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Linking Words Exercise 1 Paying attention to the expressions used in the following sentences, fill in the blanks with

the words and, but also, nor, or, than, then and when, as appropriate. For example: We should either walk quickly __ take the bus. We should either walk quickly or take the bus. 1. I have both respect _________ admiration for them. 2. Hardly had I finished reading over the problem, _________ the answer leapt to my mind. 3. It will rain either today _________ tomorrow. 4. He could not decide whether to tell the truth _________ keep silent. 5. It was not only a beautiful day, ___________ the first day of Spring. 6. If you follow the instructions, __________ you should have no difficulty. 7. He is neither proud _________ condescending. 8. What with one thing _________ another, it was very late by the time we left the house. 9. No sooner had I opened my eyes, _________ I remembered where I was. 10. Scarcely had I heard the news, _________ my friend arrived. 11. I do not know whether he has seen the movie before ________ not. 12. I would rather wait here _________ risk missing the bus. 13. She could find the book neither at the Library, _________ at the bookstore. 14. No sooner had I opened the window, _________ a butterfly flew into the room. 15. The crowd was both large _________ enthusiastic. Exercise 2 Paying attention to the meanings of the sentences, fill in the blanks with the correct subordinate conjunctions or similar expressions chosen from the pairs given in brackets. For example: I went for a walk _______ the sun was shining. (because, otherwise) I went for a walk because the sun was shining. 1. We recognized her at once, ____________ we had not seen her for years. (although, in case) 2. He kept reading ___________ he fell asleep. (for, until) 3. The moon will rise ____________ the sun sets. (as soon as, than) 4. It looks ____________ the train will be late. (while, as though) 5. ____________ she got her degree, she became a teacher. (After, Than) 6. We will not go skiing ____________ the weather is good. (as if, unless) 7. ____________ he left, he made sure he had his keys with him. (Before, For) 8. ____________ I told the truth, you would not believe me. (Even if, So that) 9. They have known her ___________ she was a child. (until, since)

10. I must leave now, ____________ I have a great deal of work to do. (as, than) 11. What shall we do ____________ it rains? (or else, supposing) 12. ____________ you read this book, you would be sure to enjoy it. (If, Until) 13. The door was open, ____________ we could hear everything. (in case, so) 14. I studied more ____________ he did. (than, whereas) 15. We packed a lunch, ____________ we knew we would soon be hungry. (lest, for) 16. I will join you, ____________ the weather is fine. (providing, than) 17. ____________ he is very busy, he is seldom at home. (Or else, Because) 18. We must hurry, ___________ we will be late. (so that, or else) Exercise 3 For each of the following sentences, paying attention to the structure of the sentence, fill in the blank with either the conjunction or the preposition given in brackets. For example: _______ my warning, they went ahead with their plan. (Although, Despite) Despite my warning, they went ahead with their plan. The price of oranges is high, __________ frost damage. (because, because of) The price of oranges is high, because of frost damage. (because, because of) I went to see the play, _______ it had good reviews. (because, because of) I went to see the play, because it had good reviews. (because, because of) 1. We stayed up late, ____________ we were tired. (although, despite) 2. They went swimming, ____________ the coldness of the water. (although, despite) 3. I enjoy the course, ____________ the professor is a good teacher. (because, because of) 4. She looks ___________ your sister. (as if, like) 5. Please wait ___________ I make a phone call. (during, while) 6. Did you hear any noises ____________ the night? (during, while) 7. It looked ____________ we would not be able to leave until the next day. (as if, like) 8. We all felt tired ____________ the hot weather. (because, because of) 9. I read a book ___________ I was waiting. (during, while) 10. Her eyes shone _____________ stars. (as if, like) 11. They managed to work together, ___________ their differences of opinion. (although, despite) 12. I left home early, ____________ I had to do several errands. (because, because of) 13. He speaks about the subject ____________ he were an expert. (as if, like) 14. We rested ____________ the hottest part of the day. (during, while) 15. ____________ she lost her way twice, she arrived safely. (Although,

Despite) 16. ____________ their interest in comets, they decided to study astronomy. (Because, Because of) Exercise 4 Paying attention to the meanings of the sentences, fill in the blanks with the correct connecting adverbs chosen from the pairs given in brackets. For example: Will you come with me? _________ I shall have to go alone. (Also, Otherwise) Will you come with me? Otherwise I shall have to go alone. 1. The work was new to me. ____________, it did not seem difficult. (Consequently, Nevertheless) 2. Continue along Queen Street. ____________ turn left. (Then, Therefore) 3. It was very misty. ______________, we could not get a clear view of the mountain. (Hence, However) 4. We had walked several miles. ____________, we did not feel tired. (Accordingly, Still) 5. She is a talented actress. ____________, she is very beautiful. (Moreover, Thus) 6. We take the bus every day. __________, we are familiar with the bus route. (Nevertheless, Thus) 7. The child was sleepy. ______________, we went home early. (Otherwise, Therefore) 8. The food was delicious. _____________, the service was excellent. (Likewise, Nevertheless) 9. We looked everywhere. _____________, we could not find the keys. (However, Thus) 10. The book is long. _____________, the vocabulary is difficult. (Consequently, Furthermore) 11. Luckily, the moon was bright. ______________, we could not have seen the path. (Accordingly, Otherwise) 12. He is old. _____________, his mind is still active. (Nonetheless, Therefore)

Exercise Can you insert appropriate transitional words in the following sentences? In the first exercise the category of transitional word is given. In the second exercise you will have to decide which category is most appropriate. (taken from Parks, AF, Levernier, JA and Hollowell, IM 1996, Structuring paragraphs A guide to effective writing, Bedford/St. Martins, Boston, pp. 119-120) A.

Our states correctional system is plagued with problems. (a) _________, (example) high officials increase their personal wealth by awarding building and catering contracts to disreputable companies in return for bribes. (b) ___________, (addition) promotions within the system are made on the basis of politics, not merit. (c) __________, the system is filled __________ (result) with people at the top who know little about what they are doing. (d) __________, (addition) careless security measures, allowing trusted inmates to control certain operations of the institution, are part of the growing problem. But one increasing tendency in particular is doing harm to the systems image and efficiency.This is the tendency of officials who are charged with important tasks and who make faulty decisions to cover up their mistakes. (e) __________, one would think that amid all the strife some effort __________ (conclusion) would be made to rectify these problems, but a seemingly dogged determination to resist change overshadows the system.

(a) Example: For one thing / Frequently / For instance / For example / Often (b) Addition: Furthermore / Moreover / In addition / What is more (c) Result: As a result / Consequently (d) Addition: In addition / What is more e) Conclusion: In short B. Genetic screening in business, or testing the genes of employees to see if they are susceptible to workplace-related diseases, may present problems for the tested. (a) __________, the genetic screening tests and technology in general are in their infancy stages. (b) __________, many physicians and health professionals doubt their reliability. (c) ___________, once genetic information is recorded on employees, it cannot always be kept secret. Even though employers are assured that their medical files are confidential, clerical staff have access to them. (d) __________, if they are entered into a computer data base, they are available to anyone with access. (e) __________, some argue that such screening procedures are violations of personal rights. (f) __________, many cite similarities between genetic screening and drug testing, noting that both involve a process of obtaining information from unwilling individuals that might affect them adversely. Opponents of genetic screening point out that some employees with the potential for workplace diseases would rather run the risk than lose their jobs.

Text B (a) Example: First / First of all / For one thing (b) Result: Consequently / Hence / Therefore (c) Addition: Second / Moreover / Further / What is more / Furthermore (d) Example: Indeed / Specifically (e) Result: As a result / Consequently / Hence / Thus (f) Example: In particular / Indeed / Significantly

Answers to Exercise 1: 1. and 2. when 3. or 4. or 5. but also 6. then 7. nor 8. and 9. than 10. when 11. or 12. than 13. nor 14. than 15. and Answers to Exercise 2: 1. although 2. until 3. as soon as 4. as though 5. After 6. unless 7. Before 8.

Even if 9. since 10. as 11. supposing 12. If 13. so 14. than 15. for 16. providing 17. Because 18. or else Answers to Exercise 3: 1. although 2. despite 3. because 4. like 5. while 6. during 7. as if 8. because of 9. while 10. like 11. despite 12. because 13. as if 14. during 15. Although 16. Because of Answers to Exercise 4: 1. Nevertheless 2. Then 3. Hence 4. Still 5. Moreover 6. Thus 7. Therefore 8. Likewise 9. However 10. Furthermore 11. Otherwise 12. Nonetheless