives.
*.
= f(z)
is,
be a given function of
If
//
is
an "
infiniif
tesimal," that
its limit,
and
the
expression
h
has a
finite
determinate
limit,
all
possible suppositions as to the way in which //approaches zero, " derivative" of the function^) at this limit is said to be the
the point
at
z.
z.
In this case
is
f{z)
is
"
monogenic
is
The
derivative
written f'{z) or
A function
said
to be monogenic in a region of the plane of the independent variable if it is monogenic at every point of that region.
Consider
now
iv
may
\ iy.
changed and
into
f
Ax, while
A iv
~Az~
Au
Av
'
Ax
Ax'
234
If,
[CHAP, VI.
Azv
'
_"
Au
iAy
Az
If
Av Ay
'
the second
members
minate limits as
are equal,
Ax and Ay approach
and
if
these limits.
du, l9^___ z du
dv dy
dx^ dx~
dy
Hence, equating
real
and imaginary
parts,
du
dv
dv _
du
dx~dy'
which are necessary conditions
It
dx~~~dy'
for the existence of a derivative.
the increment of the independent variable be entirely arbitrary, no supposition being made as to the relative magni
For
let
tudes of
its real
and imaginary
is,
parts.
Then
the differential of
W
Hence
(
dx'
\dy
dy
'
I
du
+ _ dx + idy
du
idv
\Yx
.dv\
t
^x)
,1\
l
lt dx I+ ;i
is
3f
i"*f *t
which, by virtue of the conditions written above, either member of the equation
equal ta
du
.dv_
'
_ du
dv dy
dx
dx
is
dy
The
independent of
i
dx
or,
what
z.
is
the
same
The
Art.
7.]
derivatives.
235
*.
dx
^, dx
r,
;r
ay
dy
of condition
w=
x and
some
supposed to be an analytical expression involving and having partial derivatives with respect to each, y, involves z as a whole, that is, may be constructed from z by
u
\ iv,
or
y except
in
the
combination x
y may
In other words, they indicate that x and \ iy. both be eliminated from <p(x, y) by means of the
w=
x \ ty. This property, however, is not sufficient equation z to define a function as monogenic, for not every function which possesses it has a derivative with respect to z.*
monogenic function is necessarily continuous that the existence of a derivative involves continuity. For, if
;
is,
limit "^
^^ =/(*)>
it
follows that
where
rj
//.
Hence
f(z)
is
the limit of
zero, or f(z)
is
continuous at the
following pages relate almost exclusively to functions which are monogenic except for special isolated values of z. Functions which are discontinuous for every value of the independent variable, and functions which are continuous but admit
The
little
* For an interesting illustration of a nonmonogenic function constructed from z by a series of arithmetical operations, see the expression given at the bottom of page 298. fin this connection see G. Darboux, Sur les fonctions discontinues, Annates de l'cole Normale, Series 2, Vol. 4 (1875), PP 51112. For a systematic
treatment of functions of a real variable, see the
treatise
German
translation of Dini's.
236
[CHAP. VI.
Art.
Let z
8.
Conformal Representation.
start from the point z% and trace two different paths a given angle at the point z and let z and z% be arbiforming
> x
first
Then
z
x
= r,(cos 0,
r e i6 \
x
and
and
0,
reals.
In the
same way,
z
a.
there
is
an equation
z%
If
r3 (cos
sin
9)
9 rj* :
now
is
region
x >
spond points
the equations
w w w
,
and
can be formed
w
From
once
that,
w = p/*
w,
w = p/f*.
the supposition that w is monogenic, it follows at when z and z % are assumed to approach zQy
x
limit
v^Z^i = H m it ^zJHs. z
z,
zx
If
the
members
in the
it
may
be put
form
limit
limit
*!*.
Art.
8.]
CONFORMAL REPRESENTATION.
231
or
limit
&**A.
limit
*V**H ^
a
Hence
limit
(0,
2)
limit
(0,
f)
and the images in the wplane of the two paths traced by z form at w an angle equal to that at z% in the ,2plane. Accordingly, if z be supposed to trace any configuration whatever
in a portion of the ,2plane in
which
dz
is
equal to zero, every angle in the image traced by w will be equal to the corresponding angle in the s'plane. If, for exambe divided into infinitesimal ple, such a portion of the wplane
triangles, the
corresponding portion of the plane will be divided in the same manner, and the corresponding triangles
will
be mutually equiangular.
called
The modulus
"
of the derivative
dw
~dz
Aw
limit
Az
is
the
Its value, which, in general, changes from magnification." point to point, may be obtained from the relations
dw
dz
+''+'
"
dx dy
dy dx
representation has interesting ap
* For the literature of the subject, see Forsyth, Theory or Functions, and Holzmiiller, Einfuhring in die Theorieder isogonalen Verwandschaften und der conformen Abbildungen, verbunden mit Anwendungen auf matheniatische Physik.
Qrlfl
23S
Ajprf/
nnfyr^oCAU ftwtLAsUn**>
[CHAP. VI.
Art.
Case
I.
w=z s+c.
This function
is
independent variable
for w, z,
and
c,
respectively, u
ivt
x \
iy
and a f
tb,
one ob
tains
=x
f a,
=y
J b.
Any
configuration in the ^plane appears, therefore, in the seaplane unaltered in magnitude, and is situated with respect to
the axes as
if
it
through the distance a and parallel to the axis of imaginaries through the distance b. The following diagrams represent the transformation of a network of squares by means of the relation
w=
\ c.
Case
c
II.
Let
cz.
Writing
w
:
pe**,
re ie
and
p=
The
rt r,
0=0, +
*.
origin transforms into the origin, all distances measured from the origin are multiplied by a constant quantity, and all straight lines passing through the origin are turned through a constant angle. See the following diagrams.
Art.
9.]
239
Case III
Let
zv
zv
=
e*e
e*.
Writing z
^(cosjy
=x
f
iy,
the function
becomes
iy
=
/,
i sin y).
\ t
line
circle
= p =
is
trans
y becoming the unit circle. Points to the of the axis of y fall without the unit circle, while points right / to the left of this axis fall within. Every straight line jc
tan /9 parallel to the axis of x becomes a straight line v/u The accompanying diagrams* the origin. passing through
exhibit in a simple
manner the
(z f
periodicity expressed
by the
equation
exp
where n
is
2nni)
exp
(z),
integer.
the wplane, excluding the origin, correevery point number of points in the ^rplane. These spond an infinite points are all situated on a straight line parallel to the axis of
To
*The
treatise.
figures of this
240
y,
[Chap.
If
VL
and divide
z be one
is
log VD == if
}" 2/ZZ7T,
where n
If
is
integer.
beginning at the origin be drawn in the wplane, there will correspond in the ,2plane an infinite number
any straight
27T
37T 2
of straight lines parallel to the axis of x, dividing that plane To any curve in the wplane into strips of equal width.
line just
number
of curves, of
one
in
each
strip.
Case IV.
sin {iy)
Let
w=
cos 8.
Writing
w=
and employing
as equations
of definition
tv,
\
i sinhjj/,
\
tv
cos^r coshjj/
coshjj, v
i sin
s'mhy.
Hence
= cos x
sin^r sinh/.
ART.
9.]
241
is
Any
t v parallel
to the axis of y,
trans
=
cos
/,
sin t x
I,
having
its foci
at the points
+
+
'
and
is
i.
Any
straight line,
ellipse,
y=
t%
transformed into an
=
sinh
/,
I.
cosh"/,
having
its
foci at the
same points, any segment of the straight length to 2n corresponding to the entire curve By means of these confocal conies, the wplane
divided into curvilinear rectangles, the conformal representation breaking down only at the foci, where the condition
that
dz
^
is
not
fulfilled.
The
periodicity
by the equation
242
[Chap. VI.
tfplane serving to
determine
its
image
in
the wplane as an
Case V.
the relations
Let
u
w= =x
a
3
.
Writing
w=
$xy
x,
+
y
zv,
+ iy
3*/,
follow at once.
If
be eliminated from
these two equations by means of the equation Ix my n o, a straight line in the splane, equations are ob^ representing tained representing a unicursal cubic in the wplane.
'
kvulIP"
By
putting
p(cos
the
relations
=
ra
+
=
sin 0), s
r(cos 6
\
i sin #),
r\
3#,
are
obtained.
Hence the
1/frwtVr*
circle
2ar cos 6
#a
= =
c*
2#p* cos
a*
c*,
center.
which enwraps three times the point corresponding to the The accompanying figure represents this transformation, the straight line feg giving the curve feg.
To
dw
dz
is
not maintained,
Art.
9.]
243
arguments
00
3

2n
0+4^
:
respectively.
in the wplane not meeting the line just drawn will be represented in the ,2plane by three curves, of which one will be situated within each of these regions. In the
tations of a square
tv
If
t lt u the wplane by lines u / 2 parallel to the axes. tlt v the relation between and z be reversed, and z be
formed
in
taken as a function of w, z will be a threevalued function, its values giving rise to three branches which will remain distinct
becomes equal to
zero.
Prob. a
8.
If
w=
w=
\
show
common
Prob.
9.
If
+*
,
\w\
1,
244
[CllAP.
VL
Art.
in
Conin
^ O and
the
Draw
tangent
at
Ox
the
as
and
other
Oy
and
in
Ox
the
0'ir
and
measured
direction,
in
same
ured
and
parallel to
in
Oy
but measdi
a contrary
O'
by a straight line, and let <9Pand produce it to meet the plane uO'v in w. From the similar triangles O Oz and 00' w
'
rection. Join any point z in the plane xOy to Draw 0' z meet the sphere in P.
00' Oz _ = _,
OO
Ow

or
n nl = 757Pt Oz.Ow 00
I.

that
is,
.

w = rp =
an observer standing on the sphere at O rotation about 00' from O'u toward O'v is positive, while to an observer standing on the sphere at O such a rotation is negative.
To
Hence
/_xOz=
The
/_uO'w,
:
or
0.
wz = p?v *+
z(
fl)
I.
^planes are therefore conformal representations of one another. Any configuration in one plane can be formed from its image in the other by an inversion with respect
The w and
ART.
11.]
CONJUGATE FUNCTIONS.
245
to the origin as a center, combined with a reflection in the axis of reals. Such a transformation was termed by Cayley a " quasiinversion."
points at a great distance from the origin in one plane are brought near together in the immediate neighborhood of the origin in the other plane.
By
it
Since the line O'Pz makes the same angle with the plane as with the plane xOy, any spherical tangent to the sphere at
angle having
z.
its
vertex
is
it
The sphere
P at P is
must be
jjl
\jlmA
representation of the sphere upon a tangent plane in uthe manner described above is termed a " stereographic proWhen to this representation is applied a logarithmic jection."
The
JU
transformation, that
is,
one inverse to
the
transformation
.
V ./.
the preceding article, the socalled described in Case " Mercator's *Jyi 'Am****.projection" is obtained, ./.
III of
Art.
11.
Conjugate Functions.
The
real
ivy
w=
and imaginary parts of a monogenic function, have been shown to satisfy the partial differential
9
equations
_ dv ~
dy
dv__
_du
dy
partial
d*
d*~
At any
point, therefore,
dx^~df'
that
is,
9? + cy
tion for
this
the functions u and v are solutions of Laplace's equatwo dimensions. Any two real solutions / and q of
equation, such that p\iq is a monogenic function of x f ty, are called " conjugate functions." * Thus the examples of Art. 9 furnish the following pairs of conjugate functions
:
vol. 1, p. 227.
246
[CHAP.
VL
;
\ a,
y \ b
cos
x cosh y,
is
6),
;
r x r sin (dx
3
0)
cosj,
t*
wny
^r
3^y,
3^rjA
y.
The second
pair
expressed
to cartesian coordinates
= Vx*+y\
cos 6
= 
sin 6
one of two conjugate functions be given, the other is thereby determined except for an additive constant. Let u y Then for example, be given.
If
dv
=
dx
dx 4dy
dy
=
and therefore the value
of v
is
c lt v c^> obtained by assigning conequations u stant values to two conjugate functions, represent in the It wplane straight lines parallel to the coordinate axes.
The
c
a
be taken as orthogonal curvilinear coordinates for the determination of position in the ^plane.
x
may
Prob. io. Show that if p and q are conjugate functions of u and where u and v are conjugate functions of x andy,fi and q will be conjugate functions of x and y. Prob. ii. Show that if u and v are conjugate functions of X and y\ x andjy are conjugate functions of u and v.
v,
Art.
12.
Consider an incompressible fluid, in which it is assumed that every element can move only parallel to the ^plane, and has a velocity of which the components parallel to the coordi
Art.
12.]
247
x and y
alone.
known
as soon as the
motion
the .splane
is
ascertained.
any curve in the ,2plane is given, by the "flux across the curve"* will be meant the volume of fluid
in unit
When
which
the curve as base and included between the ^plane and a parallel plane at a unit distance.
is
The flux across any two curves joining the points z and z the same, provided the curves enclose a region covered with the moving fluid. For, corresponding to the enclosed region,
Let z be there must be neither a gain nor a loss of matter. fixed, and z be variable. Let ip denote the flux across any curve
z
z,
reckoned from
left to right
and looking along the curve toward z. If /, m be the direction cosines of the normal (drawn to the right) at any point of the curve, and /, q be the components, parallel to the axes of the velocity of any moving element, the value of tp will be
tp
/ tA
{lp f
mq)ds,
The
is the curve joining z and z. a onevalued function of z in any region tp within which every two curves joining z to z enclose a region covered with the moving fluid.
function
is
If
tp
does not
it, i.e.,
liMi
*
will trace a
The curves
const, are
all
streamlines, and
If p and q are continuous, z be given infinitesimal increments parallel to x and y respectively, one obtains
called the
" streamfunction."
and
if
4^y
If
now
is
the
248
[Chap. VI.
\
a
30
:
90
pis
_ a^
a*
Hence
is
"ay a*~
90
a^'
monogenic function of ^r j iy. The curves ( *^ which are orthogonal to the streamlines, are const.,
a
Consider, as an example, the motion corresponding to the The equipotential curves are given by the z*. functionf
w=
equations
<b= u = x
the
Y''
^xy=z const.,
streamlines
by
the equations  v
'vn
= 3*y y
const.
while
tential
the
equipocurves are
dotted.
The
in
fluid
moves
origin,
toward the
which
is
called
"
At the crosspoint flows out again in three other directions. the fluid is at a standstill, since at that point the velocity, for
which the general expression
is
V+'
is
subject to translation
and pure
by
f F.
Klein
Riemann's Theory of
p. 3.
Algebraic
Functions
translated
Art.
is
12.]
249
equal to zero.
The
motion of the
each of six different angles, as if the fluid were confined between walls perpendicular to the ^plane.
fluid in
It is of
if
be multiplied by
f
i<p.
An
example
of particular interest
is
w=
Let z
a
u log a
>
14
2.
c*w*<**?r
dc
1^
= r/*, z =
/i
j
r9 ^>; then
log
i,
tf
n{6
a ).
The
tems
lines,
curves u
= const., v = const,
which
of circles, either of
may
The
finite
a,
and determinate.
the circles
rjr%
a is as the streamlines, each of the points const, be taken as the streamlines, one If the circles 0, a
0 =
250
of the points
[CHAP.
VL
In the
simple electrical
two
w =.
cos z~
has been shown, the curves x const, form a system of confocal hyperbolas, while the curves y const, form an
as streamlines.
orthogonal system of ellipses. Either system may be regarded In one case the motion of the fluid would be
a thin wall were constructed along the axis of reals, except between the foci, and the fluid should be impelled through the aperture thus formed. In the other case
if
the fluid would circulate around a barrier placed on the axis of reals and included between the foci.
Besides their application to fluidmotion, conjugate functions have important applications in the theory of electricity
in elasticity/)
Art.
13.
Critical Points.
of z.
It
can be written in
<p (z)
common
number
root.
factors. of suc
is finite
and admits an
infinite
z,
= o.
Let a be such a
Then the
reciprocal of the given function is finite and admits an infinite number of successive derivatives at the point a. Such a point
*
J.
J.
in Electricity
and Magnetism
(1893),
p. 208.
+ Love,
1,
p. 331.
Art.
is
13.]
critical points.
251
called a "pole."
Any
where
and
lt
.,
Ak
are constants,
at the
a.
point the "order" of the pole, and the function is said to have for its value at a infinity of the k\\\ order. In accordance with
the definition of a derivative,
a.
ip(z) is finite
The
From
become
neighborhood of
to
is
sometimes said
infinite at a.
has a pole of the first trigonometric function cot order at every point z nnt, being zero or any integer posi
The
tive or negative.
log (z a) has for every finite value of z an infinite number of values. If z a is writz, except a, i& ten in the form Re ,
The
function
w=
w=
where log
integer.
log
R is
If
real,
and
remain
line, beginning at a, S will but will vary. The images in the wplane will fixed, therefore be straight lines parallel to the axis of reals, dividing
z describes a straight
the plane into horizontal strips of width 2n. If now the ^plane is supposed to be divided along the straight line just drawn,
and z
varies along
it
to the
restriction that
each
Each
of these images
is
said to corre
spond to a "branch" of the function, or, expressed otherwise, the function is said to have a branch situated in each strip.
The
252
[Chap. VI.
the point z a no definite value is attached to the As z approaches that point the modulus of the real function. part of the function increases without limit, while the imagi
At
nary part
is
entirely indeterminate.
a,
and
let
j
t@
\
2mni
be any one of the corresponding values of the function. Suppose that z starts from z and describes a closed path around
the point a, the values of the function being taken so as to give a continuous variation. Upon returning to the point z
the value of the function will be
log
or
\)ni,
i)7ti,
described in a positive or negative direction. By repeating the curve a sufficient number of times it is evidently possible to pass from any value of the function
at z
to
any
it
other.
When
in this
it
a point
is
such that a
s'path
en
may lead
of a function
is
In the case
is
called
"logarithmic
The
function
w=
log
~\ where
y
f{z)
and
(p(z)
are entire,
(p{z)
at
either/^) or
<p(z) is
equal to zero.
t
For, writing
.
f(z)
<j)(z)
the value of
w may
$
log
 + 2p m
m
 am
2qn n
log
(z
b n ).
Art
13
critical points.
253
w=
e*.
It
o.
indeter
For
let
If
now a
ib is
the reciprocal of p
h
\ iq,
so that
~~
.
"?
may be
.
written
_i_
x%
r.
But whatever the value of the integer m, q 2mit may be substituted for q without altering the value of c f id, and hence
both a and
may be made
less
given function e* therefore takes the value c f id at points a 4 ib indefinitely near to the origin. point such that, when z approaches it, a function elsewhere onevalued tends toward
The
is
called
an " essential
sin
Prob. 12.
singularity.
Show
is
an essential
i_
variable
considered as a function of a real continuous for every finite value of z, and the same is true of each of its successive derivatives. Show that when it is o is an essential regarded as a function of a complex variable, z
Prob.
13.
The
function e
z*
is
singularity.
In order to illustrate
still
V(z
 aX*
a^)...{z
an ).
254
[CHAP. VI.
a^,
. . .
except a iy
a tli
two
it
al9 at
takes but a single value, zero. let a straight line of indefinite extent be drawn in , . . . , au
such a manner that no one of them intersects any other, and suppose the ^plane to be divided, or cut, along each of these
lines. Along any continuous path in the S'plane thus divided the values of the function form two distinct branches.
For, writing
=re
x
iQ
i,
a2
i6
r^e
*,
an
rn e' en ,
w=
No
Vr
r2
rn
ei
closed path in the divided plane will enclose any of the 3 n after points a lt a9 , . . . , an and the quantities continuous variation along such a path, must resume at the
,
l
,
point their original values. No such path, therefore, can lead from one value of the function at any point to a new value of the function at the
initial
same
cuts
traces
in
a positive
direction,
a, and
not intersecting
itself,
X ,
, . . . ,
the quantities 6n are each increased by 27r; and a the value of the function is altered by a factor ^BHU*^ and In the same way any closed path deso changed in sign.
scribed about one of these points, and enwrapping it an odd number of times, leads from one value of the function to
the other.
On the other hand, a simple closed path enclosing an even number of these points, or a closed path which encloses but one of the points, enwrapping it an even number of
times, leads back to the initial value of the function.
It
fol
Art.
13.]
CRITICAL POINTS.
255
.
a branchpoint. Any point in the ^plane, closed paths about which lead from one to another of a set of different values of a function, the
x
,
#a
aH
is
number
is
called an
"
algebraic
branchpoint."
As
w=z
which
is
f {z
a)^,
w*
t>ziv"
+ 3<s^
z(z
a)w
+ (*
=
of
=o.
function has at every point, except z o and z a, Six branches are thereby formed which six distinct values.
The
can be completely separated from one another by making cuts from the points z = o and z = a to infinity. Putting w for the cube root of unity, these six branches can be written
V \V w z \(z a)' f ^ f a? {z \ go{z Hf, ss s ay, w a) V \V W = ^ V + G? W = Z + V* ^) The branches w, and w w and zt\, w and w are interchanged
1/2
si/ 8 '
j
(z
a)
1/2
1/3
3
'
1!
9 2/
3,
&
by
=o,
.
while a small
circuit described
w w w
tf
%%
about z
logarithmic discontinuity, essential singularities, and branchpoints, are called critical points.
In
fact,
a function, or a
"
branch of a function, is said to have a " critical point at each point where it fails to have a continuous derivative,* or about
impossible to describe a circle of determinate radius within which the function, or branch, is oneit is
which as a center
valued.
Any
*
is
Continuity and, therefore, finiteness of the function are implied in the existence of a derivative.
256
[CHAP.
is
VL
An
called
a certain region of the ^plane there are no critical for a given function, the function is said to be " syneo points " " tic" or holomorphic in that region. If in a certain region
critical
is
said to
be
"
meromorphic
Under
similar conditions a
branch of a function
also
described as holomorphic ot
meromorphic.
Prob. 14.
(z
When w and
that
if
z are connected
by the relation
g=
z describes a circle about h as a center, describes a circle about g as a center, an angle in the 2plane hav
Kf show
ing its vertex at h is transformed into an angle in the wplane f times as great and having its vertex at g and that z h is a branchexcept when t is an integer. point of
t
Art.
14.
Point at Infinity.
Oui
modulus
it
In determining the limiting value of a function when the of the independent variable z is increased indefinitely,, is usual to introduce a new independent variable z' by the
is
relation z
This
o. i/z\ and consider the function at the point z' equivalent to passing from the .s'plane to another plane,,
the ^'plane, related to the former by the geometrical construction described in Art. 10. It is often very convenient, however,, to go further and to substitute for the plane the surface of the
sphere of unit diameter touching the ^plane at the origin. Nodifficulty is thus introduced since, as explained in the article
just cited,
any configuration in the ^plane obtains a conformal representation upon the sphere; and the advantage is gained that the entire surface upon which the variation of the indeis studied is of finite extent. The point of the sphere diametrically opposite to its point of contact with o. the plane coincides with the point written above as z'
pendent variable
It is
sphere approaches it at the same ^plane recedes indefinitely from the origin.
.Art. 15.]
integral of a function.
point at infinity
257
The
point.
point,
may be
f
For the function e* for example, it is an ordinary For a rational entire function of the th since e* = f'.
it
degree
is
a pole of order n.
Consider
in
it
the preceding article. \/(z (z )(z Let a circle of great radius be described in the ^plane inclosing a n Its con formal representaa7 . all the branchpoints a
.
. . x
a9)
a H ), discussed
tion
on the sphere
oo point z branchpoint or not, according as the function changes value or( not when the curve surrounding it is described, that is accord.
be a small closed curve surrounding the This point must, therefore, be regarded as a
will
ing as
n,
the
number
of finite branchpoints,
is
is
odd or even.
When
total
number
The
point
character of the
point z = oo
i/z'
= o.
Show
that z
Prob. 15.
<p(z)
00 is
where
and
rp(z)
are rational
ip(z).
and entire
Art.
Let
z,
15.
Integral of a Function.
w =/(z) be a continuous function of a complex variand suppose z to describe a continuous path L from the point z to the point Z. Let a series of points z z ... ,zn be taken on L, and let /,/,,..., / be points arbitrarily chosen on the arcs z z lf z z zn Z respectively. Form the sum
able
t
+ (* z
n )f{tn ).
now
nitely in
*
It is
number of points z lt ., zn be increased indefisuch a manner that the length* of each of the arcs
the
. .
assumed
the
in
may be
or,
regard to every path of integration that the idea of length it included between any two of its points,
is
what
same
if
rectifiable.
This condition
is
evi
dently satisfied
and^j/
258
[Chap. VI,
z z 1 ,z za ...,zn
approaches zero as a
proaches a
limit,
the
sum 5
is
finite limit
which
apinde
pendent
z
..., zn and
/,,..., tn
(*.'*,W)+...
formed
for
in a similar
manner.
Suppose
the sake of greater definiteness that the points #,,... and */, . follow one another on the line L in the order
.
.
in
which both
It
may
be shown that as
. . .
the
number
and
*/, ...
is
S"
S and S"
both approach
from which
it
S
S"
S' has a
difference
has
the value
<?L $H*>
If
. .
^., 2'JDi
fc* 2*)f
m\.
be
less
1
\M) M)\
than
the modulus of
7l/[!^
S"
1
S will
any parameter
/
2
so that
continuous.
4/akr
f
dy
is finite.
Edition, Vol.
I., p.
100.
ART.
15.]
INTEGRAL OF A FUNCTION.
z
is
\
equal to the chord of the arc z^z^ and must therefore be less than or equal to this arc, and a similar result holds for each of the quantities *,' z *t Hence *,'
But
\z x
'
\S"S\<M/
where
the
/
number
/(n)
denotes the length of the path of integration. When of points of division on the line L is increased, the
differences
 AU\
since
/0.)
f(z)
 /(',).
is
/W  A*,),
approach
zero.
zero,
continuous,
accordingly
approaches
The
strated,
limit,
is
the existence of which has just been demoncalled the integral of f{z) along the path L. It is
written
I f(z)dz.
The
is
similar to that
given for the integral of a function of a real variable. It is unnecessary to specify the path of integration when the indeit
pendent variable is restricted to real values, since in that case must be the portion of the axis of reals included between
The following wellknown principles, applicable to the case of a real independent variable, may be readily extended to the
general case
:
1. The modulus of the integral cannot exceed the length of the path of integration multiplied by the upper extreme of the modulus of the function along that path.
2.
The independent
variable
may
described by the
new
3.
F(z)
is
fjWz = F(Z)F(z^
must be
true.
260
[CHAP. VI.
To
form
F(z
in
the
F[Z)F{Zl,)+F{zu)F(Zn _,) +
+ F(s,)F(z;)+F(z,)F(z
a ).
F(*m+ l )
F{z m )
[/(*)
tj
m ](zm+1
is
 zm
),
where
zm
.
t]
its limit
when zm+1
made
to approach
Hence
F(z
)
F(Z)
or, since
= limit
2f(z m )(zm+1
zm ) f limit 2r}m (z
l+1
zm)
member
is
equal
to zero,
F{Z)F{z,)
If
= ff{z)dz.
L
no function F{z) fulfilling the preceding conditions is known, the value of the integral requires further investigation.
I to the point z I, the path of integration being point z half of the circumference of a unit circle described the upper
Writing z
exp
(iff),
z will
n to
o.
The
dz
z
equations ,
e~ 2iB
dz
ieiedd,
= iedd = i cos
Hence
+1 J
dd
+ sin
dd
id (sin
6)
 d (cos
6),
follow at once.
for the
path specified
C
_1
= i Cd (sin 6)
IT
Cd (cos
V
d)
2.
application of the direct and more familiar the same result gives
:
The
method
~~
z*
"~"
z J, =I
zj s= _i~
ART.
16.]
261
limits of
between the
unintelligible.
The
discontinuity of
dz
the differential, 3, at the point z z
tion of such a path
;
= o,
result should
be negative
when the
differential
has no significance.
introduction of the complex variable furnishes a perfectly satisfactory explanation of the result.
Prob. 16.
The
Show
dz
that the integral of
equal to ni.
Art.
16.
The
integral
may
be written
in
the form
I {u\ iv){dx
or,
+ ufy),
vdy)
f i
I (vdx
f
udy).
calculation of the integral may be reduced to the calculation of two real curvilinear integrals.
Hence the
The equations
du
_ dv
du
__
dv
'dx~dy'
dy~
dx
iv should
be monogenic,
udx
vdy,
vdx
\
udy
two
262
[CHAP. VI.
inte
may be
written
\I\X, Y)
(x ,y
)
 J\xyM + iWX,
initial
Y)
Q{x.,y.%
re
Art.
17.
Cauchy's Theorem.
Cauchy's Theorem furnishes the necessary and sufficient conditions that a onevalued function f(z), having continuous
partial derivatives with respect to
x and
a region bounded by a continuous closed curve a onevalued integral, that is, an integral the value of which, when the lower
limit
is
fixed,
limit,
be more convenient, before considerpath to demonstrate the following lemma: ing Cauchy's Theorem,
of integration.
Lemma. Let A be a portion of the .splane, having a boundary 5 which Consists of a closed curve not intersecting itself, or of several closed curves not intersecting themselves or one
every point of the region A, including its boundary 5, a function Wot the real variables x and y is onevalued and continuous and has continuous partial derivatives
another.
If
at
f,f, the
relations
^
^*J?*)
(2)
fw*f*jfc*
exist,
the integrals in the first members being taken along the boundary in the positive direction, and those in the second members being taken over the enclosed area.
normal
*
Denote by A the inclination to the axis of x of the exterior at any point of the boundary,* that is, the normal drawn
It is
assumed
that the
at every point.
Art.
17.]
cauchy's theorem.
,03
ft
Xtvwl
to the right as the boundary
line
is
OAL*
K~hu4
described in a positive direction. If any straight parallel to the axis of x be traced in the direction of increasing values of x, at each point where
it passes into the area A, cos A. is negative, and therefore in the first member of
At each
negative. point where this straight line passes out of the area A, cos A, and there(i)
dy = cos \ds
is
fore
dy
in the first
(i),
is
member
positive.
of equation
Hence
of
entials
in
the
first
member
differ
equation
(i)
the
Wdy
y
corresponding
to a given value of y, and taken in the order of increasing values of x have signs which, compared with the signs of the
corresponding values of W, first differ, then agree, and so on alternately. In order now to compare the integral in the first member of equation (i) with the integral in the second
member,
it
The sum
form
necessary to take dy as essentially positive. of the differentials in the first member, correspondis
y must
%
therefore
be written
in the
dy{where
W,+ W.W,+
.
1V ...), t
are the corresponding values of taken in the order of increasing values of x. But performing now in
lf
W^
the second
to x, the
member
members
verified.
of
identical,
is is
obtain equation (2) the same necessary in this case to observe that
To
method
if
used.
It is
a line parallel to the axis of y is traced in the direction of increasing values of y, at each point where it enters A, dx in the integral of the first
If the
J<3
boundary
of a given region
is
interior curve of
which
this
assumption
true.
264
[CHAP. VI.
member must be
negative.
taken as positive; and at each point where A, dx in that integral must be taken as
By means
easily proved.
of the preceding
is
This theorem
If,
may
Theorem.
A, a onevalued function
ative f\z)
is
=/(#)
is
monogenic, and
its
deriv
j f(z)dz
taken along
the boundary
is
equal to zero.
integral in the
form
wdz
= j (iidx
gives
vdy)
the preceding
lemma
Art.
18.
follows that,
if
two
different
paths Z, and Z 2 lead from the point z Q to the point Z, and if along these paths and in the region inclosed between them a given function f(z) has no critical points, the integrals of the
function taken along these two paths are equal. For two such taken together, one described directly, the other repaths
versed, constitute a closed curve, and the integral taken along
* Otherwise
expressed, the onevalued function /(s) has no critical points on
is
holomorphic
in
A.
ART.
it is
18.]
265
equal to zero.
of integration
path
is
But, since reversing the direction of the equivalent to changing the sign of the
is
obtained.
The
theorem
may be
Theorem I. If a function is holomorphic in any simply connected region bounded by a continuous closed curve, the integral of the function, from a fixed lower limit in that region to any point contained therein, is independent of the path of
integration, and
is
a onevalued function of
its
upper
limit.
region whose boundary is composed of disconnected is not necessarily characterized by the property stated in the theorem. Take, for example, the function
curves
w
and suppose
\/{z
a

)(z
<*,)...(*

a n ),
that o . . . am \. With the ori\at ]at as a center, construct a system of concentric circles Clf gin C..., C, C{ passing through axi C3 through a and so on.
<
<
<
<
Denote by S the region inclosed within the first circle Clt by that inclosed between C and C and so on, the portion
Q
t
t
.
of the plane exterior to the last circle Cn being denoted by Sn At an initial point z interior to one of these regions, assign to
w one
of the
two values
possible,
will be a monovary within any such region, this branch of and its derivative will be continuous. Having genic function,
it is evident that in ., a n regard to the branchpoints a lt a t the regions Sof S9 ... it will be onevalued, and in the regions Thus in the regions 5a St it will be twovalued. Slt Ss
, ,
,
the branch
not.
fulfils
does
The
the required conditions, but the boundary It may be theorem is applicable only to 5
.
every other region two paths may be drawn the same two points such that the branch is not onejoining valued in the enclosed portion of the ,splane.
observed that
in
266
[Chap. VI.
Tl/
>
Theorem II. lif(d) is holomorphic in any simply connected region S bounded by a continuous closed curve, the integral
$>
> /
I f(z)dz,
point
a holomorphic
function of
its.
upper
limit.
Let
at the point
\
dZ
be any path from z to Z. When the upper limit is to> dZ, L followed by a straight line from can be taken as the path of integration. Hence
Z+
nz+dz
nz
nz+dz
foP,
\A*)AZ)Y>
The modulus
is
S*Z+dZ
pZ+dZ
z d,+J
Z =AZ)J
The
term
is
first
term
is
equal to f(Z)dZ.
of second
M\
dZ\, where
treme
is
Hence
"*A*y*  f*A*V*
where
r/
\AZ)
+ nZ,
approaches zero with dZ. The integral therefore has /(Z)fora derivative, and is holomorphic in 5.
In the case of a region bounded by several disconnected closed curves, of which one is exterior to all the others,.
Cauchy's Theorem
may be
Theorem
region curves
A C
Let a function j\z) be holomorphic in a bounded by a closed curve C and one or more closed
III.
C%*
*
x%
interior to C.
The
along
will
integrals
u*
^\
the curves
(7,,
in
is equal to zero. But boundary of are then described in the direction oppo
ART.
19.]
26?
the curves
site to that in
is
described.
Hence
if
all
same
may
be written
c c fjw* =f/w* +f
If
dz
there
is
but one interior curve, so that the region A is C and Clf the integral taken along
x
every closed curve containing C but interior to C has the same value, viz., the common value corresponding to the paths
C and
C\.
Art.
19.
I.
Theorem
be continuous
in
around a small
circle
having its center at a, will approach zero as a limit simultaneously with the radius r of the circle c, provided only
lim (z
d)f{z)
=o
when
= a.
a)f{z)
c,
For
let
on
M.
Then
at
every point of
\
M
2tzM.
and consequently
mod^ f(z)dz
Theorem
closed curve
II.
J ds
v
,
The
integral / fa
r, ny
(z
a)
when n
.
I.
C containing the point a, is equal to zero, except When n = I, this integral is equal to 2ni.
of
if
any
circle described
integration.
varies from
about a as a center be taken as the path of Let then z a reiB where r is a constant and
=
e
o to
2rc.
#
The
r
integral
becomes
/2ir
(nl)iO
rni
/ J
dd
%G8
[CHAP. VI.
If
I, its
value
whence
SA
z
dz
:
27tl.
a function holomorphic in a given closed curve the interior of which is wholly region S, C within S, and a a point situated within C, then
III.
a.
Theorem
If f{z) is
^c
&dz
a
= 27tif{a).
v J
r,
^c z
is
*Jc
za
c,
t]
obtained.
But
at every point of
where, by choosing r sufficiently small, the modulus of be made less than any fixed positive quantity. Hence
may
^cza
zero.
vc z
^cz
but by the preceding theorems the first term of the righthand member is equal to 27tif(a), and the second term is equal to
the equation of the theorem just established be differentiated with respect to a, the following important formulas, expressing the successive derivatives of a holomorphic function
If
Art.
20.]
Taylor's series.
integrals in the
first
269
The
finite
members
and determinate for every position of a within the curve Therefore any function holomorphic in a given region admits an infinite number of successive derivatives at every
C.
interior point. Each of these derivatives being monogenic must be continuous. Hence the following:
Theorem IV.
there exists an
f(z) which are
y
If f(z) is
infinite
number
derivatives of
all holomorphic within the same region. Denote by r the shortest distance from the point a to the
curve Cm
Then
M be the upper
length of C.
a\
> r.
and
/
Let
the
extreme
of the
modulus f(z) on
Then
mod
/c (z
a)
n+l
dz
(n)
270
[CHAP. VI.
From
the preceding
article,
2nt
Jc
f
= jl
27iiJ c
1 +^l_+ T (Ca)^(C)'*(C^J
7
+ Tfzf'W + R
1
2i
. .
'
71
where
r  _L f
" +1
AQ
r _
By taking n sufficiently great the modulus of made less than any given positive quantity. Let
R may
be the upper extreme of the modulus of f(z) on the circle C, p the a or radius of C. Then modulus of t, and r the modulus of Q
be
27t
Jc
r n +\rp)
its
< rp\rj
when n
which, since p
<
r,
limit
= oo
is convergent and the equality is maintained for z included within a circle described about a as a every point center with a radius less than the distance from a to the nearest
The
series
critical
point of f(z).
When
is
M=
/(o)
+ *f(d) + ^/"(o) +
in
+ _!_/<)(o) +...,
This form
is
expressing/^)
terms of powers of
z.
known
as Maclaurin's Series.
Art.
21.]
Laurent's
series.
271
Art.
Theorem.
region be the
21.
Laurent's Series.
bounded by two
Let
concentric circles
and
72
be situated
in
which a given function f(z) is holomorphic. If a common center of the two circles, and a j t a point interior to S, f(a\ 1) can be expressed in a
}
in
convergent double
f{a
series of the
tn
form
+ = =2AJ". m
/)
oo
oo
With a
^
circles, it follows
2ni*'c ^
i
a
Article
2ni^c%
2ni
J'
But from
icj^.'Ufc
^
=f{a
i_r
whence
yv
/(ck
t)>
2ni Jc
^
t
27tiJc*Z a
i
written
:
The two
member may be
^Cv
where
t n+1
27ziJc>t
n+ l
But
/
<C
*
at every
/>C
.*)
at
every point of
272
[CHAP.
VH
when n
in the
oo
The
value of f(a
t)
form
f(a
+ t)=A + A + AS + Af + ...
1
m+1 the function f(z)/(z a) phic for both positive and negative values of written
is
holomor
m A m may
f
be
a * m  L C 2t7zJ
c
f^ dr  a)"* a^ &
1
where
is
any
circle concentric
with C, and
and included
between them.
The series thus obtained is convergent at every point a 4 1 contained within the region S. It is important to notice, however, that when the positive and negative powers of t are considered separately, the two resulting series have different
regions of convergence.
powers of
containing the positive converges over the whole interior of the circle C ;
series
x
The
while the series of negative powers of / converges at everyThe region 5 can be regarded, point exterior to the circle 7a therefore, as resulting from an overlapping of two other
.
Writing z for a
f(z)
f /,
= A + Az  *)+
Alz
1
+ A _,
z
a)
 a y+... + A_ (z  a) +
2
2
{Z If \z\
I) (Z
2) (Z
all
3)
2(2
I)
+ 2~ 2(Z
3)
<
1,
three
developed
powers of z, give only positive powers. If 1 < < 2, the first term of the second member gives a series\z\ of negative descending powers, but the others give the same
in
series as before.
If 2
<
\z\
<
3,
the
first
3,
If \z\
>
all
Art.
22.]
Fourier's series.
273
negative powers, and the development of the given fraction can contain no positive powers. Thus a system of concentric annular regions is obtained in each of which the given fraction
is
Laurent's
is
which
holo
Art.
Let
22.
Fourier's Series.
in a region
go,
w = f(z)
is
be holomorphic
and
let it
be
so
that/^
+ #<) =/(^)
; .
any positive or negative integer. Denote by Sn the obtained from 5 by the addition of nco to z and supregion S 5 Sn ... S_ n 5_ pose that the regions
where n
X ,
such a manner as to form a continuous strip in which, of course, the function w will be holomorphic. S, Draw two parallel straight lines, inclined to the axis of reals at
meet or overlap
in
an angle equal to the argument of cw, and contained within the The band T included between these parallels will be strip 5. interior to S. 1 4 o wholly
2iriz
By means of the transformation z' = e w the band T in the ,2plane becomes in the 'plane a ring T' bounded by two
z
concentric circles described about the origin as a center, z and Since is holomorphic f hod falling at the same point z\ in a region including T, and
dw
dz'
dw
dz
gd
2iriz
'
dw
dz'
dz dz'
2ni
will
be holomorphic in
T\
w= w 2
the quantity a
in this
m=
<x>
= <
A mz h\
in the general formula of the preceding article case equal to zero. Substituting for z' its value,
w = 2 A me
274
[CHAP. VI.
where
z+w _ 2m " e
wd*'
In the latter integral the path is rectilinear. Denoting its independent variable by C for the purpose of avoiding confusion, the value of
w becomes
M = ^C
m=oo
I
e~
/{Z)dZ
2 w=co
/+ w
r^sr*
/+ w
imn
i/
/^c+^cs + ^
.
ic
2//Z7T.S
^
2M71Z
/^ w cos 2mnQ
2ni7lC
sin
/(eye
co
sin
/+w
/
b
V(CKC
=1
G
Art.
Let the
term
of
series
is
23.
Uniform Convergence.
\
W= w
5.
u\
+ w^
\
ze/ n
each
which
a function of
of a given region
terms of W.
tive quantity
If it is possible,
e,
posi
whenever
> v
\W Wn \<e
is
vergent
in
in the region 5.
Uniformly convergent
exactly the same
of terms.
series can in
manner
as
sums containing a
series,
itself
number
Theorem
the terms of
a continuous
function of
z. z,
For
at
any point
W may be written
in
the form
Art.
23.]
uniform convergence.
n
275
r
,
JV=
W + R;
and
at a
neighboring point z
W= W
'
+ R'.
Hence
WW'=W W '+Rn n
R',
and

IV
W'\ =
But by choosing n
be made
less
may both
Having
chosen n thus, n becomes the sum of a finite number of It is then continuous, and, by making functions. continuous
\z'
z\ less
d,
\W
n '\
ma y
De W<n
made
less
than 
\Wis,
W'\<e.
z.
Theorem
series
If all
W = W + w, +
o
+w
f
are continuous, the integral of the series, for any path L situated in the region of uniform convergence, is the sum of the
integrals of
its
terms
Sl
Wdz
=
e
Sl
w ^z +X Widz +
n
it is
Wnd*
For, writing
W= W + R,
may
be, \R\
however small
so chosen,
<
fWd^fwjz + fRdz..
But,
by
by
00
its limit.
Hence
f Wdz =
fwjz.
276
[CHAP. VI
.
.
Theorem
is
III.
If
the series
series
'
JV= w
\
w \x
+w
n \
..
is
of
uniformly convergent in a region S, and if further the terms are continuous in S, will be the derivative of W.
For, integrating
in S,
W from a
w,{a)
to z along a path
contained
J W'dz
of
w (z)
+w
n {z)
wn {a) +
is
^W{z)W{a\
But the derivative
of the first
member
W,
which must
W.
An
the following
Theorem IV.
If
+ w, f
dw
\
+w +
n
dw
dz
"*"
dz
"t"
T
i
dw
dz
T
i
'
"
"
is
uniformly convergent, ^Fwill be holomorphic for its derivative. S, and will have
in
the region
To
is
illustrate
of
convergence
W=
At
the point z
is
iI
*"(i
*)
each term is continuous, and the series the value 1/2. The series is, however, convergent, having i< discontinuous at z For, writing it in the form
w=
L_\+(<~i
L.\
Art.
23.]
uniform convergence.
first
277
n terms
"
is
seen to be
+z
But
is
the limit of
when n
\z\
= oo
I,
and
is
therefore
at every
unity at
point for
If
<
and zero
which
\z\
>
I.
now
this series
upon a
circle
be considered for the points within and described about the origin as a center with an
z
n
W=
n
I
f z
can,
by a J
suitable choice of n be
y
made
absolute value than any given quantity. In such a region, then, the series converges uniformly, and, by Theorem similar result holds I, can have no point of discontinuity.
less in
for the region exterior to any circle described about the origin as a center with an assigned radius greater than unity.
By means
of
Theorem
is
II given
above
it
For, assuming the notation used unique. in the determination of the series, the series is uniformly con
Laurent's Series
vergent in the region included between any two given circles concentric with C and Ca both being interior to C and exx
terior to
Cr
:
f(a
,
t)=m
= 
2 A mr
oo
oo
=
,tt
= _oo
2 A m 'r.
Divide by /n + 1 and integrate along any circle described about rtasa center and included in the region of uniform converg.
ence.
The
integral I
 n
is
zero, except
when
m=
n;
the integral I t~ l dt
2* Jr.
Hence
278
[CHAP.
VL
from which
identical.
follows that
An = An
',
series are
Art.
24.
function holomorphic in a region 5 and Theorem I. not equal to a constant, can take the same value only at isolated points of
vS.
For
in
by
Taylor's theorem,
/(*)
A") =
(*
**'(<*)
+ ^=^"/"() +
.
constant over the entire circle of convergence of this series, the derivatives /'(a), f'\ci), cannot all be
Unless/^)
is
equal to zero.
zero.
J
first
which
is
not equal to
Then
v
'
[_i
'
v
. . .
(n
\ i)
If
\z
a\
modulus
of the
be given a finite value sufficiently small, the first term of the series within the brackets will
all
will
still
of
z,
amount, /(^)
If, on the other hand, the function is constant over the entire circle, described about a as a center, within which Taylor's series converges, it will be possible, by giving in succession
new
positions to the point a, to show that the value of the function is constant over the whole region 5.
Theorem
in a
II.
given region
Two functions which are both holomorphic 5 and are equal to each other for a system of
points which are not isolated from one another, are equal to each other at every point of 5.
<p(z)
By
the pre
must be equal to
Art.
24.]
onevalued functions.
III.
279
in
Theorem
function which
is
is
holomorphic
every
constant.
g,
As)
*(<*)
But by Article 19, r being the radius of any arbitrary circle being the upper extreme of the having its center at a, and modulus of f{z) on the circumference of this circle, (9'^(p*\
M
N
mod,
f \d)
, lM)/ n
nM
.
<
But
is
always
finite,
Hence f {n \d)
great.
function/^), holomorphic in a region 5, is equal to zero at the point a situated within S, the function can be expressed in the form
If a
Theorem IV.
f{z)
= (z ay<f>(s),
<p(z) is
where
is
holomorphic
in
5 and
For
in the
A>)=A*) + (
Let/
is
(w)
}/+
J 7
(a)
be the
first
a which
Then
f(z) v
(z
m
a)
\
.2.
^m
. .
L
t
'
1.2
(w+
is
(z
1)
a) J
I,
which
is
The
point a
is its
order.
If
the point a is a critical point of a given function /(s), but is interior to a region 5, in which the reciprocal of j\z) is holomorphic, the function can be expressed in
Theorem V.
the form
where
is
is
holomorphic
in
the
neighborhood
280
[Chap. VI.
jA
where
<p{z)
is
= (* 
w
tf)
0<,
at z
a.
Hence
in
l
'
^_ a yn
f
0(^
^ _ ay
*&
Further, since
a region
point a
X(*)
f(z) JK J
=A
(z
.
.
) + ...,
. '
=
(z
dl L  q) m ^
n h ^z a ^ +(g\
Adauzi _L
for tp(z).
The
ing no
point a
is
a pole of f(z)
and
is its
order.
Theorem VI.
finite
points except poles, must take values near to every assignable value. arbitrarily
critical
For suppose that f(z) is such a function, but that it takes no value for which the modulus of f(z) A is less than a given
positive quantity
e.
Then
the function
i
/(*)
will
A
is
be holomorphic
III, is
in
Theorem
function f(z), having no critical point except a pole at infinity, is a rational entire function of z.
Theorem VII.
critical
point of
is
Hence
/ #+...+4 +0W
where
<fiz) is
is consequently equal to a constant (f)(z) point at infinity. The given function therefore can be written in the form
f(z)
= A m + ...+A z + A
z>
1
.Art. 24.]
ONEVALUED FUNCTIONS.
281
Theorem VIII.
are poles
is
only
critical
points
a rational function of
The
other
;
poles must be at determinate distances from one anotherwise the reciprocal of f{z) would be equal to zero
for points not isolated from one another. The number of poles cannot increase indefinitely as \z\ is increased; for then the
reciprocal of
would have an
infinite
number of zeros
indefi
The
.
total
number
fore
finite.
Let
a, b,
denote them.
in
the form
'
a)
a
In the neighborhood of
b>
being an ordinary point for cf>(z). in the form <p(z) can be expressed
u
*
'
'
'
'
(z
b)
b
*p(z).
a and
this
Proceeding
in
way the given function will be expressed as the sum of a finite number of rational fractions and a term which can have
no
critical
This term
is
the function f{z) has no zeros and no critical points for finite values of z it can be expressed in the e^ z \ where g(z) is holomorphic in every finite reform f{z)
If
t
Theorem IX.
gion of the
s'plane.
For
f(z) ~~
can have no
critical points
except at
infinity, since
in every finite region of the ^rplane f(z) and f'{z) are holomorHence, choosing an arbiphic and f{z) is different from zero.
the integral
/
is holomorphic in every finite region. sequently must take the form
The
^82
[CHAP. VI.
where
g(z)
If
).
Theorem X.
if
<p(z)
have no
criti
these poles are identical in position and in functions, and their zeros are also identical in position order, there must exist a relation of the form
f{z)
and
<p(z)^\
finite
where g(z)
is
holomorphic
ratio of the
in
every
For the
critical
Art.
If a
is
25.
Residues.
critical
point
a, it
by Laurent's series in the region comprised between any two concentric circles described about a with radii
expressible
less
critical
point*
Hence
the neighborhood of a
/(s)
The
If
coefficient
of (2
a)'
in
a.
this
expansion
is
called
the
C including
region of convergence of this series, and f{z) be integrated along C in a positive direction, the result will be
J (fz)dz = 2niB
The
theorem
following
:
may be
Theorem
I.
If in
onevalued function
a region 5 the only critical points of the f ... the /(.s) are the interior points a, a
,
Art.
25.]
residues.
283
integral
j f(z)dz
is
taken around
its
boundary
in a positive
direction
equal to
fA*)d* = 2*i(B + +
>
...),
are the residues of f(z) at the critical points. where B, B\ For the integral taken along C is equal to the sum of the integrals whose paths are mutually exterior small circles de.
>
The
preceding
only
Theorem
critical
II.
If in
C the
interior to C, an equation
dz
exists,
M
in
2iit(MN)
of zeros
and
N the number of
number
of times
equal to
its
For
/( Z )
(*
)0(*)jj^yiv
a,
if
where
<p(z) is finite
if
and
a
is
is
positive integer
a pole.
Hence
/'{*)
= m
z
,,
0Xf)
<P(zY
f(z)
a**
fj^
\
2L*
integrand, therefore, has a pole at every zero and pole of f(z), and its residue is the order, taken positively for a zero, and negatively for a pole.
The
Theorem
roots.
III.
of degree n has
For
zn
let f{z)
~
l
a zH
x
represent the first member of the equation an o. Since f(z) has no poles in the
.
+ =
284
[CHAP. VI.
number
C will
'
ni
**?* /(*) Jc A
is
But taking
for
j_
27Z
k' + (y + * + a i? +* Vc
e has zero for a limit
sr
...
dg
= J_
oo
.
Cndz
Hence the
2nl Jc z
limit
vj
where
when
is
\z\
increased,
is u.
is, if
00 is an Show that if z ordinary point of f(z), that /(s) is expressible for very great value of z by a series containing only negative powers of z, the integral o(/(z) around an infinitely
is
This
coeffi
00
Prob. 18.
Show
that the
sum
equal
to
f^l
io.
Prob.
is
If
tt\
is
of
,
4,
degree lower by 2 than the denominator, and if the zeros ,...,# of the denominator are of the first order, show that
=
A
>
o.
*
Art.
It
26.
was shown
a function/^)
is
holo
integral taken from a fixed morphic in a given region lower limit contained in 5 to a variable upper limit z is a oneS, its
If F{z)
is
a function which
z and is onevalued takes a determinate value F(z ) at z while z remains within S, having at every point f(z) for its
derivative,
the
).
integral
If
of f(z)
from z
F(z)
F(z
F (z)
x
is
another function
Art.
26.]
285
the
form (z) F^z^), the functions F(z) and a constant term for 3,$)  ^< ^o)  *\
x
l
F (z)
x
differ
only
by
is
still
it
#,,#,,... paths from z to z, which inclose between them a region con., will give integrals identitaining none of the points a lf a 2
,
. .
Any two
Let the two paths L lf L include between them and consider the integrals along a single critical point aK these two paths. The integral along L will be equal to the
cal in value.
;
reversed
for the
integral curve, or" loop," including the critical point a K , and, assuming that it is described in a positive direction about a KJ the intex
along L'
is
equal to zero.
But
L~
is
a closed
gral along
at a K
.
it is
K is
Hence
ff{z)dz
= 2niB
L
,
K \
ff{z)dz.
If
now
,
them
utive
several critical points a K a ky a^ ., draw intermediate Z3 Lmy so that the region between any two consec., paths
.
.
The integral paths contains only one critical point. L will be equal to the integral along the composite path along L L~ L^ Lm ~*L m L~ L, since the integrals corresponding to
x
X
Z _1 Z,, L L '\
a i t
.,
.,
L m L m L~ L are all equal to zero. But L L~\ L m L~ are all closed paths or loops, each including
X
,
~1
a single critical point, so that, assuming that each is described in a positive direction and that denote the resiK Ky B^,
B B
,
critical points,
f^Mds =
It
27ti(BK
+ B, + B. +
.)
+ f A*YL
has been assumed in the preceding that neither of the paths L lt L intersects itself. In the case where a path, for
286
[Chap. VI.
.
example
lt
.,
it
is
possible to consider Z, as
made up
of a path
Z/
not intersect
ing itself, together with a series of loops attached to Z/ at Each of these loops encloses a single the points clt c v critical point a K and, if described in a positive direction, adds
.
Each such loop described in a to the integral a term 27tiB K 2niBK It is evinegative direction adds a term of the form
.
dent that the form of each loop and the point at which it is attached to Z,' may be altered arbitrarily without altering the
value of the integral, provided no critical point be introduced In fact all the loops may be into or removed from the loop. as attached to L* at z regarded
.
It
can be proved by similar reasoning that the most genbe drawn from z% to z will be equivalent, so
is concerned, to any given path preceded by a series of loops, each of which includes a sin
and
is
The
form
f
where
L f{z)dz
. .
.
+ zni{m B + m^ + ...),
x
x
m m^
lt
are
As an example
critical
The onlv
is
point
is
= a. Any path
whatsoever from z to z
equivalent to a determinate path, for example, a rectilinear path, preceded by a loop containing a and described a certain
number
of times in a positive or negative direction. If w denote the integral for a selected path, the general value of the If now a straight line be drawn integral will be w f 2nni.
joining zQ to a, and if along its prolongation from a to infinity the .srplane be cut or divided, the integral in the #plane thus
divided
stricted,
is
onevalued.
any branch of the function log (z a) is onevalued. Select that branch, for example, which reduces to zero when z and its 2=za\ I. It takes a determinate value for z
Art.
27.]
weierstrass's theorem.
28
is
Hence, denoting
it
ct>
by Log
.
(z
a),
(z
 a) =
Log ^~^.
of the inte
/
ator is of
dz
z
a a
Log z
is
2nni
log
a lt
<z
.,
degree lower by 2 than the denominator, and if the zeros # of the denominator be of the first order, show that
ft8*=2P&
fc. where
2<p{a v )/tp\a v )
log
= o.
Art.
27.
Weierstrass's Theorem.
z,
Any
points a lf a
.,
a my can be put
*,)"
,
in the
having form
its
zeros at the
...(#
.
.
a m y>,
., n m are positive integers. function which has no critical point in the generally, any finite portion of the ^plane and has the points a lt ., a m as
is
a constant and
More
form
where g{z)
is
holomorphic
in
every
finite region.
The
without
<Jue to Weierstrass.
theorem
Theorem.
Given an
infinite
number
a lf
288
[CHAP. VI.
aa , ...,<?,..., a function can be constructed holomorphic except at infinity and equal to zero at each of the given points
only.*
n.
Consider the
f
infinite
product
4w = $(i
where
fjt
<f,
Pn {z)
Any
factor
may
be written
in
the form
(i
 L)*
dz an
z
*s(
i)
+F
But since
g
(l
z \
~"aj~
r ~*A
. .
* " " ~
~an
"
z*
r
*/>
z * dz
no}
a*(a n zf
the path of integration being arbitrary except that it avoids as the points a lt a ., the product may be expressed
ZZ**
W
,
in
which
ij) n (z)
zn dz
a nn (a n
it
 z)'
will
be possible
indefinitely
assume that
n.
z\
< am
since
\a\ increases
with
The second
part
is
equal to
tn
.
Art.
27. j
weierstrass's theorem.
00
289
00
Consider the series 2ip n (z) and 2ip(z), each term of the secm tn ond being the derivative of the corresponding term of the first.
In the given region
;
p
CX
v*
*.'(*)
< ij Kiipy
,
00
Each term
of ^tp n (z)
is
sion independent of
g.
The
oo
converges
uniformly.
The
\U*)\= mod
where
/
fj'W*< W^Z\p)>
jo,
ink
a,
By Theorem
holomorphic function.
tn
The
exponential
also
must be holomorphic.
27 (1
The
 lW>
of factors
is
containing only a
finite
number
a lf But
this region
fulfils
may
be extended
arbitrarily.
The product
it
therefore
the re
none
ati a
To
it is
The most
290
[CHAP. VI.
.,
having its only zeros at the given points a lf a%} be expressed in the form
an
. .
.,
can
yw = <*un[i  \ f[z) aJ
i
fj.*)
where g(z) is holomorphic except at infinity; for the ratio of any two functions satisfying the required conditions is neither
nor zero at any finite point. means of Weierstrass's theorem it is possible to express By any function, F(z), whose only finite critical points are poles as the ratio of two functions holomorphic except at infinity. For,
infinite
construct a function
.
tp(z)
having the poles of F{z) as its zeros. no finite critical point. <p(z) will have
therefore, be written
Ft A
#*)
which
is
it
In applying Weierstrass's theorem to particular examples, will rarely be found necessary to include in the polynomials
as
were employed
in
the demonstration
choose these
the product converge polynomials in any way which will Factors of the for finite values of z to a holomorphic function.
make
form
aj
such a manner, are called " primary
where
Pn(z)
is
chosen
in
factors."
application of Weierstrass's Theorem take the resoThe zeros of sin z are o, lution of sin z into primary factors.
As an
7t,
27t,
.,
n7r,
....
I
\
nit'
,
and
W) =
I
nninn
z)
ART.
27.J
00
WEIERSTRASS'S THEOREM.
291
The
series
2$M'(g) m
will
=
\z\
p <
mn
for, since
nn{n7t
s)
\
\nn\l
mnl
is
less in
of the series
war/
series J2tp n '{z).
A
series
m
The two
$4,4*),
are also convergent; for
\tp n {z)\
21>4s)
treme of
\tpn(z)\
multiplied by
These
series
which
=
\z\
p.
is
= se*'>n( 1
00 \
nnj
)e
the value n
= o being excluded
next article that
gd 1
It will
be
shown
in the
e^
I.
Prob. 21. If
the doubly
is
and
gd 3
ratio,
rr
infinite series of
if
is 7
absolutely convergent
p>
Hence show
Z
Itil
=*43
where
go
= moo
\
nco 7
region of the splane. This function is Weierstrass's sigma function, and is the basis of his lystem of elliptic functions.
292
[CHAP. VI.
Art.
28.
MittagLeffler's Theorem.
Any onevalued function f{z) with isolated critical points *?,,#,,... can be represented in the neighborhood of one of these points by Laurent's series viz.
; :
+ M =A. +
is
A,(z,{g
+ Biz
1
a.)"
Hence
where 0(#)
/(*)
),
holomorphic
J
and
GH \
.
is
the point a n
If
an
;
a pole oif{z),
it
Gn
l
J
contains a finite
infinite
series.
If
number
of terms
otherwise
is
an
the
number
of critical points
at
is finite,
Gn
each such point, by subtracting the sum of these is functions from/^) a remainder will be obtained which has no
formed
critical
This remainder
ascending powers G{z) convergThe function f(z) can thereing for every finite value of z. fore be written in the form 1* >*]
can be expressed as a
The
number
Let a xi
of critical points
infinite is
due to MittagLefrler.
of the onevalued func,,..., ani ... be the critical points tion /(#), and suppose that
kl
\an
\
<l*il
<
A*\ <
is
>
when n
increased indefinitely.
Let, further,
GM (
.
.4
?
A
>ju
*^
<*>i
"
TAk
Art.
38.]
MITTAGLEFFLER'S THEOREM,
in
293
a n contained
The
,
function
GJ
\ having no
critical
point except at
series in the
form h^YO
series will converge uniformly within a circle described about the origin as a center with any determinate radius Within the same circle Maclaurin's series, applied fin < \an \.
and the
to
Gn
'\
\2
aj
],
GJ
\2
a nj
A,
converges uniformly.
Hence,
for
circle
Fn (z)
GJ
\2
representing the
first
aj
by Maclaurin's theorem,
Fn \z)
its
derivative,
and
less in
R! remainders which by a suitable choice of v absolute value than any given quantity.
may be made
so that
Elf E
.
.
>
. . .
EU9
.
. . .
+E
\
+ En +
is
convergent.
alf att
. ,
Choose aMI .,
.
ft
\
z
\
<A <
*h
anc*>
m
]
general,
1x10(1
t^ty
mod
[^t^y
'
294
[CHAP.
VI*
finite region of the plane, the points ax% a 3 . ant . . . excluded. Since \a M increases indefinitely with n, it is being possible, in any finite region of the #plane, to assume that
in
any
*
<P<
m
sum.
be
am\*
its
first
terms.
These terms
will
have
in
each case a
finite
absolute value than mt B m + h respectively, than each of the quantities p my pm + Ac\z\ w*>*Oiw~ ft* k*. aVma each of the series "/'"^s^^ cordingly,
will
less in less
.
being
lf
is
a ny
absolutely convergent for every value of z except a lt a 2 ,. r It is evident, further, that in any given finite region,
.
an
two
of
series
converge uniformly.
is
either series
holomorphic
first
function.
The
point a n
is
&> since in
[>by its
'*#>]
=
[a*)
sfcdbeG
may be
.
. .
m
an
is
.
neighborhood
this difference
developed as
a convergent series containing only positive powers of z In the same way each of the points a lt a aHi ... ordinary point for the function
,
an
critical
point except at
infinity, and must be expressible as a series G{z) containing only positive powers of z and converging uniformly in any
finite
Hence
may be
put
in the
form
Art.
28.]
mittagleffler's theorem.
295
M=
in
G{z)
+2
[_G{izrj)
/)],
is
which
exhibited.
z.
As an
= o,
is
zr,
27r,
....
;
borhood of
borhood
cot z
z
= o, of z =
is
cot z
holomorphic
and
tztt,
rnt
holomorphic.
The
j
series
^
in
+ 00
nn'
which
for finite
an arbitrary positive integer, is not convergent values of z, even when \z\ < m. The series
is
.^r
is,
!+] = ^
=^=
\
nnl
however, absolutely convergent at every point for which For the modulus of any term is equal to \z\ <m.
_
V
1*1
v(iW). ^7T>
7Z7Z7
win)
nnA
easy to see now that the reasoning employed in the demonstration of MittagLeffler's theorem may be applied to
It is
show
296
[CHAP. VI.
^
oo
\_z
nn
'
nnS
= o,
defines a func
in
any
finite
2?r,
being excluded.
The
difference
cot
~ ,_i_^r_!_ + _LV^ J nn nn J z
x
\_z
can have no
point except at infinity. It must, therefore, be expressible as a series G(z) of positive powers of z>
critical
having an
infinite circle of
I
convergence.
Hence
cot *
=
is
(*)
+  + j>
oo
p
1
h
"1
The next
that,
if
step
is
to determine
its
(*).
It is to
be observed
zero, since
G(z)
a constant,
z.
value
must be
,,
sin z
It follows,
z
into z
TZ
\
{z
nny
by changing z
n, that
G\z +
Hence G\z)
n)
G'(z).
if
;
is periodic, having a period equal to n and as the z traces a line parallel to the axis of reals, G'{z) passes point again and again through the same range of values. But G\z),
is
finite
It can, therefore,
become
at
all,
only
)
when
the imaginary part of z is infinite. If z be written in the form x f ty, the value of G'{z) may be expressed as
^ '
_ ~
j_4r
(x
\ iy)*
2 ^y ( cosx
sm x V
lyi
(x\ty
first
nnf
and
2x)e
When
member
}>
jy
the
erms
it
of the
second
vanish.
f
^
iU
Art.
for
28.]
mittagleffler's theorem.
I4v is
297
which y is finite and different from any given region an integer r can be found such that the sum of the moduli zero, of those terms for which > v is less in absolute value than
any previously assigned quantity e. As \y\ is increased the modulus of each of these terms is diminished. The modulus 00. of their sum, therefore, cannot exceed e when y = But the sum of any finite number of terms of the series when^= Hence the limit of the whole series is zero. G'(z), is zero. Hence, by Theorem III, therefore, never becomes infinite. It follows that Article 24, it is constant, and is equal to zero.
&(z)
is
equal to zero.
expression for cot z
is
The
accordingly
J+SfcJ nn
The
strass's
nnj
logarithmic derivative of the product expression for sin st given in the preceding article as an example of Weier
theorem,
cot *
is
00
nn h nn J
T
Making z
Hence g{z)
its
in that
expression
is
a constant.
= o,
value
is
seen to be unity.
Prob. 22.
From
+
cosec z
8
ec
= 3> *Z
 nnf exclude n = o.
7
;*>
(z
Show
jb,
vj^
where
00
mao f
points are z
noo^
defines a function
is
whose only
finite critical
go.
This function
Weierstrass's ^function.
(Com
JM =~
J
^
s
log
<r(*).
*.M,
^ %u
[i$lM} i^CP
298
{CHAP.
VL
'(z)
2^7
r , 3
o.
Art.
29.
The
preceding articles have been assumed to have only isolated That an infinite number of critical points may critical points.
be grouped together in the neighborhood of a single finite point is evident, however, from the consideration of such ex
amples as
#7/ y /
f'Vu^
osec
/'
^r3
=^
jr^.
number
neighborhood of the
origin.
easy to illustrate by an example the occurrence of lines and regions of discontinuity. Take the series *
It is
The sum
of
its first
n terms
* z'
is
1
.1
>
if
\z\<
I,
and to zero
if
\z\>
I.
Hence the
series.
circle
*=I
is
Consider
regions
5 and S
t
Let
<p(z)
and
ip(z)
The
expression
<P(z)V(z)
+ tp(z)[i0(z)]
See Weierstrass, Abhandlungen aus der
* This series
is
due to
J.
Tannery.
Functionenlehre (1886),
p. 102.
Art.
will
29.]
29D
In regions comthe same
be equal to
expression
S and
1
ip(z)
in
critical line,
may
functions.
For a single continuous region, however, in the interior of which exist only isolated critical points, the character of the
function in one part determines its character in every other Let 5 be such a region, and assume that its boundary is a part.
critical line.
a critical
series, viz.
In the neighborhood of any interior point a, not point, the given function is expressible as a power
:
f{z)
will converge uniformly over a circle described a as a center with any determinate radius less than the about
It serves for the distance from a to the nearest critical point. all its successive derivatives at any point
This series
From
M=
center.
Ab)
6y,
ft
J^m +
representing the f(z) within a circle described about b as a In general, the point b can be so chosen that a portion of this new circle will lie without the circle of convergence of
the former power series. At any new point c within the circle whose center is b, the value of the function and all its successive derivatives can be calculated
series
;
and
so, as before,
power
can be obtained convergent in a circle described about c as a center and, in general, including points not contained in
either of the preceding circles.
continuing in this manner it will be possible, starting from a given point a with the expression of f(z) in ascending powers, to obtain an expression of
By
the same character at any other point k which can be connected with a by a. continuous line everywhere at a finite distance
critical point.
It follows
300
[CHAP. VI.
S can be
determined completely
from
its
hood
It will
any information
S.
regard to the function at points exterior to given above, furthermore, shows that a complete definition of f(z) within 5 may carry with it the definition of an entirely independent function without 5.
The example
As an example
of a function
having a
series
f
by the
.,
+ 22 + 2Z* + 2Z*
;
X. ?i
+%^
is
01+'
which represents a function without critical points in the For points on or without this interior of the circle \z\ = I.
circle the series
is
divergent
and, further,
it
impossible to
obtain from
it
=
\z\
i.
The
function thus defined, consequently, exists only in the region interior to the unit circle. By changing z into \/z a series
is obtained, representing a function which has no existence in Functions in connection with the interior of the unity circle. which such regions arise are called " lacunary functions." *
Art.
30.
a value
at z
,
take at the point z of a given re/ Suppose that along any continuous path, and subject only to the conditions that it shall
0)
.
w =/(z)
interior of
S and
.
shall
isolated points
t ,
a%t
w is
uous derivative.
ferent from
*
{Q
impossible, when z traces such a path, difto return to the point z so as to obtain there a value of
If
it is
w \ w is
On
the other
Art.
30.]
301
may
new values
x ,
, .
of
w.
w has Suppose that at each point of 5, except a <z a n different values, and that starting from such a point 89 and a i9 f tracing any continuous curve not passing through a
. .
each of which
the
is
w w
wnT
In
a k any one of the points a x , a% , . . . neighborhood these branches are said to be distinct or not, according a? small closed curves described about this point lead from each value of
of
back to the same value again, or cause some of the branches In the latter case the point is a branch to interchange values.
point.
and suppose
that, starting
it
with the
value
corresponding to a certain branch, the values ... are obtained by successive revolutions about ak , Wp^Wy the original value being reproduced after p revolutions. Introduce
wa
now
new independent
z'
variable
k )'K
z'
such that
= (z  a
It
ak
z'
gin
makes only one /th part of a revolution about the oriof the ^plane, and that to a complete revolution of z
.
about the origin of the ^plane correspond / revolutions of z about a k Considering then the branch wa as a function of z' r
the origin cannot be a branch point, for whenever z' describes is reproduced. a small circle about it, the value The a branch 7va must accordingly be expressible by Laurent's
series in the
form
+ 00
hn
y
or,
its
value,
1
2
.
.
302
[CHAP. VI.
branches of a function
When
of
its
the development of a branch in the neighborhood of one branch points gives rise to only a finite number of terms
is
called a
"
polar
P =z Wy + W + + Wu P = w w + w,w + + wn _ wn
x
. .
Pm =
Each
of these functions
WSiVa
is
.
w.
in
unchanged
.
value
of the quantities n are interchanged, and %i xt sequently a onevalued function of z within S. Hence
.
,
w w
con
w must
th degree,
%
+ Pjf* + p
of'
+P =
n
o,
the coefficients of which are onevalued functions of z having only isolated critical points within 5. When the entire ^plane can be taken as the region 5, and those branch at which
points polar branch points, the only other critical points being poles for one or more branches, the functions u H tt ..,,P are rational functions of z. In this case is an algebraic function of z.
all
remain
finite are
P P
Art.
1.],
303
Chapter VII,
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS.
By W. Woolsey Johnson,
Professor of Mathematics in the U. S. Naval Academy.
Art.
1.
In the Integral Calculus, supposing y to denote an unknown function of the independent variable x, the derivative of y with
respect to
is
required to find the value of y as a function of x. words, given an equation of the form
%=A*\
of which the general solution
dy
= Ax)dx,
(i)
is
= /A*)**,
such reduction
it is the object of the Integral Calculus to reduce the expression in the second member of equation (2) to the form of a
known
function of x.
When
is
not possible,
the following pages give a sketch the given expression for the derivative may involve not only x, but the unknown function
or, to
it
(1),
may be
Mdx
+ Ndy =
o,
(3)
in which
M and N
;
are functions of
x and y.
This equation
is
form of the
order and degree either variable being taken as the independent variable, it gives the first derivative of the other variable
304
in
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS.
[CHAP. VII.
terms of
x and y.
So
is
not necessarily an
is.
an.
When we recognize the left member of equation (3) as an " exact differential," that is, the differential of some function o
x and y
tion
s
the solution
is
xdy \ydx
the solution
= o,
is is
(4)
(5)
xy =
C,
where
is
C is
an arbitrary constant,
obtained by
gration."
attributed to C, the result " x' 1 is a particular integral thus jj/ a " particular integral of equation (4), while the more general relation expressed by" complete integral." equation (5) is known as the
;
When
a particular value
is
not an exless
and
it
is
necessary to find
some
direct
method
of the
of solution.
of solving a differential equation, order and degree is, when practicable, to " separate the variables," so that the coefficient of dx shall contain x
first
only,
and that of
dy,
(1
only.
 y)dx + (1 + x)dy = o,
x)(i
y).
T Thus
,
dx
:
'
h
1
dy =l_
o,
\x
y
and hence
y)
log
(1
Each term
is
now
directly integrable,
(1
log
+x)
c.
solution here presents itself in a transcendental form,, but it is readily reduced to an algebraic form. For, taking the exponential of each member, we find
'
The
=e =
C,
whence
1 L
= C(i
y),
(7>
where
C is
ART.
2.]
GEOMETRICAL REPRESENTATION.
verify the result in this form
305
To
tion
we
gives dx =
we
find
which
is
C{i
y)+i+x = o,
(7).
true
1.
by equation
Prob.
x dx
= o.
b
Prob.
2.
Solve
$dx
+ py = a\ J
= ^}. x +1
~ C r dr
Prob.
Prob.
3.
Solve
fdx
y y
=
1
ex
^)
j
L are given constants. Find the value of C, dethe constant of integration by the condition that its initial termining value shall be zero.
where
,
R, and
Art.
2.
Geometrical Representation.
of a differential equation
The meaning
illustrated by supposing simultaneous the rectangular coordinates of a variable point. ient to put/ for the value of the ratio dy dx.
:
conven
Then
P being
its
the moving point (x, y) and <p denoting the inclination of path to the axis of x, we have
p *
The
between p, x and
y
= dy = tan fdx
0.
given differential equation of the first order is a relation y, and, being of the first degree with respect determines in general a single value of p for any assumed to/, values of x and y. Suppose in the first place that, in addition
to the differential equation, we were given one pair of simultaneous values of x and y that is, one position of the point P.
y
Now
let
P start
from
306
is
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS.
[Chap. VII.
initial
thus have a moving point satisfying values of x andjj/. moves the the given differential equation. As the point values of x and y vary, and we must suppose the direction of
We
its
motion to vary
in
In of x, y, and p continue to satisfy the differential equation. is said to that case, the path of the moving point satisfy the
differential equation.
The point may return to its initial thus describing a closed curve, or it may pass to infinposition, ity in each direction from the initial point describing an infinite
branch of a curve.*
The ordinary
path
If
of
Pis
no pair of associated values of x and y be known, Pmay be assumed to start from any initial point, so that there is an
unlimited
number
of the equation.
of curves,"
"
and the
and an arbitrary
parameter."
It is
constant for any one curve of the system, and different values of it determine different members of the system of curves, or
different particular integrals.
As an
illustration, let us
may
1,
which
dy ~
y
x'
dx
the axis of
P
is
tan
0,
and
on the other
is
When
why
M and AT
is
unrestricted, there
no
reason
ART.
3.]
307
side. Starting from any position in the plane, the point thus moving must describe a branch of an hyperbola having the two axes as its asymptotes accordingly, the complete
;
integral
xy
=C
is
these hyperbolas.
Prob.
5.
to move Write the differential equation which requires and thence derive the
Prob.
6.
?
What
If
is
when
(Ans.
is
ment
of 6
Prob.
7.
x*/=Q
(x*
the comple
26,
consists of circles,
and
(Ans. 2xydx
y*)dy.)
Art.
3.
Let us now suppose an ordinary relation between x and y, which may be represented by a curve, to be given. By differentiation we may obtain an equation of which the given equation
is
But by
combining
be found.
ential equations of
any number of differwhich the given equation is a solution may For example, from
we
of
y = m(x
obtain directly
a)
t
(1)
2ydy
= mdx
dx
(2)
(2)
(1)
is
by
(1)
2dy
=
is
y
and
of this equation also (1)
If in
it is
JZT^
(3)
an integral.
be regarded as an arbitrary parameter, equation (1) the equation of a system of parabolas having a common
The
contain m,
is
satisfied
by every member
308
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS.
(i)
[CHAP.
VIL
Hence equation
thus regarded
is
Now
it
equation
of
(3) is
independent
is
and
(2),
since
" differIt is therefore the the result of eliminating m. " and in this point of view the ential equation of the system
;
is
said to be
(1)
its
"primitive."
Again,
stant,
it is
if
in
equation
a
is
common
the equation of a system of equal parabolas having Now equation (2) which does not contain a axis.
it
is
satisfied by every member of this system of curves; hence the differential equation of the system, and its primitive equation (1) with a regarded as the arbitrary constant.
is
Thus, a primitive is an equation containing as well as x and an arbitrary constant, which we may denote by C, and the
is
a relation
between
x,
yr
and p, which is found by differentiation, and elimination of C if necessary. This is therefore also a method of verifying the comFor example, in plete integral of a given differential equation.
verifying the complete integral (7) in Art. I we obtain by differIf we use this to eliminate C from equaentiation 1 Cp. is equation (6); whereas the process before tion (7) the result
(6),
(7).
7,
and
Write the equation of the system of circles in Prob. derive the differential equation from it as a primitive.
Prob. 9. Write the equation of the system of circles passing b), and derive from it the differthrough the points (o, b) and (o,
ential equation of the system.
Art.
In Art.
I
4.
the case
mentioned
is,
in
which
Mdx
f
Ndy
is
an
andjy.
du
Mdx \.Ndy,
(1)
ART.
4.]
309
and
in
d M= d* A
N^P. dy
dydx
dxdy
y
J
partial derivatives
'
dy
d*
fulfilled
by
M and N
in
order that equation (i) may be possible. When it is fulfilled Mdx \ Ndy = o is said to be an " exact differential equation,"
and
its
complete integral
is
= C.
/)dy
(3)
2y)dx
+ (**
y\
= o,
and
x{x
\
2y),
N = x*
2#,
= 2x
To
the
condition
function
(2) is fulfilled,
is
exact.
find the
u,
in
Y may
be a function of y.
The
x*dx
+ zxy dx +
written

x*dy
dY,
;
which should be identical with the given equation therefore, dY y^dy, whence Y = \y % C, and substituting, the complete integral
may be
is
The
result
more
readily obtained
if
we
notice that
all
terms containing x and dx only, or y and dy only, are exact hence it is only necessary to examine the terms differentials both x and y. In the present case, these are containing
;
2xy dx f x*dy, which obviously form the differential of x*y whence, integrating and multiplying by 3, we obtain the result
;
above.
The complete
integral of
any equation,
in
whatever way
it
310
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS.
in
[CHAP. VII.
the form u
C,
by solving
for C.
can be obtained, Hence an exact differential equation du which must be equivalent to the given equation
=o
Mdx + Ndy =
here supposed not to be exact. must therefore be of the form
o,
(4)
The
exact equation du
=o
(5)
ju(Mdx
+ Ndy) =
o,
where and y.
}x is
Such a
a factor containing at least one of the variables x " factor is called an integrating factor" of the
given equation.
result of differentiating
equation
(7),
Art.
when put
(1
in the
form u
C, is
(1
y)dx\{\
+ x)dy _
3
'
J)
so that
is
is an integrating factor of equation (6). It to be noticed that the factor by which we separated the
(1
y)~
variables, namely,
factor.
(1
y)~\i
x)~\
is
also
an integrating
an integrating factor can be discovered, the given differential equation can at once be solved.* Such a factor is sometimes suggested by the form of the equation.
It follows
that
if
Thus, given
the terms ydx
act,
(y
x)dy\ydx
= o,
xdy, which contain both x and y, are not exbut become so when divided by either x* or y*; and be
cause the remaining term contains y only, y~* is an integrating The resulting integral is factor of the whole expression.
^ogy
Prob. 10.
x~*
is
+^ =
x
C.
Show from the integral equation in Prob. 9, Art. an integrating factor of the differential equation.
1
3,
that
o.
* Since
we have
fl
juM and #iVin the exact equation (5) must satisfy the condition (2) r a partial differential equation for ju; but as a general method of finding
this
Art.
5.]
homogeneous equation.
5.
1
311
(Am.
Prob. 13. If u
^t^ + tan"
2
^*.) x
is a form of the complete integral and /* the corresponding integrating factor, show that m/( u ) is tne general
=c
y(y
f
2x )dx
+ *(**
2y)</y
o.
(Ans. 2x*y
y*
\
y'*)dx
2xydy = o.
(Ans. x*
= ^.) = ex.) y*
Art.
5.
Homogeneous Equation.
The
differential equation
N are
or,
Mdx + iVi/y =
is
said to
be
functions of
thing,
when
dy t
is
expressible as a function of .
If in
such an equation
v,
x and y
and
to
x and
where
vdx,
=y
whence
= xv
dy
= xdv
\
the variables
x and v
(x
will
be separable.

equation
2y)dx
ydy
=o
indicated
homogeneous dividing by x,
is
and
(1
v(xdv
7
f
vdx)
o.
= o,
whence
dx h x
s
vdv
~
{v
\f
1)
Integrating,
log
x+
log (v
^
C.
= C;
and
restoring^/,
& Ky log (y
x) '
Afa^/
f
= o can
312
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS.
the
first
[CHAP. VII.
is,
degree, that
when
it
is
(ax
For, assuming
+ by + c)dx
x
\ (a!
x
r
+ b'y + c')dy =
\ k,
it
o.
=x
\
h, y = y
becomes
f
(ax'+ b'y'+ ah
becomes
+ by')dx' + (a'x' +
b
b'y')dy',
a'
b',
that
is,
when the
{ax
{
by
)*&"
+ [w(^^ + ^) +
</]d^/
=o
but in this case if we put z = ax f ^, and eliminate be found that the variables x and z can be separated.
jj>,
it
will
Prob. 16. Show that a homogeneous differential equation represents a system of similar and similarly situated curves, the origin being the center of similitude, and hence that the complete integral may be written in a form homogeneous in x, y, and c.
Prob. 17. Solve
xdy
y dx
>jx f
^(x* f y*)dx
o.
(Ans. x*
=c
2
2cy.)
\
y*)dx
 + 2xy dy = o.
+ xy)ydx + (1
= = ex.) y*
f.)
new
variable 2
= xy.
j=ax + by+c.
6.
(Ans.
a;
Cye*y.)
bx
.)
(Ans. abx+&y\a\bc=Ce
Art.
when (one of the variables, say x, being regarded as independent,) it is of the first degree with respect to y, and its derivatives. The
linear equation of the first order
A differential equation
may
therefore be written in
the form
Art.
6.]
313
where
and
is
are functions of
only.
a function of x, an integrating factor of the first be an integrating factor of the equation provided To find such a factor, we solve the equation it contains x only.
will
member member
+/>which
is
dy
;
thus,
Pdx
whence log^
=c
Pdx
or
y
Putting equation exact equation is
Pd
Cef**.
(3)
this
in the
form u
c,
the corresponding
e* *(dy
+ Pydx) =
Pdx
o,
whence r
is the integrating factor required. the general solution of equation (i) is factor,
Using
this
ef
pdx
=f/
Qdx
+ C.
(4)
be
simplified in form
(i
if
possible.
Thus
Is
(i), it is
dy
dx
from which
i+x^
n x dx
\y
m
i+x*'
i
,
/
The
integrating factor
is,
therefore,
efPdx
=
is
xy dx
(i
mdx
'
+ **)
+ o'~(i+*')
314
Integrating, there
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS.
is
[Chap. VII.
found
y
or
*
,
= mx + CV(l + x*).
linear,
An
for
equation
is
sometimes obviously
dy
y f
some function
of y.
= x sec ^
y
;
when
multiplied by cos
is e*,
the
integrating factor
sin
=x
dy
j f
\
ce
~x
.
Py
n Qy which
,
is
known
as
is
readily put in a
form
I_n
.
x a dy +
(i
2x)y
= x\
sin
(Ans.
= x*(i + ***).)
x~
\y
1 
x
^
= o.
(Ans. jy(sec
+ tan x) = x +
= sin x = x* +
2
\
.)
cos
</#
f
y sin
1.
(Ans.
c cos #.)
1
= x*y*
dx
xy.
(Ans.
5
+^*.)
i ^ = xy + y
,,.
(Ans.
=
x
 * + ce~h>\\ v '
f
Art.
If
7.
First
order, or re
a quadratic for p, the first step x, y, in the solution is usually to solve for p. The resulting value of / will generally involve an irrational function of x and y;
lation
is
between
and p,
some
of
those solved
in
is
Art.
7.]
FIRST
315
perfect square, the equation is decomposable into two equations properly of the first degree. For example, the equation
when
solved
it
may
therefore
be written
in the
form
(
2px
 y)(2py  x) = o,
either
and
is
satisfied
by putting
dy
y
2x
l
dy
x
2y
dx
dx
x*
The
y*
= ex
and
2y
C,
distinct solutions of
the given
As an
equation
(I)
*/'=/,
or
%=
'
\/xVy=V~c,
and
this equation rationalized
(2)
becomes
{*
 yf 
2c(x
+ y) + =
c*
o.
(3)
thus a single complete integral containing one arbiconstant and representing a single system of curves; trary namely, in this case, a system of parabolas touching each axis
is
There
at the
same distance
from the
origin.
The
separate equa
same
parabola.
Recurring
tion of the
now
degree determines, in general, for assumed values of y, that is, at a selected point in the plane, a The equation was, of course, then supposed single value of p.
x and
316
rational in
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS.
[CHAP. VII.
x and y* The only exceptions occur at points for which the value of p takes the indeterminate form that is, the equation being Mdx \ Ndy = o, at points (if any exist) = o and = o. It follows that, except at such for which no two curves of the system representing the complete points,
;
num
may
pass,
forming a
"
pencil of curves." f
the other hand, in the case of an equation of the second degree, there will in general be two values of p for any given
point.
{4,
1), p
On
J;
(i) above we find for the point there are therefore two directions in which a
point starting from the position (4, 1) may move while satisThe curves thus described fying the differential equation. If the same values represent two of the particular integrals.
of x and
sult
is
be substituted
c,
a quadratic for
in the
Vx j Vy
3,
and Vx
Vy =
1.
In like manner the general equation which may be written in the form
Lp
where L, M, and
point for
+ Mp + N =
two
o,
which
two
real values of
its
c.
Accordingly we
may
assume, as the
standard form of
equation,
P<*
* In
fact
x
+ Qc + R =
o,
p was supposed
not in this
P =s\vr
degree.
x would
a one valued function of x and y\ thus, connection be regarded as an equation of the first
to be
f In Prob. 6, Art. 3, the integral equation represents the pencil of circles pass
ing through the points (o, b) and (o, tion is indeterminate at these points.
b)\
accordingly/
in the differential
equais
In
merely a node of one particular integral. J> is indeterminate at the origin, and this point o, which passes through it. integral, xy
some cases, however, such a point Thus in the illustration given in Art.
is
2,
ART.
8.]
SINGULAR SOLUTIONS.
317
y. the differential
x and
in
the integral.
+y =
j
cos x)c*
2c sin
f
cos
o.)
Prob. 28. Solve yp o, and show that the intersect2xp y ing curves at any given point cut at right angles. Prob. 29. Solve (x*
+
8.
i)p*
i.
(Ans. <rV
%cx0
i.)
Art.
Singular Solutions.
sometimes
is
A differential
admits of what
is
equation not of the first degree " " called a singular solution that
;
to say,
solution which is not included in the complete integral. For that the system of curves representing the complete suppose
Every point A of this envelope with a particular curve of the complete inis a point of contact therefore a point moving in the envelope when tegral system
integral has an envelope.
;
has the same values of x, y, and / as if it were moving through A in the particular integral curve. Hence such a point satisfies the differential equation and will continue to satisfy it as long as it moves in the envelope. The equation
passing through
of the envelope
is
As an
whose equation
y
where
= cx +
",
(l>
differential equation
The
*=/*+, P
of
(2>
which therefore
(i) is
the lines represented by equation values of c% are the tangents to the parabola
Now
for different
/ = 4**.
(S)
318
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS.
[Chap. VII.
A point
moving
in this
parabola has the same value of/ as if it were moving in one of the tangents,
(3) will
will
any point on the convex side of the parabola there are two real
values of p for a point on the other side the values of p are
;
imaginary, and for a point on the curve they are equal. Thus
its
equation
(3)
expresses the
y which must exist in order that (2) as a quadratic for p may have equal roots, as will be regarded seen on solving that equation.
relation
between x and
Lf + Mp + N = o,
the condition of equal roots
1
(4)
is
M \LN =
o.
(5)
which is the " discrimi" of equation (4), frequently admits of separation into nant factors rational in x and y. Hence, if there be a singular solution, its equation will be found by putting the discriminant of
The
first
member
of this equation,
its factors,
equal to zero.
does not follow that every such equation represents a soluIt can only be inferred that tion of the differential equation.
a locus of points for which the two values of / become Now suppose that two distinct particular integral equal. curves touch each other. At the point of contact, the two
it
is
values of/, usually distinct, become equal. The locus of such " Its equation plainly satisfies the points is called a taclocus." but does not satisfy the differential equation. An discriminant,
illustration
is
ART.
8.]
SINGULAR SOLUTIONS.
is
319
y*
t
f
(x
cf
)
= a*,
and the
y*(y
a,
s= o.
= o, the first two of which satisfy the differential equation, while y = o does not.
This
is
satisfied
by y = a, y =
and y
Two of
every point of the axis of x, which is thus a taclocus, while a constitute the envelope. y a and y
The
discriminant
is
radical sign
therefore
values of
when the general equation (4) is solved for/, and it changes sign as we cross the But the envelope. / remain real as we cross the taclocus, so that the
1
discriminant cannot change sign. Accordingly the factor which indicates a taclocus appears with an even exponent (as y in
the example above), whereas the factor indicating the singular solution appears as a simple factor, or with an odd exponent.
A simple
odd ex
ponent, gives in fact always the boundary between a region of the plane in which/ is real and one in which/ is imaginary For the two nevertheless it may not give a singular solution.
;
arcs of particular integral curves which intersect in a point on the real side of the boundary may, as the point is brought up
to the boundary, become tangent to each other, but not to the In that case, since they cannot cross the boundary curve.
inteis
it
course different from the equal values of/ at the cusp, and therefore its equation does not satisfy the differential equation.*
Prob. 30.
To what
?
curve
is
the line
= mx
f*
/(i
w
3
always tangent
Prob. 31.
* Since there
(Ans. jp
x*
=a
.)
Show
is
we
o has not in general a singular conclude that the equation Lp* f Mp fsolution, its discriminant representing a cusplocus except when a certain condition
is fulfilled.
N=
to should be identical,
320
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS.
[CHAP. VII.
it
ential equation cannot be negative. Interpret the result of equating to zero in the illustrative example at the beginning of Art. 7.
Prob. 32. Show that the singular solutions of a homogeneous differential equation represent straight lines passing through the origin..
x2
2cy\ ac*
=o
2yp
;
+ ax
o.
singular solution y*
= ax"*,}
Prob. 34.
Show
+ 2Xp y=o
has no sin
gular solution, but has a cusplocus, and that the tangent at every cusp passes through the origin.
Art.
9.
the complete integral of a differential equation of the second degree has been found in the standard form
When
PS+Qc + R = o
R
(!)
(see the end of Art. 7), the substitution of special values of x and y in the functions P, Q, and gives a quadratic for c whose roots determine the two particular curves of the system which
pass through a given point. If there is a singular solution,, that is, if the system of curves has an envelope, the two curves which usually intersect become identical when the given
moved up to the envelope. Every point on the entherefore satisfies the condition of equal roots for equavelope
point
is
tion (1),
which
is
ff 4 P =
o;
(2>
and, reasoning exactly as in Art. 8, we infer that the equation of the singular solution will be found by equating to zero the
discriminant of the equation in c or one of its factors. Thus " the discriminant of equation (1), Art. 8, or ^discriminant," is the same as the "/discriminant," namely, y 4 ax which
1
y
equated to zero
straight lines.
is
it
ample, suppose a squared factor appears in the ^discriminant. The locus on which this factor vanishes is not a curve in crossing which c and
/ become
imaginary.
At any
point of
it
there
Art.
will
9.]
32f
but, since
there
is
c,
ticular integral,
The
locus
it
is
The
factor repre
does not appear in the /discriminant, just as that representing a taclocus does not appear in the ^discriminant.
senting
Again, at any point of a cusplocus, as shown at the end of Art. 8, the two branches of particular integrals become arcs of
the same particular integral the values of c become equal, that a cusplocus also makes the ^discriminant vanish.
;
so*
conclusions established above obviously apply also ta equations of a degree higher than the second. In the case of
The
the ^equation the general method of obtaining the condition for equal roots, which is to eliminate c between the original and
is the same as the process of finding the " of a system. or " locus of the ultimate intersections envelope of curves in which c is the arbitrary parameter.
suppose the system of curves to have for all values of c* a double point, it is obvious that among the intersections
of
Now
in
the neighborhood
of the nodes, and that ultimately they coincide with the node,, which accounts for the nodelocus appearing twice in the dis
In like manner,,
It is noticed in the second footnote to Art. 7 that for an equation of the degree p takes the indeterminate form, not only at a point through which all curves of the system pass (where the value of c would also be found indeterSo also when the equation is of minate), but at a node of a particular integral. the th degree, if there is a node for a particular value of c, the n values of c at.
first
mine
f 1
is not on a nodelocus where two values of c are equal) deterarcs of particular integrals passing through the point; and there*
j 1
distinct values of
at the point,
is
when p
to say,
when
the coefficients
of
New
p. 529).
The present
its
p. 1.
322
if
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS.
is
TChap. VII*
a cusp for all values of c, there are three intersections of neighboring curves (all of which may be real) which ultithere
mately coincide with the cusp; therefore a cusplocus 'will appear as a cubed factor in the discriminant.*
Prob. 35.
Show
that the singular solutions of a homogeneous lines passing through the origin.
3/V
j
2xjp
+ 4/
y
x"
2Xp
o,
an
2cx
f
.)
x )p' 1 Prob. 38. Show that the equation (1 a system of conies touching the four sides of a square.
represents
discriminants.
o examine and interpret both Prob. 39. Solve yp* \xp \y 3 2 8* ) $x y* \y* (Ans. f f 2cx{$y* o.)
;
Art.
10.
Solution by Differentiation.
an equation of the second order, that
The
the
first
order
is
is,
it
d %y
*?
;
but,
if
it
ex
plicitly, it may be regarded as an equation of the first order for the variables x and/. If the integral of such an equation can be obtained it will be a relation between x, p, and a constant
of integration
c,
by means
of
which
the original equation, thus giving the relation between x, y and c which constitutes the complete integral. For example, the equation
j+ **=*+/;
* The discriminant of Pc*
(1)
+ Qc
f
R=o
no
of Lp*1
there
Mp
f
N=
o.
Compare
8.
Therefore where
an integral of this form there is generally a singular solution, although Ip* j Mp J ^V = o has not in general a singular solution. We conclude, thereare one valued functions of x fore, that this equation (in which Z, M, and
is
an integral of the above form in which P, Q, and R are onevalued functions of x and y. Cayley, Messenger of Mathematics, New
in general
VI,
p. 23.
Art.
10.]
SOLUTION BY DIFFERENTIATION.
323
when
y
whence by
= x + ltf;
I
(2)
differentiation
+^Iand

(3)
its inte
The
gral
vp C  e"
Substituting in equation
(2),
we
.
find
y
which
is
x ~\
6+> _ w
q
e
(1).
This method sometimes succeeds with equations of a higher degree when the solution with respect to p is impossible or
differential leads to a form which cannot be integrated. equation between p and one of the two variables will be ob
tained by direct integration when only one of the variables is explicitly present in the equation, and also when the equation In the latter is of the first degree with respect to x and y.
case after dividing by the coefficient of y, the result of differentiation will be a linear equation for x as a function of p, so
that an expression for x in terms of p can be found, and then by substitution in the given equation an expression for y in
Hence, in this case, any number of simultaneous values of x and y can be found, although the elimination of p
terms of
p.
may be
impracticable.
In particular, a homogeneous equation which cannot be solved for p may be soluble for the ratio y x, so as to assume
:
the form y
= x<p(p).
The
result of differentiation
is
p=<t>{p)+x<p\pf>
in
Another
special case
is
of the
form
(1)
y = P*+AP),
324
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS.
is
[Chaf VII.
which
known
is
as Clairaut's equation.
The
result of differ
entiation
* +f'(p) =o,
or
dp
=0.
The
first
elimination of / from equation (i) by means of the of these equations * gives a solution containing no arbiis,
a singular solution.
for
The second
is
is
a.
equation
(i)
its
integral
c,
which
in
y = c*+A<)
(2)
This complete integral represents a system of straight lines, the singular solution representing the curve to which they are An example has already been given in Art. 8. .all tangent.
differential equation
is
form by means
variables.
It
of a
more or
may
be noticed
in particular
the form
y
is
=
;
nxp
+ 00, /)
sometimes so reducible by transformation to the independent n and an equation of the form variable z, where x = z
y
double transformation
= nxp+<t>{y>P)y
= yn
.
when
is
a function of both
7>V
succeed
as of p.
*P
+
j
3/
c
find
a singular
(x\c)*,)
(Ans. (x\y
= i)*
= xp
a
\
,
and
find a cusplocus.
3
\2acxy f 8ry
\2x1y l
i6ax*
= o.)
* The equation is in fact the same that arises in the general method for the See Art. 9. condition of equal roots.
AKT.
11.]
GEOMETRIC APPLICATIONS
a*)/? 2xyp 1 circle x
TRAJECTORIES.
y*
a*
325
The
+/ =
#y
\
o.
its
a
,
and
tangents.)
=
(Ans.
s
xp
<:
+ x*p*
J
= o,
and
+ ^x*y =
o.)
Prob. 44.
Solve / 8y* = o. 4#>p = c(x c)*; 2jy = 4X* andjy = o are singulai (Ans. 7 also a particular integral.) solutions; y = o
f
is
x\y
px)
=yp\
(Ans.
ex 1
+ c\)
Art.
11.
Geometric Applications
of a curve
Trajectories.
Every property
its
tangents admits of statement in the form of a differential equation. The solution of such an equation therefore determines the curve having the given property. Thus, let it be required to determine the curve in which the angle between
the radius vector and the tangent is n times* the vectorial Using the expression for the trigonometric tangent of angle.
that angle, the expression of the property in polar coordinates is
= tan nd.
dr
Separating
integral
is
integrating,
the complete
= cn sin nd.
is
The mode
the
mem
The
eral
be a system of curves, the complete integral of a differential equation, but it may be a singular solution. Thus, if we express the property that the sum of the intercepts on the axes made by the tangent to a curve is equal to the constant a, the
straight lines
making such
tute the complete integral system, and the curve required is the singular solution, which, in accordance with Art. 8, is the
326
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS.
lines.
[CHAP. VII.
envelope of these
to be the parabola
The
be found
Vx + Vy
Va.
application is the determination of the "orthogonal trajectories" of a given system of curves, that is to say, the curves which cut at right angles everyvcurve of the
An
important
given system. The differential equation of the trajectory is for at every readily derived from that of the gfven system of the trajectory the value of pis the negative reciprocal point
;
of
have therevalue in the given differential equation. fore only to substitute p~ for / to obtain the differential
its
l
We
equation of the trajectory. For example, let it be required to determine the orthogonal trajectories of the system of parabolas
having a
common
axis
and vertex.
The
is
differential equation
by eliminating a
2
xdy = y dx.
Putting
dy
the system of trajectories
is
dx
2xdx \ydy
whence, integrating,
= o,
= c\
system of similar
ellipses
2x*+y*
The
Show
that
when the
its
;
system
one system,
will constitute a
Prob. 47. Determine the curve whose subtangent is constant and (Ans. ce*=y.) equal to a.
Prob. 48.
r
M
Show
=c
about
the pole.
Examine
the cases n
1,
2,
and n
J.
Prob. 49.
Show
Art.
12.]
3*2?
circles passing
another system of
circles.
having a
common
Prob. 50. Determine the curve such that the area inclosed by any two ordinates, the curve and the axis of x, is equal to the product of the arc and the constant line a. Interpret the
singular solution.

e
a
).)
The catenary^
c= \a{e a
is
Show
selforthog
Art.
12.
A system
between n
f 1
variables
and
their
differentials is a "determinate" differential system, because it serves to determine the'/z ratios of the differentials; so that,
taking any one of the variables as independent, the others vary in a determinate manner, and may be regarded as functions of
the single independent variable. Denoting the variables by x, y> z> etc., the system may be written in the symmetrical form
dx
where X, F, If any one
tials
X~Y~~Z~
Z
.
_dy
dz _
'
may
of the several equations involving two differencontains only the two corresponding variables, it is an and its integral, giving a reordinary differential equation
;
lation
variables,
may
enable us by elimina
and so on
integral
dx
x
The
"
_dy
'
dz
'
>'*
relation between dy and dz above contains the variaand z only, and its integral is bles^/ z = a. y* (2)
1
dx and dy
relation
between
328
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS.
integral
is
[CHAP. VII.
ot which the
yY V .(/
The
+ a) = bx.
and
(3)
(3), integral equations (2) of integration, constitute the complete solution. It is in like manner obvious that the complete solution of a system of n equations should contain n arbitrary constants.
Confining ourselves
extension of
now
the geometrical interpretation given in Art. 2 presents itself. Let x, y, and z be rectangular coordinates of starts from any given Preferred to three planes. Then, if
position A, the given system of equations, determining the ratios dx: dy\ dz, determines the direction in space in which moves. As moves, the ratios of the differentials (as deter
move
in
such a
way
equations, it will describe in general a curve of double curvature which will represent a particular solution. The complete solution is represented by the system of lines which may be
thus obtained by varying the position of the initial point A. This system is a " doubly infinite " one for the two relations
;
between x, y, and z which define it analytically must contain two arbitrary parameters, by properly determining which we can make the line pass through any assumed initial point.*
Each
.surfaces
of the relations
between
x,
y and
z,
or integral equa
tions, represents
by
itself
two
being a particular line of the doubly infinite system. equation like (2) in the example above, which contains only one of the constants of integration, is called an integral of the
An
^differential
system,
in contradistinction to
*lt
S)l x.,y,
is
assumed
z.
and
There
can
move when
^passing a given point, and the system is a nonintersecting system of lines. But [if this "is not the case, as for example when one of the equations giving the ratio
of the differentials
is
may form an
intersecting sys
tem, and there would be a theory of singular solutions, into which we do not
Jiere enter.
ART.
tion
12.]
329
integral
"
like (3),
An
represents a surface which contains a singly infinite system of lines representing particular solutions selected from the doubly
Thus equation (2) above gives a surface on those lines for which a has a given value, while b which may have any value whatever in other words, a surface which
infinite system.
lie all
;
passes through an
lines.
infinite
number
integral of the system which corresponds to the conb might be found by eliminating a between equations (2) stant and (3). It might also be derived directly from equation (1)
;
The
thus we
may
write
dx
x
tion between
its integral,
_dy ~~ _ _dz
'
'
dy
'
'
+ dz +z y
z
is
_du
u
9
=y
\
introduced.
The
rela
variables,
and
(4)
y+z
= bx,
;
and this, together with is the required integral of the system the integral (2), presents the solution of equations (1) in its The form of the two integrals shows that in standard form.
this case the doubly infinite system of lines consists of hyperbolas, namely, the sections of the system of hyperbolic cylinders represented by (2) made by the system of planes represented
by
(4).
A system
tain
of equations of
symmetry may
Since
manner.
we
take multipliers
A,
//,
v such that
we
shall
have
member
is
an exact
differential,
330
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS.
[CHAP. VII.
For
example,
let
dx
dy
dz
Iz
mz
/,
ny
nx
ly
mx
'
set of multipliers,
and so
also
do
x,
and
also
o.
Each
of these
is ar\
my \
nz
and
*+/+**=
namely, the line passing through the origin and whose
/,
The doubly infinite system constitute the complete solution. this case of circles which have a common of lines consists in
axis,
m
,
and
,
n.
dx
dy
dz
2xy
2xz
i
and
(Ans.
y=az,
.
x*\y* \z'
=bz.)
dx 
+z
dx
=
z
dy
\
f x
tf(x
dz
\y
(Ans.
+y + z)==
dy
r
A.)
r
,
dz
7
rr
.
(b
\c
+/ + z* = A, ax* f bf + cz* =
a)zx
(a
b)xy
.)
Art.
13.
A relation
tives of
variable
is called a differential equation of the order indicated For example, the highest derivative that occurs. by
is
is
the independent
ART.
13.]
331
variable.
derivative
by/,
this
(I+ * i; + */+w* =
and
this, in
'
(I>
connection with
which defines /, forms a pair of equations of the first order, connecting the variables x, y, and /. Thus any equation of the
second order
is
When,
tain
only
x and/
and
it is
when
degree,
it is
a linear
equation for/.
we
find
p = >*
and then using
this value
v{1
in
\^
(2), its
(3>
of/
x
equation
integral
is
y = c,mx + c
in
log [x
+ y(i + x')l
is
(4)
which, as in every case of two simultaneous equations of the first order, we have introduced two constants of integration.
An
equation of the
first
order
when the independent variable is not explicitly contained the equation. The general equation of rectilinear motion
dynamics affords an
illustration.
in
This equation
d*s
is
=/(j),
where
force
upon the
may be
written
dv
at
= f[s), in
Eliminat
connection with
dt
= v,
velocity.
JV
/ f(s)ds
f c,
The
332
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS.
t is
[CHAP. VII.
found
in
The
order
is called
;
integration, such as equation (3) above, a "first integral" of the given equation of the second it contains one constant of integration, and its complete
result of the
first
integral,
is
com
plete integral
all its
is
when, terms being transposed to the first member, that member the derivative with respect to x of an expression of the first
is,
"
exact
"
order, that
y and p.
It is
terms containing the second derivative, in such an exact differential, arise solely from the differentiation of the terms containing/
in the function of x,
y and/.
For example,
let it
be
<> 4+'=
The terms
in
is
an exact equation.
arise
question are
(1
x*)
ax
2
which can
only from
the differentiation
of (1
x )p.
Now
tive of (1
which
is
'
2 (ix*)^2x dy (I X)
dx>
*dx>
the remainder
that of xy.
ential,
is
xf
which
is
an exact
differ
and
{i*^ + *y = c
is
(6)
the
first
y
Prob.55.
Cl
+ C^(l
X^).
(7)
f
c x sin"
f
cv )
Art.
14.]
333
g=&
~
(aus.
a
+^
.)
=a
*
2
j.
at
(Ans.
Py
=A
sin
bx
{2
B cos Ar.)
y? + (g)" =1.
(Ans.
/ = * + ** + <V>
Art.
14.
Integrals.
We
tween
tion
have seen
integral of
x,
in the preceding article that the complete an equation of the second order is a relation beand two constants c and c % Conversely, any relax
between
x,
y and two
arbitrary constants
may
as a primitive,
from which a
The process consists in arbitrary constants can be obtained. first obtaining, as in Art. 3, a differential equation of the first
order independent of one of the constants, say c^ that is, a relation between x, y,p and c and then in like manner eliminating
,
x
this equation.
The
result
f
is
the equa
between x
y,
p and
q {q
denoting the second derivative), of which the original equation is the complete primitive, the equation of the first order being
the
is
first
integral in
which
ct
is
obvious that
we
can, in like
x, y,
tive a relation
between
p and
which
will also
be a
first
infinite
Geometrically the complete integral represents a doubly system of curves, obtained by varying the values of c
t
and of
independently.
arbitrary,
we
regard cx as fixed and <r3 as select from that system a certain singly infinite
If
we
system
the
first
integral containing c
is
tion of this system, which, as explained in Art. 2, is a relation between the coordinates of a moving point and the direction
of its
motion
common
to
all
But
334
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS.
[Chap. VII.
the equation of the second order expresses a property involving curvature as well as direction of path, and this property
being independent of
cx is
common
to
all
is,
sponding
infinite
to the entire
this
doubly
system.
moving
point, satisfying
equation,
may
in any direction, provided its has the proper curvature as determined by the value of q path derived from the equation, when the selected values of x> y
substituted therein.*
(7)
the lines
1,
center at the origin and touching as in the diagram c x is the ordinate of the
;
1, and c 2 that of the point in point of contact with x If we regard c as fixed the ellipse cuts the axis of y.
y
which
and
<r
the system
of
ellipses
(6) is
the
In
of this system.
manner,
if c^ is
fixed
and
arbitrary,
system of ellipses
fixed
1.
points
x=
The
(y Xp)V{lX*)=C,.
Finally, the equation of the second order, independent
of c
and
the equation of the 2 doubly infinite system of conies f with center at the origin, 1. and touching the fixed lines x
[(5) of the preceding article]
is
If
the equation
is
is
equal roots
a relation between x,
to satisfy the
given equation. If it does, it represents a system of singular solutions; each of the curves of this system, at each of its points, not only touches but osculates It is to be remembered that a singular soluwith a particular integral curve.
tion of a
tion; for
first
it
integral is not generally a solution of the given differential equarepresents a curve which simply touches but does not osculate a set
Art.
14.]
335
we
But, starting from the differential equation of second order, may find other first integrals than those above which correto c 1
spond
and
c^.
For instance,
if
equation
(5)
be multiplied
by/,
it
becomes
which
is
*v +/ =
integrals
',*.
in
which
c s is a
new constant
first
of integration.
Whenever two
pendently, the elimination of p between them gives the complete integral without further integration.* Thus the result of eliminating
/ between
cx
this last
(6),
first
inte
gral containing
[equation
2c
x
Art. 13]
/
which
is
is
xy
+ f,V = c?
c*
therefore another form of the complete integral. It first integral above that c 2 is the maximum
it is
the differential equation of the system in the rectangle drawn in the diagram.
comparison
a
of the
two forms
of the
ct
= c*
\ c*.
the form
is, put in the constant will disappear on differentiation, and the result will be the given equation of second order multiplied, in general, by an integrating factor. can
<J>(x,
c,
We
thus
find
any number
may
order; the process consisted of forming the equation of the second order of which the given equation is a first integral
{but with a particular value of the constant), then finding another and deriving the complete integral by elimination of p.
first
integral
336
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS.
ji
[CHAP. VII..
=A
cos ax
f
where
is
integral of this
equation.
(Ans. ay
sin
ax
I cos
ax
Xdx
cos ax I sin ax
Xdx).
Prob. 60. Find the rectangular and also the polar differential equation of all circles passing through the origin.
(An,(^
+/ )g=
Art.
[
15.
+ (y](,4
an d
)
Linear Equations.
of
any order is an equation of first degree with respect to the dependent variable y and each of its derivatives, that is, an equation of the form
the
where the
coefficients
Pn and
the second
member
X are
The
in the
form
solution of a linear equation is always supposed to be y z=.f(x) and if y is a function which satisfies the
;
equation, it is customary to speak of the function yl% rather than of the equation y y as an "integral" of the linear equaK ,
tion.
general solution of the linear equation of the first order has been given in Art. 6. For orders higher than the
first
The
by means of the ordinary functional symbols and the sign, as was done for the first order in Art. 6.
The
upon that of
dnv
dn ~^v
Art.
15.]
linear equations.
337
integral of this equation will contain n arbiconstants, and the mode in which these enter the exprestrary sion for y is readily inferred from the form of the equation.
The complete
For
let
be an integral, and
cx
an arbitrary constant
(2) is c x
the
re
y = y that is, it is zero therefore c y is an integral. So too, if y is an integral, j/ is an integral and obviously also c y + j/ is an integral. Thus, if n distinct integrals y n can be found, y%i ,y + + cn y n y=cy + (3)
putting
x \
;
sult of putting
= cj
in
equation
x ,
it
number
Consider
it,
now equation
(1);
let
Fbe
o.
a particular integral of
of equation
(3),
which
is
when
X=
If
y=Y+u
be substituted
in
(4)
equation
(1),
sum
the
of the
first
results of putting
y=
Fand
y=u
of
these results will be X, because Fis an integral of equation (1), and the second will be zero because u is an integral of equation
(2).
it
since
is
Hence equation (4) expresses an integral of (1); and contains the n arbitrary constants of equation (3), it
this equation
the complete integral of equation (1). With reference to Y is called " the particular integral," and u is The particular integral called "the complementary function."
contains no arbitrary constant, and any two particular integrals may differ by any multiple of a term belonging to the comple
mentary function. If one term of the complementary function of a linear equation of the second order be known, the complete solution can be found. For let y be the known term then, if y = y v
x
;
be substituted in the first member, the coefficient of v in the result will be the same as if v were a constant it will therefore be zero, and v being absent, the result will be a linear equa:
tion of the
first
order for
v',
the
first
derivative
c*f v.
Under
338
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS,
[CHAP. VII.
manner be reduced by
unity.
very simple relation exists between the coefficients of an exact linear equation. Taking, for example, the equation of the second order, and indicating derivatives by accents, if
P.S + PJ+P y = x
t
term of the integral will be P y' Subtracting the derivative of this from the first member, the remainder is P ')y' Pt y. The second term of the integral must (P
is
exact, the
first
therefore be
{P
P ')y
is
(Pt
P/
\
Hence
P f P" = o
'
given equation.
A similar
x
d^y
(3
extends to equa
dy + x)j
f
3V
=
2
7
o,
z
noticing that e*
$x* f 6x
2y
3
is
an integral.
Prob. 62. Solve (*
5
(Ans.
72 a
cj?
+ c (x
f
f
\ 6.)
x)jr$
+ 2(2*
i)~
f
= o.
f
(Ans. (x
i)
= c,(x*
6x* f 2X
2 sin
$
B^
4X log x)
cjc*.)
+ cos
fe
sin
2 #^
y
~
cos
sin9
= Sm
sin 26.
= e~
sin 6
\cfi
c% )d0
c% e
\\
Art.
16.
form
.
AJPy + AJXr y +
in
+A y =
n
o,
(1)
which
n
D stands for
=
,
the operator
is
3,
D*
ART.
16.]
339
mx
equation
1
(i),
A
(1)
w"
+ A.m" +
equation
.
.
+A =
n
is
o.
(2)
Hence, and
;
if
m
if
satisfies
(2),
mx e
an integral of equation
(2),
w
y
mn
W+
cj**
cn e
mn
*.
(3)
For example,
if
is
(Py
dy
m
x
is
m?
of
m m =
3JC
2
2,
= o, m =
9 a **.
tegral
y
The
tion.
= c^
f
J
form f(D) .y = o,
equation
is
which
Then equation
(m
(2) is
= o,
{m
equivalent to
m^(m
t)
m n = o,
)
(4)
f{D) .y = o
m,)
may
be written
(5)
(D
m )(D
t
...(>
m n )y = o.
This form of the equation shows that it is satisfied by each of the quantities which satisfy the separate equations
(D
that
is
m^)y
= 0,
(B
m^)y
=o
(D
m )y = o
n
(6)
to say,
of the
complete integral.
If
two
number
of integrals
become we must
mlt two and to obtain the full identical, find two terms corresponding to
x
;
the equation
(D
in other
 m Yy = o
integral.
(7)
:= em x
i
known, to be one
For
this
purpose
we
340
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS.
[CHAP. VII.
v. t put, as explained in the preceding article, y Dem xv e m x {m x v f Dv) therefore tiation, Dy
=y
By
differen
(D
In like manner
tn x )e**v
= e m *Dv.
(8)
we
find
{D
m m^fe ^v
= e m xD v.
l
^
(9)
Thus equation
(7)
is
is
transformed to
2
;
D'v = o,
of
which the
is
complete integral
%).
(10)
(D
mY
x
1
in
f(D)y
= o.
evident that, in a similar manner, the three terms corresponding to a case of three equal roots can be shown to
It is
be
^(c^x + cjc j c ) and so on. The pair of terms corresponding to a pair of imaginaryroots, say **, = a\ ifi, mt ~ a ifi, take the imaginary form
s
f
Ci gi*+iP)x _j_ c
^mx
t**(c/t*
+ c e#*).
t
and imaginary parts of e# x and Separating changing the constants, the expression becomes
the real
e ax (A
***,
and
(11)
For a multiple pair of imaginary roots the constants A and must be replaced by polynomials as above shown in the case
of real roots.
When
be made
the
first
coefficients
member of the equation with constant a function of X, the particular integral can also to depend upon the solution of linear equations of
the second
is
In accordance with the symbolic notation introduced above, the solution of the equation
order.
dy
j^
is
ay
X,
or
(D
 a)y = X
(12)
denoted by
(D
we have
^X=e'fe**Xdx
as the value of the inverse symbol whose meaning
is
(13)
"that
ART.
16.]
341
is converted to by the direct operation a" Taking the most convenient the symbol expressed by special value of the indefinite integral in equation (13), it gives
function of
x which
f{D)y = X is
TfpfX.
fraction
may
numerators thus
in
TTF^X = D n
'
n m X+ D
'
N X + m^
a
'
is
to be evaluated
by equation
(13),
and
may be
ary
function.
equation
3*
y
is
thus found to be
= \#*fe**Xdx  \e~*fXdx.
a
When
is
power
of
may be
For example, if x* the integrals in the general solution. the particular integral in this example may be evaluated by development of the inverse symbol, thus
:
_ _ ~ y ~ D*D2 X a__I 2
I
i+KZJJT)
* The validity of this equation depends upon the fact that the operations in the second member of expressed
f{D)
= (D 
mi )(D
m,)
+ ...+(Dm M
is
)
if
the
same as
the equation
were an algebraic identity. This general solution was published by Boole in It had, however, the Cambridge Math. Journal, First Series, vol. II, p. 114. been previously published by Lobatto, Theorie des Characteristiques, Amster
dam,
1837.
342
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS.
[CHAP. VII.
that, in this case, it is only necessary to carry the development as far as the term contain
The form
of the
operand shows
ing
D\
For other symbolic methods applicable to special forms of we must refer to the standard treatises on this subject.
Prob.64. Solve
dy
dy
4^3
3^+J=o.
(Ans.
.)
Prob. 65. D
Show
that
7n^e AD)
ax
^\** /(a)
and that
Prob. 66. Solve
2
(Z>
+ )y = e* + sin
1 f
y^
sin (ax
ft).
sin
x.
(Compare
=A
17.
+ B cos x
i<^
sin
2.3;
\x cos
#.)
Art.
The
AX

"S +
etc.,
^"& ++^y =
is
o,
(1)
in
which
A A x%
,
are constants,
called the
"homogene.
m ous linear equation." It bears the same relation to x that mx the equation with constant coefficients does to e Thus, if m will divide m be substituted in this equation, the factor x y=zx
out from the result, giving an equation for determining ;;/, and the n roots of this equation will in general determine the For example, if in the n terms of the complete integral.
equation
u d*y x*4
ax
dy + 2Xfdx
.
2y
=o
1) f
we put y
(m
= xm
the
result
is
m(m
2m
and
= =
0,
or
The Hence
is
= o.
this
equation
y = cx+
x
are
m =
x a
/# 3
2.
Equation
(1)
might
in fact
Art.
17.]
343
able to
where x
=e
e
,
or 6
= log
x.
in
We may
therefore at
the preceding article that the terms corresponding to a pair of equal roots are of the
form
(cx
c%
log x)x
m
y
(2)
and
roots,
i/3,
are
(J3
xa [A
log x)
\
B sin
[ft
log x)\
(3)
the two classes of linear equations considered in this and the preceding article is more clearly
xD is used for the operation of single symbol the derivative and then multiplying by x, so that taking xm mx m It is to be noticed that the operation x*D 2 is not a the same as # or xDxD, because the operations of taking the
seen
derivative
"
commu
tative," that
7
their order
is
;
not indifferent.
We
have, on the
contrary,
x D*
= $(#
2
1)
which
is
(x
D*\2x>2]/
o
= 0,
($
becomes
[${&
1)
+ 2#
= o,
or
i)(S
+ 2)y =
m.
o,
the function of
$ produced being
which
is
equated to
linear equation of which the first member is homogeneous and the second member a function of x may be reduced
to the form
A*)y
The
=&
(4)
particular integral may, as in the preceding article (see eq. (14)), be separated into parts each of which depends upon the solution of a linear equation of the first order. Thus,
xdy dx
ay
= X,
or
($
 a)y = X,
iXdx
'
(5)
we
find
W^~'
X = xafx
~a~
6>
The more
may be employed
344
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS.
[CHAP. VII.
:
when A* is a power of x is illustrated in the following example d v dv Given x* 4 The first member becomes homo27 = ^ dx dx geneous when multiplied by x, and the reduced equation is
2
.
($
3^ = *.
roots of f{&)
r
The
=0 are
r
,
zero,
hence
8
is c x f c^ f c Since in log *:, we infer that in operating upon ^ we general J\$)x =f(r)x may put # = 3. This gives for the particular integral
S
but
fails
fall
3^
.3
9 #
'
3*
now
with respect to the factor # 3.* back upon equation (6), which gives
We
therefore
=z
x jx'dx
3
=x
log x.
The complete
integral therefore
3
is
y = ti* + + c
c,
lo g
+ ix
y
lo g
d"*y
+ Zx
dy
~j
3J
(Ans.
?
cx x
+ ^" + +*'.)
8
2
<r
.x)
+ J(log *)
.)
Art.
18.
in
We
proceed
method by
series
of a linear equation
whose
coefficients are
in
may
For
be developed
this
whose
purpose
let
us take the
equation
is a term of the complementary function having an indeterminate coefficient; accordingly the new term is of the same form as the second term necessary when 3 is a double root, but of course with a determinate coefficient.
* The
^RT.
18.]
345
which
is
known
the
first
member
we
substitute for_^
(2)
the first term coming from the homogeneous terms of the equation and the second from the term x*y which is of higher If this last term did not exist the equation would be degree.
satisfied
if
w were
determined so as
term vanish, that is, in this case, by Ax n or these are the first terms of two series each of
if
which
xm
the value of
,
the
new term
will give rise, in the result of substitution, to terms containing ^m+2 ancj x m+4 respectively, and it will be possible so to take that the entire coefficient of xm+2 shall vanish. In like
of a third
substitution vanish,
and so
(3)
in
which r has
all
o to
00
Substituting
in equation (1)
2[{ (in
+ 2r)
}A rx
m+2r
+ A xm+2
r
I)
= o.
,
(4)
The
coefficient of each
;
power
of
in this
arately vanish
[(m + 2ryn*]A + A _ =
r
r
t
(5)
When
= o,
Ar
this reduces to
m*
n2
= o,
it
which determines
gives
'x
'
=~
(m
+ 2r + n){m + 2r  n) Ar
l
For the
first
value of m, namely
n, this relation
becomes
346
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS.
in
[CHAP. VII,
equation
(3),.
is
Ay,
= =
AX[i
j^pj
~,
+
(
+l)(w
is
+ 3)
^5771
...}
(7)
found to be
Bj,
Bs\i
+ ^^ + {n _
is
,)(_
l
2)
^, + ],
(8)
=Ay
t
f
Bjv *
For example,
n
This example illustrates a special case which may arise in If n is a positive integer, the second this form of solution.
series will contain infinite coefficients.
if
2,,
is infinite,
unless
we take
B = o,
in
which case
solution
is
indeterminate and
will
This
x occur
in the
two
new integral has equal roots. For the in such cases the complete treatises must be referred to.f
of obtaining a
It will
mode
consecutive coefficients in this example is due to the fact that equation (1) contained but two groups of terms producing of when Axm is substituted for as in exdifferent
powers
x,
pression
(2).
necessarily gives rise to a coefficient of the second degree in m, and from it we obtained two values of m. Moreover, be
cause the other group was of a degree higher by two units, the
assumed of x\
*
series
The Besselian
of y\ above, divided by i n n\
solution of the kind referred to contains as one term the product of the
is sometimes called a "logarithmic solution." See also American Journal of Mathematics, Vol. XI, p. 37. In the case of Bessel's equation, the logarithmic solution is the "Besselian Function of the
oecond kind."
Art.
18.]
347
d*y
dy
there are also two such groups of terms, and their difference of degree shows that the series must ascend by simple powers.
We
The
assume therefore
at
once
y=
result of substitution
is
2A
m+r 2
xm ^.
(io)
%[{(m+r)(m+ri)2}A rx
Equating
+ a(m+r)A xm+
r
rI
~\= o.
(u>
m+r~ 2
,
{m\r\ i)(m
which,
+
(m
2)A r
+ a{m + r
i)A r _ 1
= o,
(12)
when
= o,
o,
gives
+ \){m  2)A = o,
m\r
1
(13)
and when r
>
Ar
The
roots of
"
(I4)
1;
taking
m = 2,
whence the
first
integral
is
A,yt
= As[i 
\ax
^V  ~ m=
i
f
6 '*'+
(V)
whence
gral
is
B =
x
2?
and
i?3
inte
^,=^[i^>4if].
*B
3
(16)
if
equivalent to
yi,
348
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS.
[CHAP. VII.
When
is
powers
of x.
In
it
In the general case there will be two such soluintegral (16). tions, and they will be convergent for values of x greater than unity, while the ascending series will converge for values less
than unity.*
When
the second
member
of the equation
in
is
power
of x,
For example, suppose the second member of equation (9) to have been x*. Then, making the substitution as before, we have the same relation between consecumanner.
tive coefficients; but
when
o,
we
have
{m
+ i){m
m 2)A x
= x*
This gives
(14),
m=
2\
and
A =
m=f
in
equation
we
find for
= J\ _
7
lllax 9.3
I
A linear equation
of transformations
;
remains linear for two important classes first, when the independent variable is
x, and second, when for y we put ax e~ v be substituted an example of the latter, let y vf{x). After rejecting the factor e~ ax the in equation (9) above.
changed
to
any function of
As
>
result
is
(Pv
dv
2V
= 0.
Since this differs from the given equation only in the sign
*When there are two groups of terms, the integrals are expressible of Gauss's " Hypergeometric Series."
f If the
in
terms
second
member
if it
is
any integral power of x), the particular integral will ample, take the logarithmic form referred to in the footnote on p. 346.
in this case,
is
ART.
of a,
19.]
349
we

it
has the
finite integral
can
be written
the form
xy
*= c x {2
ax)
+ c e~
7
. .
ax
(2 f ax).
d*y ~
j
xy
= o.
.
(Ans.
J= ^(x 3
y+^_
>
)+Il{xff +'~j*x>t
.).)
x*.
+ x ~
l
f
(x
2)y
o.
Prob.
71.
Derive for the equation of Prob. 70 the integral and find its relation to those found above.
Art.
It is
19.
shown
its
complete solution as many integral equations conthe variables and also involving n constants of intenecting 1 variables would be a The result of eliminating n gration.
single relation
in general the
has for
between the remaining two variables containing* n constants. But the elimination may also be
effected in the differential system, the result being in general an equation of the /zth order of which the equation just men
tioned
is
two equations
For example, if there were the complete integral. of the first order connecting the variables x and
with the independent variable /, by differentiating each we should nave four equations from which to eliminate one variable, sayjj/, and its two derivatives* with respect to /, leaving
a single equation of the second order between
x and
t.
It is easy to see that the same conclusions hold if some of the given equations are of higher order, except that the order of the result will be correspondingly higher, its index being in
2 * In r general, there would be equations from which to eliminate n * n derivatives of each, that is, ( 1 quantities f 1) i)(
variables and
th order.
350
general the
tions.
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS.
[Chap. VII.
tions
sum of the indices of the orders of The method is particularly applicable with constant coefficients, since we have a
the differentiations are performed simply by multiplying by the symbol D, and therefore the whole elimination is of exactly
if
For
ex
dy
when
dx
2t,
is
dx
dy
dt
~df"~~dt
written symbolically,
*dt^
2J9y
3*
= o,
(2D'
4)y
2
Dx =
x
y
2/,
+ (4Z>3)* = o;
2t
whence, eliminating
2D 4 2D
which reduces to
D
4^3
(Di)\2D\3)y =
Integrating,
V
the particular integral being found as explained at the end of Art. 16.
by symbolic development,
The value
of
The complementary
minant of the
first
new
is
set of constants.
The
re
values of
x and y
in
terms of the complementary function. In the present example we should thus find the value of x, in terms of A, B> and C to be
y
x
the final equation
;
= (6B  2A in
2Bty
this
\Ce*
is
J.
D of
determinant
sum
ART.
19.]
351
In general, the solution of a system of differential equations depends upon our ability to combine them in such a way as to form exact equations.
system
W~ X
where X,
Y,
'
dt*
'
dt'^'
and
z,
w
/,
,
Z
.
are functions
of x, y,
but not of
we form
the equation
dx ,dx
,
dy dr + 4d dt + dtd,dz dt dt dt dt
.
Az
dz
'
'
The
that
first
member
is
is
an exact
differential,
a conservative
is,
field of force
the second
it
of x, y,
and
z.
The
integral
;[()"
is
+"+>*+*
which
is
M
as the
that
first
known
system (i)in connection with the equation defining the resolved velocities forms a system of six equations of the first order, of " which system equation (2) is an " integral in the sense explained in Art.
12.
Prob.
= dy = at as a system iinmx (Ans. x = A cos mt+B sin mt, y = A s'mmtB cosmt.) n y = e * JL z = 73. Solve the system
r,
,
.
dx
my
1
_j_
(Ans.
nx y = Ae + Be'"*
+n , z =  nAenx + nBe
" nx
f
_
.) '
^
= x<p(x,y),
/a dy
^~
= y<P(x,y)
first
dx
352
Prob. 75.
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS.
[CHAP; VIE.
The approximate
when
dy
,
of a pendulum, d?x
equations for the horizontal motion, the earth's rotation is taken into account, are
gx
are of the
x
d*y
dx
gy
show
that both
x andy
\
form
%
A
Art.
cos n x t
20.
variables x,
The equation of the first order and degree between three y and z may be written Pdx + Qdy + Rdz = o, (1)
where P,
equation
Q
is
and
are functions of x,
y and
z.
When
in Art. 4,
this
exact, P,
u, of x,
and
R
z
;
some function
y and
and we derive, as
d
dP = dQ
dy
d*'
sG^atf ~
dz
dy'
= &P
dz
dx
M ^
the equation is not exact integrating factors always exist;, but in this case, there is not always a factor u such that piPy
when
juQ and /jR (put in place of P, Q, and R) will satisfy all three It is easily shown that for this of the conditions (2). purpose
the relation
p (dQ
must
dR\, n (dR
8A,
(dP
dQ\
(3)'
exist between the given values of P, Q, and R. This " of equation (1).* therefore the " condition of integrability
is>
When
grated by
this condition
is
fulfilled
equation
(1)
may be
inte
first supposing one variable, say 2, to be constant. o, and supposing the constant Thus, integrating Pdx j Qdy of integration C to be a function of z, we obtain the integral, so
*When
there are
more than
independent.
ditions.
each group of three variables, but these conditions are not all Thus with four variables there are but three independent con
Art.
20.]
first
353
far as
it
by comparing the
we
de
termine
dC in
terms of z and
ds,
value of C.
It
may
equation forms an exact differential, the remaining terms must It follows that if one of the variables, say z also be exact.
can be completely separated from the other two (so that in equation (i) R becomes a function of z only and Pand Q functions of x and y, but not of z) the terms Pdx f Qdy must be
thus rendered exact
if
the equation
is
integrable.*
For example,
zydx
is
zxdy
y*dz
= o.
we
an integrable equation. Accordingly, dividing by y*z, which notice separates the variable z from x and y, puts it in the exact form dz ydx xdy
y
of which the integral
is
o,
=y log cz.
Regarding x, y and z as coordinates of a moving point, an integrable equation restricts the point to motion upon one
of the surfaces belonging to the system of surfaces represented
by the
other words, the point (x, y, z) moves in an Let us now consider arbitrary curve drawn on such a surface. in what way equation (i) restricts the motion of a point when
integral
;
in
it is
not integrable.
The
direction cosines of a
y
moving point
are proportional to dx, dy and dz\ hence, denoting them by and n, the direction of motion of the point satisfying /,
equation
(i)
must
P/+ Qm + Rn = o.
It is
(4)
connection an auxiliary of lines represented, as explained in Art. 12, by the system simultaneous equations
convenient to consider
in this
dx
(5)
its
reduces to
last
354
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS.
[Chap. VII.
The
of
this
direction cosines of a point moving in one of the lines Hence, desystem are proportional to P, Q and R.
A,
ju,
noting them by
v,
equation
) pin f
(4)
gives
XI
for the relation
vn
=o
(6)
between the directions of two moving points, whose paths intersect, subject respectively to equation (1) and
question therefore intersect at right angles; therefore equation (1) simply restricts a point to move in a path which cuts orthogonally the lines of the auxilito equations
(5).
The paths
in
ary system.
Now,
if
mentioned
is
completely
expressed by the requirement that the line shall lie on one of these surfaces, the line being otherwise entirely arbitrary.
This
is
is
integrable.*
when the equation is not integrable, the be expressed by two equations involving an arbitrary function. Thus if we assume in advance one such relation, we know from Art. 12 that the given equation (1)
the other hand,
On
together with the first derivative of the assumed relation forms a system admitting of solution in the form of two integrals*
Both
assumed function.
For
any particular value of that function we have a system of lines satisfying equation (1), and the arbitrary character of the function
makes the
all lines
which
Prob. 76.
Show
is
(nx (mz ny)dx lz)dy (ly mx)dz = o and infer from the integral the character of the auxilintegrable,
*It follows
(5),
that,
equation
(3) is the
with respect to the system of lines represented by equations condition that the system shall admit of surfaces cutting
them orthogonally.
The
lines of force in
any
field
such a system, the orthogonal surfaces being the equipotential surfaces. f So too there is an arbitrary element about the path of a point when the
single equation to which it is subject is integrable, but this enters only into one of the two equations necessary to define the path.
Art
21.]
355
iary lines.
example (Ans. nx
at the
Iz
end of Art.
C(ny
2.)
mz).)
x
x e (i\cz).) e dz o. Prob. 77. Solve yz*dx z*dy (Ans. yz Find the equation which in connection with^  f(x) Prob. 78. forms the solution of dz aydx J bdy.
Prob. 79.
Show
ydx
is
(x
z)(dy
dz)
y
(This
is
<?K*),
jy
(*
*)0'(*).
an example of
"
Monge's Solution.")
Art.
21.
variables
Let x denote an unknown function of the two independent x and y, and let dz dz
partial derivatives
denote
its
order!
A Value
of z in terms of
x and y which with its derivatives satisfies the equation, or a relation between x, y and z which makes z implicitly such a " function, is a particular integral." The most general equation
of this kind
If
is
may
be solved as an ordinary
considered as
z with respect to x therefore, if in the complete integral of the equation thus regarded we replace the constant of integration
by an
arbitrary function
all
of y,
we
shall
have a relation
which includes
particular integrals
It will
sible generality.
be found that, in
We
356
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS.
first
[Chap.
VIL
order and degree, or " linear equation," which written in the form
the
may be
(I)
Pp+Qq = R,
y and
z,
P,
and
R
is
denoting functions of x,
y and
and
a,
z.
Let u
= a,
to
in
which u
a function of x,
a constant, be an
and
respectively,
+ du = ^
du
'
&+&t =
,
3*
du
'
and substitution
of the values of
/ and
in
equation
(i)
gives
Consider
now
ential equations
dx __dy
Let u
tem.
~P~Q~~R
=a
be one of the integrals (see Art. 12) of
its
_dz
(3)
this sys
Taking
total differential,
du
dx 4'
a
dy
dy J
~ du dz = o
:
\
dx
dz
and since by equations (3) dx, dy and dz are proportional to P, Q and R, we obtain by substitution
di P+ dy
which
is
Q + d^ R
(2).
'
It
system (3) satisfies equation (1), and conversely, so that the general expression for the integrals of (3) will be
integral of the
(1). (3),
Now
v
is
let
= b be
so that
also a function
in Art. 12,
which
As
is
infinite
is
What we
require
Art.
21.]
357
none
surface passing through lines of the system (and intersecting C is such of them). It is evident that f(u, v) =f(a, b)
an equation,* and accordingly/^, v), where / function, will be found to satisfy equation (2).
solve equation (1), we v b of the auxiliary system
is
an arbitrary
(3),
<p(v),
an equation which
Conversely,
(4),
it
is
= o.
may
to a definite partial
differential equation
For, taking
x and y, we have
+r
>
(. )
[ +
/
J,
and eliminating cf) (v) from these equations, the term containing/^ vanishes, giving the result
du 9
(5)
which
is
of the
form Pp
is
f
= R.jwhose
we may
call its
coordinates are connected by the perfectly arbitrary relation J\a, b) C. These values of P, Q and R are known as the " Jacobians " of the pair f of functions u, v with respect to the pairs of variables y, z\ z, x and x, y re;
spectively.
Owing
to their
358
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS.
[CHAP. VII.
As an
tion be
for
= ly
dz
mx,
(6)
nx Iz mx' ly ny These equations were solved at the end of Art. integrals there found being
Ix
f
mz
(j\ w
J
12,
the two
my
+ nz = a
and
system
x*
\
y*
\ z*
fr.
(8)
Hence
sists of
of "
==for axis.
(q)
The
Ix
general integral of equation (6) is then 2 0(V \ y* f ), \ my f nz
(io)
which represents any surface passing through the circles just mentioned, that is, any surface of revolution of which (9) is the
axis.*
Lagrange's solution extends to the linear equation containing n independent variables. Thus the equation being
P^Lmp^L+
the auxiliary equations are
4p*Lr
_ dxn
dz
dx
dx^
= o is
and
z)
is
expressible
d(x, y,
Z)
identically as a function of
u and
=o
shall
be an
in
tegral of
f
Rdz
is
integrable (as
it
is
in
the
may be put in the form C, represents a singly infinite system of surfaces which the Lagrangean lines cut orthogonally therefore, in this case, the general integral may be de76, Art. 20), its integral,
which
V=
fined as the general equation of the surfaces which cut orthogonally the
system
Conversely, starting with a given system V'= C, u =f(v) is the general equation of the orthogonal surfaces, if u a and v b are integrals of
C.
V=
dx I /
dx
= dy
'I hv
dz
I dz
Art.
22.]
359
and
if
c 1}
?/
=c
/(
is
uu )
= o,
(Ans. xy
\
yZ
f
=
(z
Xy
z*
= /(].]
+ y)(p  q) =
(Ans.
z)p \y(z
z)p
+ x)q = x
5.
y.
(^+j)
(Ans.
log^
z(x
j
x)q =
x=f(x+y).)
y).
y \
= f(xyz).)
Art.
22.
the preceding article that an equation between three variables containing an arbitrary function gives rise to a partial differential equation of the linear form. It
follows that,
We
have seen
when
the equation
is
q,
the
general integral cannot be expressed by a single equation of the form 0(?/, 7/) o; it will, however, still be found to depend
upon a single arbitrary function. It therefore becomes necessary to consider an integral having as much generality as can be given by the presence of arbiSuch an equation is called a " complete intrary constants. " it contains two arbitrary constants {n arbitrary contegral stants in the general case of n independent variables), because
;
this
is
the
For example,
a and
if
(x ay
+ (ydy + = k\
O,
b being regarded as arbitrary, be taken as the primitive, the derived equations are
+ zp =
of
y
1)
j
zq
= O,
differential equation
,
*V + f +
is
a complete integral.
360
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS.
[Chap. VII.
Geometrically, the complete integral represents a doubly inin this case they are spherical surfinite system of surfaces
;
the plane of xy. In general, a partial differential equation of the first order with two independent variables is of the form
faces having a given radius
in
and centers
F(x,y, z,p
q)
= o,
=
o.
(i)
is
of the
form
(2)
f(x, y,
z, a, b)
In equation (1) suppose x, y and z to have special values, the equation namely, the coordinates of a special point becomes a relation between p and q. Now consider any sur
of
is
an integral of
we may call it, a given " integral surface " passing through A. The tangent plane to this surface at A determines values of p and q which must satisfy the relation just menConsider also those of the complete integral surfaces [equation (2)] which pass through A. They form a singly in
tioned.
system whose tangent planes at A have values of p and q which also satisfy the relation. There is obviously among them one which has the same value of p, and therefore also
finite
q,
Thus there
at
is
one
which touches
the given
follows that every integral surface (not included in the complete integral) must at every one of its points
integral surface.
It
in
hence evident that every integral surface is the ensystem selected from the complete
Thus,
in
the example at the beginning of this article, a right cylinder whose radius is k and whose axis lies in the plane of xy is an integral, because it is the envelope
* Values of x, y, and
z,
q,
"element
"
plete
of surface."
in the
sense of including
that the
'
com
differ
ential equation.
The method
is
of
an integral surface
Art.
22.]
361
of those
tegral
among the spheres represented by the complete inwhose centers are on the axis of the cylinder. If we
center of the sphere describe an arbitrary curve in we shall have the general integral in this ex
make the
the plane of xy
ample. In general,
if
in
a and
b,
such as b
equation (2) an arbitrary relation between <p(a), be established, the envelope of the
singly infinite system of surfaces thus defined will represent the general integral. By the usual process, the equation of
the envelope
is
equations
f(x, y,
*, a, <p(a) )
= o,
a ^r
Ax
>
y>
*>
a <Ka)
>
= o.
(3)
*'
These two equations together determine a line, namely, the ultimate intersection of two consecutive surfaces." Such
"
characteristics
"
They
are independent of
complete integral, being integral In the surfaces which pass through them touch one another. illustrative example above they are equal circles with centers
in the plane of
"
in fact lines
the
to it.*
The example
lution
*The characteristics are to be regarded not merely as lines, but as linear elements of surface," since they determine at each of their points the direction of the surfaces passing through them, Thus, in the illustration, they are circles regarded as greatcircle elements of a sphere, or as
elements of a right
be likened to narrow hoops. They constitute in all cases a The surfaces of a complete integral system contain them triply infinite system. all, but they are differently grouped in different integral surfaces.
cylinder, and
may
If
its
is,
we
in
general be at each of
points but one characteristic through which the selected curve passes; that whose tangent plane contains the tangent to the selected curve. These char
and
it is
a characteristic.
is
when
the se
reduced to a point. In the illustration these are the results of rotating the circle about a line parallel to the axis of z.
lected curve
362
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS.
[CHAP. VII.
For the planes z = k envelop the whole system of spheres the complete integral, and indeed all the surrepresented by
tion exists
When a singular solufaces included in the general integral. it is included in the result of eliminating a and b from equation (2) and its derivatives with respect to a and b,
that
is,
from
/='
df
df
d^=>
Zb=
(4>
but, as in the case of ordinary equations, this result clude relations which are not solutions.
may
in
Ix
f
Prob. 84. Derive a differential equation from the primitive a, where /, m, n are connected by the relation my f nz
m*
= =
1.
Prob. 85. Show that the singular solution of the equation found in Prob. 84 represents a sphere, that the characteristics consist
of
all
the straight lines which touch this sphere, and that the all developable surfaces which
the integral which results from taking in the 2 2 2 6 (a constant) for the arbitrary
Art,
23.
A complete
F(x,y, z,p,
contains two constants, a and
b as an arbitrary parameter, finite system of surfaces, of
it b.
q)
If
=o
(1)
is
through any given point. The ordinary differential equation of this system, which will be independent of b, may be put in the form dz pdx qdy, (2)
in
which the coefficients/ and q are functions of the variables and the constant a. Now the form of equation (2) shows that these quantities are the partial derivatives of z, in an integral
of equation (1)
;
p and
q which
ART.
23.]
363
in
values
of/ and q
terms
such as to
make equation
tem
of surfaces,
if
words,
we
of a sys(2) the differential equation In other these surfaces will be integrals. can find values of p and q containing a constant a
(1)
which
satisfy equation
and
make dz
= pdx
f
qdy
inte
direct integration a
complete
inte
There are certain forms of equations for which such values p and q are easily found. In particular there are forms in which p and q admit of constant values, and these obviously
of
make equation
(2) integrable.
Thus,
if
= O,
(3)
we may put/
Equation
= a and
b,
provided
b)
F(a,
(2)
= o.
f
(4)
thus becomes
dz
= adx
bdy,
integral
+ by +
c,
(5)
(4) so that
a,
which a and b are connected by the relation and c are equivalent 'to two arbitrary constants.
In the next place,
if
the equation
is
of the form
(6)
10,
*=P* + qy+f(p,q),
which
of
is
constant values
p and
this
they satisfy
9
= az + by+f(a
c,
b\
(7)
this equation is
and
is itself
For
of the
form z
= ax + by +
ing article
is
an example of
this form.
= o,
(8)
364
in which neither
~qz= ap,
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS.
appears explicitly. If be a function of z determined from
F(z, p, ap)
[CHAP. VII,
x nor y
we assume
will
= o,
say
<p(z).
f
(9)
Then dz
pdx 
#^), which
is
that in which, while z does not explicitly occur, it is possible to separate x and p from y and ^, thus putting the equation in the form
'+*=/&+*
fourth case
is
(I0)
/,(*,/) =/.(?,
If
9)
(")
to a con
we assume each member of this equation equal stant a, we may determine/ and q in the forms
and dz
/ = (pix, a), q = {y, a). = />^r + ^y takes an integrable form giving 8 = f^** a dx + f^y* a dy + b
(p t
^
^

(12)
(*3)
frequently possible to reduce a given equation by transformation of the variables to one of the four forms considered
It is
in this article.*
x^p*
\
y* q
= z*
may
be written
\* dx)
\z
dy'
general method, due to Charpit, of finding a proper value oip consists of establishing, by means of the condition of integrability, a linear partial differential equation for/, of
*The
integral.
This
may
be any value of / taken from the auxiliary equations employed in Lagrange's process. See Boole, Differential Equations (London 1865), p. 336 also Forsyth, Differential Equations (London 1885), p. 316, in which the auxiliary equa;
and
as
q.
in the
in fact the equations of the characteristics regarded concluding note to the preceding article. Denoting the partial deriva
tives of F(x, y,
p, q)
by X, Y,
dy
Z,
P, Q, they are
dx
~P
dz
~Q
Pp+Qq
dp
dq
~XTZp
Any
~~YTz~q
;
(New York,
q,
1889), p. 300.
relation involving
he quantities p and
combined with
F= o,
will furnish
proper values of
ART.
24.]
365
}
=
is
log x, y' =s log y, z' log z it becomes. of the form F(p\ q') o, equation (3).
Hence the
it
may
by equation
or
(5)
when
c,
a* f b*
= I?
;r'
cos
+y sin a\a
i/Sin a^
and restoring
;r,
j,
and
z,
is
(Ans. s
0* = = # sec a + solution of z = px
1.
jy
tan
or {
.)
\
qy + pq.
(Ans. z
Prob. 89. Solve by transformation ^
.#y.)
2^'. (Ans. ^
## 4
y+
)i
b.y
(Ans. *l
= (* +
y.
)l
that the solution given for the form F(z,p, q) a. o is a singular represents cylindrical surfaces, and that F(z, o, o) solution.
Show
+ (^ + a + ^.) =
=
Prob. 92.
complete integrals of pq
(Ans. 2*
in the footnote
two
=(
<*)
+ &)
Art.
24.
We
have seen
pends upon an arbitrary function although it is only when the equation is linear in / and q that it is expressible by a But in the case of higher orders no general single equation. account can be given of the nature of a solution. Moreover,
consider the equations derivable from a primitive conarbitrary functions, there is no correspondence between taining their number and the order of the equation. For example, if
and
q.
when we
for example,
for
the equation
zpq we thus obtain the two complete integrals z = (y + a)(x + and 4* =fe+ ay + /?Y.
d)
36*6
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS.
[CHAP. VII.
the primitive with two independent variables contains two arbitrary functions, it is not generally possible to eliminate them
and
their derivatives
first
equations of the
let us
from the primitive and its two derived and three of the second order.
two arbitrary
functions,
arbitrary function.
This
may
u and v now denoting known functions of x, y, z, p, and q. eliminated from the two derived equations <p'(v) may now be
as in Art. 21.
~s*
a^
'
_ _av_
a*f
~d*d/
ay
V,
z,
the result
is
Rr + Ss+ Tt+U(rts*)=
in
(i)
which R,
S, T> U,
and
are functions
of x, y,
p,
and
q.
reference to the differential equation of the second order " the equation ti intermediate equation of (p(v) is called an
With
=
:
the
first
order
"
it is
analogous to the
It
first
integral of an ordi
mediate equation cannot exist unless the equation is of the form (i); moreover, there are two other conditions which must exist between the functions R, 5, T, and U.
In tained
some simple cases an intermediate equation can be obby direct integration. Thus, if the equation contains
derivatives with respect to one only of the variables, it may be treated as an ordinary differential equation of the second order,
the constants being replaced by arbitrary functions of the other variable. Given, for example, the equation xr p xy,
which
may
be written
xdp
pdx
= xy dx.
x when
divided by x*,
p=yx\ogx + x<p(y).
A second
Art.
24.]
367
is
*+/+? = * + 0C?)
The
auxiliary equations* are
,
which
is
of Lagrange's form.
dx
of which the
first
= dy = =
,,
second,
its
x from
the
Hence, putting b
in
made
in the
function 0.
Prob, 93. Solve
t
= e* + ey
= y\
(Ans. z
=y(e y
 e x + (p(x) + e y tp(x).)
)
+/
(Ans. z
= \og[e xy ip(y)
e'
xy
]\ tp(y).)
Prob. 97. Show that Monge's equations (see footnote) give for Prob. 96 the intermediate integral p <p{z) and hence derive the
solution.
* In Monge's method (for which the reader must be referred to the complete treatises) of finding an intermediate integral of
Rr+ Ss+
when one
exists, the auxiliary
Tt
= V =
Vdx dy
equations
Rdy*
are established.
Sdy dx
Tdx*
= o, = pdx
Rdp dy + Tdq dx
f
form an incomplete system of ordinary differential equations, between the five But if it is possible to obtain two integrals of the variables x, y, z, p, and q. in the form u = a, v = />, u = <p(v) will be the intermediate integral. system
The
first
is
dy.dx.
jntegrable,
p and q determined from them and give the general integral at once.
make dz =p>dx{qdy
368
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS.
[CHAP.
VIL
Prob. 98. Derive by Monge's method for fr o 2pqs \ p*t q <p(z), and thence the general integral.. (Ans. y x(p(z) ip(z).)
Art.
25.
variable and
Equations which are linear with respect to the dependent its partial derivatives may be treated by a method
in the case of
ordinary differential
We
two independ
x and
y,
and put
d*
dy
DD
% so that the higher derivatives are denoted by the symbols , s % D' etc. ', Supposing further that the coefficients are
,
may
be written
in
the form
(1)
f{D,D')z
in
= F(x,y),
denotes an algebraic function, or polynomial, of which the degree corresponds to the order of the differential
which
Understanding by an "integral" of this equation an explicit value of z in terms of x and y, it is obvious, as inArt. 15, that the sum of a particular integral and the general
equation.
integral of
/(>, D')z
will constitute
is,
=o
(1).
(2)
It
however, only when f{D, D') is a homogeneous function of and D' that we can obtain a solution of equation (2) containing " 11 complearbitrary functions,* which solution is also the
mentary function
"
A
and
*
let
It is
B +A
us assume
assumed
(3)
(4}
equation of the th order; for a primitive containing more than n independent of the arbitrary functions cannot give rise by their elimination to an equation
nib. order.
Art.
25.]
369
where mis
constant to be determined.
\
From
equation
(4),
'
= mcp\y mx) and D'z = <p\ y mx), so that Dz = mD z, IPz = m*D'*z, DD'z = mD'^y, etc. Substituting in equation (3)
Dz
\
{n
\y
.
\
mx),
we have
o
(5)
Ajn f A m
n
A
n~ l
f A n =
i}
.
If
m m
xi
of this equation,
^
is
0i( y
+
=
,*)
+0 (7 + ^r^) +
a
+ 0O + ***)

(6)
(3).
_a
=o
is
thus
x)
~\
ip(y
x).
Any expression
;
of the
form
it
a particular integral
accordingly
is
sum
of certain functions of
x + y and
(3)
may now be
{D
written sym
bolically in the
(D
in
m D'\D  mJT)
m nD')z = o,
(7)
which the several factors correspond to the several terms of the general integral. If two of the roots of equation (5) are equal, say, to m lt the corresponding terms in equation (6) are
equivalent to a single arbitrary function.
integral
To form
the general
we need an
integral of
{D
in addition to 4>{y
 m DJz = o
x
(8)
+ m^x).
x
This
will in fact
be the solution of
(9)
(Dm D')z=
for,
if
we operate with
of this
equation,
we
obtain equation
(8).
(9) in
the
form
m q=
x
<p(y
+ mx\
dz
\
dy _
m
giving the integrals^ z
0( y
m^x)'
j b.
mx =
x
a, z = x(p(a)
Hence the
(10)
is
x
x
370
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS.
<fi
[CHAP. VII.
and regarding
If
two independ
equation
(5)
m = /z
iv*
j
ip{y
\
^.x
ivx),
which when
terms.
If
and
tp
we
restrict
now
say that there are two radically distinct classes of intebut if any real function of y j jax f ivx be put in the grals
;
real functions
X or
Fwill be an
Given, for
a^
3 a *
of
is
0( y
+ ix + *P(y  ix
)
corresponding case of ordinary equations, the particular integral of equation (1) may be made to depend upon the solution of linear equations of the first order. The
in the
As
inverse symbol j:
jyF(*> y)
m the equation
p
corresponding
(D
For
mD')z
F(x, y)
or
mq
= F[x, y).
b
x
(11)
this equation
+ wix =
a,
j F{x, a
is
mx)dx \
integral
x
The
first
term, which
may
thereinte
fore be found
by subtracting
mx
from
in
F(x,
y),
Art.
25.]
371
x and
f
then adding
mx
to
in
the
For
certain forms of
F(x
y) there exist
more expeditious
methods, of which we shall here only notice that which applies to the form F{ax \ by). Since DF{ax f by) aF\ax f by)
and D'F(ax
f
by) ==
is
wheny~(Z>, D')
t =
bF\ax f by), it is readily inferred that, homogeneous function of the nth degree,
f{D, D')F{ax
That
is,
by).
r
(13)
if
ax
f by,
f(a
b)
still
a function of
It follows
that, conversely, the operation of the inverse symbol upon a function of / is equivalent to dividing by /(a, b) and integrating
n times.
Thus,
/**
is
(I4)
a multiple of y
fails
f
mx
t
where w,
a root of
this
method
is
given
d*z
in
or
(D
Sm{x
^ +Sm ^+^  y) + (x + (x
.
sin
y).
<p(y \ x) \ tp(y part of the particular integral arising from sin (x
The complementary
2x).
y), in
The
which
aris
i~b
1, is
/
this
/sin tdf
theorem
y)
is
=

 sin (>
y).
That
D m>' F(x

'
= emxD
'f
mxD
'^(x, y)dx
ev*xD'
The symbol
mx
to
in
the operand.
of the symbol,
***D>FKy)
(i+mx^
^~
f
. .
.)
F(y)
= F(y + mx),
Theorem.
372
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS.
is
[Chap. VII.
of the form of a
term
^
in the
com
plementary function
tion (10)
is
is
n_ n
COS
\x
cos ix\y).
is
)
<P(y
+ *) + $(y  2x +i sin
=
is still
y)
i * cos
t
(*
+ fi
o the symbol f(D, D') though the equation f{D, D')z and >', can be separated with respect to not homogeneous
ll in
the
sum The
of those corresponding
integral of a factor of
;
the
first
degree
is
thus that of
(15)
is
z = e ax (p(y
j
mx).
(16)
But in the general case it is not possible to express the Let us, howsolution in a form involving arbitrary functions.
ever,
assume
z=cehx+ky
y
(17)
where c, h, and k are constants. and D'ehx ^ ky =kehx lrky substitution xJrky = o. Hence we have a solution of the form cf(h, k)^
+ ky
ky
(17)
whenever
//
and k
AK
c
k)
= o,
obvious that
(18)
It is
we may
also
z=
where k
F{Ji) is
2ce,lx + F^y
(19)
(18),
and
and h admit
fhx
+ FWy
Again, since the difference of any two terms of the form w t h different values of h is included in expression
j
(19),
we
is
to
//
also an
integral,
and
in like
For example,
if
l?~d~y^'
Art.
25.]
373
classes of in
I?
o,
we have
** + h \(x
+ 2hyf + 2y)\
//
f* +
*"'[(*
In particular, putting
cxx c,(x
t
2y), c 3 (x
+ 6xy), etc.
The
variable coefficients
solution of a linear partial differential equation with may sometimes be effected by a change of
is
corresponding
Prob.
+2 + =? = 0(*) + ip(x + j) + #(* +jf) log*.) (Ans. z n 102. Solve (Z> + 5_>Z>' + 6D )z = {y  2x)"\ = <p(y 2x) + tp(y 3*) + x log 2*).) (Ans. z
1
2^^ dx 9^
d*z
^
2 2
3^^ dxdy
d'*
= o.
I
.
dy
JM
(jy
d*z
d'z
dz
f
dx
5^dxdy
2=0.
dy
Prob. 104. Show that for an equation of the form (15) the solution given by equation (19) is equivalent to equation (16). Prob. 105. e Solve
,
.
d*z
1
3
dz
d*z
3
.
r~i * 3^ a
^ r 9#
5^3
/ dy
dz :r by transposiy* dy
1
.
Prob. 10 6. Solve
^g +
^+/g =
o.
374
[Chap. VIII*
Chapter VIII.
Art.
1.
algebra with which the student is already familiar deals directly with only one quality of the various geometric and mechanical entities, such as lines, forces, etc., namely, with
their magnitude.
The
Such questions as How much? How far? long by an algebraic operation or series of operations. Questions of direction and position are dealt with indirectly by means of systems of coordinates of various kinds.
How
are answered
In this chapter an algebra* will be developed which deals directly with the three qualities of geometric and mechanical
quantities, viz., magnitude, position,
ric
and direction.
A geomet
quantity may possess one, two, or all three of these properties simultaneously; thus a straight line of given length has
three, while a point has only one.
all
The geometric quantities with which we are to be concerned are the point, the straight line, the plane, the vector, and the
planevector.
When
will
is
used by
itself,
be always intended. portion of a given straight line of " be called a " sect though when the length
;
this
chapter
is
comprehensive theory developed by Hermann Grassmann, and published by him in 1844 under the title " Die lineale Ausdehnungslehre, ein neuer Zweig der Mathematik." He published also a second treatise on the subject in 1862.
Art.
2.]
375
line will fre
of the sect
word
quently be used instead. Similarly, a definite area of a given " plane will be called a planesect."
a point recede to infinity, it has no longer any significance as regards position, but still indicates a direction, since all lines
If
finite points, and also through this point at are parallel. Similarly, a line wholly at infinity fixes infinity, a plane direction, that is, all planes passing through finite
passing through
points,
and
also
Thus
a point and line at infinity are respectively equivalent to a line direction and a plane direction.
quantity possessing magnitude only will be termed a " scalar " quantity. Such are the ordinary subjects of algebraic
analysis, a, x, sin
0,
logz,
etc.,
and they
may
evidently be
in
The
letter
will
T prefixed
to a letter denoting
its
some geometric
be used to designate quantity magnitude, always positive. Thus, if sect, then TL is the length of Z, and
portion of a geometric quantity be called its " unit," and will
letter
absolute or numerical
be a
TP is
thus
UL =
.
unit of
= sect
line Z.*
Hence we have TL
Art.
2.
UL
=s L.
Points.
=, but with modified significance, as will dinary symbols {, in the development of the subject. appear
Every mathematical, or other, theory rests on certain fundamental assumptions, the justification for these assumptions
* The word "scalar" and the use of the
introduced by Hamilton in his Quaternions.
letters T and U, as above, were T stands for tensor, i.e., stretcher,
and
TL
is
UL
into L.

The notation
for absolute
magnitude
to another use.
376
lying in
[Chap. VIII.
of
the resulting
theory, and
Our
first
assumption, then, will be that the associative and for geometric addition and subtrac
whatever A, B,
)
C may
represent,
we have
assume that we always have A A = o, and that the same quantity may be added to or subtracted from both sides of an equation without affecting the equality.
Now
let/,
,/> 2
(0
in
we have an
identity.
Write
it,
however,
>
the
form
A A +A = (A A) +A = A
appears that/,
it.
(2)
and
it
/,
is
Conceive
change oi p into/ 2 to
Y x
;
take place along the straight line through p and /> 2 then the operation is that of moving a point through a definite length
or distance in a definite direction, namely, from/, to/> 2 This has been called by Hamilton " a vector," * that is, a operator
.
carrier,
because
it
to
it
the
name
Strecke, and
some
writers
now
same
x
sense.
Again, p^
is
the difference of two points, and the only between them is that of position, i.e.
as
tion.
Writing^
/,
e,
equation
(2)
becomes
(3)
of Hamilton's
full
ART.
2.]
377
by the length
of
and a vector is a point distant from the vector and in its direction.
~~'
Since
A A
is
>
~"
(A
A)>
**
of a vector
direction.
If
a vector of the
same length
A A
is
or
A = A> A must
coincide with
because
there
now no
difference
The
A A
question arises as to what, if any, effect the operator should have on any other point A> that is, what is the
A A+A?
it
We will
assume that
is
AA+A=A,
^
AA=AAamount and
This implies that the transference from direction as that from
A to A
1S
the
same
in
to
A>
that
is,
that
are the
order.
four corners of a parallelogram taken in Thus equal vectors have the same
length and direction, and, conversely, vectors having the same length and direction are equal.
Note that
may
be opposite.
Equation
(4)
may
also be written
A+A=A+A,
so that, whatever meaning
points,
if
(5)
may be assigned to the sum of two we are to be consistent with assumptions already
of either pair of opposite cornerof a parallelogram equal to the sum of the other pair. points The sum cannot therefore depend on the actual distances
apart of the points forming the pairs, for the ratio of these two distances may be made as large or as small as we please.
If
is
bea scalar quantity, ne will denote that the operation to be performed n times on a point to which ne is added,
is,
that
moved n times
the length of e
hence
378
[Chap.
VIIL
ne
e,
AA =
.Then
e,
2
e i>
A A=e
/,
AA =
p =
%
e 3>
A A=e
+ e = A A + A A =A A +A ~A = A~ A =
by Eq.
if
*.
(5)
since,
4,
A = A T Ae,
Also,
ea
=/,
e4
(6)
two vectors are drawn outwards from a point, and Hence, the parallelogram of which these are two adjacent sides is completed, then the two diagonals of this parallelogram will represent respectively the sum and difference of the two vectors, the sum being that diagonal which passes through the origin of the two vectors, and the difference that which passes through
their extremities.*
A p
sum
if
+/,
p +A
t
/,
zero.
;/
=o=
e,
+ + ( e
e,
t) ;
by the
sides of a
Similarly,
p p9f
it
,p n be any
we
shall
have
;
+(A  A,)+(AA)= o
By
is is
the
sum
of vectors represented
is
zero.
the operators that will move a point from the starting position along the successive sides back to this position again, so that
Art.
3.
Points.!
scalars,
in
p p
it
are points.
Grassmann
(1844),
95,
and
Art.
3.]
379
The
scalars
and
will
i
p and/
When any
weight
is
of unit
value the figure I will be omitted, so that p means I/, and is called a unit point. Occasionally, however, a letter may be
is
not unity.
consider the weights
To
the reader
may
we
shall
In order to arrive at a meaning for the above expression make two reasonable assumptions, which will prove to
viz., first,
that the
sum
is
weight
is
the
this
sum
of the weights
two given
points.
Denoting
sumpoint by/,
we
(7>
write
*i
A+
m (p
l l
.A
Transposing, we have
= m + **t)A / p) = m (p
(
i
a ),
or
,
a / _/a
Both members of
(8) are vectors,
8V
by Art.
4,
be
parallel.
2
.
with /, and
Also, since /,
/ and /
are vectors
whose
to
lengths are respectively the distances from/, to p and from/ . / 2 it follows that these distances are in the ratio of m^ to
,
Hence, / is a point on the line /,/ 2 whose distances from/, and / 2 are inversely proportional to the weights of these points.
of the
points.
lie
be
tween /, and/ 3
is
=m^
(9>
Thus
*i(A
7)
**/(A
/).
and / is on the same side of each point, that is, its direction from each point is the same. Also, since its distances from the
two points are inversely as their weights, / must be the point whose weight is greatest.
nearest,
380
Case when
[Chap. VIII.

m
A)
*
x
With
this
con
0*iA+*,A = * i(/i
and
/A =//
= oA
(10)
(")
Thus/
the same direction from each point, that is, not between them, and yet is equidistant from them. This reis
in
which evidently
p iy quires either that the two points shall coincide, that is, p % satisfies (10) and (11); or else, p and/a being
i
Thus different points, that/> shall be at an infinite distance. the sum is in this case a point of zero weight at infinity/)Eq.
(10)
at infinity
is
equivalent to a
1.
It
has been
shown
in
;
coincide
general,
/, us consider the equality of weighted points in Hence, by (7), there is found i p^. p say
*
x
A =A
p and
=m
l
m iPi m
l
~~
;
since
nence since / cannot be zero, m *P% = m ~ m ^)P = o, or m = m and therefore m (p p = o, or, Therefore, any /, =p r m^o, p p = 0, that
(
i
>
u)
is,
if
their weights
is,
their
Exercise
1.
To
3/,
find
the
:
sum and
two
weighted points
and pt
3A
2
p"
1
+ A = 4A
3 _
~~*j
3A
 A = 2/,
as
shown
in
T
ip
the figure.
The
reciprocals of the
2p>
viz.,
J,
,
p,
2.
Compare
of
magnitude.
'
Art.
4.]
381
half
its
Take/,
then
at
of small circle,
A = (A
I
:
at center center of large circle, at the point of contact and The areas of the two cirf A)
t$
cles are as
if
call
them
and
4.
Then
it is
as
1
at
hence
Show
that
A> A>
m iP\ + w aA>
anc
^,A
~~
w aA
are
Prob.
disk
;
2.
An
is
at the
point
2a)
A sin 2a
of the triangle,
$(7t
if
sin 20L)
is
and a one of
angles.
Art.
4.
Points.
As
points
in
whose weight
;
equal to the
n
thus,
2mp = p2m.
n
2)
Let
e2m
1
from both
sides of (12)
thus
we have
e)
2m(p
1
= (/
n
e)2m, 1
(13)
2m = o,
then
m =
1
2m, and
2mp =
m,p,
+ 2mp = m\
A~
2mp
2m
J>
(i4>
382
[Chap. VIII.
so that the sum becomes the difference of two unit points, or a vector whose direction is parallel to the line joining p with
x
the mean of
length
is
the other points of the system, and whose times the distance between these points. Since
all
designated as p if it follows that the line joining any point of the system to the mean of
any point
of the system
may be
all
the others
is
parallel to
line.
If
2mp =
i
o,
equation (14) shows that/j is the mean of all the other points of the system, and, since any one of the points may be
taken as
others.
plt any
is
the
mean
of all the
Let n
3 in (12)
and
(13);
then
2
+ W *A + m%P% = Oi + ^ + (15) *i(A  ')+ mlP~ + *(P ')=(**i+* +in )(pe), (16) and/ on the line joining the point m p + m p with/,, and therefore inside the triangle AAA ^ tne ms are a ^ positive.
**iA
f*]}p,
e)
is
If
less
than
\
then/
have passed across the line p^p 2 to the outside of the triIf m and m^ are negative and their sum numerically angle.
will
x
less
than
%
m
,
s,
then
will
have crossed p^p s and p p v through p e must evidently always be in the plane p p^p v
i.e., it
will
The
point
As
a numerical example
let
m = 3,
x
;/z
= 4, m =
3
5,
so
')>
Now, p p
since e
3
= (A
in the figure.
may be any point whatever, put e=p then p ) f 2(p p ), and the construction is shown p p = (p /,), and J p = 2{p% /,).
a
;
f"
5A ~ 2A
^A>
or,
by
making
Art.
4.]
383
When any number of geometric quantities can be connected with each other by an equation of the form 2m/> = o, in which the m's are finite and different from zero, then they arc said to
be mutually dependent, that is, any one can be expressed in terms of the others. If no such relation can exist between the
/ /
*
quantities, they are independent.
We
shall concide,
**iA
+
be
.A
= 0= o.
o.
(17)
shall
collinear,
*./.
A+ A+
That four points
f*xPx
It
(18)
shall
be coplanar,
+ **%Px +
+ tn p =
K h
(19)
follows that three noncollinear points cannot be connected by an equation like (18) unless each coefficient is
separately zero. Similarly four noncoplanar points cannot be connected by an equation like (19) unless each coefficient is
separately zero.
The
trated.
The
vectors
:
be
parallel,
9 a
*ii
+*e =
o.
(20)
384
GRASSMANN
SPACE ANALYSIS.
[Chap.
Vim
shall
*ii
+ne =
3 z
o. 2,
(2i>
or
These conditions follow from the results of Art. equations (17) and (18) by regarding the e's as points If in addition to (21) we have
n
t
from
at infinity..
+ +n =
n,
3
.
o,
if
be collinear
e9 =3
e,
,
for, let e
e3
e%
*,(',
e%
=e
'.)
e%
*.('.
e%
=
'.)
+
x
+ "Ae* 3
'.)
= O,
or
by
(22)
ex
+ n^ + n = o,
es
which by
It
be
collinear.
may be shown
similarly that
i
=o
(23)
are the conditions that four vectors radiating from a point shall have their extremities coplanar.
Exercise
3.
Given a triangle
e^e x e^
in
its
pe cuts
e% e9 in
Vi
^ft&cuts^in/.,.
,
p ,p and/,
x ,
are collinear.
Let/^v.+V.+V,;
^3 coincide respectively with n e f ^/2 ,
,
then ^
lies
^,
/,
n
,
and
+ n,e
if
with q
etc.
Hence,
p x oJ x ,yof y
x
because
x
on the
line joining t%
are scalars,
x
hence
(*,
y
^'s
)e
+ [x
+y {n e +  >,*,>,  n,{y +y )e = o.
,*,)
% %
x
,*.)
Now
the
ART.
4.]
385
of the form of equation (18); hence, as was there shown, each coefficient must be zero accordingly
relation
;
whence we
hence
fa
,)/,
Adding, we have
(*,
,)A
+ (, = 2ne
,
.}?,
+ (. 2
,)A
=o
therefore,
by
(18),
p of p lt /
2
are collinear.
Exercise
4.
Let /
e^e x e%
:
i
^w
be any point
in
the plane
of the triangle
*/
lines
meet
in a point
/=
By the
to p'
is
[(,
*,)*.
+ (*. +
.y,
+ (. +
;
,yj
+ 2^.
x
e^
p hence
/ = #', +
or,
%)
'.)
/),
/ = 4(', + e + x{e  2ne+2n) = i(e + e )+jie 2ne+2n). hence i)2n 4 n (y [{x x)]e + n (y x)e  Sfi* + n&  *)> = O + [(*
x
must be
of
and substituting we find p' as above. follows also that the distances of p' from the middle points the sides are the halves of the distances of p from the oppoJ,
whence x
=y =
site vertices.
Prob.
3.
Show
that e
= $2$ is
collinear with
386
cise 4.
GRASSMANN
SPACE ANALYSIS.
[Chap.
V I1I.
Also that, by properly choosing/, it follows that e is colcommon point of the perpendiculars from the vertices
sides,
on the opposite
of the perpendiculars
Prob.
4.
Given two
and an ellipse, as in the figure, with p% and px Radii of circles 4 and 1, axes of ellipse 2 and 4, small circle and ellipse touching large circle at e 9 and e respectively, e e e 2 an equilateral triangle: show that the cencircles
centers at *
troid of the remainder of the large circle, after the small areas are removed, will be at
= tV(iK ~ A Prob.
5.
2/1 )=BV(S9^
4*i
3'.).
shape
of an isosceles triangle be folded over as in the figure, show that its centroid is given by
3^ = *[35('t
Prob.
6.
+ *,)+
J
"'Je ne e i e 3
1
If
a tetrahedron
of
its
,
have a
off
tetrahedron of
plane parallel to e a e t e 2
by a
of
x
its
,
show
volume cut
/= dn>(227*o +
Art.
5.
175*3
+ 239(^1 +
',) )
Reference Systems.
e
e xt e^
and w, x,y
scalars
then, writing
p
we must have
also,
= we, + xe + ye
x
(24)
because/
is
a unit point,
(25)
w + x+yi,
and
for
p
it
is
the
mean
we
e %i
xext yex
The
x
;
on the
xe with
x
and by varying
y and
w + x,
w
x remaining
constant,
p may
be moved along
Art.
5.]
REFERENCE SYSTEMS.
from
x
387
this line
oo
to
f oo
the
oo to along e e lf point we j xe may be moved from and thus the first line will be rotated through 1 80 degrees, and / may thus be given any position whatever in the plane.
points to which the positions of other points may be referred is called a reference system, and the For reasons that will aptriangle e e^ 2 is a reference triangle.
of unit
A system
pear
the double area of this triangle will be taken as the unit of measurement of area for a point system in twodimenlater,
sional space.
Similarly, in solid space, taking a fourth point e a
,
we
write
(26)
p
which
implies also
we,
xe
+ye
ze
w\x\y\z~\\
as
(27)
position whatever in space by properly assigning the values of w, x,y,z\ so that <?,... et form a reference system for points
in threedimensional space.
is
called
the reference tetrahedron, and six times its volume will be taken as the unit of volume for a point system in threedimensional space.
Eliminating
between
(24)
and
(25),
we have
(28)
P=?
from which
it
+ *(',  O +jK<. ~ O,
e
may
in the plane e% ex ev
Writing/
p = xe
t
= p,
2
,
e =
p may
be any point
e,
e l}
e2
<28) becomes
+ ye
we
t
(29)
and
e,, e 2
and
(27)
find
,
9
and 6
three.
If, in
= **x +?e + *,
system
(30)
ea
e 3 are a reference
expressible
terms of
these
(30),
388
unit length
[Chap. VIII.
and mutually perpendicular, we have unit, normal reference systems, and in this case z., z 2 z will generally be used
,
instead of
e,,
e9
5.
e,.
Exercise
e lt e^ to e
',
et
'
%
et \
The new
/.'.'
+ J/' + lf{%
ei
.'.'
+ *// + *V'.
t
Then any point/ = x e { x e f x e will be expressed terms of the new reference points by substituting the values
x x
in
of
etc., as
given.
x ,
If
points, e9 , e
ex
'
e^
may
et
'
'
2me,
e^
=
K
/o
390
[Chap. VIII..
Art.
6.
idea of geometric multiplication is, that a product of two or more factors is that which is determined by those factors.
The fundamental
Thus, two points determine a line passing through them, and also a length, viz., the shortest distance between them
hence /,/,
=L
is
p to/
x
or generated
by a point moving
from
to p^.
between
they have the same length and direction, but confined to the line through these two points, while the vector/, p is not. The sect has position in addi
is
Again, in plane space, two sects determine a point, the intersection of the lines in which they lie, and also an area, as
general In solid space, however, two lines do not, in but two sects, in general, meet, and hence cannot fix a point this case, determine a tetrahedron of which they are opposite
a unit point.
;
will
appear
later, so
is
not
in
edges.
It
product
in
may have
different
interpretations in spaces
will consider separately
of different dimensions.
Hence we
products
Products of the kind here considered are termed " combinatory," because two or
combine to form a one of them. This is the any fundamental difference between this algebra and the linear
factors
more
new quantity
different from
associative
special case.
algebras of
Peirce,
of
the various products that may arise, we will give a table which will serve as a sort of bird'seye view of the subject.
in detail
* Grassmann (1844), Chap. 2 f See Art. I.
;
Before discussing
(1862),
Chap.
2.
Art.
6.]
391
we
shall
use/,
A>A>
etc., for
points;
?/, Tj lf
e,
e3
etc.,
for vectors; L,
;
x ,
etc,, for
planesects, or planes.
Also/,/,,
and P,
The products are arranged in two columns, so as to bring out the geometric principle of duality.
Planimetric Products.
AA = L.
392
[Chap. VIII.
Laws
of
products are
All
combinatory
A(B+C)=AB + AC.
The planimetric product of three points or of three lines, and the stereometric product of three points or planes, or of four points or planes, are subject to the associative law. That is,
In Plane Space
:
AAA =AA A = A AA
AAA = A A A = A A A
In Solid Space
;
ftV. = P.
;
tt = Pf,
ft
PPPPP PPPPP
may
pp
Instead of
ciative, a
AB=
from which
it
 BA,
two
single
Since vectors are equivalent to points at law holds for e^e^ and rjjjjjf
oo
the associative
Art.
Product of
Art.
6,
7.
Planimetric Products.
Points.f
Two
fully defined in
and
it is
evident from
A A = A AIf
x ,
this
becomes p p
x
o,
is
now
of
no length.
(33)
Also,
* Grassmann
Chap.
3.
Grassmann
ART.
7.]
PLANIMETRIC PRODUCTS.
2
393
But/
is
a vector, say, e
e
hence
\
A = AA
vector by a point fixes the point.
its
(34)
or the product of a point and a vector rection and magnitude of the vector
;
position
by making
pass through
To
find
will be equal to /,/ 2 the plane space under consideration, point / xj> % +xj> p' =y,p y,p, x,p yj> with
.
in
2x = 2y = o.
x x
n
Then
If this
jf 3 jj/ 3
pp'
is
y
l
y,
AA +
xy
x
y* y
PJ*
AAy* y>
to reduce to
x
is
to vanish also.
If,
.
be
x
in
moreover,
addition
x y^
to p'
is
AA
is equal 1, x^y /,/2 when, and only when, the four points are collinear, and distant from/ by the same amount and in the same direc
we
shall
have pp'
Hence pp'
tion that/,
is
from/,.
Art. 6 the product is what In solid space they would is determined by the three points. fix a plane, but, as we are now confined to plane space, this is
By
points evidently fix either a triangle or a will be parallelogram of twice its area, and the product taken as the area of this, or an equivalent, parallelogram.
The
AAA
This area
it
is
is
what
is
generated by/,/, as
till it
is
3
.
moved
parallel to its
initial
position
passes through
x
We have pjtj> ./ / /, .p p, = AAA. so that we go around the triangle in the opposite sense the sign is changed. As this product possesses only the properties of magt a 3 3
=p
if
it is
scalar.
Write /
2xp, p'
^yp p"
y
*2zp
then
394
[Chap. VIIL
x x x
\ x
PP'P"
y, y*P,P.P*\
(35)
Art.
7.]
PLANIMETRIC PRODUCTS.
395
determined by
and Z 2
//,/,.
is
we have
We
is
write therefore
4A = AA AA = AAA
The
third
A
(38)
member
of (38)
from the second by ordinary transposition and reassociation of the points, for the associative law does not hold for the four
points taken together, since //,/ A simply results from the definition of L
as a
=
X
Tne
It
tnird
member
be taken
L^
may
will
(38)
when
changed throughout. Thus, if/, = L L and /, = Z Z we have (39) AA = L L Z Z = L L L Z For take //and //so that/,// = Z, and/ //= L p p is
2
. l
evidently
some multiple
of
say
nL
hence
AA = *. = ^( A A A A') (AA
=
AA')
by
(38),
= ^AA'A)(AAA'A)>
2
AAA' are
scalar,
~
4,,
by
(38),
= Z Z,Z Z
cated, but
just
been indi
we may
,
Z,,
Z
,
and
l
let
Let the lines be proceed thus be their common points. Take /,/,,/,
also
scalars n Q
n% so that
,*>*, ./,/,
=
}
n9 p
etc.,
then
Z Z,Z =
2
AA AA =
.p ip
n * n Jh
A A A A AA
2

=  n n^ .p,p p
uct of this kind, the
= ^^(AAA)
(40)
" " " * Grassmann to a prodregressiv applies the terms "eingevvandt and first term being used in the Ausdehnungslehre of 1844,
in that of 1862.
first,
and Chapter
3^
396
[Chap. VIII.
Two
then
Sects.
and
be as
in (38)
pL,L
It
uct
is
pL L Z is
x
p L
.
L^.
The prod2
the line
times the
a different meaning from that assigned in (41). As a rule, to avoid ambiguity, the grouping of such products will
scalar pL
Two
Parallel Sects.
Let them
be^e and
.
np 3 e;
then, as in (38),
A*
that
is,
np % e
= n .p e .p e =
x
n.ep
ep t
n
00
ep
e,
(42)
common
point, and
point at
Let Z, and
be two
that
their
common
and
so taken
(43)
and/
2;
is
that diagonal
Also
(44)
AA=A(AA),
by
Z, and Z 2 If the two sects are parallel let
.
so that the difference of the two passes also through p and is parallel to the other diagonal of the parallelogram determined
them be n p
x
and # 2/ 2 e;
(45)
then
*iAe
+ n,P^ =
is
(Mi
+ M.) = (, +
,)/
a sect parallel to each of them, having a length equal to the sum of their lengths, and at distances from
inversely proportional to their lengths.
them
If
n the two sects are oppositely directed and of equal length, and the sum is w2
x
(A >.e)
Avhich, being the product of
,(A
A).
is
(46)
two
vectors,
a scalar area.
Art/7.]
planimetric products.
j
397
,
pn en and
let e
be some
= e 2e + !(/  *,)e. (47) /e The second term of the third member of this equation, being a sum of double vector products, that is, a sum of areas, is itself
i/ =
e.Se
 e 2e +
equal to the product of any two nonparallel vectors of suitable lengths. Therefore, a and /3 being such vecis
an area, and
tors, write
2e
Hence
fl)
(47)
become
(48)
line
2pe
then
The
mean
ing of the equation, and hence it appears that qa{ 2pe) is at a perpendicular distance from
e
of
afl
Ta
_ ~
2{p
e )e
'
T2e
(49)
exact geometrical
and position, and the discussion of the summation of sects which has just
been given corresponds completely to the discussion of the
sultant of a system of forces in a plane.
re
the resultant of any system of forces is simply their sum, and this will be found hereafter to be equally true in threedimensional space.
The
expression
e )e of
in (46)
corresponds to a couple,
this equation proves
is
,
2(p
(47);
and
equiva
and a
couple.
Exercise
7.
To
find x, y, z
398
[Chap. VIII.
pvi p%%
3
and
respectively,
and
x^ap
i
f
y~2bp
i
+ z~2cp = 2dp.
:
ii3
. .
Now
2ap, ^bp
written by
2ap.2bp; thus
z2ap ^bp^cp
.
because
z
2ap 2ap
.
= o,
etc.;
therefore
<K>
<rj,
x and y
points.
a very simple proof of the determinant solution. Of course will be found by multiplying by the other pairs of
e2
f
Exercise
8.
by given multiples
;
allelogram Let the parallelogram be double the triangle e e ev and the forces
tt
k,e n e,
+ke
x
(e%
+
=
k,e,(e
e)
(k Q
ex x )e
+ k = 2pe + (k + k + (k + k )e e
a
e2 e
)e e t
x
t 9.
Multiply by e then
e x to find
this line
+
x
A,),,
_(*,
+ *,>,]
t
5
(6,i,).
triangle at [(,
at
9 x
+ kfc  {k + k )e (, +  k k and  {k + *,>,]  (k  k [(k + k )e then each of the three points Suppose k = k = ^ =
x]
a ).
,;
;
infinity
but
in this
**)>
case
2pe reduces
s y stem
to
is
2 &fa'*X'*
and the
when k
i,
and when k
= k^ =
1,
ka
4;
when
2.
ART.
8.]
THE COMPLEMENT.
.
.
399
Prob. 12. There are given n points /, .p n to find a point e such that forces represented by the sects ep ep^ etc., shall be in
\ x ,
equilibrium.
(The
equation of equilibrium
is
2ep = e2zp =
ep
o.
e coincides with the mean point of the/'s.) Prob. 13. If a harmonic range *,,/, e^ p' be given, together with some point e not collinear with these points, show that
Hence
<V,
(Let p
Art. 3.)
=me
x
f
m^e^
in
Exercise
2 of
Prob. 14.
Show
points whatever taken respectively on the four lines e e lt e p, If the four points are all at the same distance from e Q Q p'.
,
show
become proportional
angles between
e ex
and
p, etc.
Art.
8.
The Complement*
Taking point reference systems, or unit normal vector reference systems, as in Art. 5, the product of the reference units taken in order being in any case unity, the complement of any
reference unit
is
the product of
all
its
complement
is
unity.
To
find the
complements
units the following properties are assumed (a) The complement of a product is equal to the product of the complements of its factors.
(b)
The complement
of a
sum
is
equal to the
is
sum
of the
complements of the terms added together. (c) The complement of a scalar quantity
the scalar
itself.
Considering now the point system in plane space ew e lt e% with the constant condition e eA e^= 1, the sides of the refer
ence triangle taken in order are the complements of the opposite vertices, and vice versa.
The complement
line, as
\p,
of a quantity
is
indicated
by a
vertical
read,
complement
of p.
400
[Chap. VIII*
Thus
= '/t k = <Vo>
k.= v,i
li
kA=l(W=s ^i k.^=kk) =
'i*
ko^
= l(k =
a)
^;
For
I
^ ^
= W, =
I
'A = k
e%
?%'%
V, =
V
=
o
Vi =  VA
(
eo
*o>
by
(a)
and
I
W=
(38)
ko
ki
(*:)
;
k = *A
eQ [e t
'A Vi = V/J' =
= VA
which
agrees with
e e2 e
e \ea
= e^e^
have, by
(b),
^7^, and
we
\A=2t\?=W>+W.+^=W,(l
Thus
j")g
J)
= A
(50)
the complement of a point is a line,* which may be easily constructed by the fourth member of (50), which expresses this line as the product of the points in which it cuts
the sides
this
e e1
and
e e^
Comparing
\/> 1
appears that
above
is
e
.
as the line/
of Ex. 3
is
to the point
2ne.
Hence
\p
1
may
e
>
responding to
as
shown
3,
Art. 4.
Again, the line \p may be shown to be the antipolar of p with respect to an ellipse of such dimensions, and so placed upon e e e 9 that, with reference to it, each side of the reference
x
x
triangle
it
the antipolar of the opposite vertex.* From this appears that complementary relations are polar reciprocal
is
relations.
Take any
point
= 2/m =
*See Hyde's Directional
2me.2l\e=zpt \pit
Calculus, Arts. 4143 and 121123.
(51)
Art.
8.]
THE COMPLEMENT.
is
401
true of all such products when the on each side of the complement sign are of the same quantities
and
scalar.
This
is
Take
for instance
is
the product
AAlAAhave/,/),
This
is scalar
is
because \p ap A
whole quantity
and we
aa
= IAA AA = AA lAA)
(

==
such a quantity be taken as/^, \p 9 it is neither (c). If, however, scalar nor commutative about the sign for, \p % being a line, the product is that of two lines, that is, a point, and
.
;
AA A =  A AA = .
I
(A
AA).
(52)
Such products as we have just been considering are called Grassmann " inner products," * and he regards the sign by as a multiplication sign for this sort of product. Inasmuch, as these products do not differ in nature from those however, heretofore considered, it appears to the author to conduce to

simplicity not to introduce a nomenclature which implies a new For instance, p\q will be treated as. species of multiplication.
the combinatory product of / into the complement of not as a different kind of product of p into q.
q,
and
regarded as an abbreviation merely, after the analogy of cosine for complement of the sine.
By the
defini
k==
..
1*.=
i
J
1(10= *i*
because
\i 1
z,t 3
I,
Also,
2,
z
1
Mi==
i
z3
z
l
i
Next
iet
t
i l
+ m^i,
and
e2
i
1
f n t i 2
4.
402
then,
[Chap. VIII.
by
(b)
and
I
(c),
ex
=m
it is
ix
+ m, = m  m
z

t,
ttx.
(53)
By
the figure
x
evident that

e, is
a vector of the
same
length as e
and perpendicular to
.
it,
or, in
positively
through 90
The
of
e
1
coproduct
sides are
,
e,
e2
is
I
whose
is
e,
and
parallel to ea
= o;
but, since
e2 is
to e 2
e,
must
in this case
be perpendicular
(54)
e1
is
\e,
=
e,
and
e 2 shall
be perpendicu
lar to
each other.
e,

The coproduct
called
e,
which
,
will usually
be written
e,,
and
the cosquare of e, is the area of a square each of whose sides has the length Te hence
x ;
r6l
x
=^K=7^
x
(55)
e
x
z,
Let a and a a be the angles between i and and e 2 respectively, as in the figure. Then
e
x
and between
e,
= mn x
m.i n
Te 7e2
x
sin
(or,
a
x ),
(56)
the third
member
Also
i
%
= {m + m i^(n  n = m n + mjt = Te
ix %
x
x)
7e2 cos
(a,
x ),
(57)
the last
sin (90
before,
remembering that
^ ^
(57)
we
let e2
e,,
whence n
tnx
and nt
=m
we
have
Te
If
2
7^ =
ar 2
,
7e
1,
= sin
(58)
x
,n
= cos ^
2,
and equations
(56)
and
x
 a) =
Art.
8.]
THE COMPLEMENT.
{a,
<x t
403
sin
.
and cos
== cos
cos
or,
+ sin a
2 )'
or,
Squaring and
2
.
Te
Attention
is
.T*e
e;ie*
= (e,e + fe
e2 )
(59)
which the student may have = AC, in which already noticed, that such an equation as AB AB and AC are combinatory products, does not, in general,
called to the fact,
imply that B = C, for the reason that the equation can usually be satisfied without either factor being itself zero. Thus pL = pL 2 means simply that the two quantities which
x
A(BC)0
to have an infinity
same magnitude and sign, which permits of lengths and positions, when p and L
x x
are given.
The equation p
p,
=p
% ,
or
A (A
~~
A)
that/ 2
=A
un ^ ess
A A
anc*
ls
Exercise
9.
triangle
its
whose
moves
Let
so that two of
vertices remain
on two fixed
lines
and
e Q e,
lines,
Let pe be pertriangle. e = xe and pendicular to p'p", p'  = ye,  xe  e9 je2 then /' /"
7( je 2
ditions.
=c=
say,
e
and Tep
constant
U{e
e
= nc,
mc
9
say.
Hence
~~~
p'
Tp'e
 p') =
VG
.
Xe
^^
xe
x
__
m{ye,
#,),
and
similarly
= n\(ye
l
).
Therefore
x
pe = p = xe + m(ye,  xe + n
)
(ye,
 xe xe =
x
),
c,
or
e2 
2xye
e2
+x
e x
= c\
determines the locus to be a seconddegree curve, which must in fact be an ellipse, since it can have no points at infinity.
in
p thus
i
p = #[(1
m)e
n\
ej
+y[me
+ n\ ej = xe + ye\ say,
404
so that e
GRASSMANN
SPACE ANALYSIS.
e'
[Chap. VIII.
(i
m)e
n e and
\
me
+n
ea
and
e'\
therefore
pe
=
in
xee\
x and y
tion of condition,
2
we have

el (pe)
.
+ 2e,
,.
pe pe'
.
+ e^pej = c\ee')\
Exercise
sides
:
10.
There
if
show that
sides, proportional to
them
in
ward or
Let
2e n be a vertex of the polygon, and let 2 v 2e 2 Then the midrepresent its sides in magnitude and direction. dle points will be e {e lf en \2ex ~\ e 2 etc., and, using the
,
complement
in
a vector system,
I
I
we have
e2 +(^o+2e
1
2/e
= OvK) *+('+*<+*)
+2e +e )
2
3
.
.
e9
+
2e+2 + 2
n
I
l
(*o
+ 2e +
x
+ 2e_
+ + OK
. . . ..
2e +
2e,
2e
+ ... + 2e _
n
\en
\ 2
2;ef
12 ej=
o,
Exercise
II.
A line
two
passes through a fixed point and cuts fixed lines at the points of inter;
are erected
lines
be
e e
;
and
e Q e2
e f e 3
the moving
in p'
and p n
'.
which
are
Let/
then p
= p,p'
:=
J
= xe ,p"e = ye
1
Te,
= 7e
=i;:
xe
{x'\e
^e 2 fj/
e2
y..
Art.
9.]
405
Also, since
(. 
e *)(y e *
p"
)
= *y*fy+y*A
jj/,
.
+ *w"
^ and
+ p
p,
e,
e 3 e, ss O,
a conic.
Prob. 15. If a,
the formula a*
2
1
=b +c
%
1
b, c
are the lengths of the sides of a triangle, prove 1 2bc cos A, by taking vectors e,, e 9 and
,
equal to the respective sides. Prob. 16. If e e and e e* are two unit lines, show that the vec# e i)(^ tor perpendicular from e on the line (e ^*) is
abe.e*
:
.
...
(be*
(be^
ae
ae.), of
.. ...
abee
7=
r.
is
)
T(be*
ae
From
origin
this derive the Cartesian expression for the perpendicular upon a straight line in oblique coordinates,
00
2
from the
ab sin
f
(a
b'
2<zb.
me *,, me + ne*, me* f ne , be 17. taken on the sides of the reference triangle, then the sides of the ne^), etc., will be respectively paralcomplementary triangle, (me lel to the corresponding sides of the triangle formed by the assumed
Prob.
If three points,
x

points (me,
* 9 )>
me *
+ ne
o)>
etc
Art.
9.
Several equations of condition are placed here together for convenient reference some have been already given others follow from the results of Arts. 7 and 8. When we have
:
;
AA = o iA + n *P* =
44 =
or
;
o,
>
+
3
n 2 L,
= o,
o,
o,
J
(60)
AAA = o1
or
444 =
or
;
2np
= o,
2nL =
1
(61)
= O,
or
n e
l
n,e,
= O,
(62)
at infinity coincide);
[.
(63)
406
[Chap. VIII,
Z,Z,
either point lies on the com
= o,
(64)
plementary
If
we
*\ e i
ei
+ x ev
*
e1 1
is
the projection of p on
parallel to e 2
.
and
;r2 e a
is
the
projection of
p on
;
e 2 parallel to e a
equation into e 2
therefore pe 2
ex e
or
x
x
pe a ~
e,e 2 .
we have
pe,
e e lt or 2 2
= pe,
5
e 2 e,,
whence
e,
.pe 2
e 2 .pe,
of the second
member
,
pon
e,
parallel to e a
and on
Let
e,
and
e2
and
\i\
then (65)
(66)
becomes
p
or,
if
i
x
pi= i.p\i+ip.\i;
1
and
be used instead of
and

z,
P= VPK +
Again,
therefore
e,e 2
.
Plv
(67)
in (65) let
p=
e3
clear of fractions,
and transpose
e3
e2 e 3
e,
+e
e,
e2
= o,
(68)
Let 7e,
3,
thus
e^ +
is
e2 e 3
e,
e,
+e
cos
e,
e2 e 3
1
= o,
a
sin
/?,
(69)
which
equivalent to
sin (a
/3)
sin
/3
cos
when
e\,
is
lus, Arts.
Art.
9.]
407
in (69)
i
between
and
,
e2
or outside, respectively.
Writing
ea
instead of e 2
we have
eje 2
e 2 e 3 .e 3 e 1
+ee
3
.e 2 e 3
= 0,
(70)
These formulas being for any which gives the cos (a /?). three directions in plane space, are independent of the magnitude of the angles involved.
There
is
complementary pairs, and all placed together for arranged convenient reference, the derivation of them following after.
in
/=(AAA)" [A /A A + A /A A + A /AAL Z=( AAA)'[4 LL L + L LL,L + A ZZ.ZJ /^(AAArClAAAA + IAA/IA + AAA /IAU
1
(70
(72)
(73)
J
4
AAA L
.L Lt Lt
t
1
AA
*3=
^ AW
_
?i
'
AW Al AW Al
I
A ft
a I?.
Al?.
not given, but
^'s.
r,
',
to (77)
is
may
Equation
this
(71).
Write
p=xp
then
\
xp
1
equation by
pp
l
AA/ = *oAAA>
pp
^
= /A A ^ AAAfind
5
Multiplying similarly by
*,
= /AA
*/.AA and
= /AA
and by p p v we
A A A
The
substitu
408
GRASSMANN
SPACE ANALYSIS.
first
[Chap. VIII.
is
of (71),
may
Equation
values of
(72).
;
Write/
,
multiply into \p o
x
p p and
o iy
same way
Equation
Write p p .p p
2 s
~
x
xp
by PA* therefore pp% .p,p^.p*p, = Xpp% p or, by Eq. (38), = *PP*Pi = *P%PP or * PiPtPv MultiplyA/A we find _y =AAA> anc * on substituting obtain the ing by pp For the second put p 'p % p p A = *p s \ypv and first of (73).
AAA
x
>
=~
9
proceed
in a similar
way.
first
Equation
(74).
(75).
In the
of (73) put
p pK
%
= \q
Equation
Equation
AA =A A =
(76).
;
A=
ft
Multiply (75) by/,. Equation (77). In the first of (72) put byAAAftft then
AAA
ftftft
= ftft AA
I
ft
ft
ft
lA
=A
by
Alft
ft
Alft
Alft
Alft
is
+Alft
Alft
A'ftl
+ Alft
Alft Afft
A'ft
(76),
which
To show
Let p
then
pp
p,
[/
x1
J, ?
()
*** etc. Sub'1*1 ft *!*, these values in (77), we have the required result. stituting solution may also be obtained directly without the use of (77).
[ft
/o A o
+ l*K> A
^==
2
[A
//
vj
also
w o*
+
2
Let the
q's
2lq,p
= 2mq,p =
2
2nq.
Then
p p p,=2fq.2mq.27tq=[/
o
x
,]?.?,?,=[/
J[A
ju
fj.
ART.
9.]
409
Also /,
AAA
product form.*
which on being substituted in Equation (77), however, exhibits the a very compact, symmetrical, and easily remembered
t
and/
Exercise
x
13.
Show
AA
AA> P%P%
,
tne
tr *
angle p p^p % cut the corresponding sides \p 3 \p plementary triangle in three collinear points.
x ,
\p 2 of the
com
The
may
be shown
in
way
Exercise 14. If the sides of a triangle pass through three fixed points, and two of the vertices slide on fixed lines, find the locus of /\
the other vertex.
iy
%
2
"
,/ " p/
\ * \
\
7>^r >'p\
_.""/
M
\
vertices of
the triangle, as
in
the
o; p' figure. p'p zp" cides with pp^.L^ and p" with pp^. Z 2 hence substituting o, the equation of the locus, which, being {pp L^)p z (L^. p 2 p)
;
.
Then
coin
is
that of a conic.
Show
(73).
that
if
the three fixed points of the last exercise p breaks up into two straight lines.
Use equation
Prob. 19. If the vertices of a triangle slide on three fixed lines, and two of the sides pass through fixed points, find the envelope of
the other side.
(This statement
is,
is
lines
may
410
lines respectively,
[Chap.
VIIK
and the resulting equation will be an equation of the second order in Z, a variable line.) Prob. 20. Show that if the three fixed lines of Problem 19 are confluent, then the envelope of L reduces to two points and the line joining them.
Art.
10.
Stereometric Products.
in solid
The product
plane space.
plane, and
of
two points
7.
space
is
the same as in
See Art.
Any
;
Art.
7,
an area
hence
AAA
or a portion of the plane fixed by the three points whose area is double that of the triangle AAAIt may be shown, in
in
can be equal to AAA* and that any planesect in this plane having the same area and sign will be equal to AAA**' is not now scalar. Of course
AAA
of
Product
Four
Points.
5 x
Any
2^
*
y ^p\ x _\/ \
\
7s^
4
\ ume S* \/
x
AAAA anc
of
f
s*
x times the
value of
volis
this
r
tetrahedron
ta ^ en
the
the
AAA
when
Pi
it
moves
e,
A=
If/,
A A= A A= AAAA = AAA*" = AA*V = A<*V'. c2^, A = <27* A = 2me,p = 2ne, then m AAAA = 2&e2le2me2ne = [k v/A
333 000
it
from/, to p v
Let
(78)
ot
/,,
,]
(79)
any two quadruple products of points differ from each other only by a scalar factor, that is, they differ only in magnitude, or sign, or both; hence such products = o, the volume of the If are themselves scalar.f
from which
appears that
AAAA
f
Grassmann
ART.
10.]
STEREOMETRIC PRODUCTS.
411
Product of
area as in Art.
Two
7,
Vectors.
The two
vectors determine an
but they also determine now a plane direcproduct e^e., is a planevector, and is not scalar
Also,
as in plane space.
differs
from pe
direction, that
is,
<G
now
just as e
e^ is
fixed in position
by passing through/,.
Equation
(37) there
parallelepiped as in the figure above, and ee' e" is therefore the volume of this parallelepiped. Any other triple vector
let e l
product can differ from this only in magnitude and sign. e i be such a product, and write l
.
=x e +^ e +xe =
1 1
2xe,
33
e
f
For
= 2 ye,
*,
e"
= 2ze
then
412
[Chap. VIII.
Let them be
and
be their
common
and
point; take A,
A* A
so tnat
Z=AA
point
an<^
PPaPtPr L
is
A' an d
is
L
of
made up
LP = AA AAA = PP J J*
PL =P.PJ,
If
A*>
Pop!
= AAAA
is
A
LP.
]
it
< 8 3>
is
parallel to P,
by
e,
{83)
becomes
PL =
Two
LP=
eA
eAA
= eA AA
'
'
Product of
let
x
PlaneSects.
Let them be
and
^
and
faces,
P =
and and
be their intersection, while and are such points that Lp and P, Lp2 then P and P9 determine the line L
x
also a parallelepiped of
Pf^Lp^.Lp^Lp^.L^Pf,
If P,
(85)
and
are parallel,
t]
;
to a planevector, say to
PA = >ZA
;
,
?A = ?AA
= By
^and
(83) this
(86)
(85)
must
be the square of a volume times the common point of the three planes or, if p A> be taken in such manner that
A A
then
.
01
= (AAAA) A
3
(87)
the suffixes being used instead of the corresponding points. If be at infinity, the three planes are parallel to a single line,
ep.1
etc.,
as
and
etc,
let
A
be the four
n
. .
three by three.
;
n%
common may be so
*
P = AAA>
then
PPPP =
l
nji x n % n %
9
= *.,* ,(AAAA)'
* Grassmann (1862), Art. 300.
ART.
10.]
STEREOMETRIC PRODUCTS.
413
?; 2
Product of
Two
PlaneVectors.
;
Let
tf l
and
be two plane
let
17,
= ViV*
because
7,
ee
6e 2
= =
,,. 6 as
^ffc,
e,
(89)
and
of
7/ a
determine a
common
direction
and a
paral
lelepiped
e,
e 2 , respectively.
Take
e lt e 2
2 3)
1
e 3 so that
=*
. .
.
e 2 e3
636,
,,
= w(e e e
2
(90)
The
77,
.
e 3 are common to the planevectors e, taken two by two. ?/, Several conditions are given here together which follow
directions
this article.
AA = o,
Two
points coincide.
o,
P,P,
= o,
AAA =
Three points
collinear.
two
o,
Vectors
parallel.
parallel to
Sum
of
Two
Planes.
line,
sect in their
common
P, = Lp,\
P = Lp
l
lf
then
/>+/>= Z(A
p
being the
+ A) = *M
Also
(96)
mean
of
and p 9
P,P, =
L(
A J>,);
(97)
whence the sum and difference are the diagonal plane through Z, and a plane through L parallel to the diagonal plane which
is
itself parallel
by
414
[Chap. VIII.
and
If
TP = TP P
l
9i
bisecting planes of the angle between them. planes may also be written
The
bisecting
^YpIf
or
P,TP,P,TPV
let
tf
(98)
the two
be a planevector
line at infinity,
their
common
and
let/,
may
write
If
and / 2 be points
2
in
2
we
(99)
^,
+ ^, =
(/>,
/,)?>
(100)
by
(80).
Two planevectors may be added similarly, have a common direction, namely, that of the
to both of them.
vector parallel
If two tetrahedra e e e^e s and e^e^e^e^ are so 15. that the right lines through the pairs of corresponding situated vertices all meet in one point, then will the corresponding faces
Exercise
lines.
The
given
conditions
are
**'*'

equivalent to e e
'
.
e e/
t
=
by
****'
V/ = V'
012
Vt'
**i
Vi'V,'
e^e x e^
=
.
e /*
'/,'
Two
*t *i e%
eje^'cj
and
*{*%*%* an(^'
.
equivalent to the fourth condition above, since quadruplepoint products in solid space are associative. Similarly all the other pairs
.
= 0123. o'V^i'
(93),
^ these intersect, we must accordingly have, 0V2' 123 1V3' = o = 012 123 o'i'2' 1V3'
.
i2i 2
/
,
is
of intersections
Exercise
by
difference of
two
two
ART.
10.]
STEREOMETRIC PRODUCTS.
415
Let the tetrahedron be e9 ex e% e%i and bisecting planes, by (97). Te e 2 e 3 etc.; then a let the double areas of its faces be
A =
"
^
or e%e x {A %e%
e % ).
The
e e A^^). pair through the opposite edge will be e 3 9 (A Q which the six internal bisecting If there be a point through
planes pass, it must be on the intersection of these two planes taken with the upper signs, and we infer by symmetry that it
3
Another
is
f
e 9 ),
To
obtain
that
all
signs, so
the points we have only to use the double Ae A e^ A^e^ A 3 er This they are
x
+++ + + +
The
++++ 
++ +
+++
+
eight apparent cases that would arise by changing all the signs are included in these because the points must be essentially positive.
negative signs, hedron must be greater than the fourth face. It will be found on trial that six of the bisecting planes will pass through
Moreover, no positive point could have three because the sum of any three faces of the tetra
2(
Prob. 21. The twelve points in which the edges of a tetrahedron are cut by the bisecting planes of the opposite diedral angles fix eight planes, each of which passes through six of them.
Prob. 22. The centroid of the faces of a tetrahedron coincides with the center of the sphere inscribed within the tetrahedron whose vertices are the centroids of the respective faces of the first tetrahedron.
Prob. 23. If any plane be passed through the middle points of two opposite edges of a tetrahedron, it will divide the volume of the tetrahedron into two equal parts.
416
[Chap. VIII*
Art.
11.
The Complement
in Solid Space.
relations in a unit
According to the definitions of Art. 8 the complementary normal vector system are as follows
:
= k= k=
l*i
*.*.
Mi
f
i.
*.
z
3
Let
J/z
then
6
1
j&h
 W(4  4A
which
is
( I02 >
so that

The
*^&
hh
drawn in isometric projection, shows that the two vectors /jZ 2 lj / z,, whose prodand l i s
figure,
x
x
^U
uct
is /,
.

e,
dicular to e
for the
first is
,
to
jection of
z
3
,
eupon
e,
z z
x
ft
,and to
and therefore
is
also per
S^A'l
second
is
1 1
pendicular to
while the
*
h l * anc* to h> anc therefore perpendicular to / i to e. Hence e is a planevector perpendicular to e and, since (e)= e, the converse is also true, i.e. the complement of a
;

planevector
is
a linevector normal to
it.
The figure shows that e is equal to the vector diagonal of the rectangular parallelepiped whose edges have the lengths
/,,
/3
/s ,
hence
Te
= V'lJTVTV.
l,t,
/,, 3
(103)
(104)
so that the cosquare of a vector is equal to the square of its The product ee is that of a vector e into a planetensor. vector perpendicular to it, as has just been shown it is there;
ART.
11.]
THE COMPLEMENT
IN SOLID SPACE.
417
fore a
volume which is equivalent to Te T\e; hence, by (104), e]e= Te T\ e = T*e> or Te = T\e. Hence, the complement
.
e'
=2mi
then
3 3
= l m + /,, + l m = e'\e.
x
(105)
e',
is
e into the planevector ee', being the product of the volume of the parallelepiped in the figw
is,
Now
ure, that
TeTe'
f.
sin (angle
between
and
e')
TeTe' cos
i
Hence
1
e\e'
(106)
If
7e
Te'
I, /,
...
/t , *,.".
?/z 3
are di
rection cosines, and (105) gives a proof of the formula for the cosine of the angle between
two
ee
lines in
lines.
We
and,
have also
in this
(/,,
ljn
z

f
(Jt
m  /m
t
a
2)
i

+ (/,,  l m
x
i
\
%t
{eeJ=
If
(sin
f^= (/,,
W+feW+W^W.
ee'=o,
e',
(107) (108)
e
is
is
that
is,
Let
rj
=
I
e, rf
=

e'
then
I7V=
and
is
e.e'
= e' e =
e\e'
= TeTe
cos f
71?
7Y
cos
J, (109)
^l^^o
=
O,
(no) Also
(
either
or
1/
e

= O,
II]t )
the condition that a vector shall be perpendicular to a planevector, for the first means that e is parallel to a vector which is
is
418
[Chap. VIII.
rf is parallel to
a plane
stereometric vector Equations (71) (77) of Art. 9 become formulae if e lt et etc., be substituted iov p p^ etc., and i^, //,, For instance, (76) gives the vector formulas etc., for L Z.,, etc.
,
x ,
x ,
v.kk' =
For lack
ik'
*,k'
.k'
ViV*\Vx'v t
'
vAVx
V*\Vi
Vx\V%
.k'
vM
(112)
in
of space
point system in solid space is given. To prove the formulas of spherical trigoExercise 17. cos a == cos b cos c f sin b sin c cos ^2, and nometry
sin
_ sin
sin
e,,
sin ^4
B
ea
,
_ sin
sin (7
'
Take three
unit vectors
vertices of the spherical triangle, then # (angle bet. e 2 and e ), A (angle bet. 6,6, and e^), etc. In eq. (112) put e,6, for e/e,';
3
hence
6,6,
efy
sin
sin c cos
^ =
<:.
e ? e2 e 8
.
1
e3
e,
e3
= cos #
.
cos b cos
Again,
T{e
or
x
e e,)
x
sin
= 2^6,6,6, e = Te e,e = r(e e e,6,)= T(e e sin B = sin # sin b sin b sin c sin ^4 = sin a sin
x
.
i
6 8 e a );
7,
result
by dividing by
sin
a sin b
sin
c.
Show
cos
Exercise
17,
2.
/sin 5 sin (5 ..
#)
<:
sin
sin
( C/6,6,1
#6,6,,
is
and
+ Ue^] Ue e
x
2 ).
Also there
is
obtained
f
^'
^.
The remainder
left
to the stu
76,6,76,6,
dent.
Prob. 24. If 6,, e 2 , e 3 drawn outward from a point, are taken as three edges of a tetrahedron, show that the six planes perpen,
Art.
12.]
419
of the vector p
gestion.
~
2e
fc
i
fc
r(
s
e2 e 3
6*+
x)
1
e3 e
. 1
ej
ex
e 3 ? ).
(Sug
We
must have (p
ie
6,
= o,

expressions.)
Prob. 25.
Show
that
pendicular vectors,
ee' and ee'. e are three mutually pere, no matter what the directions of e and e'

may
be.
,
e 2 e 3 be taken as in Prob. 24 let A Q be the xt area of the face of the tetrahedron formed by joining the ends of these vectors, and 2A = Te a e x etc.; also Angle between e e q and e^g, etc.: then show that we have the relation, analogous to
8,
2 A 2 A, cos 2 A 3 A cos 6 t %A X % cos 6 V 6 3 are right angles, this becomes the spaceanalog of the proposition regarding the hypotenuse and sides of a rightangled
'=
A?+A?+A*.
6
If 6 X
e )(e a Z(e 2 (Suggestion. 2A, e,).) Prob. 27. There are given three noncoplanar lines e i e e e^ , *r e 8 ; planes cut these lines at the sum of the squares of right angles, their distances from e being constant. Show that the locus of the
triangle.
x x ,
common
if
Te
is
Te%
re
(p\ e
a
1
3
,
1.
Art.
12.
general intersect, so that their sum will not be, as in eq. (43), a definite line. For let p e and/ 2 e 2 be any two sects: then
1 l
Two lines
in solid
e,)
that
and
a sect passing through an arbitrary point e a planevector, the sum of the two in the equation. The
is,
the
sum
is
sum cannot be
A = A + xe
hence
a single sect unless the two are coplanar for let * et* e s being a vector not parallel to e^, \f *
;
ex x
p % e%
2)
and
less
this
= o, that
is
is,
un
ex
and/
e 2 are coplanar.
Since a planevector
a line at
420
oo
,
[Chap.
VIIL
sum
of
two
and a
of
lines
may
.
of a finite line
If
line at oo
is equal to the sum of any other two, their products will also be equal, that is, the twoFor let pairs will determine tetrahedra of equal volumes.
the
sum
ft
Lt =s L
+ L\
then squaring
we have L
L^
=LL
3
since
L,L
the
let
o, etc.
An
infinite
number
is
sum
of each pair
a given pair be
+A
equal to the sum of any given pair; for and take a new pair t
ti
+ *A)(*A + *,<0 0\A +J'*A)(*\e + v e = te, +jw}?. + (*.. +y^p,e, + (x u + y v )p e + (xji +y,z\)p,e
(*iA
%
%)
..
This
will
+y v = o).
%
t
Since there are eight arbitrary quantities with only four equations of condition, the desired result can evidently be ac~
complished in an infinite number of ways. Let p e ,/ a e 2 p n en be n sects, and and e any point, then
.
let
be their sum,
5=
the
2j>e
1
= e,2e
(u 3 >
and a planevector as before. e )e is parallel to 2e it may be written as the prodIf 2(p uct of some vector e into ^e, that is, e'^e, when the sum becomes S = e^e f e'^Ee = (e \ e')^e, a sect, because e f e is. In no other case does 5 reduce to a single sect. If a point.
of a sect
sum
^e
e
o.
ing S,
becomes a planevector. Of the two parts composthe sect will be unchanged in magnitude and direction if
5"
be moved to a new position, while the planevector will in It is proposed to show that a point q may general be altered.
be substituted for
dicular to ^e.
will
be perpen
Writing
and, for
so that
e
a,
)e,
2(p
e )e
\/3 r
S = ga
pa
\fi,
(114)
Art.
12.]
421
we
must have
or
XI 5) pa .\a=a.p\a p. a = \fta. ( The second member is obtained from the first by substituting in eq. (74) p for p and a for /> 3 and q in accordance with the statement at the end of Art. II. If in (1 1 5) we make p a = o,
x
pa)
a=O=
 
by (in), ft a pa
.

a,
iy
will
to q taken perpendicularly to a,
2
say
p
Since
found.
= \aft^a =q e
i
(116)
a and
ft
required
(75),
=a

ft a
\ft.a
a a
.


ft,
whence,
substituting in (114),
S=,
This
(lift
may be called the normal form of S* The sects of this article represent completely
hence
all
the geometric
properties of forces,
shown applies
immediately to a system of forces in solid space. We have only to substitute the words force and couple for sect and planevector.
called
The
resultant action
by
Ball in his
Theory
is
5 = o, which
and
gives at once
;
^e = o
since otherwise
we must e )e, which is an impossibility. The line q^e is the central axis of the system of forces 5. Lack of space forbids a further development of the subject,
but what has been given
adaptability of this
in this article will indicate
(118)
method
Exercise
19.
a)
Reduce p
(p
e,(e
+e +
x
e )e,
its
e )e,.
suppose p and
common
per
*Grassmann
422
[Chap.
VIIU
pendicular on/,6,
/,
<?
= =
t
and/
e2
;
and moreover
then
t
let ^
(p,
e,)
z

e,
re,
= o.
i(A
+/)
Accordingly
.
5=
e (e,
e.)
+<e,
fei+&gSLpS>
,^+^y
By (i5) *
, = =
1^ =  <*
6
(e,
J lfc
,Dy
>
,.( e
,)( 6i
+ ej*
5
is
^'
of
Exercise 20.
tetrahedron
e e lf e9e%
Forces are represented by the six edges of a find the S, reduce to e Q e 3 **?,, e t e lt ex e%
,
,
normal form, and consider the special case when three diedral
angles are right angles.
l
5=
t
e (e
l
+ +
ea
1
et )
= ^( +e + )+(e eXe = e M. + e + O + e e +
t t
t * 2 3
)= ^(e +e +e
3
3)
+ e e + e e + e e+ + (e e e
t
t
)(e 3
x
e3 e 1
e.e,
in
which
e,
=e
,.
etc.
Hence
let
e,
ai
x
e,
bi^
,,
z,
Then we
find
+ ^qiy
Exercise 21.
is
l( gg
+ ^ + g 0
A pole
held erect by three guyropes symmetrically arranged about attached to its top and to pegs in the ground 50 feet from the pole. The wind blows against the pole with a pressure of
it,
p when
r
is
at the
bottom of
Art.
12.]
423'
p
:
on the ground.
Evidently only two of the guys will be in tension let their pegs be at e and e 3 and let e% be at the top of the pole, and
; x ,
ftl
Then p
tl
*.
^ 5'
(*.+')('
/)
2l\e.p)
^

2 St(P ~~ e
e%
ye % e,
ze,e a
%
+Tes+Te ert.)
Tes%
50,
rVl =
;
Te % e t
=
J
5 o l/i,
T(p
t{^^> e)
if
7\
J m{e,e,)+n{e,e
=
U(e%
e
);
)\
50
j
Time
\neJ,
e =[/(e
1
it
and ea
then T(/
eQ )
Vm*
\
n*
mn,
because
e,
1
c,
I,
equation of equilibrium
\.
Hence the
v/#
+
x \w _
w
y
z
r2
V2
we
obtain
m
y and
j
w 4^2
n V2
Vm*
f
\
n*
mn
Prob. 28. Three equal poles are set up so as to form a tripod, and are mutually perpendicular; a weight w hangs upon a rope which passes over a pulley at the top of the tripod, and thence
down under
e
. x
.
^le, in which
j
and 2/
if
the rope
is
pulled
424
so as to raise w,
[Chai
III.
poles, supposir
the
Prob. 29. Six equal forces act along six successive edges of a
cube which do not meet a given diagonal; show that if the edges of be the magnitude of each the cube be parallel to z,, z 2 z 3 and z z if the diagonal taken be 3 ), force, then a parallel 2F\ (i
,
to
z,
S= + +
z
2
+ +
Prob. 30. Three forces whose magnitudes are 1, 2, and 3 act along three successive noncoplanar edges of a cube; show that the
normal form of
6* is
('.+tf, ,+ 3',)+*l(',+", 3.)Prob. 31. Forces act at the centroids of the faces of a tetrahedron, perpendicular and proportional to the faces on which they act, and
all
S=
+ i,A.)(, +
all
in
equilibrium.
Art.
introduction.
425
Chapter IX.
Art.
1.
Introduction.
Vector Analysis is meant a space analysis in which " the vector is the fundamental idea; by Quaternions" is meant a spaceanalysis in which the quaternion is the fundamental
By
"
"
one whole; and in this chapter they will be treated as such, and developed so as to harmonize with one another and with the Cartesian
idea.
They
are in truth
complementary parts
of
subject to be treated is the analysis of quantities in space, whether they are vector in nature, or quaternion in nature, or of a still different nature, or are of such a kind that
Analysis.*
The
Every proposition about quantities in space ought to remain true when restricted to a plane just as propositions about quantities in a plane remain true when restricted to a
;
Hence in the following articles the ascent to the straight line. of space is made through the intermediate algebra of algebra
the plane. Arts. 24 treat of the more restricted analysis, while Arts. 510 treat of the general analysis. This space analysis is a universal Cartesian analysis, in the
same manner
as algebra
is
a universal arithmetic.
it
By providenables their
general properties
particular
drical, or polar.
to be investigated independently of
system of coordinates,
It also
has this
*For
Nature, 189T1893.
4^0
[CHAP. IX.
the directed quantity by a linear function of the coordinates, instead of in a roundabout way by means of a quadratic function.
The
which have
Argand, Essai sur une maniere de representer les quantites imaginaires dans les constructions geometriques, 1806.
Warren, Treatise on the geometrical representation of the square
roots of negative quantities, 1828.
Bellavitis,
Grassmann, Die
Ausdehnungslehre, 1844.
Algebra, 1849. O'Brien, Symbolic Forms derived from the conception of the translation of a directed magnitude. Philosophical Transactions,
1851.
Hamilton, Lectures on
Quaternions, 1866.
Tait,
Quaternions,
1853,
and Elements of
Elementary Treatise on Quaternions, 1867. Hankel, Vorlesungen iiber die complexen Zahlen und ihre
Functionen, 1867.
Schlegel, System der Raumlehre, 1872.
Houel, Theorie des quantites complexes, 1874. Gibbs, Elements of Vector Analysis, 18814. Peano, Calcolo geometrico, 1888.
1890.
188592.
Papers
An
of his
Art.
2.
By
and
a "vector"
direction.
It is
meant
ART.
2.]
42?
length represents the magnitude on some convenient scale, and whose direction coincides with or represents the direction of
Though a vector is represented by a line, its Exphysical dimensions may be different from that of a line. are a linear velocity which is of one dimension in amples
length, a directed area which is of two dimensions in length,, an axis which is of no dimensions in length.
the vector.
A vector will
magnitude by Greek letter, as
be denoted by a capital
italic letter,
italic lejter, as
its
B*
its
a small
/3.
as
b,
and
bfi,
direction
rp.
For example,
B=
R=
by Sometimes
a small
it is necessary to introduce a dot or a mark / to separate the specification of the direction from the expression for the magnitude ;f but in such simple expressions as the above, the difference is sufficiently indicated by the difference of type.
system of three mutually rectangular axes will be indicated,, as usual, by the letters i,j, k.
The
analysis of a vector here supposed is that into magniAccording to Hamilton and Tait and
other writers on Quaternions, the vector is analyzed into tensor jUldjnyfcyectfir, which means that the tensor is a mere ratio
destitute of dimensions, while the unitvector
is
the physical
But
it
will
is
be found that the analysis into magnimuch more in accord with physical ideas,,
difficult to
explain
vector quantity
may
be such that
An example
of the former
is
found
in
in
order to harmo
nize with the Hospitalier system of symbols and abbreviations. for this purpose in the author's Note on Plane Algebra, \ The dot was used
1883; Kennelly has since used
for the
same purpose
in his electrical
papers
428
[CHAP. IX.
two
made
in succession to
one an
other.
Composition of Components having a common Point of Let OA and OB represent two vectors of the Application.
at the point
O.
Draw BC
OC.
nitude and direction and point of application and OB. This principle the resultant of
OA
to force, but
it
applies to
any
OA
the di
any
Thus
OA
may be denoted by
fig
OC
byf/J.
From
/*=/,' +/' +
and
hence
tan 6
/,
+/,
cos
;
,
OC =
//
+ / + 2/,/, cos
resultant
is
/tan
^ ^"^
12
Example.
3/60
.
at a point
be 2/0 and
1
Then the
3Q'
^4 + 9+
J
/tan
,
= 4 3 6/36
If
the
first
component
is
we have
the
^XXt/Xi
the components are equal, the direction of the resultant bisects the angle formed by the vectors; and the mag
is
line.
OC =
2/
cos
Art.
2.]
429=
Example. The resultant of two equal alternating electromotive forces which differ 120 in phase is equal in magnitude to either and has a phase of 6o.
Given a vector and one component, to find the other component. Let OC represent the resultant, and OA the component.
Join
AC
AC.
and draw
parallel to
The
line
OB OB
it
equal and
represents is the only
gives
,/
A
'
OA
OC
~^
The
line
hence the rule parallelogram formed " Reverse the direction of the then compound is, component, it with the given resultant to find the required component."
;
diagonal of the
Let
f/f) be the
vector and
is
then the
other component
fj, = */+/,
2//,
e9*l ./+/ 9 CM
Given the resultant and the directions of the two compoThe resultant nents, to find the magnitude of the components. is represented by OC, and the directions by OX and OY. From C draw CA parallel to OY, and CB
parallel to
off
is
OX
the lines
OA
OB
and
OB
cut
OA
a given resultant hence they are the only pair of having the given directions.
l
components
directions.
Then
from which
ft
it
follows that
{cos "
(0
~f
)
I
cos
 cos
(0,
a
 6) cos 6 (0,
X
(0,
430
("CHAP. IX.
For example,
let
100/60
.
/30
1
then
/.=
IOO
Composition of any Number of Vectors applied at a common Point. The resultant may be found by the following graphic construction Take the vectors in any order, as A, B, C. From the end of A draw B' equal and parallel to B, and from the end of B' draw
:
and }B equal
This follows
parallelo
by continued application
of the
is
gram
construction.
The
resultant obtained
is
Given
/,/#,
+// +/Jl +
%
+f
/ln.
Now
Similarly
/,/*,
=/,cos
6,/q
+/
sin
^l\
/^,
fJJK
n
=/
cos
/o
+/
sin 6,
and
f /J> = fn cos
2\f/J\
/o
6\
+fn sin 6 /n
Hence
j^/cos
/o
{^/sin
6\
/.
= V(2f cos
In the case of a
Off
(^/sin BY tan
^^"
mon
of simultaneous vectors applied at a compoint, the ordinary rule about the transposition of a term in
sum
For example, if A \B + C 0,then + C = B, and B + C =  A< etc. This is permissible because there is no real order of succession among the given components.*
A +B=
sum
of vectors
ART.
2.]
431
of
The composition
A
more
Abe
vector start
ing from the point O, and B a vector starting from the end of A. Draw the third side OP, and from O draw a vector equal to B, and from
its
/
{^'''
The
were
line
so, it
OP
is
not. the
also be
\A
complete equivalent of
\
B B
if
f
it
would
A.
But
f
B and B
determine different paths; and as they go oppositely around, the areas they determine with OP have different signs. The
diagonal OP represents A ered independent of path.
vectors, the
is
f
only so far as
as
is
it
is
consid
of
successive
sum
independent of
point
of the
is
path
first
initial
This
also
true
as to
when the
successive vectors
become
so small
the curve
OPQ
The The
is
OQ
is
The
resultant vector
123/45
100/0
Prob.
velocity of a
body
in
agiven plane
is
and
one component
Prob.
virtual
100 /25
component.
3. Three alternating magnetomotive forces are of equal find the revalue, but each pair differs in phase by 120
sultant.
u ^ w( , (Ans. Zero.) ,7 Prob. 4. Find the components of the vector 100/70 in the direc
rV^
tions 20
and ioo.
5.
Prob.
2/20
3/30
4 /40
Prob.
6.
Compound
i2o)/i2o
f
sin (nt
h sin (nt
24o)/24o.
(Ans. %h/nt.)
must be made
thing denoted.
directed quantities.
What
is
attempted
is
432
Prob.
7.
[CHAP. IX.
Compound two
sin nt
'
.
a cos
?it
/o and a
8.
(Ans. a /nt.)
Prob
tive forces
Prob. 9. Prove that a uniform circular motion is obtained by compounding two equal simple harmonic motions which have the
spacephase of their angular positions equal to the supplement of the 4*m' f**"ftimephase of their motions.
'
Art.
3.
When
all
common
plane, each
may
be expressed asthe
i
sum
of
two rectangular
components.
right angles to
Let
one another
then
A = a i \ a J, B = b i + bj
x
R=xi\j/j.
Here
and
signs of direction.
Let
be any two vectors, not necessarily of the same kind physically. We assume that their product is obtained by applying the
distributive law, but
we do
factors
is
indifferent.
l
Hence
aj>jj+ aJ)jj\aJ?JL
algebra, that the
If
we assume,
as suggested
by ordinary
square of a sign of direction is j, and further that the product of two directions at right angles to one another is the direction
AB = a b + A + OA
tf
l
l
aj>^k.
Thus the complete product breaks up into two partial a 3 b 9 which is independent of direcproducts, namely, a b which has the axis of the plane for and (a b i tion, aj)^)k
i 1
direction.*
* A common k is that i is an operator,/an explanation which is given of ij operand, and k the result. The kind of operator which i is supposed to denote is a quadrant of turning round the axis i ; it is supposed not to be an axis, but a quadrant of rotation round an axis. This explains the result ij'= k, but
unfortunately
it
ii
for
it
would give
ii
i.
Art.
3.]
433
Scalar Product of two Vectors. By a scalar quantity is meant a quantity which has magnitude and may be positive or
negative
but
is
destitute
of
direction.
The former
partial
product is so called because it is of such a nature. It is denoted by SAB where the symbol S, being in Roman type, denotes, not a vector, but a function of the
A and B. The geometrical meanSAB is the product of A and the orthogonal projection of B upon A. Let OP and OQ represent the vectors A and B
vectors
ing of
draw
QM
and
NL
perpendicular to OP.
o^_^._^n
Then
(OP)(OM)
= (OP)(OL) + (OP)(LM),
H#**.3L
let A denote a Corollary I. of application the velocity of its point force and then denotes the rate of working of the force. The result is the
SAB
force
is
force.
Example I. A force of 2 pounds East f 3 pounds North is moved with a velocity of 4 feet East per second 5 feet North second find the rate at which work is done. per
a*.
independent of direction it is an essentially positive or signless quantity for whatever the direction of A, the direction
is
;
;
of the
scalar
product
cannot be negative.
Example
velocity 64
feet
second.
Its kinetic
is
(64
+ ioo
footpoundals,
434
[CHAP. IX.
The
kinetic energy
due to
k
the
downward
velocity '
is
is
10
2
;
64
2
zontal velocity
tained, not
lOO
ob
by
vector, but
by simple
when
the com
The
from
its
nature
is
and
is
denoted by
VAB.
product
is
Its
of
perpendicular to A, that is, the area of the parallelogram formed upon A and B.
1
Let OP and OQ represent the vectors A and By and draw the lines indicated by the It is then evident that the area figure.
a b%
x
OPQ =
\a
a^
\b x b%
(#,
b )(b 2
x
#a ),
Thus
(a x b9
ajb^k denotes the magnitude of the paralleloA and B and also the axis of the plane in
follows that
VBA =
VAB.
It
is
to be observed
whereas
and
Example.
inches, then
A and B are mere component vectors, B themselves are taken in a real order. Let A = (ioz f iff) inches and B = (5*+ l2 J)
(120
55)^ square inches; that is, 65 square inches in the plane which has the direction k for axis.
VAB =
ab cos .a/3, expressed as aa and B as bft, then SAB where aft denotes the angle between the directions a and /3.
If
is
Example.
The
100 volts
8
per inch /90 along a conductor 8 inch /45 cos /45 /90 volts, that is, 800 cos 45 volts.
the direction
SAB =
100
Here /45
indicates
a and /90
the direction
ft,
90
Also
which
is
VAB= ab sin
normal to
aft
aft,
where
that
both a and
ft,
their pole.
ART.
3.]
435
is
Example.
At
.
there
a force of
The moment
is
NAB
.
30 poundfeet 90 / /90
Here 90 / specifies the plane of the angle and /90 the The two together written as above specify the normal k.
Reciprocal of a Vector.
angle.
By
The
is
denoted
by A' a~ and
. l
Since
/3
I.
AB =
ap
a/3), b
must equal
must be
identical with
in
may
be
It follows
that
I
<2
^
;
__
aj,\aJ ai #
1
The
let
cal,
reciprocal
2/3
is
A~\
and
In the figure
/? is its
OP =
and
OR =
OQ =
R
<
recipro%.
I
1
/3)
reciprocal
>
opposite.*
If
P
l
>
Example.
feet
A =
'
10 feet East
feet
feet
North,
x
A~
s=s
East
125
North
and
A~
= :^
r feet
125
125
East
125
feet North.
A~
B = \AB, a
= ~A a A + *A + {*&
aA)<*J0}>
=  (cos aj3
* Writers
f
sin aft
aj3).
who
define the reciprocal of a vector as being opposite in direction as well as reciprocal in magnitude.
436
[CHAP. IX..
Hence SA~*B
NA~ B =
X
B=
Product of three Coplanar Vectors. Let A = aj f a*Jy bj f bj, C cj f c*j denote any three vectors in a
common
plane.
Then
(AB)C = =
{(*A
{<*
a A)
(*A
aJ>M(c i
x
+ cj)
A + <*A)ki* +
latter
cJ)
(*A  "A)( v
c x j).
The former
partial product
C
;
A and B
mentary vector
of C multiplied by the magnitude of the vector product of A and B^ If these partial products (represented by OP
total product, the total product will be the resultant of OP and OQ.
.
by OR,
is also expressed by SAB C, where the the vectors to which the S refers; and more point separates, analytically by {abc cos aryfj/^
The
latter
product
is
also expressed
by (VAB)C, which
is
is
equivalent
to
V(VAB)C, because
NAB
at
right
angles
to C. It is also expressed by abc sin a/3, afly, where a/3y denotes the direction which is perpendicular to the perpendicular
to
a and
If
/?,and y.
is
the product
of association
we have
A(BC)
WW
aj is
W +(fo
aj)(b
WW
3/0
^4,
c%
bj )k
x
~~*iJ)
=zSBC.A +VA(VBC).
The
vector
x
aj
a 9 j\
vector of a i
Hence the
product
differs
with the
mode
of association.
ExampleLet A =
i/o
+ 2/90
B=
+
B,
4/90
C=
5/0
+ 6/90
The
fourth proportional to
C is
\^>
ART.
3.]
437
(A*E)C
= lX
3
l
X4
+;,
1
{
5/o!
+ 6/90
j
42X3 _ 6 ^ + "T 2
If
5 /go_o
=
Square
13.4/0^+11.2/90.
of a Binomial of Vectors.
it
\
denotes a
sum
entirely equivalent to the the square of any vector is a positive But resultant vector C. scalar, hence the square of A \ B must be a positive scalar. of nonsuccessive vectors,
is
Since
and
are in reality
components
of
angular components
(p. 432).
Hence
= A' + B + 2SAB.
1
This
may
form L
^
;
+&
2a b cos <*#
is
But when A \ B denotes a sum of successive vectors, there no third vector C which is the complete equivalent and consequently we need not expect the square to be a scalar quantity.
We
is
this causes
both product
(A
+ B) =
2
A'
2
=A
The
side,
while the vector part gives four times the area included
side.
Let
\
B {
C denote a sum
;
of successive vectors.
and
is
prior to C.
438
[CHAP. IX.
Hence
{A
(1)
(2)
Hence
= c? + &* + f + 2 ^ cos + 2 ^ cos ^r + 2 b cos /^y and V(^+Z?+0 = (2) = \2ab sin a/? + 2ac sin a;/ + 2^ sin /3y\. a
ft
The
scalar part gives the square of the vector from the bec ginning of A to the end of C and is all that exists
when
'
The
vector
B part
A
is
successive sides
Note that
V(A
+ B)C = VAC +
VBC, which
is
uct terms are not formed in cyclical order, but in accordance with the order of the vectors in the trinomial.
Example.
Let
3/0*
B=
S /30
C=
7 /4$
find the
iV(AB+ AC + BC), = i{ 15 sin [o /30 + 21 sin /o /45 + 35 = 375 + 742 + 4.53 = 157.
Prob.
10.
sin
/30 /45
},
of 1000 dynes
is
a force
Prob. 11. A conductor in an armature has a velocity of 240 inches per second /300 and the magnetic flux is 50,000 lines per square inch /o; find the vector product.
(Ans. 1.04
the sine
and cosine of the angle between the 0.5807 N., and 0.5060 E. 0.8625 N.
Prob. 13.
10 feet /30
,
When
what
a force of
is
is
?
displaced
by
the
the work done (scalar product) of the negative sign in the scalar product ? meaning
What
is
Art.
4.]
coaxial quaternions.
439
Prob. 14.
feet E. per
A mass of 100 pounds is moving with a velocity of 30 second feet SE. per second; find its kinetic 5 energy,
Prob.
feet
15.
;
force of
10 pounds /45
is
8
/200
Prob. 16.
The
is
2/0
J
+ 5/90
.17/90
.)
(Ans. .03/0
the
Prob.
17.
Find
fourth
8/o 3 /9o_, and 6/o_ 5 /9o_. Prob. 18. Find the area of the polygon whose successive sides are 10 /30 9/1 00 8/180 7/2 2 5
,
,
proportional
to
10/0
+ 2/90
Art.
4.
Coaxial Quaternions.
"
is meant the operator which a " quaternion changes one vector into another. It is composed of a magnitude and
By
a turning factor. The magnitude may or may not be a mere for ratio, that is, a quantity destitute of physical dimensions the two vectors may or may not be of the same physical kind.
;
The
turning
is
it is
not conical.
a
For
;
lie in
Let
A
A
and
to the plane
may
be denoted by
fi.
changes
into
and a turning round the axis /3. Let the former be denoted by r and the latter by fi e where denotes Thus R = r/3 eA and recipthe angle in radians.
,
#/
^^
par
rocally 7
A=
e /3~ R. r
Also
9
Lr = r/3 A
and
A =
/3~
may be expressed as the sum of two one of which has a zero angle and the component operators, other an angle of a quadrant. Thus
The
turning factor
ft
e
j3
cos B
/5
+ sin 6
p*/\
* The idea of the "quaternion" is due to Hamilton. Its importance maybe judged from the fact that it has made solid trigonometrical analysis possible.
It is the
cally
most important key to the extension of analysis to space. Etymologi"quaternion" means defined by four elements; which is true in space in plane analysis it is defined by two.
440
[CHAP. IX.
the angle is naught, the turningfactor may be but the above form shows that the equation is homogeneous, and expresses nothing but the equivalence of a
When
;
omitted
Hence
and
2
.
p"'
{
(3
n/2 a.
The
relations
between r and
6,
and
/ and
1
q,
are given
by
r=
Let
Vp*
+ q\
tan
^.
denote a sine alternating electromotive Example. force in magnitude and phase, and / the alternating current in
E= (r + 2nnl. fi*/%
(3
where r
is
and
It follows that
fi"/*I;
also that
/?*/*,
is, the operator which changes the current into the electromotive force is a quaternion. The resistance is the scalar part of the quaternion, and the inductance is the vector part.
that
Components
of
the
Reciprocal of a Quaternion.
l
Given
R=(p + q.^/*)A,
then
A=
p + q./F/*
(P
+ q.p"*)(pq.p*) R _p q. p R
,%
pg.p/*
* In
for /
the
i.
(3*/z is
expressed by
i,
which stands
it
The advantages
of using the
is
capable
of being applied to space, and that it also serves to specify the general turning factor /3 e as well as the quadrantal turning factor ft*/*.
Art. 4
coaxial quaternions.
441
Example.
that from
portant to obtain
E=
Take the same application as above. It is im/ in terms of E. By the above we deduce
(r
n 2tt;//. /3 /*)I
w+
their resultant to the
(27tn/y
+ (27tniyIf
is
obtained by tak
ing the
sum
of the ratios.
then
and
reciprocally
A ~
(2py
Example.
In the case of
+ (2gy *"
a
compound
"
r%
circuit
composed
in parallel
3
 r innl ^_ r
x
.p*l*
i
I
 2nnl
a
p"*
t
'
'
__
(2^)V
r2
+ (2)V,
'
therefore,
2;/= 2
\
[
^=
E
r wji'P''* r \(27tnyi*
i
j
=
and
2[ a \r
\(2 7tnyi )
~\
a
2nn2rT1
>
reciprocally
^ 
s(
i
WJ +
>r^(
/
/W*
2 r^ \
21*
Product of Coaxial Quaternions. If the quaternions which change A to R, and R to R' are given, the quaternion which
y
changes
to R'
is
quaternions.
*This theorem was discovered by Lord Rayleigh; Philosophical Magazine,
May,
886.
&
p. 238.
442
[CHAP. IX.
and
then R'
rr>'/3 e
R =
e'
q' .
qq')
ft*) A?
is
the magnitudes, and likewise the product of the turning facThe angles are summed because they are indices of the tors.
common
base
/?.*
Quotient of two Coaxial Quaternions. ternions are those which change A to R, and
If
which changes
Given
to R'
is
and
then
= (P' + t.
_ (//
Prob.
19.
+ qq') + {pq'P'q) P* P f+
q>
;
^%p
axei
R,
alternating electromotive force is 200 volts, the resistance of the circuit is 10 ohms, the selfinduction is required the 3J0 henry, and there are 60 alternations per second
current.
The impressed
20
42'.)
r=
fo<
Prob. 20.
above
is
10 amperes, find
is
no
volts
rent is 10 amperes /0 \n, find the resistance and the selfinducthere being 120 alternations per second. tion, number of coils having resistances r v rti etc., and Prob. 22.
/2 find the impressed etc., are placed in series electromotive force in terms of the current, and reciprocally.
selfinductions lx
*Many writers, such as Hayward in "Vector Algebra and Trigonometry," and Stringham in " Uniplanar Algebra," treat this product of coaxial quaternions as if it were the product of vectors. This is the fundamental error in the
Argand method.
Art.
5.]
44$
Art.
5.
space can be expressed in terms of three independent components, and when these form a rectangular set the directions of resolution are expressed by i,j\ k. Any variable vector
A vector in
R may
B=
In space the
= bj + bj\b,L
for the direction involves
symbol p
two
ele
ments.
It
may
be specified as
P= s + y + ir
where the three squares are subject
to the condition that their
xi
+ yj + zk
specified
sum
is
unity.
Or
it
may be
by
The
additional
angle
0/
we
is
in
from the
If
are given
:
in the
k.
z*
z>
B
i
io
30//45_
cos 30 ./
f io sin 45
+ 10 sin 45
// //
sin
30
Again, from
.*.
32
+ 4/+
$k we deduce
1
##
V9
+ 16 + 25 tan"
.
5 ~
//
bn" tan
1 ,
V41 L
=
To
applied at a
vectors or,
common'
point, let
R R
lt
i?M
represent the
444
[CHAP. IX.
then
and
<