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Welcoming Speech of:

The Chief of Naval Staff of the Indonesian Navy


Admiral Bernard Kent Sondakh

We thank to Allah the Almighty God for the publication of this book

Sun Tzu &

Naval Strategy. I am not only happy but also proud of the presence of the book written by Naval Colonel (Ret) Gatot Soedarto. I realize myself how difficult it is to set up something cognitive into the form of writing. The perseverance and seriousness of the writer on his senior age to materialize his ideas into a book really takes an extraordinary energy. This book tells us how to win the battle at sea by using the Battle Strategy of Sun Tzu, the strategy and tactics thinker and at the same time a Chinese philosopher who lived in the mainland of China about 500 BC. What makes this book more interesting is that apart from description on the tactics and naval operation at sea, it also discusses various subjects that we might have forgotten for a long time in executing the management in dealing with the battle, such as the importance of team work cooperation and firmed and clear command, moral strength, discipline, leadership ethics and also quality of a certain decision as well as its momentum. Through this book, the writer has reminded and revitalized some important subjects that may not be neglected in battle management. Sun Tzu war strategy is a classical masterpiece having inspired a lot of military strategy thinkers up to this modern time. Not only for military purposes, but it is also studied to run the business strategy at the free trade era at present. And as the nation who lives at the biggest archipelago in the world, we have to thank for the publication of this book under the title of: Sun Tzu & Naval Strategy.

The theory of Sun Tzu strategy needs to be learned and understood not only to prepare ourselves to face the battle, but more than that, using the aforesaid strategy, we even have to learn as Sun Tzu said how to obtain the victory without having a war.

We do hope the presence of this book will be useful for the glory of the Indonesian maritime. Jalesveva Jayamahe !

Jakarta, October 5, 2003.


THE CHIEF OF NAVAL STAFF OF THE INDONESIA NAVY
Common Seal of: COMMANDER IN CHIEF OF THE INDONESIAN NATIONAL NAVY

(Signed & Sealed) BERNARD KENT SONDAKH Admiral

FOREWORD

Indonesia is the biggest archipelago in the world, and two-third of its national juridical territory at the area of approximately 5.8 million square kilometers consists of sea. Unfortunately, based on observation, there are only few books about Indonesian maritime. As a matter of fact, we all know that sea environment and maritime have many inter-related and inter-influential dimensions, either in economic, political, legal,

physical, technological or military dimension. All of them certainly provide a large space for the establishment of literatures on sea and maritime. The presence of this book Sun Tzu & Naval Strategy, written by a Naval Officer needs to be sincerely welcomed. The writer, Naval Colonel (Ret) Gatot Soedarto, is a sailor who has a lot of experiences and has been in service for a long time at sea and has been so closed and friendly with the pounding of the waves. In this book, he explains about the strategy of modern war at the sea by using the strategic approach of Sun Tzu, a legend Commander-in-Chief and Chinese strategy expert who lived about 500 BC. We know that the book of Sun Tzu strategy is one of the classical masterpiece which has still been discussed up to this modern time. This book has inspired many strategy experts and war and military thinkers as well as other non-military subjects, such as modern business management. Although it has been reviewed a great deal for the military and business strategy purposes, but not so many have reviewed it for the strategy purposes at sea operation. Therefore, the presence of this book can enrich the disclosure about sea, Navy and maritime power, sea battle as well as defense at the sea. Analysis and review on Sun Tzus teaching in this book has direct context with the historical events of sea wars during this 20th century, namely the Pacific War (19411945) and Falklands War (1982). In Pacific War, it was proven that Sun Tzu strategy was effective at the sea battle at the Pacific Ocean, while in 1980s it was also effective as the biggest English maritime campaign strategy since the World War II. Those two sea battles have the principles and operations as taught by Sun Tzu for the field operation at the sea. This book, written by a very diligent Naval Colonel, though small, but it contains a lot of information about strategy of sea battle and sea defense. The principle and the

teaching having the direct relation and significance with the maritime requirements in Indonesia is how to set up the maritime management contextual to the maritime condition in Indonesia, such as the strategy of Command of the Sea or the deception practices. Learning from the history of the Indonesian nation, it is obvious

that the aforesaid strategy had ever been used by a foreign nation to control Indonesia, although our ancestors are known as sailors. I do hope that the publication of this book will motivate the presence of other books about maritime. This is important, considering that maritime is the property of the Indonesian nation having a very great value, so that it requires continuous efforts and undertakings to maintain and develop our commitment and care about maritime. The maritime glory shown by our ancestors as the sailors shall be proceeded and inherited to our new generation.

Jakarta, October 5, 2003. Aristides Kattopo

INTRODUCTION

During the 5th Century BC, the Wu Kingdom in China mainland under the reign of King Ho Lu obtained its glory due to the Power of its Arm Forces, under the leadership of its Great Commander-in-Chief, named Sun Tsu. To the West he conquered the Chu Kingdom, and to the North he conquered the Kingdoms of Chi and Chin. For the kingdoms in its surroundings, the attacks conducted by Sun Tzu created admiration. In the book War Strategy written by Sun Tzu, for a very long period of time had become a confidential teaching and taught only at the limited groups, but now it has become a monumental and legendary masterpiece. Not only the military practitioners, strategy

experts and the statesmen but also the experts in economics, in management and in other disciplines who have tried to understand it. The book of War Strategy of Sun Tzu, as known and widely circulated at the community consists of only 13 chapters, constituting the core of his teaching about War and Military Strategy. However, according to other versions, there are still some other notes believed to be the work of Sun Tzu. Basically, the War Strategy of Sun Tzu describes and explains in detail about various strategies and tactics of war in land. This is in line with his position as the Commander-in-Chief of troops in a continental kingdom. Considering that the said book contained the cores or principles of war strategy, many of the said principles and war strategies taught in that book can also be applied for the war at the sea, either in the past or in modern time. Further, this book discusses and analyzes the war strategy of Sun Tzu being confronted to modern war at the sea. Here, in this book, the samples and the practices of sea battle strategy are taken from the historical facts, and being focused in two events of sea battles in modern time / the 20th century, namely the Pacific War in 1941-1945 and pursuant to its name, it is a battle field at the sea, and the Falklands War occurring in 1982, presenting the biggest English maritime campaign since the World War II. The Pacific War, opened by the Japanese attack to US Naval Base in Pearl Harbor, occurred exactly on Sunday, dated December 7, 1941, and ended four years afterwards also on Sunday, dated September 2, 1945 with the official ceremony of Japans surrender on the deck of the Missouri Battle Ship, basically is the form of sea war in modern era, and constituting Show of Force of battle ship weaponry

technology and at the same time of fighter planes. The name and term of Pacific War itself indicates the large battle field at sea at the territory of the Pacific Ocean. The Falklands War was opened by invasion of Argentine to Falklands island on April 2, 1982 and ended after 72-day battle, namely by the surrender of Argentine to

England in Falklands on June 14, 1982. This war constituted a more specific form of sea war, since it was conducted by English in long distant range of operation. The

distance between England and Falklands is about 8,000 miles, and operating at high degree of independence. In this book, five topics of sea war strategies are selected and used as the headings, commencing from Chapter-2 until Chapter-6 from the script, namely: surprise attack, choosing and determining the battle field, avoiding the strong side, attacking the weak one, maneuver and speed, as well as moral and battle instinct. Each topic discusses the Sun Tzus teaching when it is encountered to the historical facts in those two sea wars, namely the Pacific and Falklands Wars. Surprise Attack is a war strategy taught by Sun Tzu, having various benefits, outputs and impacts either to our own troop or to the enemy. It was proven that during the Pacific War and Falklands War, the surprise attack was the war method mostly applied, and its outputs determined the success in winning the war. Choosing and determining the battle field becomes important factor that may not be neglected. Besides giving great influence to the combating moral

of the troop, the accuracy in choosing and determining the battle field at the sea can give many profits, either from the tactical or strategic aspects. Avoiding the strong sides, attacking the weak ones becomes the ground of war principles. Many teachings of Sun Tzu emphasized the importance of this matter. It became part of the strategy and maneuver of both parties in war, either in Pacific War or in Falklands War. Maneuver and speed constituting one of the basic principles of the sea power or the battle ships. This is in line with the Sun Tzus teaching about principle of maneuver and speed, constituting the main factor determining the victory in war, also in sea operation. Moral and battle instinct, no doubt about these, since in the end the success in war is mostly determined by the moral of the troop, in addition to the factor of superiority in weaponry. Sun Tzus teaching about Moral Law becomes so interesting, because its

unique and complex application at the sea operation makes it a distinguished strategy, determining us to be the winner or the looser. This has already been proven in many battles, including the Pacific War and the Falklands War.