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ICASSP 2003

ed to new or completely unknown steganalytic methods. However, we can not get any information about the amount of embedded messages using is aimed at LSB steganography. The algorithm can not only detect the existence of hidden messages embedded using sequential or random LSB r 2. THE DIFFERENCE IMAGE HISTOGRAM

RELIABLE they are not perceptible LSB STEGANOGRAPHY in an image can THE in some form or the other. ThoughDETECTION OF by human beings, such abnormalitiesBASED ON be exposed by a thorough statis DIFFERENCE as the histogram of the difference d as D(i j)=I(ij)-I(ij'+l). The difference image histogram is definedIMAGE HISTOGRAM image D. It is generally believed that the differe
Tao Zhang, Xijian Ping Department of Information Science, University of Information Engineering, Zhengzhou, P.R.China
1. INTRODUCTION ABSTRACT

age from the carrier?image. The algorithm can not only detect the existence of hidden messages embedded using sequential or random LSB replac

e with the number of pixels in the image.

Pv,? (*) =

v 2?r( v)

exp

(1)
7

Lena" and its Figure. 1 shows the standard image difference image histogram.

(a) (b) Fig.1 (a) standard image "Lena "; (b) the difference image histogram of "Lena"

03-7663-3/03/$17.00 2003 IEEE

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*
3.STEGANALYS I S B A S E D O N T H E D I F F E R E N C E I M A G E H I S T O G R A M L S B s t e g a n o g r a p h y i s t h e s i m p l e s t s t e g a n o g r a p h i c t e c h n i q u e s , w h i c h e m b e d s s e c r e t m e s

(6)

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s a g e s i n a s u b s e t o f t h e L S B p l a n e o f t h e i m a g e . A l a r g e n u m b e r o f

p o p u l a r s t e g a n o g r a p h i c t o o l s , s u c h a s S T o o l s 4 , S t e g a n o s a n d S t e

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g o D o s , a r e b a s e d o n L S B r e p l a c e m e n t i n t h e s p a t i a l d o m a i n . S e c r e t m

e s s a g e s c a n b e e m b e d d e d i n L S B p l a n e b y s e q u e n t i a l o r r a n d o m L S B r

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e p l a c e m e n t [ 3 ] . S e q u e n t i a l L S B r e p l a c e m e n t c a n b e i m p l e m e n t e d m o r e

c o n v e n i e n t l y b u t h a s a m u c h s e r i o u s s e c u r i t y p r o b l e m i n t h a t t h e r

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e i s a n o b v i o u s s t a t i s t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e m o d i f i e d p a r t a

n d t h e u n m o d i f i e d p a r t o f t h e s t e g o i m a g e . B y r a n d o m L S B r e p l a c e m e

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n t s e c r e t m e s s a g e s c a n b e r a n d o m l y s c a t t e r e d i n s t e g o i m a g e s , s o t

h e s t e g a n o g r a p h i c s e c u r i t y i s i m p r o v e d . L e t u s a s s u m e t h a t w e h a v e

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a c o v e r i m a g e I w i t h M * N p i x e l s . O b v i o u s l y t h e m a x i m u m d a t a h i d i n g c a p a c i t y o f L S B s t e g a n o g r a p h y i s M * N b i t s . D e f i n e t h e e m b e d d i n g r

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a t i o p a s t h e r a t i o o f t h e l e n g t h o f e m b e d d e d m e s s a g e s t o t h e m a x i

m u m c a p a c i t y . D e n o t e t h e d i f f e r e n c e i m a g e h i s t o g r a m o f a i m a g e a s h

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, t h a t o f t h e i m a g e a f t e r r e v e r s i n g a l l t h e b i t s i n t h e L S B p l a n e

a s f , a n d t h a t o f t h e i m a g e a f t e r s e t t i n g a l l t h e b i t s i n t h e L S B

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p l a n e t o z e r o a s g { . T h e r e e x i s t t h e f o l l o w i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w

e e n h h f a n d g : h 2 i = f 2 i = a 2 i , 2 i g 2 i ( 2 ) h 2 i + l = a 2 i , 2 i + 1 g 2 i + a 2 i

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+ 2 , 2 i + 1 g 2 i + 2 ( 3 ) f 2 i + 1 = a 2 i , 2 i 1 g 2 i + a 2 i + 2 , 2 i + 3 g 2 i + 2 ( 4 ) i n w h i c h

a 2 i , 2 i + j i s d e f i n e d a s t h e t r a n s l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t f r o m t h e h i s t o

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g r a m g i t o h . w h e n j = 0 , 1 , 1 w e h a v e 0 < a 2 i , 2 i + j < l , o t h e r w i s e a 2 i , 2 i

+ j = 0 , a n d t h e y s a t i s f y a 2 i , 2 i 1 + a 2 i , 2 i + a 2 i , 2 i + 1 = 1 , ( 5 ) S t a r t i

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n g f r o m t h e a p p r o x i m a t e s y m m e t r y a b o u t i = 0 o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e h i s t o

g r a m , w e g e t a 0 , 1 = a 0 , 1 a t f i r s t . C o m b i n i n g w i t h e q u a t i o n s ( 2 5 )

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, w e o b t a i n t h e f o l l o w i n g i t e r a t i v e f o r m u l a f o r c a l c u l a t i n g t r a n s l

a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r a l l p o s i t i v e i _ _ go - h0

hi g 2i h2i-1 a2 _ 2i-1

2i-2,2i-1A2 : a 2 i , 2
i

1 _ , i g2i a 2 i ,

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2
i

+ 1 _ 1 a 2
i

m e s s a g e s a r e c o m m o n l y r a n d o m b i t s e q u e n c e s , f o r t h e s t e g o i m a g

, 2
i

a 2 i , 2
i

1 , * 1 S i n c e t h e e m b e d d e d h i d d e n

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e w i t h t h e L S B p l a n e f u l l y e m b e d d e d ( i . e . p = 1 0 0 % ) t h e L S B p l a n

e i s i n d e p e n d e n t o f t h e r e m a i n e d b i t p l a n e s . T h e r e f o r e , f o r s u

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c h s t e g o i m a g e s w e h a v e a 2 i , 2 i 1 = 0 . 2 5 , a 2 i , 2 i = 0 . 5 , a 2 i , 2 i +

1 ,i>1 = 0 . 2 5 . S o m e t r a n s l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s o f o r i g i n a l L e n a i m a g e a n d

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t w o s t e g o i m a g e s Table I some translation coefficients a2i,2i-1 a2i,2i Original i=0 0.2316 0.5368 i=1 0.3115 0.5025 i=2 0.3527 0.4841 p=50% i=0 0.2451 0.5098 i=1 0.2805 0.5009 i=2 0.3025 0.4934 p=100% i=0 0.2503 0.4993 i=1 0.2502 0.5004 i=2 0.2508 0.5005 w i t h t h e e m b e d d i n g r a t i o p = 5 0 % a n d

p = 1 0 0 % a r e l i s t e d a2i,2i+1 0.2316 0.1860 0.1632 0.2451 0.2186 0.2041 0.2503 0.2494 0.2487 i n T a b l e I . B y f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s o f t

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h o s e t r a n s l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s w e k n o w t h a t f o r a n a t u r a l i m a g e t h e r

e e x i s t s w e a k c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e L S B p l a n e a n d t h e r e m a i n e d

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b i t p l a n e s . A s m o r e a n d m o r e s e c r e t m e s s a g e s a r e e m b e d d e d , s u c h c o r

r e l a t i o n b e c o m e s w e a k e r a n d w e a k e r a n d f i n a l l y t h e L S B p l a n e b e c o m

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e s i n d e p e n d e n t o f r e m a i n e d b i t p l a n e s . F r o m e q u a t i o n ( 3 ) w e k n o w t h a t

h 2 i + 1 c o n s i s t s o f t w o p a r t s : a
2

i ,
2

i
+ 1

g
2

i a n d a
2

i +
2

,
2

i
+ 1

g
2

i
+ 2

, a n d s

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t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s s h o w t h a t f o r n a t u r a l i m a g e s t h o s e t w o p a r t s m a k e a

n a p p r o x i m a t e l y e q u a l c o n t r i b u t i o n t o h
2

i
+ 1

, t h a t i s a2i,2i+1g2i a2i+2,2i+1g (7) I n o r d e r t o a

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s s e s s t h e r e a s o n a b l e n e s s o f a s s u m p t i o n ( 7 ) , w e m a d e s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s

o n t h e f o l l o w i n g t w o i m a g e d a t a b a s e : o n e i s c o l l e c t e d b y J . H . H a t e r

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e n i n c l u d i n g 4 0 0 0 1 2 b i t g r a y s c a l e i m a g e s w i t h 1 5 3 6 * 1 0 2 4 p i x e l s [ 4 ]

. W e s e l e c t e d t h e f i r s t 6 0 0 i m a g e s f r o m t h e d a t a b a s e a n d r e s a m p l e d t

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o 8 b i t , c a l l e d J H H d a t a b a s e ; t h e o t h e r i s C B I R i m a g e d a t a b a s e b u i l t b

y W a s h i n g t o n U n i v e r s i t y i n c l u d i n g 8 5 4 i m a g e s s t o r e d i n J P E G f o r m a t

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[ 5 ] . T a b l e I I l i s t s t h e s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a o n

i ,
2

i
+ 1

g
2

i t o a
2

i +
2

,
2

i
+ 1

g
2

i
+ 2

o n b o t h i m a g

Table II Statistical Data on the ratio of a2i,2i+1g2i to a2i+2,2i+1g2i+2 Mean 1.0008 1.0015 1.0079 1.0443 1.0219 1.0388 Variance 7.611E-04 1.361E-03 2.766E-03 4.949E-03 5.485E-03 6.737E-03 Mean 1.0086 0.9992 0.9997 1.0010 1.0028 1.0015 t h e r a t i o o f a Variance 1.689E-03 3.014E-04 3.061E-04 4.383E-04 5.827E-04 8.324E-04 e d a t a b a s e s .

i=0 i=1 i=2 i=3 i=4 i=5

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F r o m T a b l e I I w e f i n d t h a t f o r J H H d a t a b a s e w i t h t h e i n c r e a s e o f i t h e

v a r i a n c e i n c r e a s e s a n d t h e m e a n v a l u e b e g i n s t o d e v i a t e f r o m 1 . C o

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m p a r a t i v e l y , w h e n i = 0 , 1 , 2 t h e a s s u m p t i o n i s m o r e t e n a b l e . M o r e o v e r , a

s s u m p t i o n ( 7 ) i s m o r e t e n a b l e o n C B I R d a t a b a s e t h a n o n J H H d a t a b a s e

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e x c e p t f o r i = 0 . T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h e a s s u m p t i o n ( 7 ) i s r e a s o n a b l e f o r m o

s t n a t u r a l i m a g e s .

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d L e t u s d e n o t e a . = ^ + 2 , 2 i + 1 , = a 2 i + 2 , 2 i + 3 t h e n t h e s t a t i s t i c a l h y p o t h e s i s o f

o u r g2i+2 s t e g a a n n a d l a2i,2iy t a2l i Y c = g 2 i , a n i s m e t h o d

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t h a t f o r a n a t u r a l i m a g e i t s h o u l d b e s a t i s f i e d t h a t a * (8) w h i l e f

o r s t e g o i m a g e s w i t h L S B p l a n e f u l l y e m b e d d e d , w e h a v e

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a 1, (9) F u r t h e r e x p e r i m e n t s i n d i c a t e t h a t f o r a g i v e n i t h e

v a l u e o f a d e c r e a s e s m o n o t o n o u s l y w i t h t h e i n c r e a s e o f t

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h e l e n g t h o f e m b e d d e d s e c r e t m e s s a g e s a n d w h e n t h e e m b e d d i n g

r a t i o p i n c r e a s e s t o 1 0 0 % , a . d e c r e a s e s t o 1 a p p r o x i m a t e l y . T o s t u d y

en ai and the embedding mial y=ax2+bx+c. Now, we will discuss how to obtain an estimation of p through the

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e t h e f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n a . a n d t h e e m b e d d i n g r a t i o p , w c r e a t e d a s e r i e s o f s t e g o i m a g e b y e m b e d d i n g s e c r e t m e s s a g e s w i t h

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e m b e d d i n g r a t i o s v a r y i n g f r o m 0 t o 1 0 0 % i n 5 % i n c r e m e n t s . D e n o t e t h e

s t e g o i m a g e c r e a t e d w i t h e m b e d d i n g r a t i o p a s S p , t h e i m a g e c r e a t e d

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b y r e v e r s i n g a l l t h e b i t s i n t h e L S B p l a n e o f S p a s R p . C a l c u l a t e

t h e v a l u e o f a . f o r a l l i m a g e s S p a n d R p ( N o t e t h a t t h e v a l u e o f a .

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f o r R p i s e q u a l t o t h a t o f f o r S p ) . M o r e o v e r , w e n o t e t h a t i n t h e

i m a g e S p o n l y a b o u t p / 2 o f t h e p i x e l s a r e f l i p p e d b y m e s s a g e e m b e d d i

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n g , w h i l e i n R p a b o u t 1 p / 2 o f p i x e l s a r e f l i p p e d . T h e r e f o r e , t h e i m

a g e R p i s e q u i v a l e n t t o a s t e g o i m a g e w i t h e m b e d d i n g r a t i o 2 p . F i

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g u r e . 2 s h o w s t h e f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n a . a n d t h e e m b e d d i n g r a

t i o w h e n / = 0 f o r L e n a i m a g e . c o n s t r a i n t s b r o u g h t b y f o u r c r i t

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i c a l p o i n t s . T h e f o u r c r i t i c a l p o i n t s a r e P 1 = ( 0 , y { ) , P 2 = ( p

, M i ) , P 3 = ( 1 , 1 ) a n d P 4 = ( 2 p , ) r e s p e c t i v e l y . N o w w e g e t t h i s e q u a t i o n s e t c

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= Y i

3 =

ap2 + bp + (10)

a (2 y
.

p) ,
a + ba+ c = n D e n o t e e d 1 = 1 s J i , d 2 = ( X t y . a n d d b e s i m p l i f i e e t ( 1 0 ) c a n q u a t i o n d t h e n

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d t

( 1 1 o 2d1 ) 4d1 w 2) p h 0, o (11) s W e e a b o s b o t l a u i t n e t h e e m b e d d i n g r a t i o p f r o m t h e r o o t o f e q u a t i o v a l u e i s s m a l l e r . I f t h e d i s c r i m i n a n t o f e q u a t i

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o n ( 1 1 ) i s s m a l l e r t h a n z e r o , w e h a v e p = 1 . T o i m p r o v e t h e r e l i a b i l

i t y o f o u r a l g o r i t h m , t w o m e a s u r e s a r e t a k e n : ( 1 ) p r e p r o c e s s h i s t o g r a

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m s u s i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g f o r m u l a h i = ( h i + h _ i ) / 2 a n d g / = ( g i + g i ) /

2 b a s e d o n t h e s y m m e t r y o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e i m a g e h i s t o g r a m ; ( 2 ) f o r v

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a r i o u s v a l u e s o f i , e s t i m a t e t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g e m b e d d i n g r a t i o p a

n d t a k e t h e a v e r a g e v a l u e a s t h e f i n a l e s t i m a t i o n o f p . I n o u r e x p e r

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i m e n t s , w e s e l e c t / = 0 , 1 , 2 a n d t a k e a v e r a g e o f t h e t h r e e v a l u e s a s t

h e f i n a l e s t i m a t i o n o f e m b e d d i n g r a t i o . 3.E XP ER IM EN TA L RE SU LT S A N D A N AL YS IS W e s e l e c t e d

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5 s t a n d a r d g r a y s c a l e t e s t i m a g e s w i t h 5 1 2 x 5 1 2 p i x e l s f r o m U S C S I P I

I m a g e d a t a b a s e ( S e e F i g . 1 ( a ) a n d F i g . 3 ) a n d t e s t e d t h e n e w a l g o r i t h m

III -

[ 6 ] . F i r s t , w e c r e a t e d a s e r i e s o f s t e g o i m a g e b y e m b e d d i n g s e c r e t m e

s s a g e s i n t o t h e f i v e i m a g e s u s i n g r a n d o m L S B r e p l a c e m e n t m e t h o d w i t

III -

h e m b e d d i n g r a t i o s v a r y i n g f r o m 0 t o 1 0 0 % i n 1 0 % i n c r e m e n t s . T h e n , w

e e s t i m a t e d t h e e m b e d d i n g r a t i o f r o m t h o s e s t e g o i m a g e s u s i n g o u r s

III -

t e g a n a l y t i c t e c h n i q u e . T a b l e I I I l i s t s e s t i m a t e d r e s u l t s a n d i n d i c a t

e s t h a t t h e n e w a l g o r i t h m i s e f f e c t i v e a n d r e l i a b l e .

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plane.bmp woman2.bmp

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o Fig.3 standard test images 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Lena 0.72 10.32 21.56 32.30 42.54 53.23 62.89 71.73 84.22 93.35 100.0
Table III Test results. for standard images (in percent)

Wom.1 0.66 10.50 18.68 33.67 47.00 44.31 57.98 65.29 77.88 91.32 91.71

Milk -1.51 9.67 20.66 32.06 41.89 51.52 62.49 70.52 80.11 92.67 95.62

Plane -0.53 10.24 21.53 33.39 42.64 53.05 62.37 72.17 80.06 94.31 96.89 T o c o m p a r e t h e r e l i a b i l i t y a n d a c c u r a c y o f o u r a l g

Wom.2 -2.05 10.90 22.09 33.39 41.29 54.77 60.66 69.83 83.20 94.37 95.93 r i t h m w i t h R S a n a l y s i s m e t h o d , w e d i d t h e s a m e e x

III -

p e r i m e n t s o n b o t h t h e J H H a n d C B I R i m a g e d a t a b a s e . O n e r a n d o m m e s s

a g e e m b e d d i n g p r o c e s s f o r e a c h i m a g e i s p e r f o r m e d a n d t h e n t h e e m b

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e d d i n g r a t i o i s e s t i m a t e d u s i n g t h e t w o k i n d s o f m e t h o d s . T h e m a s k

u s e d i n R S a n a l y s i s i s [ 0 , 1 , 1 , 0 ] . T a b l e I V l i s t s s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a

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mit

f o r b o t h m e t h o d s .

d i n g r a t i o i s a b o v

Table IV Comparison with RS analysis method (in percent) _____

________(a) JHH Image Database_____________________ Our Algorithm RS Analysis Mean Std. Dev. Mean Std. Dev. 0% 0.6534 4.3030 2.025 6.0862 10% 13.133 3.6308 12.030 5.5222 20% 24.658 3.4014 22.273 4.9748 30% 35.402 3.2305 32.871 4.3813 40% 45.545 3.0314 43.973 3.6159 50% 55.248 2.6807 55.588 2.8873 60% 64.593 2.3093 67.502 2.9649 70% 73.698 1.7826 76.505 2.7362 80% 82.812 1.6046 84.233 1.9723 90% 92.137 1.6614 94.474 3.7157 100% 97.807 1.3125 99.797 1.6728 (b) CBIR Image Database Our Algorithm RS Analysis Mean Std. Dev. Mean Std. Dev. 0% 0.177 3.4111 0.036 1.8467 10% 12.132 3.6467 9.380 2.2616 20% 23.320 3.5279 19.166 2.7507 30% 34.021 3.4648 29.941 2.8677 40% 44.030 3.4595 41.486 2.2116 50% 53.922 3.4678 54.282 2.0935 60% 63.628 3.0651 67.805 4.0104 70% 72.950 3.3666 77.393 4.9523 80% 82.791 3.4788 83.452 3.3432 90% 91.938 3.0381 94.275 4.8150 100% 95.796 2.8570 98.202 4.4164 From Table IV we know that for both image databases the mean value of the new algorithm is closer to actual value w e h e 4 n 0 % t . h e M o e r m e b o e v d

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e r , f o r J H H d a t a b a s e a l l t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f t h e n e w a l g o r i t

h m i s s m a l l e r t h a n t h a t o f R S a n a l y s i s , w h i l e f o r C B I R d a t a b a s e , s

III -

t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f t h e n e w a l g o r i t h m i s s m a l l e r t h a n t h a t o f R S

a n a l y s i s w h e n t h e e m b e d d i n g r a t i o i s a b o v e 5 0 % . T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a

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t f o r r a w l o s s l e s s c o m p r e s s e d i m a g e s t h e n e w a l g o r i t h m h a s a b e t t e

r p e r f o r m a n c e t h a n R S a n a l y s i s m e t h o d , w h i l e f o r i m a g e s s t o r e d i n

III -

J P E G f o r m a t t h e n e w a l g o r i t h m i s e q u a l l y c a p a b l e a s R S a n a l y s i s m e

t h o d . O n a P C w i t h I n t e l P e n t i u m I I I 6 0 0 M H z p r o c e s s o r , t h e d e t e c t i

III -

o n s p e e d s o f o u r a l g o r i t h m a r e 4 1 7 8 . 6 0 a n d 3 8 8 4 . 3 6 K B p s ( K i l o B y t e

s p e r s e c o n d ) f o r J H H a n d C B I R i m a g e d a t a b a s e r e s p e c t i v e l y , w h i l e

III -

t h e s p e e d s o f R S a n a l y s i s m e t h o d a r e 5 6 6 . 1 7 a n d 5 3 4 . 6 6 K B p s r e s p e c

t i v e l y . T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t o u r a l g o r i t h m r u n s m u c h f a s t e r t h a n R S

III -

a n a l y s i s m e t h o d a n d i s m o r e f a v o r a b l e t o r e a l i z i n g r e a l t i m e d e t e

c t i o n . T h e a c c u r a c y o f e s t i m a t i o n o n t h e e m b e d d i n g r a t i o o f s e c r e t

III -

m e s s a g e s i s i n f l u e n c e d b y t w o m a i n f a c t o r s : ( 1 ) w h e t h e r t h e e q u a t i

o n ( 7 ) i s s t r i c t l y s a t i s f i e d o r n o t h a s a v i t a l i n f l u e n c e o n t h e a

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c c u r a c y o f c a l c u l a t e d e m b e d d i n g r a t i o ; ( b ) t h e d i v e r s i t y o f i m a g e

d a t a , t h e r a n d o m n e s s o f b o t h s e c r e t m e s s a g e s a n d t h e e m b e d d i n g p r o

III -

c e s s c a n a l s o b r i n g e r r o r t o t h e e s t i m a t i o n o f t h e e m b e d d i n g r a t i o

. I t s h o u l d b e n o t e d t h a t t h e n e w a l g o r i t h m i s a l s o e f f e c t i v e f o r s

III -

t e g a n o g r a p h y b a s e d o n s e q u e n t i a l L S B r e p l a c e m e n t . M o r e o v e r , i t i s

m o r e a c c u r a t e f o r d e t e c t i n g h i d d e n m e s s a g e s t h a t a r e r a n d o m l y s c a t

III -

t e r e d i n t h e L S B p l a n e t h a n f o r m e s s a g e s e m b e d d e d u s i n g s e q u e n t i a l

L S B r e p l a c e m e n t .

4.REFEREN R
1 ] A . W e s t f e l d a n d A . P f i t z m a n n , A t t a c k s o n S t e g a n o g

III -

r a p h i c S y s t e m s , I H W 9 9 , D r e s d e n , G e r m a n y , S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 9 9 . 2 ] J . F r i d r i c h , M .

G o l j a n , R . D u , D e t e c t i n g L S B S t e g a n o g r a p h y i n C o l o r a n d G r a y S c a l e I m a g e s

III -

, I E E E M u l t i m e d i a , O c t o b e r N o v e m b e r i s s u e , 2 0 0 1 , p p . 2 2 2 8 . 3 ] S . K a t z e n b e i s s e

r , F . A . P . P e t i t c o l a s , I n f o r m a t i o n H i d i n g T e c h n i q u e s f o r S t e g a n o g r a p h y a n d D i

III -

g i t a l W a t e r m a r k i n g , A r t e c h H o u s e , 2 0 0 0 . 4 ] J . H . v a n H a t e r e n , A . v a n d e r S c h a a f ,

I n d e p e n d e n t c o m p o n e n t f i l t e r s o f n a t u r a l i m a g e s c o m p a r e d w i t h s i m p l e c e l

III -

l s i n p r i m a r y v i s u a l c o r t e x . P r o c . R . S o c . L o n d . B 2 6 5 : 3 5 9 3 6 6 . 1 9 9 8 . h t t p : / / h

l a b . p h y s . r u g . n l / i m l i b / i n d e x . h t m l . 5 ] C B I R I m a g e D a t a b a s e , U n i v e r s i t y o f W a

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s h i n g t o n , h t t p : / / w w . c s . w a s h i n g t o n . e d u / r e s e a r c h / m a g e d a t a b a s e / r o u n d t r u t h / . 6

U S C S I P I I m a g e D a t a b a s e , h t t p : / / s i p i . u s c . e d u / s e r v i c e s / d a t a b a s e / D a t a b a s e . h t

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m l .

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