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American International University Bangladesh Faculty of Engineering EEE 4106: Telecommunication Engineering Laboratory

Experiment 1 AM and FM transmitters and receivers

Objectives: Study of Amplitude Modulation (AM) and Demodulation. Study of Frequency Modulation (FM) and demodulation. Equipments: Oscilloscope The ANACOM 1/1 AM Transmitter The ANACOM 1/2 AM Receiver Tha ANACOM 2 FM Transmitter and Receiver Microphone Power supplies (+12 V, 0 V, -12 V) Introduction: Modulation means that some aspects(Amplitude, frequency, phase) of one signal (the carrier signal which is a high frequency signal) varies according to an aspect of a second signal (the modulating signal). Amplitude modulation is the process in which the amplitude of the carrier wave will vary in accordance with a modulating wave. Amplitude modulation generates a pair of sidebands for every sinusoidal component in the carrier and the modulator. The amplitude of the two sidebands increases in proportion to the amount of modulation, but never exceeds half the level of the carrier. As an example of amplitude modulation and sideband production, consider modulating a 1,000 Hz sine wave (the carrier) with a 100 Hz sine wave (the program). The result would be the original 1,000 Hz signal plus signals at 1,100 Hz and 900 Hz. If the program consisted of a 100 Hz and 300 Hz signal, the result would then be frequencies of 1,000 Hz, 1,100 Hz, 1,300 Hz, 900 Hz, and 700 Hz. Frequency modulation(FM) consists in varying the frequency of carrier voltage in accordance with the instantaneous value of the modulating signal voltage. Thus the amplitude of the carrier signal does not change due to FM. This is an advantage since any incidental disturbance such as atmospheric disturbance or man made static primarily appears in the forms of variations of amplitude of then carrier voltage and may be eliminated in an FM receiver which is made insensitive to the amplitude variations. The variation of instantaneous frequency with time is identical Page 1 of 7

in form with the variation with time of the modulating voltage. Evidently the frequency variation called the frequency deviation is proportional to the instantaneous value of the modulating signal voltage. The rate at which this frequency variation takes place is obviously equal to the modulating signal frequency. In FM all the modulating signals having the same amplitude will deviate the carrier frequency by the same amount say 50KHz . no matter what their frequencies. Similarly all the modulating signals of the same frequency say 1 KHz will deviate the carrier at the same rate of 1000 times per sec , no matter what their individual amplitudes. The frequency deviation , i.e. the max variation in frequency from the mean value is given by fd = fmax- fc = fc- fmax where fc= carrier frequency fmax= Max carrier frequency fmin= Min carrier frequency Modulation index mf is the ratio of frequency deviation to the modulating signal frequency and is indicated by mf = fd /fm .

Block Diagrams:

Fig 1.1 AM Transmitter

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Fig 1.2 AM Reciever

Fig 1.3 FM Transmitter

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Fig 1.4 FM Receiver

Oscillator frequency

Base bias voltage PRESET fully CCW PRESET fully CW

Fig 1.5 Oscillator frequency vs. Base bias voltage for FM

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AM modulation and demodulation

1. On Anacom 1/1, check the frequency of the carrier and the frequency of the message signal 2. Draw the wave shape of the AM waveform 3. Draw the output wave shape of the power amplifier and state the purpose of the power amplifier. 4. Measure the length of the antenna provide on the ANACOM 1/1. Theoretically, calculate the ideal length of antenna with the transmitted carrier of 1 MHz. 5. In ANACOM 1 / 2 , draw the wave shape of the signal before RF amplifier and after RF amplifier. Why do we need RF amplifier? 6. What is the frequency of the local oscillator? 7. Explain the function of the Mixer? 8. Draw wave shapes of the signal after IF amplifier stage. 9. Explain the function of the diode detector and draw the wave shape of the signal after diode detector circuit.

FM modulation and demodulation

Fig 1.6 Anacom-2 module

1. Connect the Anacom-2 module to the appropriate power supply. Page 5 of 7

2. Ensure that the following initial conditions exists on the Anacom-2 module: a) All switched faults OFF. b) AMPLITUDE preset (in the MIXER/AMPLIFIER block) in fully clockwise position. c) VC0 switch (in PT,L block) in OFF position. 3. Turn on power to the ANACOM2 module. 4. Turn the AMPLITUDE PRESET (in the AUDIO OSCILATOR block) in fully clockwise (Max.) position and observe its output (at t.p 1) on oscilloscope. This is the modulating signal whose frequency (300 Hz to 3400 Hz) and amplitude can be varied by FREQUENCY PRESET and AMPLITUDE PRESET on the block. Leave the AMPLITUDE PRESET in fully counter clockwise (Mm.) position for the time being. 5. Link the AUDIO OSCILLATOR output to the AUDIO INPUT of the MODULATOR CIRCUIT as shown in Fig. 3 and put the VARACTOR/VARACTOR switch in the VARACTOR position. 6. As like AUDIO block the amplitude of the FM carrier can be adjusted by the AMPLITUDE preset on the MIXER/AMPLIFIER block and tile frequency (4~l kHz to 458 kHz) can be varied by the CARRIER FREQUENCY preset on the VARACTOR MODULATOR block. In the VARACTOR MODULATOR block put the CARRIER FREQUENCY preset in its midway position and AMPLITUDE preset in fully clockwise position. Monitor the signal at t p.34. It is the un-modulated carriers as the amplitude of the modulating signal is zero. 7. Turn the CARRIER FREQUENCY preset to its fully counter clockwise position-this corresponds to minimum base bias voltage. Monitor signal at t.p 34 (Oscillator output) and at t.p.21 (base bias voltage). Now slowly turn the CARRIER FREQUENCY preset clockwise and record the oscillator frequency (with a frequency meter at t.p.34) for each 0. 1 Volts intervals of the base voltage. Plot the oscillator frequency Vs base bias voltage as shown in Fig. I.5. 8. If it is possible to change the base bias voltage with sinusoidal modulating signal a sinusoidal change in oscillator frequency can be obtained. Thus frequency modulation is performed with a VARACTOR modulator. 9. Now keeping the CARRIER FREQUENCY preset in fully CCW position observe the FM output at t.p.34. Now turn AMPLITUDE preset (in AUDIO OSCILLATOR block) to its fully clockwise position and note what happens to the FM output. Decrease amplitude of the modulating signal by turning AMPLITUDE preset (in AUDIO OSCILLATOR block) slowly CCW and observe the frequency deviation in the FM output 10. Return the AMPLITUDE preset (in AUDIO OSCILLATOR block) to its fully CW position. Vary the frequency of the modulating signal by adjusting the FREQUENCY preset (in AUDIO OSCILLATOR block) and observe whether the FM output pattern changes or not. The change in AUDIO OSCILLATOR frequency does not effect the amount of frequency deviation-it actually determines how many times per second the carrier deviates from its center position. But oscilloscope can not show the rate of change of frequency deviation and for this reason it appears that the AUDIO OSCILLATOR frequency have no effect. Now turn the CARRIER FREQUENCY preset slowly CW and observes the frequency deviation. Page 6 of 7

Demodulation Technique using Quadrature detector

1. Apply the FM signal to the input of the Quadrature detector block as shown in Fig. 2. Now monitor the output of Quadrature detector block (at t.p.52) along with input audio signal (at t.p. 14) at dual mode and compare the two signals. The signal should contain two components: a) A sine wave at the same frequency as the audio signal at t.p. 14; b) A high frequency ripple component of small amplitude. 3. To remove the high frequency ripple, apply the signal at t.p.52 to the LOW PASS FILTER/AMPLIFIER block. Now observe the signal at the output of the LOW PASS FILTER at t.p.73. 4. To reduce the amplitude variation connect the AMPLITUDE LIMITER as shown in Fig 1.6 and observe the signal at AMPLITUDE LIMITER output (at t.p.68) and at LOW PASS Fig: Connection diagram of an FM transmitter and receiver FILTER output (at t.p.73).Compare the final output with and without AMPLITUDE LIMITER.

Discussions 1. Write down the basic operation of the Varactor diode. 2. What is the function of the amplitude limiter? 3. Explain the basic operation of the quadrature detector. 4. Write down advantages and disadvantages of FM transmission over AM transmission 5. Explain terms DSB, DSB-SC, SSB. Write down advantages and disadvantages of all the three AM transmission.

Prepared by Farhadur Arifin

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