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Introduction to Signalling

Switching Core Network Signalling M14/U4

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Signalling Concept

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What is Signalling ?

Signalling is the exchange of information specifically concerned with the establishment and control of connections, and with management, in a telecommunications network.

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Standardisation Bodies: The ITU (International Telecommunication Union)

UN

ITU
http://www.itu.int

Secretary General
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ITU-D
Presentation / Author / Date / Document Number

ITU-R

ITU-T

Other Standardisation Bodies

www.3gpp.org
is a collaboration agreement that was established in December 1998. The collaboration agreement brings together a number of telecommunications standards bodies which are known as Organizational Partners. The current Organizational Partners are ARIB, CCSA, ETSI, ATIS, TTA, and TTC

www.ietf.org
Is an organised activity of Internet Society (ISOC). ISOC is a not-for-profit organization founded in 1992 to provide leadership in Internet related standards, education, and policy. ISOC is supported by more than 90 organizational members and 26,000 individual members

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Advantages of following the recommendations

Easier network integration Compatibility between products of different vendors


Wider choice of network products from which to choose Competition between suppliers, which leads to a reduced price and better products For the subscriber, this results in quality, lower price and wider network coverage

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Signalling Types

Signalling is divided into three types:

signalling within the exchange


see also courses CN3414 and CN3415: SCN Call Control

signalling between subscriber and exchange

signalling between exchanges

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Simplified Signalling Between Subscriber and Exchange

a) Service Request b) Access Grant c) Setup (Digits)

d) Page
e) Service Request

Exchange
f) Setup

A Subscriber
g) Alerting
h) Connect

g) Alerting h) Connect i) Connect Acknowledge

B Subscriber

i) Connect Acknowledge

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Presentation / Author / Date / Document Number

Signalling Between Exchanges Simplified


PSTN
Hey, I want to call number 2...

MSC

Hold on a second, who are you and what is your number? I am a priority subscriber and my number is 214-123-4567 Ok, now give the rest of digits Here theyare, 14-987-6543 Ok, he answered

Asubscriber

CONVERSATION
I want to clear the call now
Got it, byebye!

Bsubscriber

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Historical signaling development


DC Signaling

AC Signaling
MF Signaling (DTMF, CAS) CCS Signaling,
Digital signalling based on data communication concept from OSI
(Open System Interconnection). Now is CCS No. 7 (called also SS7, C7, ) This document will discuss only digital signalling

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Common Channel Signalling


Common Channel Signalling (CCS) is a signalling method in which signalling information is conveyed over a single channel by addressed messages.

CCS7
CCS7 is an internationally standardised Common Channel Signalling (CCS) system. It is optimised for operation in digital telecommunication networks such as GSM.

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Data Communication Environment

host A

host B application

user A

application

user B

Communication hardware/softwar e

Communication hardware/softwar e

transmission medium

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OSI Protocol Stack

OSI Stack
host A application host B application

7 6 5

Application Layer Presentation Layer Session Layer Transport Layer Network Layer Data Link Layer Physical Layer

application interface

encryption, decryption, compression, decompression


session creation

Communication hardware/software

Communication hardware/software

4 3 2 1

virtual connection and multiplexing addressing and routing

error detection and correction access to phys. medium

transmission medium

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Protocols and Interfaces

application

application

protocol protocol protocol

7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Application Layer Presentation Layer Session Layer Transport Layer Network Layer Data Link Layer Physical Layer

protocol protocol protocol interface protocol

transmission medium
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CCS7 protocol stack vs. the OSI reference model (level and layer)

Layer
7 6 5 4 3 2 1

OSI Reference Model


Application layer Presentation layer Session layer Transport layer Network layer Data link layer Physical layer

Common Channel Signalling No. 7

Level

Application Part User Part (GSM specific part)


SCCP

User Part (Common part) (PSTN, ISDN, GSM)

MTP (levels 1-3)

2 1

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Landmarks in the Progress of CCS7 Signalling


1972 CCITT Recommendation No.6

1976
1980 1984 1985 1988 1992

CCIS introduced by Bell System


CCITT Recommendation SS7 (Yellow Book) Enhancement to SS7 (Red Books) ANSI specification of SS7 Enhancement to SS7 (Blue Books) Modifications to SS7 Architecture (White Books)

Evolution of the SS No. 7 architecture since the Red Book (1984) increasingly has been based on the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference Model.
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The Yellow Book Architecture : MTP with only:


Signalling Data Link Function Signalling Link Functions Signalling Network Function User Parts: TUP and DUP, with possibility for other user parts.

The Red Book Architecture


SCCP introduced ISDN user part modified to ISDN-UP The SCCP served OMAP, with an application service part in between, which provided services of the Presentation-, Session- and the Transport layer

The Blue Book Architecture:


Introduction of Transaction Capabilities The ISDN-UP modified to ISUP The MTP made compatible to serve other CCITT defined users

The White Book Architecture:


The present-day CCS#7. TC modified to TCAP.
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Signaling protocols in 2G/3G Core Networks

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2G GSM/3G Rel.99 network structure


Internet (TCP/IP)
GPRS + UMTS GSM mobile GSM + UMTS Base Station Subsystem 2G SGSN GGSN BSC SIM card
GSM BTS

Network Subsystem (GSM +UMTS) SRR

3G SGSN MSC
MGW

GSM / UMTS mobile

HLR

RNC UMTS mobile

UMTS (WCDMA) BTS IN SCP

Landline NW (PSTN/ISDN)

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CCS7 protocols in GSM Network


MSC/VLR
BSSAP
MAP/INAP TUP TCAP NUP

PSTN Exchange
SCCP

TUP NUP ISUP

ISUP SCCP

MTP

MTP

MAP / INAP

BSSAP SCCP

BSC

HLR/EIR/AC
TCAP
SCCP

MTP
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MTP

Presentation / Author / Date / Document Number

Protocol stack in MGW Rel.99


Iub RNC RNC Iu Media Media Gateway Gateway A' MSC MSC

RANAP Broadband SCCP Broadband MTP-3 SSCF-NNI SSCOP AAL5 ATM Layer

RANAP / BSSAP BB/NB SCCP BB/NB MTP-3 SSCF-NNI SSCOP AAL5 ATM Layer MTP-1 MTP-2

BSSAP SCCP MTP-3 MTP-2

MTP-1

ATM

ATM

TDM

TDM

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New Protocols in SCN Rel4


Radio Access Network Application Part (RANAP) SIGTRAN (M3UA and SCTP) Media Gateway Control protocol (H.248/MEGACO) Bearer independent call control (BICC) Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) AAL2SIG (AAL Type 2 Signalling) between RNC-MGW
or MGW-MGW when using an ATM bearer IPBCP (IP Bearer Control Protocol), tunnelling for MGW-MGW when using an IP bearer

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GSM/UMTS Rel4 network structure


IN/SCE APSE

HLR / HSS BSC MSC Server MSC Server


BICC CS-2, SIP-I A H.248 H.248

PSTN/ISDN

GSM

RNC
Iu-CS

MGW

MGW

Other PLMN

IP/ATM Backbone

WCDMA

Iu-PS

External IP networks GGSN SGSN


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MSS System Interfaces & Protocols


HLR

Services
CAP BICC CS-2, SIP ATM/IP Nc

H.248 for MGW control


MAP MSS/ GCS

BICC or SIP for call control

MSC Server

RANAP or BSSAP towards radio network


RANAP AAL5/ATM Iu-CS

H.248 IP Mc

Mc
H.248 IP AAL2/AAL5 ATM Nb

SS7 TDM MGW

PSTN

MGW

RTP IP

BSSAP

RNC

AAL2 ATM

A TDM

BSC
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User data over ATM, TDM or IP

Presentation / Author / Date / Document Number

RANAP ---Radio Access Network Application Part


Maintains Iu-interface Control Plane, thus handling activities between the RAN and CN.
Broadband CCS
MSS/VLR

RANAP ATM RNC


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MGW

RANAP

MAP RANAP ISUP TCAP SCCP M3UA SCTP IP M3UA SCTP IP MTP3B SSCF SSCOP AAL5 ATM SCCP MTP3B SSCF SSCOP AAL5 ATM RANAP

MSS
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MGW

RNC

Presentation / Author / Date / Document Number

BSSAP Signalling in Rel4

MAP BSSAP ISUP TCAP SCCP M3UA SCTP IP M3UA SCTP IP MTP MTP SCCP BSSAP

MSS
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MGW

BSC

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SIGTRAN - Signalling over IP


SIGTRAN defines a standardized way of carrying any SS7 signalling over IP networks Defines retransmission and reordering functionalities Physical layer can be any layer 1 technology
Sigtran signalling stack

Application
Signalling adaptation: SIGTRAN Transport layer Physical layer
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M3UA
SCTP IP Ethernet/SDH/etc .

Application can be ISUP, BICC, SCCP, etc.

Presentation / Author / Date / Document Number

SIGTRAN Deployment in Rel4 MSC Server System


MAP TCAP SCCP M3UA SCTP IP MSC Server BICC M3UA SCTP IP MSC Server HLR SMSC MAP TCAP SCCP M3UA SCTP IP BSSAP RANAP

SCCP
M3UA SCTP IP

SCCPb
M3UA SCTP IP

PSTN/ ISDN

IP

ISUP MTP3 MGW ISUP M3UA SCTP IP


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RAN/BSS
MGW MGWs act as Signalling GWs

MEGACO / H.248 ---Media Gateway Control protocol


The H.248 protocol is used on the Mc interface between MSC Server and MGW Rel.4. MSC Server controls the user plane terminations and contexts in MGW Rel.4 through the Mc interface.

MSS/VLR

MEGACO/ H.248

ATM/IP/TDM

MGW
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MGW

H.248
The MSC Server (MSS) can control the user plane Terminations and Contexts in Media Gateway (MGW), using the H.248 protocol This protocol is used to reserve and connect terminations connect or release echo cancellers to terminations connect or release tones and announcements to terminations send/receive DTMF tones
Protocol stack

MGW
User data

H.248

context C Ta
terminations

Tb

User data

SCTP
L1

TCP

IPv4 or IPv6

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Bearer Independent Call Control - BICC


Specified by ITU-T, required in Rel4 networks BICC is used for call control between two MSC servers in the Nc interface,
allowing a backbone independent Control Plane and User Plane. Based on ISUP, includes extensions to carry bearer related information; due to the fact that BICC is supposed to control calls over ATM/IP connection instead of PCM-TSLs. The needed bearer specific information is transferred from MGW to MSS through the H.248 protocol
. . MGW address Codec: AMR mode 7 . . .

Bearer information carried in signalling messages


MSC Server IAM Bearer cntr Bearer cntr MSC Server

MGW address
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MGW
Presentation / Author / Date / Document Number

MGW

Two ways to establish a bearer


1) Use separate bearer control signalling (ATM) 2) Tunnel bearer information in call control messages (IP)
Call Control Signalling BICC or SIP

MSS

MSS
In IP backbone, no separate bearer signalling is used. Instead, the information about the bearer is tunneled in H.248 and SIP or BICC via the MSC Servers. (IPBCP) In ATM backbone, bearer is established via separate bearer control signalling. In case of ATM AAL2 connections, AAL2 signalling is used.

H.248

H.248

Bearer Control Signalling E.g, AAL2 signalling


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MGW
Presentation / Author / Date / Document Number

MGW

Session Initiation Protocol - SIP


SIP specified by IETF SIP-T defines extensions to carry ISUP messages encapsulated in
SIP messages (SIP for Telephony) Transport usually over UDP (can be e.g. SCTP as well) Can establish IP bearers only
Bearer information and ISUP carried in signalling messages
MSC Server INVITE Bearer cntr Bearer cntr MSC Server

. . IP address: 192.168.3.2 Port: 5964 Codec: AMR mode 7 . . ISUP: IAM . SIP UDP/SCTP IP

192.168.3.2/5964
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MGW
Presentation / Author / Date / Document Number

MGW

AAL Type 2 Signaling


SETUP

AAL type 2 signaling protocol (Q.2630) is used between AAL2 switching capable network elements ("AAL2 switches"), e.g., RNC-MGW

Dedicated signaling channel (ATM VCC with AAL5) is CID(x) Path = ATM VCC CID(x) configured between switches for (Interface,VPI/VCI) carrying Q.2630 signalling AAL2 paths are configured (ATM AAL2 ch = AAL2 path & CID VCC) as permanent virtual CID = 8-255 channels Signaling protocol controls AAL2 channel setup and tear down within AAL2 paths. AAL2 channel is ATM identified by AAL2 Path ID and Switc Channel Identifier (CID) h AAL2 path can go through an intermediate ATM switch in ATM protocol level without switching in AAL2 protocol level For public use IPR applies
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AAL2 Switc h

Signaling channel AAL2 paths

AAL2 Switc h

CCS7 in 3G Rel 4 Network


MSS/VLR
RANAP
MAP/INAP TCAP

GCS
BICC ISUP

MAP/INAP TCAP

PSTN Exchange
BICC ISUP

ISUP

SCCP

SCCP

SCCP

M3UA

M3UA

MTP3

MGW
MAP / INAP

RANAP SCCP

RNC

HLR/EIR/AC
TCAP SCCP

MTP3b

M3UA

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Control Plane Protocol Stacks


MSC Server
BICC

BSSAP

RANAP H.248

BSSAP

SCCP M3UA SCTP IP Ethernet

M3UA SCTP IP Ethernet

MSC Server

BSC

SCCP MTP

ISUP H.248

M3UA SCTP IP Ethernet

RANAP

Backbone
RNC SCCP MTP3b SAAL ATM Phy
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SCCP MTP3b SAAL ATM Phy

MGW MGW MGW

PSTN

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Signalling and protocols in MSS

MAP

CAP TCAP

INAP BSSAP RANAP SCCP M3UA SCTP IPv4, IPv6 BICC ISUP H.248
TCP

SIP UDP

Ethernet

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MSS Interfaces (1/2)


Interface MGW-BSC (A) MGW-BSC (Ater), Nokia proprietary MGW-RNC (Iu-CS / Control Plain) MGW-RNC (Iu-CS / User Plain) MSS/VLR - HLR/EIR (C,D,F) MSS/MSC-MSS/MSC (E) MSS-VLR (B) VLR-VLR (G) HLR - AuC (H) MSS - MGW (Mc) MSS - IM-MGW (Mn) MSS-MSS (Nc) MAP -C/-D/-F MAP-E MAP-B MAP-G H.248/Megaco H.248/Megaco BICC CS2 ISUP SIP, SIP-I, SIP-T MGW - MGW (Nb) / User Plain Protocol BSSAP RANAP Specified by Spec. ETSI GSM 08.0X 3GPP 3GPP ETSI 3GPP ETSI 3GPP ETSI 3GPP ETSI 3GPP 3GPP ITU/IETF 3GPP ITU/IETF ITU-T GSM 09.02 TS 29.02 GSM 09.02 TS 29.02 GSM 09.02 TS 29.02 GSM 09.02 TS 29.02 TS 29.232 RFC 3525 (H.248) TS 29.332 RFC 3525 (H.248) Q.1901 TS 25.410 - 415 TS 25.933 Physical Transport STM-1 (VC11/VC12) TDM E1/T1 AAL5/ATM STM-1/VC4, E1/T1 M3UA/SCTP/IP LAN CODEC/AAL2/ATM STM-1 (VC11/VC12), E1/T1 CODEC/RTP/UDP/IP LAN TDM E1/T1 IP (Sigtran) LAN TDM E1/T1 M3UA/SCTP LAN Internal Internal Internal TCP/IP SCTP TCP/IP SCTP M3UA/SCTP/IP MTP3b/AAL5/ATM MTP3/MTP2 UDP/IP Codec/RTP/UDP/IP Codec/AAL2/ATM G.711/TDM Codec/RTP/UDP/IP TDM IP (Sigtran) X.25, TCP/IP Internal Internal Internal LAN Transport

ITU-/ETSI Q.76x series ITU/IETF several /3GPP

LAN LAN STM-1/VC4 E1/T1 LAN LAN (Gbit/FE) STM-1 E1/T1/STM-1 LAN E1/T1 LAN X.21, LAN

Broadband (Mb) (User Plane) - MGW MSS - SMSC MAP SMRSE

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MSS Interfaces (2/2)


Interface MSS/MSCI - Voice Mail MSS/MSCI - CCBS MSS/MSCi/HLRi - NetAct Protocol ISUP/TUP/R2 FTAM FTP, GTP' Q3, FTAM, VTERM, XML over HTTP ISUP/TUP/R2 Specified by Spec. TDM ISO-IP (OSI), X25 TCP/IP X.25/TDM IP (Sigtran) TCP/IP TDM TDM TDM (IP) SIGTRAN TDM (IP) SIGTRAN UDP/IP UDP/IP UDP/IP UDP/IP IP SIP TDM (IP) SIGTRAN TDM (IP) SIGTRAN TDM (IP) SIGTRAN IP IP Transport ITU-/ETSI several OSI IETF Several several several Physical Transport STM-1 (VC11/VC12) E1/T1 LAN, E1/T1 LAN E1/T1 LAN LAN STM-1 (VC11/VC12) E1/T1 E1 E1/T1 LAN E1/T1 LAN LAN LAN LAN LAN LAN E1/T1 LAN E1/T1 LAN E1/T1 LAN LAN LAN

MGW - ISDN/PSTN PBX ( 30B+D ) - MSS/MSC SSF - SCF HLR - SCF MSS - IMS (Mj,Mg) NVS AS - IMS (S-CSCF ) SBC - NVS NVS - NVS (Nokia propriatory use) LDAP database - NVS MSS - GMLC (Lg) MSS - SMLC (Ls)

ITU-/ETSI several Q.921 CS-1 and CS-2 CAMEL GSM 09.02 TS 29.02 TS. 29.163 several several several GSM 09.02 TS 29.02 GSM 09.02 TS 29.02 GSM 09.02 TS 29.02

Euro ISDN (DSS1) ITU-T DPNSS1 Core INAP ETSI CAP 3GPP ETSI MAP 3GPP SIP 3GPP ISC (SIP) SIP SIP LDAP MAP MAP ETSI 3GPP ETSI 3GPP ETSI 3GPP ITU/IETF 3GPP ITU/IETF ITU/IETF 3GPP

HLR - GMLS (Lh) MAP SGSN-BSC (Gb) GTP SGSN-RNC (Iu_PS) GTP Cell Broadcast Centre (CBC) - NC (Iu_BC)

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