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ACDMA-311-C1

CDMA Network Planning


Course Objective:
Familiar with network planning flow and main steps
Master the meaning and values of different parameters in link
budget
Master the principle of CDMA capacity and coverage
Master the principle and method of repeater planning
Master PN planning and initial neighbouring cell planning
method
Contents
Figure 1-1 Status of network planning in whole project 1..............................................................................i
Figure 1-2 Network planning process 2...........................................................................................................i
Figure 2-3 Fading MarginProbability Distribution Function 3...............................................................i
Figure 2-4 Fading MarginProbability Density Function 4......................................................................i
Figure 2-5 Edge Coverage Probability and Area Coverage Probability 4.....................................................i
Figure 3-6 Graph of time and communication prevalence rate 2....................................................................i
Figure 3-7 call process 4...................................................................................................................................i
Figure 3-8 Setup Procedure of Data Service 7.................................................................................................i
Figure 3-9 Flow Chart of Forward Scheduling Algorithm 18.........................................................................i
Figure 3-10 Session in the Data Service 20......................................................................................................i
Figure 3-11 Coverage area and key covered areas in H district 23.................................................................i
Figure 4-12 Position of site survey in network planning 1..............................................................................i
Figure 5-13 Coverage of repeater 2.................................................................................................................i
Figure 5-14 Relation between NIM and thermal noise level rise caused by repeater 7.................................i
Figure 5-15 Equivalent cascaded amplifier 7...................................................................................................i
Figure 5-16 Repeater cascading noise coefficient 8........................................................................................i
Figure 5-17 Multiple access interference 9......................................................................................................i
Figure 5-18 Equivalent model of repeater cascading 12.................................................................................i
Figure 5-19 Free space propagation 14............................................................................................................i
Figure 5-14 Installation of repeater antennas 20..............................................................................................i
Figure 5-15 Isolation-measuring equipment 23................................................................................................i
Figure 6-20 Position of radio parameter setting in network planning 1.........................................................i
Figure 6-21 Example for setting neighboringing cell list 5.............................................................................i
Figure 6-22 Interface of PN Planning 9............................................................................................................i
Figure 6-23 Parameters Setting of PN Planning 10.........................................................................................i
Figure 6-24 PN Grouping And Reservation 12................................................................................................i
Figure 6-25 The Setting of PN-reusing BTS 13...............................................................................................i
Figure 6-26 The Deletion of PN-reusing BTS 13............................................................................................i
Figure 6-27 Interface of PN Querying 14.........................................................................................................i
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Figure 6-28 The Distance between PN-reusing Cells 15................................................................................ii
Figure 6-29 the Query of PN Reuse Information after PN Planning 16........................................................ii
Figure 6-30 the Query of PN Confusion 17....................................................................................................ii
Figure 6-31 Manual PN Planning 18...............................................................................................................ii
Figure 6-32 PN Planning Result 19.................................................................................................................ii
Figure 6-33 Auto PN Planning Scheme 20.....................................................................................................ii
Figure 6-34 The Result of PN Reuse Check-up 21.........................................................................................ii
Figure 6-35 The Selection of BTSs to be PN Planned 22..............................................................................ii
Table 2-1 Soft Handoff Gain 5..........................................................................................................................i
Table 2-2 Link Budget Differences between CDMA 1x and EV-DO 5.........................................................i
Table 2-3 Reverse Link Budget of CDMA2000 1X 800M System 8............................................................i
Table 2-4 cdma2000 HRPD system 800M forward link budget 9.................................................................i
Table 2-5 cdma2000 HRPD system 800M reverse link budget 11.................................................................i
Table 3-6 High-end subscriber distribution 7...................................................................................................i
Table 3-7 Statistics of High-end Subscribers Behavior on Data Service 8....................................................i
Table 3-8 Statistics of Low-end Subscribers Behavior on Data Service 8....................................................i
Table 3-9 Traffic model in busy hour 9............................................................................................................i
Table 3-10 Capacity requirement calculation for 50,000 subscribers exchange 9.......................................i
Table 3-11 Reverse Throughput Calculation of single Sector 15....................................................................i
Table 3-12 Reverse Throughput Calculation of Cellular Sector 16................................................................i
Table 3-13 A Simplified Data Traffic Model of EV-DO 20.............................................................................i
Table 3-14 Reverse link budget result 24.........................................................................................................i
Table 3-15 Names of access points and the number of allocated telephone in Henggang Branch Bureau
25..........................................................................................................................................................................i
Table 3-16 Solution to coverage 26..................................................................................................................i
Table 4-17 Marks correspond to different sites 8.............................................................................................i
Table 5-18 Example of calculating path loss 15...............................................................................................i
Table 5-19 Repeater feeder 17..........................................................................................................................i
Table 5-20 Relation between distance and path loss 18...................................................................................i
Table 5-21 Relation between antenna distance and space propagation loss 21..............................................i
Table 6-22 PILOT_INC typical setting 3.........................................................................................................i
Table 6-23 Example for setting neighboringing cell list 6...............................................................................i
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Table 6-24 Toolbar of PN Planning 9...............................................................................................................i
Table 6-25 PN grouping scheme 1 11...............................................................................................................i
Table 6-26 PN grouping scheme 2 11...............................................................................................................i
1 Wireless Network Planning Process ............................................................................................................. 1
1.1 Brief Introduction to Overall Process .......................................................................................................... 1
1.2 Network planning Flow ................................................................................................................................ 1
2 Coverage Planning of CDMA System ......................................................................................................... 1
2.1 Link budget introduction .............................................................................................................................. 1
2.2 Differences between CDMA 1x and EV-DO Link Budget ......................................................................... 5
3 CDMA Capacity Planning ............................................................................................................................. 1
3.1 Prediction of the user quantity ..................................................................................................................... 1
3.1.1 Principle of user prediction ................................................................................................................ 1
3.1.2 The method to predict user quantity .................................................................................................. 2
3.2 Service Model ............................................................................................................................................... 3
3.2.1 Voice Service Model .......................................................................................................................... 3
3.2.2 Data Service Model ............................................................................................................................ 4
3.3 Capacity calculation of CDMA2000 1X system ...................................................................................... 10
3.3.1 The ultimate capacity of isolated BTS ............................................................................................ 10
3.3.2 BS capacity in cellar system ............................................................................................................ 12
3.4 EV-DO capacity planning .......................................................................................................................... 13
3.4.1 Active Subscribers Quantity per Sector .......................................................................................... 13
3.4.2 Recommended Sector Throughput .................................................................................................. 14
3.4.3 Analysis on Sector Reverse Throughput ......................................................................................... 14
3.4.4 Sector forward throughput ............................................................................................................... 16
3.4.5 Simplified EV-DO Data Traffic Model .......................................................................................... 19
3.5 Planning case .............................................................................................................................................. 22
3.5.1 Coverage object ................................................................................................................................ 22
3.5.2 Project requirements ....................................................................................................................... 23
3.5.3 Link budget ....................................................................................................................................... 24
3.5.4 Capacity requirement ....................................................................................................................... 25
3.5.5 Solution ............................................................................................................................................ 25
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4 Site Survey and Planning .............................................................................................................................. 1
4.1 Overview ...................................................................................................................................................... 1
4.2 Introduction of site survey ........................................................................................................................... 1
4.3 Site Selecting Principles ............................................................................................................................... 2
4.3.1 No Obvious Barrier Directly Opposite Sector .................................................................................. 3
4.3.2 Requirement for Site Height .............................................................................................................. 4
4.3.3 Avoiding Mutual Interference with Other Systems .......................................................................... 5
4.4 Planned sites survey and selection ............................................................................................................... 6
4.4.1 No Serious Obstruction in front of a Site .......................................................................................... 6
4.4.2 Requirements of site height ............................................................................................................... 7
4.4.3 Distance requirement of candidate sites and planned sites .............................................................. 7
4.5 Planning Ultra-far Coverage BS .................................................................................................................. 7
4.6 Marks correspond to different sites ............................................................................................................. 8
5 Repeater Planning .......................................................................................................................................... 1
5.1 Overview of Repeater ................................................................................................................................... 1
5.2 Repeater Networking and Planning ............................................................................................................. 3
5.2.1 Features of Repeater Networking ...................................................................................................... 4
5.2.2 Analysis of Noise Introduced by Repeaters ...................................................................................... 5
5.2.3 The Case that Several Repeaters Share One Donor Base Station .................................................. 11
5.2.4 Repeater Cascading .......................................................................................................................... 12
5.2.5 Donor Link of Repeater ................................................................................................................... 13
5.2.6 Antenna Feeder System ................................................................................................................... 15
5.2.7 Isolation ............................................................................................................................................ 19
6 Principles for PN Planning and Setting of Initial Neighboringing Cell .................................................... 1
6.1 Overview ....................................................................................................................................................... 1
6.2 PN Planning .................................................................................................................................................. 1
6.2.1 PILOT_INC setting ............................................................................................................................ 2
6.2.2 Site PN planning ................................................................................................................................ 4
6.3 Setting of Initial Neighboringing Cell List .................................................................................................. 4
6.4 Setting of Dual Frequency Neighboringing Cells ....................................................................................... 6
6.5 PN planning by use of CNO ....................................................................................................................... 8
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6.5.1 Parameters Setting of PN Planning ................................................................................................... 9
6.5.2 Setting PN-reusing BTSs ................................................................................................................. 12
6.5.3 Querying PN Reuse and PN Offset Information ............................................................................ 14
6.5.4 PN Planning ...................................................................................................................................... 18
6.5.5 Checking-up PN Reuse .................................................................................................................... 20
6.5.6 Selection of BTSs to be PN Planned ............................................................................................... 21
6.5.7 PN Planning of Capacity-expanded BTS ........................................................................................ 22
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Figures
Figure 1-1 Status of network planning in whole project..................................................................................1
Figure 1-2 Network planning process...............................................................................................................2
Figure 2-3 Fading MarginProbability Distribution Function..................................................................3
Figure 2-4 Fading MarginProbability Density Function.........................................................................4
Figure 2-5 Edge Coverage Probability and Area Coverage Probability........................................................4
Figure 3-6 Graph of time and communication prevalence rate.......................................................................2
Figure 3-7 call process.......................................................................................................................................4
Figure 3-8 Setup Procedure of Data Service....................................................................................................7
Figure 3-9 Flow Chart of Forward Scheduling Algorithm............................................................................18
Figure 3-10 Session in the Data Service.........................................................................................................20
Figure 3-11 Coverage area and key covered areas in H district....................................................................23
Figure 4-12 Position of site survey in network planning.................................................................................1
Figure 5-13 Coverage of repeater ....................................................................................................................2
Figure 5-14 Relation between NIM and thermal noise level rise caused by repeater....................................7
Figure 5-15 Equivalent cascaded amplifier......................................................................................................7
Figure 5-16 Repeater cascading noise coefficient............................................................................................8
Figure 5-17 Multiple access interference.........................................................................................................9
Figure 5-18 Equivalent model of repeater cascading.....................................................................................12
Figure 5-19 Free space propagation................................................................................................................14
Figure 5-14 Installation of repeater antennas.................................................................................................20
Figure 5-15 Isolation-measuring equipment...................................................................................................23
Figure 6-20 Position of radio parameter setting in network planning.............................................................1
Figure 6-21 Example for setting neighboringing cell list................................................................................5
Figure 6-22 Interface of PN Planning...............................................................................................................9
Figure 6-23 Parameters Setting of PN Planning............................................................................................10
Figure 6-24 PN Grouping And Reservation...................................................................................................12
Figure 6-25 The Setting of PN-reusing BTS..................................................................................................13
Figure 6-26 The Deletion of PN-reusing BTS...............................................................................................13
Figure 6-27 Interface of PN Querying............................................................................................................14
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Figure 6-28 The Distance between PN-reusing Cells....................................................................................15
Figure 6-29 the Query of PN Reuse Information after PN Planning............................................................16
Figure 6-30 the Query of PN Confusion........................................................................................................17
Figure 6-31 Manual PN Planning...................................................................................................................18
Figure 6-32 PN Planning Result.....................................................................................................................19
Figure 6-33 Auto PN Planning Scheme..........................................................................................................20
Figure 6-34 The Result of PN Reuse Check-up.............................................................................................21
Figure 6-35 The Selection of BTSs to be PN Planned...................................................................................22
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Tables
Table 2-1 Soft Handoff Gain.............................................................................................................................5
Table 2-2 Link Budget Differences between CDMA 1x and EV-DO ............................................................5
Table 2-3 Reverse Link Budget of CDMA2000 1X 800M System ...............................................................8
Table 2-4 cdma2000 HRPD system 800M forward link budget ....................................................................9
Table 2-5 cdma2000 HRPD system 800M reverse link budget.....................................................................11
Table 3-6 High-end subscriber distribution......................................................................................................7
Table 3-7 Statistics of High-end Subscribers Behavior on Data Service.......................................................8
Table 3-8 Statistics of Low-end Subscribers Behavior on Data Service........................................................8
Table 3-9 Traffic model in busy hour...............................................................................................................9
Table 3-10 Capacity requirement calculation for 50,000 subscribers exchange ..........................................9
Table 3-11 Reverse Throughput Calculation of single Sector.......................................................................15
Table 3-12 Reverse Throughput Calculation of Cellular Sector...................................................................16
Table 3-13 A Simplified Data Traffic Model of EV-DO................................................................................20
Table 3-14 Reverse link budget result............................................................................................................24
Table 3-15 Names of access points and the number of allocated telephone in Henggang Branch Bureau. 25
Table 3-16 Solution to coverage.....................................................................................................................26
Table 4-17 Marks correspond to different sites................................................................................................8
Table 5-18 Example of calculating path loss..................................................................................................15
Table 5-19 Repeater feeder.............................................................................................................................17
Table 5-20 Relation between distance and path loss......................................................................................18
Table 5-21 Relation between antenna distance and space propagation loss.................................................21
Table 6-22 PILOT_INC typical setting............................................................................................................3
Table 6-23 Example for setting neighboringing cell list..................................................................................6
Table 6-24 Toolbar of PN Planning..................................................................................................................9
Table 6-25 PN grouping scheme 1..................................................................................................................11
Table 6-26 PN grouping scheme 2..................................................................................................................11
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1 Wireless Network Planning Process
Keypoint
Master the overall process about network planning and the detailed descriptions to
each step.
1.1 Brief Introduction to Overall Process
Network process is committee the basis of the entire wireless network building project.
Its position in the project is shown in Figure 1-1.
Project
Initialization
Earlier Stage
Planning
Project
Commence
Network
Planning
Project
Implement
Single Site
Check
RF
Optimization
Initial
Acceptance
Final
Acceptance
Maintenance
Optimization
Figure 1-1 Status of network planning in whole project
1.2 Network planning Flow
Complete network planning consists of the following stages:
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Post-sales staff CDMA Network Planning course
Project
Pre-research
Requirement
Analysis
Available sites
survey

Network
Evaluation
Wireless
Environment
Test
Network
Topology
Design
Planned Sites
Survey
Simulation
Design Report
Submitted
PN Design
&Neighbor
List Configure
Procedure
Simplify
&Project Plan
Design Result
Report
Figure 1-2 Network planning process
Figure 1-2 shows the whole procedures of network planning; the following is the rough
definition of each stage.
1. In practical project implementation, some unnecessary stages will be eliminated
in the procedures downsizing stage in accordance with the customers
requirement (network planning agreement or other accord) and the actual
conditions of the planned area;
2. Requirement analysis: First, the customers needs, which are the basis of the
entire network building, should be understood completely; if the information
about customers needs is incorrect, all subsequent work will be futile, and the
result of network planning will not be accepted by the customer; the
requirements can be gotten from various ways, such as communicating with the
customer formally or informally, practical survey (includes planning area
environment survey and available sites survey), the result must be confirmed by
the customer;
3. Available sites survey: this stage includes the following steps: collect the
information of the radio propagation environment in the planning areas; select
suitable sites for field test in radio environment test stage; collect the information
of available sites, in which, suitable sites can be used as the basic of network
topology design;
4. Procedures simplification: After the customer requirements are decided, the
entire process will be simplified in accordance with the actual conditions of the
project and customer requirements and some unnecessary stages will be
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1 Wireless Network Planning Process
eliminated; for example, a newly created network obviously needs no network
evaluation; or, if the customer is certain that the spectrum is clear, there will be
no need for spectrum scanning; or if the customer makes sure that they can
provide the model for the relating environment or the on-site survey concludes
that the existing model can be applied for the environment of the planned area,
there will be no need for field test and model correction;
5. Plan establishment: establish the work plan in accordance with the simplified
process, project scale, topographical conditions, etc. and the time demand raised
by the customer, gross time setting for each stage (setting the milestones), need
for resources and personnel etc; the large-scale and urgent task may be done in
groups. In this case, information of the groups should be provided; and the
resources and personnel requirement must be confirmed by project implement
unit; then confirm the time schedule with the customer; the work must be done
after the plan had be confirmed;
6. Existing network evaluation: If the status of the expanded or relocated network is
not very clear because, for example, it was not optimized since a long time ago,
generally the wireless network evaluation subproject should be implemented to
learn the current status of the network, to provide information reference for
network planning stage;
7. Radio environment test: includes spectrum scan and field test. They are both
optional.
(1) The purpose of spectrum scan is to learn the spectrum occupation situation in the
network planning area.
(2) There is no need to do spectrum scan in such situations: there is no interference
according to the available information; If the customer does not require spectrum
scanning (by default all operations in the network planning process are
considered to have no interference).
(3) The aim of field test is to get the propagation mode which can reflect
characteristics of planning area propagation environment, which is used to
simulation and network topology structure design (calculating the coverage
distance of related stations).
(4) There is no need to do field test in these situations: the customer can provide
applicable radio propagation model; the radio propagation model in the model
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Post-sales staff CDMA Network Planning course
database can reflect the characteristics of the radio propagation environment in
the planning area; the network structure is too simple, the model is not to be
corrected.
8. Network topology design: on the basis of collected information, perform the
coverage and capacity plan and design a network topology (witht a group of
planned cell sites) that theoretically meets the customers equirements, thus
provide guidance for the subsequent work;
9. Planned sites survey: find the points that can meet the requirements in the actual
environment on the basis of the network topology design. To a larger network, it
should judge whether the sites are qualified by network simulating;
10. Network plan report: to ensure the planning results can be accepted by the
customer, and get the ideas and suggestions about the planning form thecustomer,
it needs to report the result of the first stage to the customer.
11. Simulation: according to the customers requirements, perform the adjustments
to the network planning, and present the simulation result;
12. PN plan and neighboring list setting: after the entire sites have been confirmed,
configure the PN and neighboring list;
13. Hand in the network design report: when the planning work is completed,
compose the wireless network design report; the report should be passed the
internal inspection and approval before being submitted to the customer; after the
customer identifies the result (network design report), file the related reference
and data. The project ends.
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2 Coverage Planning of CDMA System
Keypoint
Familiar with the meaning and value of different parameters in link budget
Coverage planning will be carried out through link budget in the course of CDMA
network design.
Cell coverage of CDMA network is influenced by such factors as antenna height,
antenna type (gain, horizontal beam angle, vertical beam angle, and so on), down tilt
angle and transmitted power. If precise coverage prediction is required, we should take
comprehensive consideration of these parameters when choosing propagation model.
ZTE chooses COST-231 model for 1900M CDMA coverage predictions.
2.1 Link budget introduction
In the cellular system, a BS sector covers such an area where the receiver (BS or
terminal) shall have sufficient signal levels to satisfy service requirements.
In a certain propagation environment, the coverage of a cell directly depends on the
maximum allowable path losses between transmitting and receiving ends, while link
budget can determine the maximum allowable path loss of the specified radio link. In the
link budget, the maximum allowable path loss can be calculated with the following
formula:
Maximum allowed path loss = Transmit power Receiver sensitivity - Margin - Others
The transmit power refers to the effective transmit power of the antenna and it can be
either the Equivalent Isotropic Radiation Power (EIRP) or Equivalent Radiation Power
(ERP). The formula is as follows:
EIRP = transmit power (dBm) + transmit antenna gain (dBi) - Feeder loss (dB) - body
loss (dB) - Jumper loss (dB) - Other loss (dB)
If the specified antenna gain is in dBd, convert it into dBi in the link budget table.
The receiver sensitivity (Prec) refers to the minimum signal level required at the
receiving end of the antenna with a specified data rate and the worst channel condition. It
can be represented as:
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Post-sales staff CDMA Network Planning course
b
o
E Prec
=
N DataRate Thermalnoise power spectrum density

(Formular 2.1)
According to the formula (2.1), the receiver sensitivity Prec (dBm) is:

b
E
Prec = Thermal noise power spectrum density+ DataRate
o
req
N
1
+
1
]

(Formular 2.2)
Note: The actual calculation of receiver sensitivity should also consider the influence of
the system noise figure and loading factor.
Margin and other factors affecting path loss include fading margin, penetration loss and
soft handoff gain.
(1) Fading margin
Fading margin is a reserved margin, based on a full consideration of channel
fading variation, for guaranteeing communication reliability. It corresponds with
a specified cell edge communication probability.
In the radio space propagation, for any given distance, its path loss changes and
can be regarded as a random variable in conformity with lognormal distribution.
The median of path loss is usually adopted in the propagation model. If the
network is designed based on the average path loss, the path loss at the edge
coverage area of the cell will be greater than the path loss median with a 50-50%
probability, that is, the edge coverage probability of the cell is only 50%. To
improve the edge coverage probability of the cell, it is necessary to reserve the
fading margin in advance.
The following takes a cell with a 75% edge coverage probability as an example.
Suppose that the propagation loss random variable is , then is the Gauss
distribution on dB. Set its average value to m, the standard deviation to , and the
corresponding probability distribution function to the Q function. Set a loss
threshold
1
(If the propagation loss is beyond this threshold, the signal strength
will fail to meet the demodulation requirement of the expected service qualities).
The edge coverage probability equal to or greater than 75% can be represented
as:
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2 Coverage Planning of CDMA System

d e
2
1
) (
2
2
1
2
) (
1 r coverage
m
P P

<

(Formular 2.3)
For the outdoor environment, the standard deviation is set to 8 dB (This standard
deviation is different for various morphologies. 8 dB is usually for a small open
space with density buildings), and the corresponding margin for the 75% edge
coverage probability (communication proportion) can be calculated with the
following formula.
dB 4 . 5 8 675 . 0 675 . 0
1
m (Formular 2.4)
As shown in Figure 2-3 and Figure 2-4, to guarantee a 75% edge coverage
probability, a margin of 5.4 dB should be reserved during network design. If
requiring a 90% edge coverage probability, in the same calculating method, we
can get the fading margin is 10.3 dB.
Accumulated lognormal
probability distribution
Median
Deviation from the median signal m
Figure 2-3 Fading MarginProbability Distribution Function
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Post-sales staff CDMA Network Planning course
Figure 2-4 Fading MarginProbability Density Function
Under specified conditions, edge coverage probability and area coverage
probability are in one-to-one correspondence relationship. In Figure 2-5, the left
vertical coordinate represents the area coverage probability, the right vertical
coordinate represents the edge coverage probability, and the horizontal
coordinate represents the standard deviation/path loss factor. For example, if path
loss factor n = 4 (for a complicated propagation environment), standard deviation
= 8 dB, edge coverage probability = 75%, then the corresponding area
coverage probability is 94%. If path loss factor n = 2 (for a free space), standard
deviation = 8 dB, edge coverage probability = 75%, then the corresponding
area coverage probability is 91%.
Figure 2-5 Edge Coverage Probability and Area Coverage Probability
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2 Coverage Planning of CDMA System
(2) Penetration loss
Penetration loss usually adopts the experience value, depending on the factors
such as construction materials and thickness of building wall in different places.
The descending order of the penetration loss is normally as: dense urban area,
urban area, suburb and rural area. For the link budget, generally the penetration
loss of the dense urban area is 25 dB, urban area 20 dB, suburb 15 dB and rural
area 6 dB. In the actual planning, more accurate penetration loss can be obtained
through test.
(3) Soft handoff gain (only considering two-way soft handoff)
In the CDMA system, the value of soft handoff gain depends on the relevant
coefficient of two propagation paths, log-normal fading deviation and edge
coverage Perl. The specific relationship is shown in Table 2-1.
Table 2-1 Soft Handoff Gain
Perl
= 8 dB
Soft handoff gain
0.75 0.5 4.0
0.9 0.5 4.09
0.95 0.5 4.2
0.98 0.5 4.67
Upon determining the above parameters, the maximum allowable propagation
path loss can be calculated, and then the cell coverage range according to the
propagation model (Okumura-Hata model, Cost-231 model and etc).
2.2 Differences between CDMA 1x and EV-DO Link Budget
Comparing the link budget structures of CDMA 1x, EV-DO Rls0 and RevA, the main
differences between them could be listed as following:
Table 2-2 Link Budget Differences between CDMA 1x and EV-DO
Type Link CDMA 1x EV-DO Rls0 EV-DO RevA
Grade of Data Rate Forward 9.6kbps~153.6kbps 5
classes
38.4kbps~2.4Mbps 9
classes
38.4kbps~3.1Mbps 11
classes
Reverse 9.6kbps~153.6kbps 4.8kbps~1.8Mbps max. 22
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Post-sales staff CDMA Network Planning course
Type Link CDMA 1x EV-DO Rls0 EV-DO RevA
5 classes classes
Terminal Type Forward Single Antenna Single Antenna/Dual Antenna
Body Loss Forward/Rev
erse
3dB (Voice)
0dB (Data)
0dB 3dB (Voice)
0dB (Data)
Demodulation
Threshold
Forward All different between 1x and EV-DO,
most are same between EV-DO Rls0 and RevA
Reverse Different
Multi-User
Diversity Gain
Forward N/A Available
1. CDMA2000 1X system
CDMA2000 1X system supports data service besides voice service, the data rate
is up to 153.6kbps. Table 2-3 is a reverse link budget table of CDMA2000 1X
system in 800MHz, compared with IS-95A.
The difference between IS-95A and CDMA2000 1X voice service lays in
different demodulation signal noise ratio requirements and interference margin
value. Different demodulation reqirements are due to adoption of CSM5000 chip
by CDMA2000 1X base station, so the channel modulation technology is
improved. As to interference margin, we may apply 75% of the maximum
capacity for link budget because the capacity of CDMA2000 1X is more than
that of IS-95A.
The data rate in Table 2-3 is from 9.6kbps to 153.6kbps. The difference between
IS-95A and CDMA2000 1X data service lays in different demodulation signal
noise ratio requirements, interference margin value and processing gain.
Because either convolutional code or Turbo code can be selected for channel
coding of data service, compared with voice service, the demodulation
requirement for data demodulation decreases. With data rate increasing, the
performance of Turbo code is getting better, the demodulation requirement
decreases.
Due to adoption of advanced technology in CDMA2000 1X system, such as
reverse coherent demodulation, Turbo coding, data coding and convolutional
coding promotion, forward quick power control etc., the capacity of CDMA2000
1X system increases. We use 75% of the top load in link budget, so the
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2 Coverage Planning of CDMA System
interference margin is increasing to 6.02dB.
Data rate is from 9.6kbps to 153.6kbps provided by 1X system, transmitted in
1.2288MHz bandwidth, so the processing gain is different due to different data
rate. The processing gain is decreasing with the increment of the data rate, i.e. the
receiver sencitivity is increases, and the allowed pathloss is decreased.
Okumura-Hata model is adopted for propagation model in urban area, we can use
related correction factors for different propagation environment. In practice, we
can correct the factors according to calibration model derived from testing.
Table 2-3 is the reverse link budget of CDMA2000 1X 800M System.
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Post-sales staff CDMA Network Planning course
Table 2-3 Reverse Link Budget of CDMA2000 1X 800M System
Propagat i on Envi ronment
Traf f i c Type
Dat a Rat e ( kbps) 153. 60 76. 80 38. 40 19. 20 9. 60 1X IS-95A
Maxi mummobi l e Tx power
( dBm) 23 23 23 23 23 23 23
Mobi l e ant enna gai n
( dBi ) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Body l oss ( dB) 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
Mobi l e Equi val ent
i sot opi c radi at ed power
[ EI RP] ( dBm) 20 20 20 20 20 20 20
BS ant enna gai n ( dBi ) 15. 70 15. 70 15. 70 15. 70 15. 70 15. 70 15. 70
BS j umper cabl e l oss
( dB) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
BS f eeder l oss
( dB/ 100m) 6 6 6 6 6 6 6
BS f eeder l engt h ( m) 50 50 50 50 50 50 50
Ot her l osses ( dB) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
BS ant enna and f eeder
l osses ( dB) 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
Thermal noi se densi t y
( dBm/ Hz) - 174 - 174 - 174 - 174 - 174 - 174 - 174
Noi se f i gure ( dB) 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
Data Rate (bps) 153600 76800 38400 19200 9600 9600 9600
Eb/No 2. 20 2. 70 3. 30 4. 00 4. 90 4. 90 6. 80
Loadi ng ( *100%) 0. 50 0. 50 0. 50 0. 50 0. 50 0. 50 0. 50
I nt erf erence Margi n
dB 3. 01 3. 01 3. 01 3. 01 3. 01 3. 01 3. 01
BS Sensi t i vi t y( dBm) - 111. 93 - 114. 44 - 116. 85 - 119. 16 - 121. 27 - 121. 27 - 119. 37
Handof f Gai n dB 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
Fadi ng Devi at i on( dB) 8 8 8 8 8 8 8
Edge Coverage
Probabi l i t y 0. 75 0. 75 0. 75 0. 75 0. 75 0. 75 0. 75
Fadi ng Margi n( dB) 5. 40 5. 40 5. 40 5. 40 5. 40 5. 40 5. 40
Max Al l owabl e Pat h Loss
( dB) 141. 23 143. 74 146. 15 148. 46 150. 57 150. 57 148. 67
Bui l di ng penet rat i on
l oss ( dB) 20 20 20 20 20 20 20
Upl i nk pat h l oss ( dB) 121.23 123.74 126.15 128.46 130.57 130.57 128.67
BS ant enna hei ght ( m) 40 40 40 40 40 40 40
MS ant enna hei ght ( m) 1. 50 1. 50 1. 50 1. 50 1. 50 1. 50 1. 50
Frequency ( MHz) 825 825 825 825 825 825 825
Hata model Terrain Correction 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1km Path Loss AdB 123. 69 123. 69 123. 69 123. 69 123. 69 123. 69 123. 69
Sl ope B 34. 41 34. 41 34. 41 34. 41 34. 41 34. 41 34. 41
Radi us of RF Coverage
( km) 0. 85 1. 00 1. 18 1. 38 1. 58 1. 58 1. 40
cdma2000 1x system 800M reverse link budget
Urban
dat a voi ce
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2 Coverage Planning of CDMA System
2. 1X EV-DO system
As a transition from CDMA2000 1X to 3G, 1X EV-DO( named HRPD in
protocol) only provides high data rate service. Due to asymmetry of data service
in forward and reverse direction, the forward link becomes the more crucial link.
Table 2-4 is the forward link budget table of 1X EV-DO sytem in 800MHz, the
receiver terminal is divided into single antenna type and dual antenna type.
The main difference between IS-95A and 1X EV-DO system are: transmit power,
demodulation signal noise ratio, multi-user diversity gain and receive diverdity
gain, soft handoff gain.
1X EV-DO system uses rate control technology, not power control technology as
in IS-95A and CDMA2000 1X, use full power transmission not part of the full
power for data channel, so the tansmit power of data channel in link budget is
much greater than in IS-95A and CDMA2000 1X, the transmit power is 20W in
the table.
1X EV-DO uses Turbo code in forward direction, the demodulation signal noise
ratio is increasing as the data rate increasing.
As to data service, the terminal can be chosen as a dual antenna one, so there
exist receiving diverdity gain; as to user data dispatch, when multi users share the
common data channel, the system can provide service for those who require high
data rate, that will improve the resource efficiency, increase the system
throughput, thus provides diversity gain.
In 1X EV-DO system, when the user is in handoff state, the terminal will select
the best link and transmits rate requirement only to the base station; the station
transmit data to the terminal; it provides selection gain, called virtual soft handoff
gain.
Table 2-4 cdma2000 HRPD system 800M forward link budget
cdma2000 HRPD system 800M forward link budget
Propagation Environment Urban
Channel Type Traffic Channel Control Channel
Receiver Terminal single antenna
dual
antenna single antenna dual antenna
average traffic(or rate)(bps) 9600 9600 38400 38400
average paroxysmal rate(bps) 67132.87 67100 N/A N/A
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Post-sales staff CDMA Network Planning course
cdma2000 HRPD system 800M forward link budget
Propagation Environment Urban
Channel Type Traffic Channel Control Channel
Receiver Terminal single antenna
dual
antenna single antenna dual antenna
service time ratio(%) 14.3 14.3 N/A N/A
bandwidth(kHz) 1228.8 1228.8 1228.8 1228.8
bandwidth(dB-Hz) 60.89 60.89 60.89 60.89
BS Tx Power(Watts) 20 20 20 20
BS Tx Power(dBm) 43.01 43.01 43.01 43.01
BS Antenna Gain(dBi) 15.7 15.7 15.7 15.7
BS jumper loss(dB) 1 1 1 1
BS feeder loss(dB/100m) 6 6 6 6
BS feeder length(m) 50 50 50 50
other loss estimate(dB) 1 1 1 1
BS antenna feeder loss(dB) 5 5 5 5
BS EIRP(dBm) 53.71 53.71 53.71 53.71
MS receiver antenna gain(dBi) 0 0 0 0
Body Loss(dB) 3 3 3 3
Noise Figure(dB) 8 8 8 8
Thermal Noise
Density(dBm/Hz) -166 -166 -166 -166
Aim PER(%) 2 2 2 2
each antenna needed Ior/No(dB) -7 -11.6 4 -8
multi-subscribers diversity gain(dB) 2 2 N/A N/A
receiver diversity gain(dB) N/A 4.6 N/A 12
MS receiver sensitivity(dBm) -112.11 -116.71 -101.11 -113.11
Log-normal normal deviation(dB) 8 8 8 8
Edge Coverage Probability 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75
Log-normal Fading Margin(dB)
(dB) 5.40 5.40 5.40 5.40
Suppositional Soft Handoff
Gain(dB) 4 4 4 4
Max Allowable Path Loss(dB) 161.42 166.02 150.42 162.42

Building Penetration Loss (dB) 20 20 20 20
Up Link Path Loss(dB) 141.42 146.02 130.42 142.42
BS Antenna Height(m) 40 40 40 40
MS Antenna Height(m) 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5
RF Central Frequency(MHz) 870 870 870 870
Hata model Terrain Correction 0 0 0 0
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2 Coverage Planning of CDMA System
cdma2000 HRPD system 800M forward link budget
Propagation Environment Urban
Channel Type Traffic Channel Control Channel
Receiver Terminal single antenna
dual
antenna single antenna dual antenna
1km Path Loss (dB) 124.31 124.31 124.31 124.31
Slope 34.41 34.41 34.41 34.41
Radius of RF Coverage(km) 3.14 4.28 1.51 3.36
As to reverse direction, 1X EV-DO adoptes CSM5500 chipset compared with
IS95, there are no other great changes in pilot assistant demodulation, handoff,
power control etc.
Table 2-5 shows the reverse link budget of 1X EV-DO system in 800MHz.
Table 2-5 cdma2000 HRPD system 800M reverse link budget
cdma2000 HRPD system 800M reverse link budget
Propagation Environment Urban
1x EV-DO IS-95-A
data rate(bps) 9600 9600
MS rating Tx Power(dBm) 23 23
MS Antenna Gain(dBi) 0 0
Body Loss(dB) 3 3
MS data channel ERP(dBm) 20 20
BS Receiver Antenna Gain(dBi) 15.70 15.70
BS jumper loss(dB) 1 1
BS feeder loss(dB/100m) 6 6
BS feeder length(m) 50 50
other loss estimate(dB) 1 1
BS antenna feeder loss(dB) 5 5
Thermal Noise Density(dBm/Hz) -174 -174
Noise Figure(dB) 5 5
Aim PER(%) 1% 1%
Eb/No 3.24 6.80
Loading 0.50 0.50
Interference Margin(dB) 3.01 3.01
BS Sensitivity(dBm) -122.93 -119.37
Handoff Gain(dB) 4 4
Fading Deviation(dB) 8 8
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Post-sales staff CDMA Network Planning course
cdma2000 HRPD system 800M reverse link budget
Propagation Environment Urban
1x EV-DO IS-95-A
data rate(bps) 9600 9600
Edge Coverage Probability 0.75 0.75
Fading Margin(dB) 5.40 5.40
Max Allowable Path Loss(dB) 152.23 148.67

Building Penetration Loss (dB) 20 20
Up Link Path Loss(dB) 132.23 128.67
BS Antenna Height(m) 40 40
MS Antenna Height(m) 1.50 1.50
RF Central Frequency(MHz) 825 825
Hata model Terrain Correction 0 0
1km Path Loss A (dB) 123.70 123.69
Slope B 34.41 34.41
Radius of RF Coverage(km) 1.77 1.40
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3 CDMA Capacity Planning
Keypoint
Know about the factors which affect CDMA capacity, master the method of capacity
planning
During network planning, we need to coinsider the capacity factor besides coverage;
i.e.the planning result should meet the requirments of both the coverage and capacity.
In this chapter, we focus on user prediction, service model and 1X capacity calculation.
3.1 Prediction of the user quantity
3.1.1 Principle of user prediction
The prediction of user quantity is an important base to determine wireless
communication construction scale, determining investment scale of engineering
construction and economic benefit after putting into production.
User quantity prediction should be based on macro development strategy of the city and
country, based on population distribution of the service area and economic development
level and prospects of different parts, thoroughly considering the need for services
according to the local economic development, and the economic bearing ability of the
users.
Its the precondition of predicting market requirement to master the development law of
cellar wireless communication and clearly realize present development stage of cellar
wireless communication.
The development of user quantity accords with the growing curve law. At the initial
stage, the increase rate is high, because the base is small despite the price is high and the
increase of absolute amount is slow. With the decrease of equipment cost, the product is
gradually accepted by the user and a fast exponential increase period is inevitable. Then
it comes to a stable stage and with an end of saturation stage. As following:
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Post-sales staff CDMA Network Planning course
Figure 3-6 Graph of time and communication prevalence rate
Analysis shows that Pakistan is predicted to be in the coming fast expansion period of
cellar wireless communication and the high increase rate is the characteristic of this
stage.
In the following several years, the main features of development environment of cellar
wireless communication are as following:
The economy develops in the continuously fast speed;
The proportion of communication payout in individual income rises gradually;
The cost of communication equipment including terminals continuously decreases;
Telecommunication charges continue to reduce;
More services kinds;
GOS of the network continues to enhance.
It can be predicted that high increase speed will continue in certain period in cellar
wireless communication marketing and then gradually go to stable development stage.
3.1.2 The method to predict user quantity
1. The way to predict user number
The following methods can be used to predict users quantity:
(1) Tendency extrapolation
Tendency extrapolation is a statistic prediction method to study the development
2
3 CDMA Capacity Planning
course of objects. When predicted object shows upward or downward tendency
with time change and no obvious season fluctuation, and a curve can be found to
indicate the change tendency, a tendency model can be built adopting time as the
independent variable and time sequence values the variables. The main advantage
is that it can open out the development future of things and estimate
quantificationally the functions and characteristics.
(2) Recursive prediction
Recursive prediction is to predict the development change of one variable based
on the other variable change. There is certain experience formula between the
two variables, which accords with the tendency distribution relationship of the
two or more variable data (such as average GPD and user number).
The number of users is greatly influenced by economic status and individual
income. If individual average GPD is used to estimate economic status, it is used
as recursive independent variable and conic is adapted to recursively predict user
number.
Conic recursive formula:
Y=0.0004x
2
-3.3587x+6825.2
Herein: x is individual average GDP of some year, Y is the user number.
(3) Popularity ratio method
Popularity ratio method to predict users combines with analogy analysis, predict
development tendency of the city by deducing analogic city development trend.
2. The way to predict population scale
The development plan of communication network should be based on population
increase and distribution in plan period. The local user development can be
predicted based on user development information of other areas with analogic
economic status.
3.2 Service Model
3.2.1 Voice Service Model
The main indexes of voice service are as follows:
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Post-sales staff CDMA Network Planning course
1. Call attempt per user in busy hour;
2. Average conversation time per call;
3. Erl per user in busy hour;
4. GOS
3.2.1.1 Attributes of voice service
1. Every call is a process of voice call setup and release;
2. The resource occupation for one conversation is unchangeable.
3.2.1.2 Call process
Call process is shown in Figure 3-7.
Figure 3-7 call process
3.2.2 Data Service Model
The obvious difference between voice and data service is as follows:
1. Definition of Erlang per subscriber: the definition is related with the proportion
of each service because there are many kinds of data service and the result is got
by statistics;
2. Call attempt: it is up to the service type and proportion;
3. Average conversation time per subscriber: it is up to the service type and
proportion;
4. The statistics way of resource occupation is different.
The function of data service model is as follows:
1. Predict data service capacity;
2. Provide the theory reference for system configuration;
3. Provide the theory reference for billing strategy;
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3 CDMA Capacity Planning
4. Provide the theory reference for serving strategy.
3.2.2.1 Attributes of Data Service
Data service has the following attributes:
1. The switch between dormant state and active state;
2. Repetitious call setups are possible for one operation;
3. Data is transmitted by the means of data burst;
4. The resource occupation, for one packet call, varies with data burst and time;
5. The attribute is different for different service type;
6. The attribute is different for different user;
7. The data transmission of FCH is continuous with the speed of 9.6kbps;
8. The data transmission of SCH is by data burst.
3.2.2.2 Setup Procedure of Data Service
The setup procedure of data service is shown as the following figure:
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Post-sales staff CDMA Network Planning course
Data service of users
Data call session (www service)
Data service of users
Data call session (E-mail service)
Click a web page
Click the next page Click the next page
Active state
Active state
Active state
Dormant state
Web page download
Web page
download
Web page download
E-mail download
Receive and send E-mail
Dormant state
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3 CDMA Capacity Planning
Figure 3-8 Setup Procedure of Data Service
3.2.2.3 1X data service requirements
1X data service requirements is related to the ratio of different rate service, ratio of
different type service, high-end subscribers and low-end subscriber ratio.
The high-end subscriber distribution is shown in Table 3-6.
Table 3-6 High-end subscriber distribution
High-end Subscribers distribution
Data service rate(kbps) CE number Ratio
9.6 1 25%
19.2 2 40%
38.4 4 30%
76.8 8 4%
153.6 16 1%
Average data service rate of high-end
subscriber (kbps) 26.21 -
Average CE number 2.73 Convert to multiple of voice traffic
Average data service rate of low-end
subscriber (kbps) 9.6 -
Average CE number 1 Convert to multiple of voice traffic
High-end Subscribers Behavior on Data Service is shown in Table 3-7.
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Post-sales staff CDMA Network Planning course
Table 3-7 Statistics of High-end Subscribers Behavior on Data Service
Statistics of High-end Subscribers Behavior on Data Service
Service Type
Informa-
tion on
Demand
WWW/WAP E_MAIL FTP VOD/AOD
E-COMM-
ERCE
OTHER
Average Use Times per Month 60 60 60 60 5 20 15
Concentration Factor of Busy Day 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% 5%
Use Times per Busy Day 3 3 3 3 0.25 1 0.75
Concentration Factor of Busy Hour 10% 10% 10% 10% 10% 10% 10%
Use Times per Busy Hour 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.025 0.1 0.075
Average Duration of Each Use (S) 120 300 15 30 300 120 60
Duty Factor 0.1 0.1 0.75 0.8 0.8 0.1 0.1
Average Actual Occupying Time during
Each Use (S) 12 30 11.25 24 240 12 6
Average Data Rate, R (bps) 26210 26210 26210 26210 26210 26210 26210
Throughput per Busy Hour (bps) 26.21 65.53 24.57 52.42 43.68 8.74 3.28
Throughput per Busy Hour [Total of All Data Services] (bps) 224.43 Value 250
Traffic (mErl) 1 2.5 0.94 2 1.67 0.33 0.13
Traffic [Total of All Data Services]
(mErl) 8.57 Value 10
Low-end Subscribers Behavior on Data Service is shown in Table 3-8.
Table 3-8 Statistics of Low-end Subscribers Behavior on Data Service
Statistics of Low-end Subscribers Behavior on Data Service
Service Type
Informa-
tion on
Demand
WWW/WAP E_MAIL FTP VOD/AOD
E-
COMMERC
E
OTHER
Average Use Times per Month 30 30 20 30 0 10 10
Concentration Factor of Busy Day 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% 5%
Use Times per Busy Day 1.5 1.5 1 1.5 0 0.5 0.5
Concentration Factor of Busy Hour 10% 12% 10% 10% 10% 10%
Use Times per Busy Hour 0.15 0.18 0.1 0.15 0 0.05 0.05
Average Duration of Each Use (S) 120 300 15 30 0 120 60
Duty Factor 0.1 0.1 0.75 0.8 0 0.1 0.1
Average Actual Occupying Time during
Each Use (S) 12 30 11.25 24 0 12 6
Average Data Rate, R (bps) 9600 9600 9600 9600 9600 9600 9600
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3 CDMA Capacity Planning
Throughput per Busy Hour (bps) 4.8 14.4 3 9.6 0 1.6 0.8
Throughput per Busy Hour [Total of All Data Services] (bps) 34.2 Value 35
Traffic (mErl) 0.5 1.5 0.31 1 0 0.17 0.08
Traffic [Total of All Data Services]
(mErl) 3.56 Value 3.5
Traffic model in busy hour is shown in Table 3-9.
Table 3-9 Traffic model in busy hour
Subscriber category Voice only Voice & Data
Subscriber Ratio 1-
Average voice traffic in busy hour per subscriber ErlEv 0.02 0.02
Average data traffic in busy hour per High-end Subscribers mErl 45.42 -
Average data traffic in busy hour per Low-end Subscribers mErl 24.17 -
Data Subscriber proportion - k
High-end Subscriber proportion - * k
Low-end Subscriber proportion - * 1-k
Capacity requirement calculation for 50,000 subscribers exchange is shown in Table 3-
10.
Table 3-10 Capacity requirement calculation for 50,000 subscribers exchange
Voice Ev(Erl) 0.02 0.02
High-end subscriber Ed(mErl) 45.42 45.42
Low-end subscriber Ed(mErl) 24.17 24.17
1 0.2
Total subscriber 50000 50000
Voice subscriber 50000 50000
Data subscriber 50000 10000
BSS voice traffic Erl 1000 1000
High-end subscriber ratio K 0.8 0.8
High-end data subscriber 40000 8000
Ligh-end data subscriber 10000 2000
High-end data traffic Erl 1816.8 363.36
High-end data traffic Erl 241.7 48.34
High-end average data rate (kbps) 26.21 26.21
Average CE number 2.73021 2.730208
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Post-sales staff CDMA Network Planning course
Low-end average data rate(kbps) 9.6 9.6
Average CE number 1 1
BSS data service unified to voice service traffic Erl 5201.94 1040.389
BSS total traffic Erl 6201.94 2040.389
3.3 Capacity calculation of CDMA2000 1X system
CDMA2000 1X system supports both voice and data services.
3.3.1 The ultimate capacity of isolated BTS
Lets see a simpler case firstly, the system supports m voice users with the rate Rv, requiring
demodulation
req V
t
b
N
E
_
) (
under FER of 1%, meanwhile there are n data users with data rate
Rd, requiring demodulation
req D
t
b
N
E
_
) (
under some FER. Supposed that terminal signal of
voice service reaches BS with power Pm and signal of data service Pd, the terminal signals of
all service types should be the same when reaching the BS if the power control is ideal, so the
total received power of BS should be:
o d m tot
N nP mP P + + (Formular 3.1)
Herein N
o
is the sum of system noise and interference from other system, and here the
voice activity factor is not concerned, change (Formular 3.1) into:
d m o tot
nP mP N P + (Formular 3.2)
1

o tot
d
o tot
m
N P
nP
N P
mP
(Formular 3.3)
For voice user,
V m tot
m
m tot
V
m
V
t
b
R
W
P P
P
W
P P
R
P
N
E

) ( (Formular 3.4)
or
V
V
t
b
m tot
m
R
W
N
E
P P
P
) (

(Formular 3.5)
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3 CDMA Capacity Planning
V
t
b
V
tot
m
N
E
R
W
P
P
) (
1
1
+

(Formular 3.6)
For data service,
D d tot
d
d tot
D
d
D
t
b
R
W
P P
P
W
P P
R
P
N
E

) ( (Formular 3.7)
or:
D
D
t
b
d tot
d
R
W
N
E
P P
P
) (

(Formular 3.8)
D
t
b
D
tot
d
N
E
R
W
P
P
) (
1
1
+

(Formular 3.9)
Now we are discussing the ultimate capacity of the system, so:
o tot
N P >> (Formular 3.10)
And
tot o tot
P N P (Formular 3.11)
Simplify (Formular 3.3) into:
1 +
tot
d
tot
m
P
P
n
P
P
m
(Formular 3.12)
Take (Formular 3.6) and (Formular 3.9) into (Formular 3.12):
1
1
) (
1
) (
_ _

+
+
+
req D
t
b
D
req V
t
b
V
a
N
E
R
W
n
N
E
R
W
V
(Formular 3.13)
Concerning voice activity factor Va in (Formular 3.13), then:
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Post-sales staff CDMA Network Planning course
1
1
) (
1
) (
_ _

+
+
+
req D
t
b
D
req V
t
b
V
a
N
E
R
W
n
N
E
R
W
mV
(Formular 3.14)
If there are many types of data services, then the ultimate capacity formula should be:
1
1
) (
1
) (
_ _
_
_

+
+
+

i req D
t
b
i D
i
i
req V
t
b
V
a
N
E
R
W
n
N
E
R
W
mV
(Formular 3.15)
3.3.2 BS capacity in cellar system
BS in the cellar system will receive interference from other surrounding BS, so the
capacity will decrease compared with the isolated island case. The impact from
surrounding BS is decided by network planning result. Well-designed network planning
will greatly reduce mutual impact from other BS in the system, improving the capacity of
the whole system.
The impact from other surrounding BS is related to practical wireless environment,
denoted by a factor f, which is the percentage of interference from other cell of the
interference from the BS itself just as in IS95 system. If I
sc
is used to indicate the
interference from the BS itself, I
oc
is the interference from other cells, then:
sc oc
I f I (Formular 3.16)
Therefore,
sc sc oc tot
I f I I P ) 1 ( + + (Formular 3.17)
Obtain capacity formula in cellar system, adopting similar derivation process to isolated
BS condition:
f
loading
N
E
R
W
n
N
E
R
W
mV
i
i req D
t
b
i D
i
req V
t
b
V
a
+

+
+
+

1
1
) (
1
) (
_ _
_
_
(Formular 3.18)
In omni cellar BS group, if the users are distributed uniformly, the f value is 60% or so in
theory. ZX3G 1X system greatly improves the system capacity through enhancing air
12
3 CDMA Capacity Planning
interface performance; by adding reverse link pilot, supporting reverse link correlative
demodulation, effectively reduce required signal noise ratio for demodulation; changing
forward link BPSK into QPSK and adding forward link fast power control enhance the
forward link capacity. The following formula can be used to indicate channel number
supported simultaneously by each cell of ZX3G 1X system:
f
Loading
N
E
R
W
n
N
E
R
W
mV
i
i req D
t
b
i D
i
req V
t
b
V
a
+

+
+
+

1
1
) (
1
) (
_ _
_
_
(Formular 3.19)
Herein:
- m: voice channel number;
- V
a
: voice activity factor;
- W/R: spreading gain;
- i: all the possible data service types;
- n: the number of data service channels of same type;
- f: the ratio of interference from other cells to interference from the cell itself;
- Loading: the designed load of the system.
3.4 EV-DO capacity planning
The "capacity" here implies two aspects: subscriber quantity and throughput. And In this
paper, the "throughput" specially means the data flow on the physical layer; if it needs to
be converted to the throughput on the application layer, the conversion can be conducted
according to the formula below:
Throughput on application layer = Data rate on physical layer 80%
3.4.1 Active Subscribers Quantity per Sector
In EV-DO system, being restricted by the count of preamble of forward traffic channel
(MACindex), the maximum active subscriber quantity per sector is 59 theoretically. In
the early 2005, ZTE Corporation achieved 59 users with data downloading
simultaneously in one sector in practice tests, verifying the exact match of practical
situation with the theoretical result.
In the common commercial network, there are more considerations, such as QoS, system
stability, configuring features of channel board, etc. so it is recommended that the
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Post-sales staff CDMA Network Planning course
maximum active subscriber quantity per sector is set to 30 or so.
3.4.2 Recommended Sector Throughput
According to the theoretical calculation and practice testing result, we recommend that in
normal cellular environment the sector forward throughput is 1.4 Mbps, and the sector
reverse throughput is 500 kbps.
3.4.3 Analysis on Sector Reverse Throughput
In the EV-DO system, all subscribers share the same frequency band; hence on the
reverse link, when the terminal does not have enough power to overcome the
interference from other users, the network attains its maximum reverse capacity.
3.4.3.1 Reverse Throughput of single Sector
For the sake of simplicity, consider the EV-DO system capacity of single cell first.
Suppose that the system can support up to n active data subscribers, the data rate is RD,
and under the specified PER, the required demodulation threshold is
req D
t
b
N
E
_
) (
, where,
Eb/Nt is the ratio of energy per bit to noise spectral density, and it is the demodulation
threshold on the BTS side. Suppose that the power strength of data traffic signal of
terminal is Pd when it arrives at the BTS side; and under the ideal reverse power control
condition, the strengths of all users signals are the same when they arrive at the BTS
side, so the BTS's total received power is:
o d tot
N nP P + (Formular 3.20)
Where, No is the thermal noise. Suppose all the users have the same data rate, omitting
the thermal noise, it can be deduced from the equation (Formular 3.19) the formula about
the capacity:
1
1
) (
_

+
req D
t
b
D
N
E
R
W
n
(Formular 3.21)
Where,
W: frequency bandwidth, 1.2288MHz;
14
3 CDMA Capacity Planning
R
D
: data service rate, such as 9.6kbps, 19.2kbps 153.6kbps;

req D
t
b
N
E
_
) (
: Demodulation threshold of BTS side; it varies with data rates, channel
environments and PERs
In some specified moving channel environment and with the 2% PER demand, the
demodulation threshold can be measured out in the laboratory. Using this threshold and
the Formular 3.21, it can be calculated the maximum subscriber quantities at different
data rates and then the maximum sector reverse throughputs at different data rates, as
shown in Table 3-11:
Table 3-11 Reverse Throughput Calculation of single Sector
Reverse Data Rate (kbps)
Channel:30km/h, 1path, 2Antenna, 800MHz
Eb/Nt(dB)
Max. Subscriber
Quantity
Total Throughput of
Reverse Sector (kbps)
9.6 3.67 56.0 537
19.2 2.66 35.7 685
38.4 1.75 22.4 859
76.8 2.24 10.5 810
153.6 5.23 3.4 522
In real cases, subscribers do not have the same data rates, meanwhile, the radio channel
environment differs from that in the table (for example most of users stay in the
stationary environment), and therefore the practical reverse throughput of single sector is
different from its theoretical calculation. But tests show that the difference between them
is not big.
3.4.3.2 Cellualr sector reverse throughput
In the commercial cellular network, there also exist interferences from surrounding
sectors, so the capacity in this case is obviously less than that of single sector. Suppose
that the ratio of adjacent cells' interference to local cell interference is f, and then the
Formular 3.21 can be transmitted into:
15
Post-sales staff CDMA Network Planning course
f
N
E
R
W
n
req D
t
b
D
+

+
1
1
1
) (
_
(Formular 3.22)
For example, an omni cell, its interference factor is f=0.6, then the calculation of the
reverse sector throughput is like follows:
Table 3-12 Reverse Throughput Calculation of Cellular Sector
Reverse Data Rate (kbps)
Channel:30km/h, 1path, 2Antenna, 800MHz
Eb/Nt(dB)
Max. Subscriber
Quantity
Total Throughput of
Reverse Sector (kbps)
9.6 3.67 36 346
19.2 2.66 22.3 428
38.4 1.75 14 538
76.8 2.24 6.6 507
153.6 5.23 2.1 323
3.4.4 Sector forward throughput
The sector forward throughput of EV-DO is mainly influenced by such factors:
1. Forward scheduling algorithm;
2. The geographic distribution of subscribers in the sector; under the cellular
condition, it can be considered that the sector coverage area shrinks to some
extent;
3. Radio channel condition (including the velocity of mobile terminal)
4. Terminal type (single- or dual-antenna terminal and terminal model).
3.4.4.1 Forward Scheduling Algorithm
On the EV-DO forward link, it is time division multiplex. The multiplexing mode is
mainly controlled by the forward scheduling algorithm, so the algorithm has a great
effect on the forward throughput. Currently, the widely used algorithm is the proportional
fair scheduler developed by the Qualcomm Company. Here we will briefly introduce this
algorithm.
Suppose that there are multiple users in the system, in the time slot n, each subscriber k
16
3 CDMA Capacity Planning
maintains a scheduling variable T
k
[n] that reflects the average throughput; the data rate
applied for by the subscriber k is DRC
k
[n]. Whenever transmitting a new packet, the
scheduler conducts the following two steps:
1. Taking the ratio of
DRC
k
[n]/T
k
[n] (Formular 3.23)
as the criterion, select the subscriber with the largest ratio as the user to be served
in this time slot;
2. According to the following formula, update the T
k
[n],
] [
1
] [
1
1 ] 1 [ n S
t
n T
t
n T
k
c
k
c
k

,
_

,
_

+ (Formular 3.24)
S
k
[n] =l
k
[n]*N
k
[n]
Where, t
c
=1024 time slots
If l
k
[n] is the time slot length occupied by the packet scheduled the last time slot,
and its rate is N
k
[n];
If the subscriber k was not scheduled in the last time slot, then S
k
[n] = 0.
Here is the flow chart of the algorithm:
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Post-sales staff CDMA Network Planning course
Figure 3-9 Flow Chart of Forward Scheduling Algorithm
3.4.4.2 Features and Expectations of Forward Sector Throughput
According to the simulated result based on above algorithm, we obtain the main features
about the forward sector throughput:
1. When multiple subscribers are simultaneously downloading and the duration is
18
3 CDMA Capacity Planning
long enough, slots serving for each subscriber appear a trend of even allocation,
which makes the accumulated subscriber's throughput be in direct proportion to
the data rate applied by the subscriber DRC;
2. When using this scheduling algorithm, the total forward sector throughput is
mainly determined by subscribers' geographic distribution in sector;
3. Considering that subscribers are stationary, when they assemble in the near-cell
areas, the forward sector throughput is expected to attain about 2 Mbps; when
subscribers are distributed evenly in the sector, the forward sector throughput is
expected to be 0.8~1.4Mbps, and when subscribers gather in the far-cell area, the
expected throughput is 300~600 kbps.
The practical tests show that the real forward sector throughput is very close to the above
simulated values.
3.4.5 Simplified EV-DO Data Traffic Model
We have discussed the ultimate quantity of active subscribers, and forward/reverse
throughputs of air interface in the previous contents. Now we will discuss the simplified
EV-DO data traffic model, which will be taken as the criterion on calculating the network
capacity configuration.
The simplified data traffic model does not distinguish all kinds of packet data traffic
applications such as website viewing, e-mail, web chatting, etc, but looks them as an
integration. This is because that whatever types of the data traffic are they basically
belong to the packet traffic and accord with the fundamental features of packet data
traffic. The model only describes the scale and average indexes of the system packet data
traffic, so we can make a macroscopical statistics of all kinds of packet data traffic. This
model simplifies the complex situations and has great practicability.
A session is a process during which the user logs on the network and completes his
conversation, i.e. the process from the user' logging on to his logging off. A session may
include multiple active and dormant states; each active state further contains multiple
sub-states including Data Transfer state with data reception/transmission and Tad state
without data reception/ transmission. The significance of the Tad state is to let the system
regularly release the resources occupied by the subscriber who has not used the network
for a long time, which is beneficial for improving the system utilization. The Maximum
duration of the Tad state depends upon the parameter set on OMC, where it can be
19
Post-sales staff CDMA Network Planning course
modified.
Following figure shows one session process of a subscriber who experiences only two
Active states before logging off.
Figure 3-10 Session in the Data Service
It should be noted that when the terminal is in Active state, it occupies air interface and
CE resource of the sector, if it stays in Dormant or Idle state, no resource occupation
occurs. Therefore, the key factor influencing the system throughput and capacity is the
user's behavior in Active state.
Here we present a simplified traffic model of EV-DO, same as EV-DO Release 0, which
describes macroscopically the requirements of packet data traffic subscriber and his
behavior features. Parameters in the model are all set default values, which should be
revised or adjusted in practical case according to the customer's demands or local real
situations.
Table 3-13 A Simplified Data Traffic Model of EV-DO
ID Parameter Unit Default
Description/
Relationship
Input/Output
B Quantity of Packet Data User - -
Subscriber quantity to be
number-allocated:
provided by customer's
prediction
Input
D Average Session Duration s 300
Average duration
between user's logging in
Recommend as
input
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3 CDMA Capacity Planning
ID Parameter Unit Default
Description/
Relationship
Input/Output
and logging off: user
habit
G Active Ratio in One Session % 40%
Ratio of Active state
when on line, the
remaining is Dormant
state ratio: user habit
Recommend as
input
H Busy Hour Sessions per Subscriber - 0.3
Network use frequency of
subscriber
Recommend as
input
C Average Size kByte 1200
Average total data
throughput in one
session, including
forward and reverse
links: user habit
Recommend as
input
I
Data Service Ratio of Uplink and
Downlink (R1:R2)
- 1:4
Ratio of user's uploading
throughput to
downloading throughput:
user habit
Input
S Soft Handoff Ratio % 35%
It is related to the
network layout.
Input
E
Percentage of on-line Packet Data
Users
% 3%
Percentage of on-line
subscribers (including
Active and Dormant) in
total subscribers
D*H/3600
Recommend as
output
Vf
Average Active Forward
Throughput
kbps 64
Average throughput of
active forward link C*8/
(D*G)*(R2/(R1+R2))
Recommend as
output
Vr
Average Active Reverse
Throughput
kbps 16
Average throughput of
active reverse link C*8/
(D*G)*(R1/(R1+R2))
Recommend as
output
In this model, parameters such as Vf, Vr and E are not independent variables, which can
be calculated from other parameters. In general, it is recommended to input C, D, G and
I, and output Vf and Vr.
Most of data service can use this data traffic model, but for some special service, such as
VoIP, the voice traffic model may be more suitable. Here we recommend that the sector
quantity needed can be calculated separately for each different service, and sum of them
is the planning result meeting the capacity requirement.
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Post-sales staff CDMA Network Planning course
3.5 Planning case
The case described below is in H district of S city, we take it as an example for
introducing the working processes in the stage of network planning.
3.5.1 Coverage object
H district is located at longitude 114

26 E and latitude 22

33 N. It has nine
administrative villages, namely: Liuyue, Henggang, Silian, Anliang, Xikeng, Dakang,
Baoan, Heao, and Huanggekeng, and 1 residental committee, totaling 52 natural
villages; and the H district have an area of 81.2 square km.
H district has a hilly topography. It is mainly composed of hills (54.3%), bench terrace,
and alluvial plains (13.4%). The plains primarily cover the stripe of land north to Xu
Town and along the Shenhui Highway as well as the areas around Anliang and Xikeng,
with an average height of 40~60m. The western and southern parts are mainly bench
terrace. The Shizishi district in the south and the Yuanshan Mountain in the east are
mainly elevated hills with a height of 300~500m.
H district is an important transportation hub in eastern S city. The Shenhui first-rate
highway runs through the town, Huiyan port dispersion freeway and Jihe freeway have
already opened for service, and the Pingyan port dispersion railroad runs through the
town from the north to south. The town proper has a very convenient transportation
network, with the main and secondary trunk roads and tributaries totaling over 90 km in
length.
Some of the areas in H district have very-dense population distribution, and a very rough
and complex topography. Therefore the field test should be conducted.
The population of H district totals 400,000~500,000, among which, 20,000~30,000 are
local residents. The central areas of the town are located in Liuyue, Henggang, and
Silian. The Town government, hotels, key shopping centers, high-grade estates, leisure
plazas, places of entertainment all scatter in the central areas. The peoples income level
of the area is relatively high and thus the area should to be covered as the focus area, and
traffic load sharing should be given consideration; the area north to Henggang Village
and Baoan, Heao, Dakang are mainly industrial zones with large-scale low factories
and migrating workers. The migrating workers are a very large group of potential
subscribers, but because they have a relatively low income level, the major target of
network building should focus on the coverage scope at the early stage; Anliang, Xikeng,
22
3 CDMA Capacity Planning
and Huanggekeng are predominately rural areas and have relatively few industrial zones,
and the population density and income level are both low, therefore, the major target in
these areas also focus on the coverage scope.
The network building in this phase consentrates along the Shenhui Highway,
guaranteeing the coverage in central areas, namely, Liuyue, Henggang, and Silian, and
the high-grade estates. The key covered areas are shown in Figure 3-11. Cover the roads
of Shenhui Highway and Jihe Freeway as key areas, guaranteeing the continuous
coverage of the joining area of the two roads in Henggang.

Henggang Law Court
189 Industrial Zone
Silian Villager Committee
New World Plaza
Huaxi Village
Town Government
Tangkeng Villager Committee
Liuyue China Telecom
Equipment Building
Kangle Garden
Figure 3-11 Coverage area and key covered areas in H district
3.5.2 Project requirements
In the urban areas, it is not allowed to build iron towers. So the antenna height can only
be increased by the ways of antenna pale or rack.
The site should be close to the transmission access point as much as possible.
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Post-sales staff CDMA Network Planning course
3.5.3 Link budget
Lingk budget model of 1.9GHz is derived from corrected model according to practical
environement based on standard COST231model. Link budget can only predict base
station coverage approximately, the real coverage shloud be obtained by testing. During
network optimization, it is necessary to adjust the antenna height, downtilt angle and
transmit power to meet coverage requirements of every BTS.
Table 3-14 is the reverse link budget result for 1.9GHz system.
Table 3-14 Reverse link budget result
Parameter Ban Tian Long Hhua Lian Tang
MS Nominal Tx Power(dBm) (dBm) 23.00 23.00 23.00
MS Antenna Gain(dBi) 0.00 0.00 0.00
Body /Vehical Loss(dB) 3.00 3.00 3.00
MS ERP(dBm) 20.00 20.00 20.00
BS Antenna Gain(dBi) 17.10 17.10 17.10
BS Jumper Cable Loss (dB) 1.00 1.00 1.00
BS Feeder Loss(dB/100m) 6.00 6.00 6.00
BS Feeder Length(m) 50.00 50.00 50.00
Other Loss (dB) 1.00 1.00 1.00
BS Antenna& Feeder Loss (dB) 5.00 5.00 5.00
Thermal Noise Density(dBm/Hz) -174.00 -174.00 -174.00
Data Rate (bps) 9600.00 9600.00 9600.00
Noise Figure(dB) 5.00 5.00 5.00
Eb/No 7.00 7.00 7.00
Loading 0.50 0.50 0.50
Interference Margin(dB) 3.01 3.01 3.01
BS Sensitivity (dBm) -119.17 -119.17 -119.17
Soft Handoff Gain(dB) 4.00 4.00 4.00
Fading Deviation (dB) 8.00 8.00 8.00
Edge Coverage Probability 0.75 0.75 0.75
Fading Margin(dB) 5.40 5.40 5.40
Max Allowable Path Loss(dB) 149.87 149.87 149.87
Building Penetration Loss (dB) 28 28.00 28
Up Link Path Loss(dB) 119.87 121.87 122.87
BS Height(m) 30.00 30.00 30.00
MS Height(m) 1.50 1.50 1.50
Frequency (MHz) 1975.00 1975.00 1975.00
A(dB) 12.26 45.80 16.87
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3 CDMA Capacity Planning
Parameter Ban Tian Long Hhua Lian Tang
B 40.52 30.24 39.10
Radius of BS Coverage (m) 452.24 327.40 513.59
3.5.4 Capacity requirement
At present, the number of the fixed telephone in H Branch is near 50,000 lines, which are
located at 21 access points, two of the access points are overlapping bureau, one access
points is not working. The amount of telephone subscribers of each point is shown in
Table 3-15.
Table 3-15 Names of access points and the number of allocated telephone in Henggang Branch Bureau
No. Access Point
Number of
Allocated
Telephone
subscribers
No. Access Point
Number of
Allocated
Telephone
subscribers
1
Liuyue China Telecom
Equipment Building
8638 2
Henggang China Telecom
Equipment Building
8457
3 New World Plaza 2124 4 Huaxi Village 1526
5 Silian Villager Committee 5309 6 Kangle Garden 511
7 Town Government 1268 8 Tangkeng Villager Committee 1305
9 Longsheng Garden 846 10 Anliang 2782
11 Dakang 3052 12 Xikeng 1823
13 Henggang Law Court 1659 14 Heao 1095
15 Aobei 2432 16 Dafu 1691
17 Baoan 1630 18 189 Industrial Zone 1350
19 Shenkeng Village Not open
3.5.5 Solution
Solution to the above coverage and capacity requirements is shown in Table 3-16.
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Post-sales staff CDMA Network Planning course
Table 3-16 Solution to coverage
No. Site Sector
Site
type
Longitude Latitude
Antenna
type
Antenna
height
Sector
direction
Downtilt
angle
Coverage
radius
1
Henggang
Equipment
Building
a S111 114.205972 22.647694 65 30 0 4 0.5
1
Henggang
Equipment
Building
b S111 114.205972 22.647694 65 35 120 1 1
1
Henggang
Equipment
Building
g S111 114.205972 22.647694 65 35 250 1 1
2
Town
Government
a S111 114.193417 22.645806 65 36 0 3 0.6
2
Town
Government
b S111 114.193417 22.645806 65 36 110 1 1.5
2
Town
Government
g S111 114.193417 22.645806 65 36 220 3 0.6
3
Liuyue
Equipment
Building
a S111 114.187250 22.639583 65 35 0 2 0.8
3
Liuyue
Equipment
Building
b S111 114.187250 22.639583 65 35 120 0 1
3
Liuyue
Equipment
Building
g S111 114.187250 22.639583 65 35 240 0 1
4
Shenkeng
Village
a S111 114.171167 22.638444 65 26 120 0 1
4
Shenkeng
Village
b S111 114.171167 22.638444 65 26 240 0 1
4
Shenkeng
Village
g S111 114.171167 22.638444 65 26 340 0 1
5
Kangle
Road
a S111 114.183570 22.647570 65 26 0 0 1
5
Kangle
Road
b S111 114.183570 22.647570 65 26 100 3 0.6
5
Kangle
Road
g S111 114.183570 22.647570 65 26 220 0 1
6
Paibang
Road
a S111 114.192250 22.656806 90 26 0 0 1
26
3 CDMA Capacity Planning
No. Site Sector
Site
type
Longitude Latitude
Antenna
type
Antenna
height
Sector
direction
Downtilt
angle
Coverage
radius
6
Paibang
Road
b S111 114.192250 22.656806 65 26 120 4 0.5
6
Paibang
Road
g S111 114.192250 22.656806 65 26 240 2 0.8
7
Datang New
Village
a S111 114.199500 22.653167 65 26 0 4 0.5
7
Datang New
Village
b S111 114.199500 22.653167 65 26 120 4 0.5
7
Datang New
Village
g S111 114.199500 22.653167 65 26 240 4 0.5
8
Dalong bag
factory
a S111 114.204667 22.654778 65 26 0 4 0.5
8
Dalong bag
factory
b S111 114.204667 22.654778 65 26 120 0 1
8
Dalong bag
factory
g S111 114.204667 22.654778 65 26 240 4 0.5
9
Guangda
Road
a S111 114.204510 22.659510 90 26 0 0 1
9
Guangda
Road
b S111 114.204510 22.659510 65 26 120 0 1
9
Guangda
Road
g S111 114.204510 22.659510 65 26 240 4 0.6
10
Xin
Quansheng
Seafood
Restaurant
a S111 114.212940 22.662670 65 27 40 0 1
10
Xin
Quansheng
Seafood
Restaurant
b S111 114.212940 22.662670 65 27 120 0 1
10
Xin
Quansheng
Seafood
Restaurant
g S111 114.212940 22.662670 65 27 230 4 0.6
11 992 Factory a S111 114.208611 22.670444 90 26 80 0 1
11 992 Factory b S111 114.208611 22.670444 90 26 200 0 1
11 992 Factory g S111 114.208611 22.670444 90 26 320 0 1
12
Heao Police
Station
a S111 114.222694 22.678389 65 23 0 0 1
12 Heao Police b S111 114.222694 22.678389 65 23 110 0 1
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Post-sales staff CDMA Network Planning course
No. Site Sector
Site
type
Longitude Latitude
Antenna
type
Antenna
height
Sector
direction
Downtilt
angle
Coverage
radius
Station
12
Heao Police
Station
g S111 114.222694 22.678389 65 23 240 0 1
13
Yuanshan
Garden
a O1 114.241163 22.642345 360 20 360 0 1
14
Dafeng
Village
a S111 114.236480 22.648650 90 23 0 0 1
14
Dafeng
Village
b S111 114.236480 22.648650 90 23 120 0 1
14
Dafeng
Village
g S111 114.236480 22.648650 90 23 240 0 1
15
East City-
loop Road of
Shangzhong
Village
a S111 114.221900 22.646970 65 26 60 0 1
15
East City-
loop Road of
Shangzhong
Village
b S111 114.221900 22.646970 65 26 200 0 1
15
East City-
loop Road of
Shangzhong
Village
g S111 114.221900 22.646970 65 26 300 0 1
17
Anliang
Villager
Committee
a S111 114.214028 22.632889 65 23 50 0 1
17
Anliang
Villager
Committee
b S111 114.214028 22.632889 65 23 160 2 0.8
17
Anliang
Villager
Committee
g S111 114.214028 22.632889 65 23 310 0 1
18
North
Baotong
Road
No.102
a S111 114.217940 22.621640 90 17 5 2 0.8
18
North
Baotong
Road
No.102
b S111 114.217940 22.621640 63 17 130 0 1
28
3 CDMA Capacity Planning
No. Site Sector
Site
type
Longitude Latitude
Antenna
type
Antenna
height
Sector
direction
Downtilt
angle
Coverage
radius
18
North
Baotong
Road
No.102
g S111 114.217940 22.621640 63 17 215 0 1
21
Heao Road
No.70
a S111 114.217970 22.684410 90 23 0 0 1
21
Heao Road
No.70
b S111 114.217970 22.684410 90 23 120 0 1
21
Heao Road
No.70
g S111 114.217970 22.684410 90 23 240 0 1
22
Jihe
Highway1
a S110 114.196150 22.676540 90 10 60 0 1
22
Jihe
Highway1
b S110 114.196150 22.676540 90 10 240 0 1.5
23
Jihe
Highway2
a S110 114.177410 22.655600 90 10 60 1.5
23
Jihe
Highway2
b S110 114.177410 22.655600 90 10 270 1.5
24
Henggang
High
School
a S110 114.221417 22.660389 65 26 60 0 0.7
24
Henggang
High School
b S110 114.221417 22.660389 65 26 240 0 1
24
Henggang
High School
g S110 114.221417 22.660389 65 26 320 0 1
25
Rongmei
School
a S110 114.226250 22.635430 65 25 45 0 1
25
Rongmei
School
b S110 114.226250 22.635430 65 25 230 0 1
25
Rongmei
School
g S110 114.226250 22.635430 65 25 340 0 1
26
Henggang
Primary
School
a S110 114.207100 22.639630 65 26 0 0 0.6
26
Henggang
Primary
School
b S110 114.207100 22.639630 65 26 120 0 0.6
29
4 Site Survey and Planning
Keypoint
Familiar with the meaning and value of different parameter in link budget
4.1 Overview
It can be seen from the network planning procedure that many principles should be
followed during the network planning.
The position of site survey in network planning is shown in Figure 4-12.
Project
Pre-research
Requirement
Analysis
Available sites
survey
? ? ? ?
Network
Evaluation
Wireless
Environment
Test
Network
Topology
Design
Planned Sites
Survey
Simulation
Design Report
Submitted
PN Design
&Neighbor
List Configure
Procedure
Simplify
&Project Plan
Design Result
Report
Figure 4-12 Position of site survey in network planning
4.2 Introduction of site survey
Network planning deals with available sites survey and planned sites survey. The
available sites information can be gotten from communication with the operator; planned
sites information can be obtained during site planning stage.
The operator provided sites survey is not always done during available sites survey stage,
we can determine whether survey is needed for part or all the available sites based on
project managers knowledge of the planned environment. It is possible that we just
make survey of some important sites, as the base of network topology, the other available
sites are left for determine whether need survey during planned sites survey stage. The
1
Post-sales staff CDMA Network Planning course
available sites provided by operator which meet the network topology requirements will
be set as the primary sites during planned sites survey stage.
In village/road network planning stage, the available sites may be dispersedly, so it is
difficult to make a survey of all the sites. The project manager can design the network
topology base on the distribution of the available sites according to the detailed situation.
Other sites can be selected only when all the available sites are not suitable.
4.3 Site Selecting Principles
Before conducting the site survey during the network planning, it needs to select
appropriate sites among the sites provided by the customer and those planned sites. Here
are the basic requirements for qualified sites:
1. Orientation: there should be no obvious barrier, which may result in coverage
failure in some areas;
2. Height: at the station of urban area, the antenna height should be 10-15 meters
higher than surrounding buildings (in very densely urban area, the antenna height
can be about 10 meters higher); in suburb, the antenna height is over 15 meters
higher, whose height is determined according to the required coverage range; in
terms of the planned site station, the height of surrounding buildings must not
over 1.3 times than that of the planned antenna height;
3. Interference: avoid interference with other network systems; select the sites
where there is no interference or the problem of existing interference can be
solved;
4. GPS: the solid angle should be over 90 degree (the part of the surface area of the
celestial body that can be seen from the GPS location should account for no less
than one fourth of the whole surface area, i.e. it should be no less than R
2
, as
the surface area of a sphere equals to 4R
2
);
5. Antenna feeder: there is enough space for installing the antenna and feeder on top
of the building /tower;
6. Basic conditions: equipment room should be available; the transmission and
power supply must be manageable;
7. Site location: the distance between the actual location and the planned location of
the site station can not exceed one fourth coverage radius.
2
4 Site Survey and Planning
The above requirements can be reached by adjusting the parameters, for example, when
the antenna height is not enough, it can be mended by building a tower and heightening
the mount or pole; if there exist barriers in some direction, the sector in this direction can
be cancelled under the condition that the network topology will not be affected; etc.
Below, we will discuss the first three requirements in detail.
4.3.1 No Obvious Barrier Directly Opposite Sector
Barriers have great influence on the coverage. They may result in such problems: in the
back area of the barrier a shadow always occurs, which easily produces blind coverage
area; the signal is easily reflected by barriers, which will bring pilot pollution to the
opposite direction, and so on.
It is inevitable that there are buildings around a site. The buildings blocking effect on the
site is related to three parameters: beamwidth, the distance from the antenna main lobe to
the building, and the building size (width or height).
It can be judged whether there exists serious interference through the following simple
standards:
1. To a relatively large building, the judging standard for serious barrier is
whether the whole antenna main lobe is obstacled. Currently, the common
antennas have large horizontal beamwidth and small vertical beamwidth (i.e.
vertical lobe angle). Thus, the vertical beam is more likely to be blocked.
Suppose, the vertical lobe angle is , the building is H meters higher than the
antenna and the distance between the building and the site is L, then in order to
avoid the obstacle in the vertical direction, L should satisfy the condition of
L>H/tg(/2).
For example: If the vertical lobe angle is 7, and the height difference is 20
meters, then the distance should be L>330 meters.
2. For a relatively small barrier, to avoid serious obstacle, the distance from the
barrier to the site should meet:
L > 2**(180/(*))
2
: wavelength.
For example:
f = 800M: = 7 L > 50 m; = 16 L > 10 m;
f = 1900M: = 7 L > 22 m; = 16 L > 5 m.
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4.3.2 Requirement for Site Height
In order to satisfy the coverage requirement, there is certain requirements for the antenna
height: to the site in urban area, the antenna height should be 10-15 meters higher than
surrounding buildings (in very densely urban area, the antenna height can be about 10
meters higher); to stations in suburb and country, the antenna height should be over 15
meters higher than surrounding buildings and its height is determined according to the
required coverage range;
If the antenna is too high, for example, in urban area, when the antenna height is more
than 20 meters higher than the average height of surrounding buildings, it maybe occurs
that the signal radiation covers too large and thus produces interference to the
neighboringing sites; if the antenna height is more than 60 meters, a blind area may
appear near the antenna or the indoor scope near the base station. In practical case, the
blind areas near the antenna ever occurred due to over-high antenna, which is at last
solved by lowering the antenna height (moving the antenna from the tower down to the
building top or changing the site location (to avoid over-high building).
If the antenna is too low, for example, in suburb, when the antenna height is less 10
meters than the average height of the surrounding, the coverage maybe is too small and
can not meet the requirements. Generally this problem can be solved by heightening the
antenna such as heighting the pole, mount or rack; but one thing must be guaranteed, that
is, the site station must possess the bearing ability for antenna heightening. For example,
if the site building does not belong to framework structure (which is a kind of building
constructing method, generally, build the framework with reinforcing steel bars and
concrete first, then build the non-load bearing walls on the basis of the framework), then
the tower can not be built definitely on it.
To the planned sites, it is required that the available antenna height should be close to its
planned height. If the building can be heightened, then the current antenna height can be
lower than the planned height; but note that the building height can not be 30% higher
than the planned height, because under this condition, it is hard to control the antenna
height which thus results in the over-large coverage. If there is a tower on the building
top, the planned height should better be between the heights of building top and the
tower top platform.
As for some very low sites required by the customers, such as the customers equipment
building where the transmission and power supply are provided, the building can be used
as a site if it satisfys the conditions of without obvious barrier and with bearing ability,
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4 Site Survey and Planning
ect, and the antenna height requirement can be met through heightening the pole or
mount, tower, etc.
4.3.3 Avoiding Mutual Interference with Other Systems
The CDMA system may interfere in other systems and can receive the interference from
other systems. This problem should be taken into consideration during the network
planning.
To different wireless systems whose frequency bands overlap, there must be mutual
interference between them. For 450M CDMA system, this problem often occurs and can
be solved only by clearing the overlapping frequencies. Neighboringing frequencies may
also cause interference as outband suppression capability of the transmitting system is
limited. In this case, the interference can be avoided through isolation.
This problem also exists in the 450MHz CDMA system, the interference can be avoided
only after eliminating the overlapped signals. To the case that the systems possess similar
frequency bands, the interference also occurs since the out-of-band suppressing ability of
the transmit system is limited, we can reduce the interference strength through
separation.
In terms of the system whose receiving frequency band is close to the CDMAs, CDMA
system has a great chance to interfere in the other systems signal receiving, for example,
800-MHz CDMA system may affect 900-MHz GSM system. On the other hand, a
system whose transmitting frequency is close to the CDMAs reverse receiving frequency
band may affect the receiving function of the CDMA system (the bottom noise level is
raised), for example, 1.9-GHz CDMA system may be affected by 1.8-GHz GSM system.
If the CDMA system needs to share a site with GSM network, it is necessary to reduce
the interference by taking all kinds of seperating methods. Signal intensity of receiving
signal=transmitting power+gain at transmitting end+gain at receiving end-path loss. Try
to minimum the value of (gain at transmitting end+ gain at receiving end ); to an antenna,
the gains of its upper, lower, and back lobes are relatively small, so it is better to make
the antennas of the two systems be up and down respectively or make them in the same
plane. If the two antennas are in the upper and lower parts of the pole simultaneously,
considering that an antenna will always have a downtilt, try to set the antenna at the
lower part of the pole, thus antenna downtilt can reduce the interference.
To one 1.9-GHz CDMA system and one 1.8-GHz system, the mutual interference can be
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solved through horizontal or vertical isolation. However, as the out-of-band suppressing
capability of the GSM system is unknown, we can not calculate the specific isolation
distance.
Likewise, horizontal or vertical isolation can also be used to reduce the interference
between 800-MHz CDMA system and 900-MHz GSM system.
Besides, to one CDMA system, it should also be taken into account of the isolation
between CDMA and other wireless equipment whose frequency is close to the CDMA
system. The base station should not be set near the devices such as large power station,
paging and microwave devices with similar frequencies.
Specific isolation requirements can only be worked out after information incluing
frequenchy points, out-of-band suppressing capability, etc. has been obtained.
4.4 Planned sites survey and selection
The requirements for planned sites are:
1. There should no apparent obstruction in front of a sector, make sure the planned
direction is available;
2. The antenna height must be 10m~15m higher than ambient buiding for urban
sites, as to suburb and village, the antenna height must be 15m higher than
ambient buiding; the buiding height must not be 1.3 multiple higher than the
planned site height.
3. Select sites with no co-interference, avoid affecting other sites.
4. The distance between the site position and the planned site should not go beyond
1/4 coverage.
5. GPS solid angle must not less than 90 degree.
6. There is enough position for antenna installation on top of building and tower.
7. The equipment room is available.
4.4.1 No Serious Obstruction in front of a Site
Obstruction can affect the coverage greatly as follows: A shade area tends to form behind
the obstacle, and it is difficult to cover this area. Reflections to the signals tend to occur,
thus affecting the coverage of the reverse direction and leading to problems such as pilot
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4 Site Survey and Planning
pollution.
Make sure to provide suitable installation position for antenna on the planned site, there
are no serious obstruction in main lobe direction. The site sector direction setting plays a
great influence on coverage of the area around and other sites setting. One site change
will cause other sites adjustment; make sure that the site direction during planning can be
realized in practical environment.
4.4.2 Requirements of site height
For the macro cell, the hanging height of antenna is required to exceed the average
height of the surrounding buildings. The height varies with different environments.
For a better effect, the antenna on a city site should be 10 to 15 meters higher than the
average height of the surrounding buildings (10 m in dense urban and more than 15 m in
suburban and rural areas). The hanging height of the antenna depends on the coverage
range. The height of the candidate site shall not exceed 1.3 times the hanging height of
the planned antenna; otherwise, the coverage range is too big.
4.4.3 Distance requirement of candidate sites and planned sites
The space between the candidate site and the site under being planned should be no more
than 1/4 of the coverage radius.
For the requirements that cannot be met, adjustment can be made based on the existing
conditions. For example, an iron tower, a height enhancement rack, or a long pole can be
built to increase the height. If there is an obstacle in some direction, no sector can be set
in that direction, as long as the topology is not affected.
4.5 Planning Ultra-far Coverage BS
When planning an ultra-far coverage BS it needs to try to avoid the BSs effect on
original networks as much as possible. During the selection of the BS site and antennas,
this requirement should be complied with first.
The main steps for Ultra-far coverage planning are:
1. Know the requirements, including the coverage etc.
2. According to the coverage requirement, the antenna hanging height should reach
the particular value.
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3. Simulatin and testing of the planned area.
4. Network topology design according to coverage, antena height etc., base on
electrical map, including site position, direction, antenna parameters, considering
the pilot pollution.
5. Site survey, chose a suitable site. The site should meets the requirements of
height and direction, affects the existing network as less as possible.
6. Suvey the unsuitable sites again according to simulation results.
4.6 Marks correspond to different sites
Table 4-17 shows the marks correspond to different sites.
Table 4-17 Marks correspond to different sites
Site type Classification Description
Carrier
number
Sector
number
Macro-
BTS
Micro-
BTS
Ultra-far
Coverage
BS
RFS
O1 O1
One carrier omni-
direction
1 1 1 0 0 0
S1 O1
One carrier one
sector
1 1 1 0 0 0
S11 S11
One carrier two
sectors
1 2 1 0 0 0
S111 S111
One carrier three
sectors
1 3 1 0 0 0
O2 O2
Two carrier omni-
direction
2 1 1 0 0 0
S2 O2
Two carrier one
sector
2 1 1 0 0 0
S22 S22
Two carrier two
sectors
2 2 1 0 0 0
S222 S222
Two carrier three
sectors
2 3 1 0 0 0
O3 O3
Three carrier
omni-direction
3 1 1 0 0 0
S3 O3
Three carrier one
sector
3 1 1 0 0 0
S33 S33
Three carrier two
sectors
3 2 1 0 0 0
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4 Site Survey and Planning
Site type Classification Description
Carrier
number
Sector
number
Macro-
BTS
Micro-
BTS
Ultra-far
Coverage
BS
RFS
S333 S333
Three carrier three
sectors
3 3 1 0 0 0
O4 O4
Four carrier omni-
direction
4 1 1 0 0 0
S4 O4
Four carrier one
sector
4 1 1 0 0 0
S44 S44
Four carrier two
sectors
4 2 1 0 0 0
S444 S444
Four carrier three
sectors
4 3 1 0 0 0
O-L0-R1 O1
RFS omni-
direction
1 1 1 0 0 1
S-L0-R1 S1 RFS one sector 1 1 1 0 0 1
S-L0-R2 S11 RFS two sectors 1 2 1 0 0 1
S-L0-R3 S111 RFS three sectors 1 3 1 0 0 1
S-L1-R1 S11
Local one sector
RFS one sector
1 2 1 0 0 1
S-L1-R2 S111
Local one sector
RFS two sectors
1 3 1 0 0 2
S-L1-R3 S-L1-R3
Local one sector
RFS three sectors
2 4 1 0 0 3
S-L2-R1 S111
Local two sectors
RFS one sector
1 3 2 0 0 1
S-L2-R2 S-L2-R2
Local two sectors
RFS two sectors
2 4 1 0 0 1
S-L2-R3 S-L2-R3
Local two sectors
RFS three sectors
2 5 1 0 0 1
S-L3-R1 S-L3-R1
Local three sectors
RFS one sector
2 4 1 0 0 1
S-L3-R2 S-L3-R2
Local three sectors
RFS two sectors
2 5 1 0 0 1
S-L3-R3 S-L3-R3
Local three sectors
RFS three sectors
2 6 1 0 0 1
M1 M1
One carrier Micro-
BTS
1 1 0 1 0 0
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Site type Classification Description
Carrier
number
Sector
number
Macro-
BTS
Micro-
BTS
Ultra-far
Coverage
BS
RFS
M-L1-R1 M11
One Micro-
BTS+one RFS:
one carrier two
sectors
1 2 0 1 0 1
M-L1-R2 M111
Micro-BTS one
sector +RFE two
sectors
1 3 0 1 0 1
M2 M2
Micro-BTS two
carriers one sector
2 1 0 1 0 0
M3 M3
Micro-BTS three
carriers one sector
3 1 0 1 0 0
M1804 M140
One carrier Ultra-
far Coverage BTS
1 1 0 0 1 0
M804-L1-
R1
M1140
One carrier Ultra-
far Coverage BTS
+one RFS: one
carrier two sectors
1 2 0 0 1 1
M804-L1-
R2
M11140
Ultra-far Coverage
BTS one sector+
RFS two sectors
1 3 0 0 1 1
M2804 M240
Ultra-far Coverage
BTS two carrier
one sector
2 1 0 0 1 0
M3804 M340
Ultra-far Coverage
BTS three
carrierone sector
3 1 0 0 1 0
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5 Repeater Planning
Keypoint
Familiar with repeater planning
5.1 Overview of Repeater
In CDMA networks, for ensuring the network performance and meeting the coverage
requirement, besides to the main devices such as base station, repeaters are probably also
needed.
Repeater is in fact a device for signal repeating. In the wireless telecommunications
system, for the cost-saving purpose, apply the wireless repeater to extend the coverage of
the source base station. In the forward link, the repeater accepts the signal from the donor
base station, and then transmits the signal again after amplifying it; in the reverse link,
the repeater antenna receives the signal from the mobile station, and transmits the signal
to the donor base station after amplifying the signal.
Being used in the CDMA network, the repeater can truck the radio signal, expand the
signal coverage, assist transmitting signals to the special environment, adjust the traffic
and eliminate blind areas. The purpose of repeater applying is to cost-effectively widen
the coverage and optimize the network.
Different from the base station, without base band processing circuit and the ability of
demodulating the radio signal, the function of the repeater are only two-way trucking and
amplifying the radio signal. So repeaters are used for the purpose of broadening the
signal coverage and improving the coverage performance, but they can not increase the
network capacity.
Figure 5-13 illustrates the coverage situation of the repeater.
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ZT
E
Coverage area of Base Station
Donor Base Station Repeater
Coverage
Area of
Repeater
Figure 5-13 Coverage of repeater
In practice, the base station in which the repeater is located is named donor base station.
The wireless link between the donor base station and the repeater is called the donor link.
The repeater antenna which receives the signal from the donor base station is donor
antenna, and the repeater antenna which faces the user is named the repeater antenna.
The application of the repeater to the CDMA network will cause changes in the network
topological structure, link budget, noise, time delay and multi-path information. These
changes will exert great influence on the cell coverage, handoff relation, uplink/downlink
power budget, cell subscriber capacity and system parameters, and so on.
The repeater has a direct influence on the donor base station. It expands the coverage of
the donor base station and increases its traffic. As the repeater itself produces noise, it
will affect the floor noise of the donor base station to a more or less degree based on the
gain, and finally result in the coverage radius decrease of the donor base station and the
transmitting power increase of the mobile station in the coverage area. If the repeater
cannot well ensure the diversity effect, it will also directly influence the capacity of the
base station.
Another problem which should be considered during the network planning is the
influence on surrounding base stations caused by the repeater. The repeater appears as a
noise source for surrounding base stations and will affect both the coverage and capacity
of them. When the repeater is introduced into the system, the network coverage situation
changes, so does the voice traffic loaded by all base stations. The repeater will absorb
part of the traffic from surrounding base stations. If the voice traffic of surrounding base
stations is busy, the repeater can play a role of balancing the system traffic, and make a
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5 Repeater Planning
maximum use of the system processing capability.
In the mixed repeater networking technology, it requires to treat the repeater as a network
element similar to a base station. During the stages of network planning, engineering and
optimizing, the mutual relationship between the base station and repeater should be
considered thoroughly from the angle of the system. Besides, the uplink and downlink
coverage, interference, noise and system parameter setting should be evaluated and
calculated, so that the base station and the repeater can together implement well the
wireless coverage and improve the comprehensive network quality. In this process, the
repeater should be treated as a special base station rather than only as a tool for network
optimization. The mixed networking technology involves a series of practical
engineering technologies applied to repeater planning, project installation and debugging
as well as system parameter optimization.
Due to the difference in application, different factors should be considered during the
outdoor repeater project from those for indoor distribution system. Generally speaking,
the outdoor repeater will exert greater influence on the system.
5.2 Repeater Networking and Planning
Network planning and designing is an important part in the construction of a mobile
communication network. It will exert important influence on the network construction
cost and the operation quality of the established network. Mixed networking is intended
to build a mobile communication network of high class of service that can meet near
future and long-term traffic demands with the lowest possible cost. Specifically, wireless
coverage of maximum time and space should be implemented in the service area and the
required communication probability should be met; the interference should be minimized
to meet the required Quality of Service (QoS); besides, the number of system equipment
units should be reduced to the possible extent to lower the cost on the condition that the
capacity requirement can be met.
Traditionally the metropolitan area with densest population is selected as the original
point. Next the radius of the cell can be determined according to the local traffic density
and a base station is used to cover the central population area. The network can then be
expanded on the base of cellular structure. Generally speaking, on the condition that the
cellular structure is met, the planned coverage of the base station is directly related to the
local traffic density. That is, for areas with relatively low traffic density, e.g. sparse urban
area, suburb and areas along highways, the planned base station coverage will be much
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larger than the coverage in the metropolitan area. This is true theoretically. However, in
practice, due to the topographical factors, the coverage of the base station often cannot
reach the required standard. This wastes the base station capacity and lowers the
equipment utility.
In this case, in addition to the base station, the repeater can be used to help implement
the coverage. Suppose that the capacity is not a limiting factor at the early network
development stage, and then the coverage expansion can improve the equipment utility.
For example, a repeater can be used to extend the base station coverage along the
expressway and expand the capacity. This design can improve the economic benefit of
the network with a small sum of investment.
The mixed repeater networking in the CDMA network can lower the cost and improve
the economic benefit. Its application in foreign countries shows that it can save
30%~40% of the system construction and maintenance investment when it is applied in
the network building in open areas such as suburb, country and expressway, etc.
5.2.1 Features of Repeater Networking
The base station provides the network with capacity and is the core of the network. It is
generally used to cover areas with dense traffic such as urban areas and nearby suburbs.
The terrain and clutter of cities is complicated. Therefore repeaters are inappropriate
(except for indoor coverage) for reducing interference. Besides, metropolitan areas of
dense population have a great potential for user development; if repeaters are used, as
they cannot provide capacity, base station congestion may occur due to the increase of
user amount.
In sparse urban area, suburb, county, town and areas along highway/railway that feature
less population, repeaters can be used for mixed networking. They can be configured
with omni-directional, directional or multi-directional antennas.
One donor base station can be connected with several repeaters. The number of repeaters
to be configured depends mainly upon the influence of the repeaters on the ROT of the
donor base station.
The repeaters can be cascaded at one level at most. The cascaded repeaters feature poor
performance and are not recommended unless necessarily.
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5 Repeater Planning
5.2.2 Analysis of Noise Introduced by Repeaters
1. Downlink noise
In most applications, the downlink signals reaching the repeaters still feature high
signal-noise ratio and the signal level is much higher than the Gaussian
environment noise. After the signals are amplified by the repeaters (considering
the noise coefficient of the repeaters), the signal-noise ratio is still high and will
hardly affect the system. For example: suppose the working rate is 9.6K and the
downlink noise coefficient of the repeater is 5dB. As the donor link of the RF
repeater requires line-of-sight connection, the signal strength at the input end of
the repeater should be greater than -80dBm and the level of the Gaussian
environment noise should be -113dBm and S/N=33dB. After the signals are
amplified, the signal-noise ratio output by the repeater still reaches 28dB and
meets the requirement.
From the above example, it can be seen that the downlink noise coefficient of the
repeater is generally less than 5dB. Thus, the repeater has little influence on the
system, which can be omitted in practice.
2. Uplink noise
(1) The influence of uplink noise on the thermal noise of the base station
First the uplink noise will cause the level of the thermal noise of the base station
to rise: The repeater is functionally equivalent to an interference source. Even if
there is no user in the covered area, i.e. there is no input on the uplink, it will also
produce interference noise to the base station and cause the thermal noise level of
the base station to rise. This means that the sensitivity of the base station receiver
will decline and all users in the coverage of this base station will be affected (the
users in the repeater coverage will not be directly affected). The influence of this
noise can be seen from the calculation and analysis below:
First, after the repeater thermal noise is amplified, undergoes the loss over the
transmission path and reaches the input end of the base station receiver, its level
can be calculated out:
P
rep_inject
= KTB+F
rep_reverse
+G
rep_reverse
-PL
net
In the above formula:
K Boltzmann constant, the truth value of which is 1.38E-23J/K;
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T Environment temperature, which is set to 290K;
B Bandwidth, which is set to 1.23MHz;
F
rep_reverse
Uplink noise coefficient of the repeater;
G
rep_reverse
Uplink gain of the repeater.
PL
net
The net value of the path loss from the repeater to the base
station, including the repeater feeder loss, donor antenna gain of the repeater,
path loss, base station antenna gain and base station feeder loss
In this case, the equivalent thermal noise level at the input end of the base station
receiver is:
P
bts_noise_floor
= KTB+F
bts_receiver
Thus, level rise of the base station thermal noise ROT
rep
(Rise Over Thermal) is:
/10 /10 /10
10 [(10 10 ) /10 ]
BTS INJ BTS
P P P
ROT Log +
/10
10 (1 10 )
NIM
Log

+
The introduced Noise Injection Margin (NIM) is:
/10 /10
10 [(10 /10 ]
BTS INJ
P P
NIM Log
This value determines the influence of the repeater on the uplink of the donor
base station. Every 1dB of NIM is increased; the uplink power budget of the
donor base station or the allowed special path loss from the mobile phone to the
base station will decrease for 1dB. In terms of the cell coverage, the uplink
coverage radius will decrease; for the users in the coverage, the transmitting
power of the mobile phone will increase accordingly, or the users on the cell edge
will suffer from such phenomena as monolog, decline of uplink voice quality or
call drop.
From the above analysis, it can be seen that once the location of the repeater and
base station is determined, the noise level from the repeater to the base station
receiver depends entirely on the setting of the reverse gain while it is independent
of the repeater noise coefficient and the pass loss. Thus, in practice the uplink
gain of the repeater can be adjusted to reduce its influence on the base station.
The following figure shows the relation between NIM and the rise of the thermal
noise level caused by the repeater:
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5 Repeater Planning
Relation between the thermal noise caused by the
repeater and the NIM
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
-
1
0
-
9
-
8
-
7
-
6
-
5
-
4
-
3
-
2
-
1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
1
0
NIM
R
O
T
r
e
p
Figure 5-14 Relation between NIM and thermal noise level rise caused by repeater
(2) Influence of the uplink noise on the repeater coverage
A repeater in wireless connection with the donor base station is equivalent to a
cascaded amplifier (as shown in Figure 5-15). The influence on the users in the
repeater coverage can be measured through the cascading noise coefficient.
Repeater
Antenna and
path loss, etc.
Base
station
Figure 5-15 Equivalent cascaded amplifier
F
cascade
= F
rep_reverse
+(PL
net
*F
bts
)/G
rep_reverse
-1/G
rep_reverse
F
rep_reverse
+PL
net
*F
bts
/G
rep_reverse
= F
rep_reverse
*(1+10
NIM/10
)
In the above formula:
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The introduced Noise Injection Margin (NIM) is:
NIM=10log(P
bts_niose_floor
/P
rep_inject
)=10log(PL
net
*F
bts_recerver
/G
rep_reverse
* F
rep_reverse
)
F
bts_receiver
Noise coefficient of the base station station receiver
P
bts_niose_floor
Equivalent noise level at the input port of the base station receiver.
P
rep_inject
Uplink noise injection level of repeater, equivalent to the input port
of the base station receiver
For a repeater coverage area, when the uplink power budget is considered, the
noise coefficient of base station receiver used for base station uplink power
budget is replaced by the cascading noise coefficient. The cascading noise
coefficient will only affect the users in the repeater coverage. If it increases, the
uplink power budget of the repeater coverage will be influenced and the uplink
coverage radius will reduce.
Repeater cascading noise coefficient
5
7
9
11
13
15
17
19
-
1
0
-
9
-
8
-
7
-
6
-
5
-
4
-
3
-
2
-
1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
1
0
NIM
F
c
a
s
c
a
d
e
Frep=5dB Frep=6dB Frep=7dB Frep=8dB Frep=9dB
Figure 5-16 Repeater cascading noise coefficient
(3) Compromise solution to the influence caused by the uplink noise
In the planning, the contribution of the repeater to the thermal noise of the base
station should be minimized. As the ROT and NIM are on a relation of inverse
ratio, when the valid gain (G
rep_reverse
-PL
net
) is very small or negative, the greater
the NIM is, the less the ROT as long as the NIM is greater than 0.
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5 Repeater Planning
On the contrary, when NIM becomes greater, so does the F
cascade
. For example:
When NIM=6 and F
rep
=6dB, ROT
rep
=1dB, F
cascade
=13dB.
When NIM=10 and F
rep
=6dB, ROT
rep
=0.4dB, F
cascade
=16.4dB.
In practice, a compromise value should be adopted between the two values.
Reference materials and analysis show that in areas such as highway, suburb and
country, the repeater is required to cover a long distance and the F
cascade
be
minimized. When NIM=0dB, ROT
rep
=3dB and F
cascade
reaches 8dB, 3dB more
than the uplink noise coefficient of the repeater. In special areas such as
metropolitan indoor coverage, NIM can be set to a greater value. Thus, the
influence of the ROT
rep
can be reduced as long as the application requirement can
be met.
(4) Repeater influence on the system capacity
The repeaters influence on the system capacity can be considered from two
aspects: the thermal noise produced by the repeater will influence the system
capacity; besides, the requirement for user Eb/Io rise of the repeater coverage
will also influence the system capacity.
The cell capacity depends on the Multiple Access Interference (MAI).
User signal
level
Noise level
Static noise
level
Noise level
User signal level
Figure 5-17 Multiple access interference
As shown in the above figure,
When there is no user, the port of the base station receiver has thermal noise
level.
When the first user accesses, he only needs to transmit signals the strength of
which is W/R-Eb/Io lower than the thermal noise voice because of the power
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Post-sales staff CDMA Network Planning course
control. W/R here refers to the gain of the spread spectrum; Eb/Io refers to the
rate between the power density of the signal spectrum required by the base
station and the power density of the noise. In this case, the port of the base station
receiver includes thermal noise level+ signal level.
When the second user accesses, he only needs to transmit signals the strength of
which is W/R-Eb/Io lower than the noise level+ signal level of the first user. As
the signals transmitted by the first user are also noises to the second user, the
second user should increase the transmitting power to overcome the interference
from the first user in addition to the interference from the thermal noise level.
Therefore, the noise level rise reflected at the port of the base station receiver is
greater than that when there is only one user, i.e. the level indicted by the white
part of the above figure is greater than the level indicated by the red part.
When three or more users access, the change follows the same trend as above and
the extra transmitting power to be increased becomes greater and greater.
When the Nth user accesses, as there are many users at that time, the extra
transmitting power to be increased is so high that it becomes impossible to
overcome the interference and implement stable demodulation (in practice, the
case will come earlier as both the transmitting power of the mobile phone and the
system power control capability are limited). This is called the pole of the
capacity in the CDMA principles. In this case, the pole capacity of the system is
N-1.
The injection noise caused by the thermal noise of the repeater is static and is
similar to environment interference. From the Figure 5-17, it can be seen that
only the noise level of the base station receiver is increased. This may cause the
increase of the transmitting power of the mobile station or decrease of the uplink
coverage radius, but it will not affect the user capacity because of the power
control of the CDMA system.
If no diversity technology is adopted in the repeater, in order to achevie satisfying
FER, the system will require the user Eb/Io in the repeaters coverage to rise to
8dB or more. Thus, the capacity of the donor base station will be influenced. The
specific influence depends on the user amount in the coverage of the base station.
Approximately one user in the repeater coverage is equivalent to 1.1~1.3 users of
the base station. It should be pointed out that in some repeaters; the other spatial
diversity message is delayed and changed into multi-path signals, which are then
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5 Repeater Planning
combined together. This diversity receiving method through multi-path receiving
increases the processing load of the base station as it causes multi-path
artificially. Thus, in practice, the effect is greatly lowered.
5.2.3 The Case that Several Repeaters Share One Donor Base Station
Suppose that each repeater will influence the thermal noise rise of the donor base station.
From the above analysis, it can be seen that this influence is related to the uplink noise
coefficient of each repeater, the path loss between each repeater and the donor base
station and the uplink gain of the repeater. The influence on the donor base station equals
to the sum of influence of these repeaters. The number of repeaters that one base station
can be connected with should be determined according to the thermal noise rise of the
base station.
If the uplink gain of the outdoor repeater is adjusted to an appropriate value, i.e. it will
only cause the thermal noise of the base station to rise for 3dB, then:
1 repeater ROT=3dB
2 repeaters ROT=4.7dB
3 repeaters ROT=6dB
4 repeaters ROT=7dB
5 repeaters ROT=7.8dB
6 repeaters ROT=8.5dB
Next, the maximum thermal noise rise that a base station can tolerate should be
considered. Different base stations in the network have different tolerance capabilities. If
the capacity of a base station is limited by the high traffic density in its coverage or its
coverage radius is shortened because of the barriers, then the uplink power budget will
have large redundancy. Thus, the base station will be able to tolerate great thermal noise
rise while its coverage will not be severely affected. Urban indoor coverage generally
allows great cascading noise coefficient. As the uplink gain is small, the influence on the
thermal noise of the base station can even be omitted. Of course, the coverage of some
minor base stations can be sacrificed so that repeaters can be added to improve the
overall coverage effect, e.g. the coverage of highway. In short, after the repeaters
influence on the thermal noise of the base station is made clear, the number of repeaters
that a base station can be connected with should be determined according to the specific
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Post-sales staff CDMA Network Planning course
situation of each base station.
In the above, the capacity of the donor base station is omitted. However, it should be
considered in practice. Therefore, the number of repeaters that can be connected to a base
station should also be determined on the base that the capacity of the donor base station
can meet the user capacity requirement of the base station as well as the repeater
coverage.
5.2.4 Repeater Cascading
The ideal mode is that each repeater is directly connected to the donor base station
through links. Thus, it can be ensured that wireless signals of good quality are relayed. In
some special cases such as highway coverage, repeater cascading is better for
implementing the coverage. The application of repeater cascading should also start with
noise analysis. The bottleneck still lies in the thermal noise rise of the base station and
the cascading noise coefficient.
Repeater 1
Gain G1
Noise NF1
Repeater 2
Gain G2
Noise NF2 Noise NF3
Path loss
PL 2
Path loss
PL 1
Base station
Equivalent to: Gain G1-PL1
Equivalent to: Gain G2-PL2
Noise: NF1
Noise: NF2
Figure 5-18 Equivalent model of repeater cascading
To set up the equivalent model of repeater cascading, calculate as follows:
Thermal noise injection
P
rep_inject
=KTB+NF1+(G1-PL1)+ NF2+(G1-PL1)
Cascading noise coefficient F
cascade

=NF1+(NF2-1)/(G1-PL1)+(NF3-1)/(G1-PL1)(G2-PL2)
It is known that the injected thermal noise is in direct ratio with the repeater gain and in
reverse ratio with cascading noise coefficient. Suppose the noise coefficient of the
repeater and the base station is 5dB, through the model, it can be known that:
When the thermal noise rises for 3dB, the cascading noise coefficient is 5dB than the
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5 Repeater Planning
noise coefficient of the base station.
From the above calculation, it can be seen that when the repeater cascading is applied,
the conflict between cascading noise coefficient in the repeater coverage at the second
level and the thermal noise rise of the base station will become acute. Thus, in the
application the performance will be greatly affected. However, with well planning and
delicate project optimization, the two-level repeater cascading can be applied to some
special cases. Due to the influence of cascading noise coefficient and the thermal noise
rise of the base station, repeater cascading of three or more levels has little practical
significance and therefore is not recommended.
5.2.5 Donor Link of Repeater
It is simple to select the donor link for an optical repeater. However, the selection of a
good donor link for a radio frequency repeater is critical.
First, the donor antenna of the repeater should be in the Line Of Sight (LOS) relation
with the antenna of the donor base station. As radio waves at the ultrashort wave and
microwave band have high frequency, when they are propagated along the ground, the
fading is great and their diffracting ability is weak when barriers are met. Therefore, the
propagation through ground waves cannot be used. Besides, as the altitude ionization
layer cannot reflect the radio waves to the ground, the propagation through air waves
cannot be used either. Generally the LOS propagation mode is used. In mobile
communication, generally the radius of wireless cell is limited to tens of kilometers.
Therefore, LOS and near-LOS propagation mode are considered. The outer-LOS
diffraction is used in the fixed radio communication. During the project planning and
designing, the model suitable for the environment is selected to design the radio circuit
based on the study of the radio wave propagation.
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Post-sales staff CDMA Network Planning course
d
d2 d1
ht
hm
F1
The first fresnel area
Figure 5-19 Free space propagation
In the space between the transmitting and receiving antennas through which the radio
waves are propagated, there is space area that plays a major role for energy transmission.
If this area meets the conditions for free space propagation, then the radio waves can be
considered as being transmitted through free space. According to the Huygens-Fresnel
principle, in the first Fresnel area, the radiation field strength produced at the signal
receiving point is two times of the field strength in the free space propagation. To make
the field strength at the receiving point equal to the field strength in free space
propagation, only 1/3 of the first Fresnel area needs to be used. This area is called
minimum Fresnel area, the radius of which is 0.577 times of the radius of the first
Fresnel area. In engineering, usually the first Fresnel area and the minimum Fresnel area
are considered as the space that plays the major role for radio wave propagation and are
referred to as major propagation area.
In engineering, it is required that the donor antenna of the repeater is on a LOS relation
with antenna of donor base station. Generally both of them can meet the requirement of
major propagation area. Therefore, the path loss of the donor link is generally calculated
through the free propagation formula:

f D PL lg 20 lg 20 4 . 32 + +
In the formula, D indicates the space distance and the unit is km, while f indicates the
working frequency and the unit is MHz.
Suppose that the base station feeder loss IL
bts_cable
=3dB, the repeater feeder loss
IL
rep_cable
=3dB, the base station antenna gain G
bts_antenna
=14dBi and the repeater donor
antenna gain G
rep_donor

_antenna
=18dBi. Then, through calculation the following table can be
obtained, which can be used for general evaluation of the donor link.
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5 Repeater Planning
Table 5-18 Example of calculating path loss
Donor Link Distance 1km 5km 10km 15km 20km 25km 30km
Free space path loss Lp 91.0 105.0 111.0 114.6 117.1 119.0 120.6
Net path loss PLnet 65.0 79.0 85.0 88.6 91.1 93.0 94.6
Next, the signal strength from the donor base station to the repeater should be greater
than -80dBm, so that the stability of the signals relayed by the repeater and the high
signal-noise ratio can be ensured.
Besides, it should also be ensured that the repeater donor antenna only receives the
signals from one cell and the repeater should not be located between at the border of two
sectors. The donor antenna can be used to select more directional parabolic antenna, so
that the spatial selectivity of the radio signals can be enhanced.
Last, when the above measures still cannot meet the requirements, horizontal (or
vertical) polarization antenna can be adopted for the donor base station. For stations that
may cause pilot pollution, orthogonal polarization antennas can be adopted, while
antennas with the same polarization as than of the donor base station can be adopted as
donor antennas. Thus, the polarization of the antenna is used to improve the selectivity of
the signals.
5.2.6 Antenna Feeder System
1. Donor antenna selection
Yagi antenna, corner-reflector antenna, plate antenna or parabolic antenna can be
adopted as the donor antenna. The choice depends on the pilot strength and pilot
interference strength of the donor base station at the installation place. Generally
the donor antenna can be selected according to the following standard:
(1) When the pilot strength is high and the interference is weak, Yagi antenna,
corner-reflector antenna or plate antenna can be adopted;
(2) When the pilot strength is high and the interference is strong, Yagi antenna or
parabolic antenna can be adopted;
(3) When the pilot strength is low and the interference is strong, parabolic antenna
can be adopted;
(4) Generally 1.2m grid parabolic antenna or Yagi antenna can be adopted as donor
antenna. Depending on the specific condition, sometimes plate antenna can also
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Post-sales staff CDMA Network Planning course
be adopted.
Technical indices of 1.2m grid parabolic antenna:
Working frequency band: 824-894MHz
Gain: >18dBi
Front-to-back ratio: >25dB
3dB beam width: <200
Standing wave ratio: <1.5
Wind resistance (m/s): >50
Lightning protection: direct grounding
Connector: N type
The antenna has a 10
o
adjustable range in the direction plane and pitch plane.
Technical indices of Yagi antenna:
Working frequency band: 824-894MHz
Gain: >11dBi
3dB beam width: <400
Standing wave ratio: <1.5
Wind resistance (m/s): >50
Lightning protection: direct grounding
Connector: N type
The antenna has a 10 adjustable range in the direction plane and pitch plane.
2. Forwarding antenna selection
Generally omni-directional and plate antennas (45
o
, 65
o
, 90
o
and 120
o
) that are
the same as the CDMA base station antenna are adopted.
3. Feeder
Feeder cables 7/8"+1/2" that are similar to CDMA base station feeders can be
adopted as the feeders of the repeater. The feeder can also consist only of 1/2" or
other feeder cables for the installation convenience when the planning allows.
Example:
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5 Repeater Planning
Table 5-19 Repeater feeder
Model Impedance Hectometer Loss 800M Outer Diameter
1/2" 50 ohm 6.3dB 13.2mm
SYWV-50-12 50 ohm 8.2dB 15.6mm
Fast Estimation of Repeater Coverage
The procedures for estimating the repeater coverage are the same as those for estimating
the base station coverage. The repeater coverage mainly depends on the propagation loss
from the repeater to the mobile phone and the maximum permitted by the system. In
addition, the human body loss margin, building penetration loss margin and fading loss
margin should also be taken into consideration. The major difference lies in the reverse
link power budget. Here, the original noise coefficient of the base station receiver is
replaced by the repeater cascading noise coefficient.
The major parameters that influence the repeater coverage include the antenna type,
height, downtilt, topographical parameter, required E
c
/I
o
value, transmitting power and
gain. Here a group of empirical values are provided for fast and convenient estimation.
First consider the propagation loss. The Okumura-Hata model is adopted here to analyze
the radio propagation of 800MHz CDMA system.
PL(dB)=69.55+26.16log(F)-13.82log(H)+(44.9-6.55log(H))*log(D)+C
In the above formula:
PL: indicating pass loss in dB
F: frequency in MHz (150-1500MHz); 800MHz for calculation
D: distance in km
H: valid height of the base station antenna in m; 40m for calculation
C: environment correction factor, metropolitan area: 0 dB; urban area: -5 dB
Suburb: -10 dB; Country: -17dB
Then, the maximum permitted path loss can be calculated out with reference of the
uplink/downlink power budget of the system.
At last, the maximum permitted path loss can be introduced into the formula to calculate
the repeater coverage radius.
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Post-sales staff CDMA Network Planning course
According to the above formula, the relation between the distance and path loss can be
worked out, as shown in Table 5-20:
Table 5-20 Relation between distance and path loss
d_1 Metropolitan Area Urban Area Suburb Open Land
1 123.4 123.3 113.7 95.3
1.5 129.4 129.4 119.8 101.4
2 133.7 133.7 124.1 105.7
2.5 137.1 137.0 127.4 109.0
3 139.8 139.8 130.1 111.7
3.5 142.1 142.1 132.4 114.0
4 144.1 144.1 134.4 116.0
4.5 145.8 145.8 136.2 117.8
5 147.4 147.4 137.8 119.4
5.5 148.8 148.8 139.2 120.8
6 150.1 150.1 140.5 122.1
6.5 151.3 151.3 141.7 123.3
7 152.4 152.4 142.8 124.4
7.5 153.5 153.5 143.8 125.4
8 154.4 154.4 144.8 126.4
8.5 155.3 155.3 145.7 127.3
9 156.2 156.2 146.6 128.1
9.5 157.0 157.0 147.4 128.9
10 157.8 157.8 148.1 129.7
10.5 158.5 158.5 148.9 130.4
11 159.2 159.2 149.6 131.1
11.5 159.9 159.8 150.2 131.8
12 160.5 160.5 150.9 132.4
12.5 161.1 161.1 151.5 133.0
13 161.7 161.7 152.0 133.6
13.5 162.3 162.2 152.6 134.2
14 162.8 162.8 153.2 134.7
14.5 163.3 163.3 153.7 135.3
15 163.8 163.8 154.2 135.8
15.5 164.3 164.3 154.7 136.3
16 164.8 164.8 155.1 136.7
16.5 165.2 165.2 155.6 137.2
17 165.7 165.7 156.1 137.6
17.5 166.1 166.1 156.5 138.1
18 166.5 166.5 156.9 138.5
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5 Repeater Planning
d_1 Metropolitan Area Urban Area Suburb Open Land
18.5 167.0 166.9 157.3 138.9
19 167.4 167.3 157.7 139.3
19.5 167.7 167.7 158.1 139.7
20 168.1 168.1 158.5 140.1
20.5 168.5 168.5 158.9 140.4
5.2.7 Isolation
If the donor antenna of the CDMA repeater is poorly isolated from the re-transmitting
antenna, then the spontaneous emission of the repeater system will occur. In practice, a
margin of 10~15dB is required between the repeater gain and its isolation. The latter
directly restricts the former.
1. Calculation and Empirical Estimation of Isolation
Theoretically, the antenna isolation can be calculated through the following
formula (in the unit of dB):
ISO=PL
s
+L
cable
+L
o
-G
rep_sub
+AD
d
-G
rep_donor
+AD
r
+XPD
In the above formula:
ISO: antenna isolation (dB value)
PL
s
: inter-antenna signal transmission fading value
PL
s
=-27dB+201gF+201gD
F: frequency, in the unit of MHz
D: the distance between two antennas, in the unit of meter
L
cable
: overall feeder loss
L
o
: barrier loss, e.g. , due to buildings and shielding grid
G
rep_sub
: forwarding antenna gain of the repeater
AD
d
: angle discriminating value between the retransmitting antenna and the
donor antenna, determined by the direction pattern of the retransmitting antenna
G
rep_donor
: donor antenna gain
AD
r
: angle discriminating value between the retransmitting antenna and the
donor antenna, determined
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Post-sales staff CDMA Network Planning course
by the direction pattern of the donor antenna
XPD: polarization angle discriminating value between two antennas (not used in
most mobile communication systems)
The practice, the above formula can be simplified. The Figure 7-14 shows a
repeater antenna installed on a building.

Front-to-back ratio of donor antenna F /BD


Front-to-back ratio of coverage antenna F /BP
Building
Barrier loss Lw
Figure 5-14 Installation of repeater antennas
The factors that affecting the antenna isolation are also shown:
PL B F L B F ISO
sub wall donor
+ + + / /
In the above figure:
F/B
donor:
the front-to-back ratio of the repeater donor antenna
L
wall
: loss caused by barrier
F/B
sub
: the front-to-back ratio of the repeater forwarding antenna
PL: space loss, measured on the base of the free space propagation loss
From the above formula, it can be seen that major factors that influence isolation
between the donor antenna of the repeater and its retransmitting antenna include:
(1) The front-to-back ratio of the antenna: it is mainly determined by the antenna
type. For parabolic donor antennas that are commonly used, however, some
measures can be adopted to increase the front-to-back ratio. For example, metal
cylinder surrounding can effectively suppress the wide-angle minor lobe and
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5 Repeater Planning
back lobe.
(2) The space propagation loss caused by the distance between the donor antenna
and retransmitting antenna: it is closely related to the distance between the two
antennas. The greater the distance is, the greater the attenuation. For example, the
attenuation for a distance of 30m is 20dB than that for a distance of 3m. In
addition, the increase of the distance also makes the system more complicated
and increases the loss and the cost. Table 5-21 shows the relation between some
distances and the space propagation loss (f= 850MHz).
Table 5-21 Relation between antenna distance and space propagation loss
Distance between two Antennas (m) Space Propagation Loss (dB)
3 41.4
5 44.87
10 50.89
20 56.91
30 60.43
50 64.87
(3) Fading caused by natural or artificial barrier between the donor antenna and
retransmitting antenna: the isolation can be increased by barriers between the
donor antenna and retransmitting antenna, such as buildings, which are difficult
to be damaged and do not increase the cost. They are good choices in some
environments.
(4) Isolation problem caused by environment reflection: as well the height difference
between the two antennas. Sometimes the repeater may be located in a
complicated environment where large reflector exists. The energy radiated by an
antenna is reflected and then passes the main lobe, side lobe or back lobe of
another antenna. When this energy is equal to or even greater than the energy
received by the back lobes of the two antennas, then it will become an important
source of interference. This requires that a building or tower as high as possible
should be selected as the site for installing the repeater antenna. In addition, there
should be no large reflector near the radiation area of the main lobe or large
minor lobe. Reflections that are difficult to avoid can be isolated by shielding net
or other barriers in the environment through the selection of appropriate position
for locating the donor antenna.
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Post-sales staff CDMA Network Planning course
(5) Installation Height difference between two antennas: this height difference
increases the physical distance between the two antennas and facilitates the
adding of barriers in-between.
(6) In the case that the isolation is inadequate but surrounding barriers cannot be
used, some barriers such as shielding net can be added manually to increase the
isolation.
2. Engineering measurement of isolation
In the engineering, the isolation is the major factor that affects the smooth
activation of the repeater. It is also the one that is difficult to be predicted. Great
error may occur during the empirical estimation and calculation so that the
repeater can not be activated according to parameters set in the plan. The most
accurate method is to directly measure the isolation, which, though troublesome,
it is the best. If the gain of the planned repeater is required to be high, then the
isolation should be measured when it is possible.
Below, we will take the repeater in 800 MHz as an example and introduce the
measurement of the repearter isolation.
Instrument: portable spectrum analyzer, signal generator
Measurement tools: donor antenna, forwarding antenna and feeders
Measuring procedures: set the frequency of the RF signal source to be output at
833.49MHz single tone and set the output power to 10dBm (fixed amplitude
power). Turn on the spectrum analyzer and the radio frequency switch, and then
record the receiving power P
0 of the spectrum analyzer at
833.49MHz. The
difference between them indicates the isolation of the uplink antenna. Connect
the feeder of the forwarding antenna to the RF signal source and the feeder of the
donor antenna to the spectrum analyzer. Then set the frequency of the RF signal
source to be output at 878.49MHz signal tone and set the output power to 10dBm
(fixed amplitude power). Turn on the spectrum analyzer and the RF switch, and
then record the receiving power P
0 of the spectrum analyzer at
878.49MHz. The
difference between them indicates the isolation of the downlink antenna.
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5 Repeater Planning
Signal generator
Spectrum analyzer
Figure 5-15 Isolation-measuring equipment
3. Shielding Net
In the case that the isolation is inadequate but surrounding barriers cannot be
used, some barriers such as shielding net can be added manually to increase the
isolation. Generally zinc-coated steel net or aluminum net is adopted as the
shielding net and the grid can be set to 0.1-0.25. The aperture of the grid for
shielding 800MHz signals can be set to 4mm-10mm. The grid is made of finished
zinc-coated steel net or aluminum net plus support rolled angle. Its area is
generally 3-6m
2
and is installed near the forwarding antenna. The size and
spacing of the shielding net can be controlled according to the isolation
requirement and the polarization of the antenna. Generally the spacing in the
polarization direction (linear polarization) should be less than 1/10 of the
wavelength. In the cross polarization direction, the grid can be much sparser. In
addition, the isolating net should be well grounded.
4. Setting of Repeater Parameters
The gains of the forward and reverse links are the major indices of the repeater.
On the condition that the original network performance is ensured, the
forward/reverse gain of the repeater can be adjusted to implement the expected
coverage, so that the balance can be kept between the forward and reverse links
of the traffic channel in the repeaters coverage.
In the above noise analysis, we have already known the best setting of the uplink
gain of the repeater. Naturally, this setting is not suitable for all cases. The
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Post-sales staff CDMA Network Planning course
specific setting should be based on the parameters in the mixed repeater
networking plan. Here the example is only used to illustrate the repeater gain
setting during the installation of the project.
First, measure the net path loss from the donor antenna port of the repeater to the
receiver port of the base station. Connect the measuring devices as shown in
Figure 7-16. Then, the signal generator generates signals of appropriate power,
while the spectrum analyzer measures the received signal strength. The
difference between the two values is the net path loss Pl
net.
Next, calculate the uplink gain of the repeater on the base of the noise analysis.
Suppose:
That the maximum noise tolerance allowed by the donor base station is M;
That the noise coefficient of the donor base station is NF
bts
;
That the noise coefficient of the repeater is Nf
repeater
;
That the path loss from the repeater to the base station.
Then, the reverse link gain of the repeater is:
G
reverse
=PL+NF
bts
-NF
repeate
r-M
At last, adjust the uplink gain of the repeater to G
rep_reverse
. The downlink gain can
also be set to G
rep_reverse and can be adjusted according to the specific situation as
long as it does not exceed the maximum downlink power.
Thus, the repeater is
set.
24
6 Principles for PN Planning and Setting of
Initial Neighboringing Cell
Keypoint
PN planning procedure, setting of initial neighboringing cell
6.1 Overview
Whether the PN planning and initial neighboringing cell setting are reasonable affect
network performance greatly, unreasonable PN planning may result in lack of PN
multiplexing distance then cause interference, unreasonable neighboringing cell setting
may result in voice quality degrade, handoff call drop etc.
Figure 6-20 illustrates the PN planning and initial neighboringing cell setting stage in
network planning flow.
Project
Pre-research
Requirement
Analysis
Available sites
survey
? ? ? ?
Network
Evaluation
Wireless
Environment
Test
Network
Topology
Design
Planned Sites
Survey
Simulation
Design Report
Submitted
PN Design
&Neighbor
List Configure
Procedure
Simplify
&Project Plan
Design Result
Report
Figure 6-20 Position of radio parameter setting in network planning
The results of PN planning and initial neighboringing cell setting act as the output of
network planning, load to BSC background on site commissioning.
6.2 PN Planning
The PN planning follows the completion of the network topology design and the network
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Post-sales staff CDMA Network Planning course
simulation. The PILOT-INC is 3 or 4 typically.
The following procedures are recommended:
(1) Decide the Pilot_Inc before determining the pilot set which can be adopted.
(2) Group all BSs according to the number of pilot sets and site distribution. The
number of BSs should not exceed the multiplexing groups of available pilot sets.
Take the multiplexing group of the densest area as the basic multiplexing group.
(3) Decide the PN multiplexing of every site in the multiplexing group and in the
basic multiplexing group. Correspondence should be formed. Consider the
isolation between the same PN of different multiplexing group, that is, the
multiplexing distance should comply with the requirement.
(4) Starting from the sparsest multiplexing group, assign PN resource for each cell.
The space between the sites in the sparse area is huge, and interference between
adjacent PNs tends to occur. This should be considered as important issue during
the planning.
(5) Based on the PN setting of the multiplexing groups in the sparse area, and the
correspondence between multiplexing groups, get the PN planning of other
multiplexing groups. For the interference that may exist between adjacent PNs in
some multiplexing groups, adjust slightly the PN planning. Or adjust the
multiplexing relationship between different multiplexing groups. Do not to affect
the planning of other multiplexing groups.
(6) Check the planning result through software tool, and adjust slightly the problem
area.
6.2.1 PILOT_INC setting
For the same system, if the delay estimation is not correct, the other pilot may be
demodulated by mistaken, affects the performance of the network. It is necessary to keep
a certain isolation beween different pilots, avoid interference between different cells due
to mids-demodulation of pilots.
PILOT_INC, one unit corresponding to 64 chips, avoid neighbouring PN_Offset
interference and same PN_Offset interference while planning: in order to avoid
neighbouring PN_Offset interference, it is required that the space of neighbouring
PN_Offset is much greater than the difference due to propagation delay; in order to avoid
same PN_Offset interference, it is required that the difference caused by propagation
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6 Principles for PN Planning and Setting of Initial Neighboringing Cell
delay is greater than half of the pilot search window. Take the two requirements into
consideration; we can derive the reasonable PILOT_INC setting.
The following PILOT_INC setting can satisfy the interference demands basically.
Table 6-22 PILOT_INC typical setting
Dense area theoretical
value
Dense area
Recommended
value
Suburb & village theoretical
value
Suburb & village
Recommended
value
2 4 4 4
3 6 6 6
Recommended value of PILOT_INC is one multiple of theoretical value in dense area:
on the one hand enough PN resource can be reserved for future expansion; on the other
hand, the possibility of interference due to cell propagation delay caused by large
coverage in the beginning of network construction can be decreased. As to suburb and
village, because the site distance is great, the site density is low, there is no problem of
Pilot multiplexing, and the isolation requirements can be obtained by not setting
neighbouring PN to neighbouring sites.
In practical, we can set the PILOT_INC for city and village to the same value. PN is set
discontinuously when a set pilot for city and village, if the PILOT_INC is set to 4 in
system, city PILOT_INC is set to 4, suburb &village PILOT_INC is set to 8, and thus the
requirements for city and suburb are achieved.
In PN planning, two methods can be adopted to set the PN_Offset of each sector of the
same BS after deciding the Pilot_Inc.
1. Continuous setting: the PN_Offset of the three sectors of one BTS are: the first
sector3n+1 PILOT_INC; the second sector3n+2 PILOT_INC; the third
sector3n+3 PILOT_INC;
2. Discontinuous setting: the PN_Offset has certain difference for the three sectors
of one BTS and the difference is nPILOT_INC for the corresponding sector of
different BTS. The PN_Offset of the three sectors of one BTS is set as: the first
sector n PILOT_INC; the second sector n PILOT_INC+168; the third sector
n PILOT_INC+ 336.
In practice, the second way is preferred.
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Post-sales staff CDMA Network Planning course
Whatever PN setting methods used, once the PILOT_INC is determined, the PN
resource is certain.
(1) If Pilot_Inc is set as 3, the number of provided resource PN is [512/3] =170. Each
PN group uses three PNs (assuming three sectors for each site). For new network,
half of them remaining for future, the number of usable PN group is [170/
(3*2)]=28. That is, for new network, each multiplexing set can have 28 sites.
(2) If Pilot_Inc is set as 4, the number of provided resource PN is [512/4] =128. Each
PN group uses three PNs (assuming three sectors for each site). For new network,
half of them remaining for future, the number of usable PN group is [128/(3*2)]
= 21. That is, for new network, each multiplexing set can have 21 sites.
6.2.2 Site PN planning
1. First one basic multiplexing set should be determined, and surrounding sites can
be divided into many multiplexing sets basing on this.
2. According to relative location of the sites, we should determine that every site of
different multiplexing sets use the same PN set with which site of the basic set,
avoiding adjacent sites use the same PN set.
3. Determine every site PN planning of the sparsest multiplexing set. Proper
spacing should be adopted by the distance between adjacent sites, in order to
avoid the interference between sites.
4. For the sites with less than 3 sectors, redundant PN resource can be not used. For
the sites with more than 3 sectors, each site uses two continuous PN sets.
6.3 Setting of Initial Neighboringing Cell List
After PN is set, the neighboringing cell list should be set. Whether the setting is
reasonable or not will affect the handoff success rate and system performance.
The initial neighboringing cell list during the system design can be set with reference to
the following ways (after the system is formally activate, the neighboringing cell list can
be adjusted according to the statistics of handoff times):
Different cells of the same site must be set as mutually neighboringing cells;
The first layer of neighboringing cells and the second layer of cells should select their
respective neighboringing cells based on the coverage of the site (as shown in Fig. 7-4).
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6 Principles for PN Planning and Setting of Initial Neighboringing Cell
The two layers of cells facing the current sector should be set as neighboringing cells,
while the first layer at the back of cells can also be set as neighboringing cells.
The Figure 6-21 is an example for setting neighboringing cells:
PILOT_INC is actually set to 4 (it can be set to 2 in the system), while the pilot can be
set according to the first method introduced above;
The current cells are in red and their PNs are set to 4, 8 and 12 respectively;
The first layers of cells are in pink, while the second layers are in blue.
1
9
6
2
0
0
2
0
4
4
8
1
2
1
0
0
1
0
4
1
0
8
1
2
4
1
2
8
1
3
2
1
6
2
0
2
4
8
8
9
2
9
6
2
2
0
2
2
4
2
2
8
7
6
8
0
8
4
1
1
2
1
1
6
1
2
0
2
0
8
2
1
2
2
1
6
6
4
6
8
7
2
1
6
0
1
6
4
1
6
8
1
4
8
1
5
2
1
5
6
5
2
5
6
6
0
1
7
2
1
7
6
1
8
0
4
0
4
4
4
8
2
8
3
2
3
6
1
3
6
1
4
0
1
4
4
1
8
4
1
8
8
1
9
2
Figure 6-21 Example for setting neighboringing cell list
The neighboringing cells of the current cells can be set as follows:
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Post-sales staff CDMA Network Planning course
Table 6-23 Example for setting neighboringing cell list
Sector No. Pilot No. (PN) Neighboringing Cell List
1-1 4
8, 12, 32, 48, 88, 92, 100, 108, 112, 128, 140, 144, 156, 196, 200, 204, 208,
220
After the neighboringing cells of all sectors are set, it should be checked whether their
neighboringing cells match each other.
According to the number of neighboringing cells configured to each cell and mutual
match between them, the neighboringing cells can be adjusted to make them match
better. The number of neighboringing cells cannot exceed 18 and the mutual match rate
of the neighboringing cells should be greater than 90%, which can be inspected
automatically by relevant tools on OMC when the related parameters are being input into
the OMC.
For a service area where there are relatively few sites (less 6), all sectors can be set as
neighboringing cells.
6.4 Setting of Dual Frequency Neighboringing Cells
In the dual carrier system, some base stations are of dual carrier type. The dual carrier
cell neighboringing to the single carrier base station is referred to as critical cell.
The carrier shared by all base stations is called public carrier, while the other is called
second carrier. When a mobile phone is at the second carrier of the critical cell, it may
move toward a neighboringing single carrier base station. As the neighboringing single
carrier base station does not have the second carrier, necessarily the mobile phone will
switch over in the critical cell from the second carrier to the public carrier. IS95 mobile
phone can only search one frequency, therefore the neighboringing single carrier base
station cannot be seen from the second carrier and the mobile phone cannot initiate the
handoff actively. Instead, the base station should order the mobile phone to switch over
through the following algorithm. 1X mobile phone can search the second carrier in
principle.
When a mobile phone enters the critical cell, it is allocated to the service channel of the
second carrier. The base station orders the mobile phone to periodically report the pilot
strength measuring message. If the strength of all active pilots reported is lower than a
specific threshold, the base station will order the mobile phone to switch over to the
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6 Principles for PN Planning and Setting of Initial Neighboringing Cell
public carrier. This threshold is called frequency change semi-soft handoff threshold.
Frequency change handoff in the critical cell includes two modes: hand-down and
handover. Hand-down refers to the switching from the second carrier to the public carrier
within the same critical cell; handover refers to the switching from the second carrier in
the critical cell to the public carrier of the neighboringing single carrier base station.
Frequency change handoff should be implemented in the dual carrier cell adjacent to the
single carrier cell. The database adds the critical cell ID into the r_Carrier_para. After the
valid diversity is updated each time (which means one call or a handoff is implemented),
BSSAP will send the latest valid diversity to the DBS. Only when DBS confirms that all
cells of the valid diversity are critical cells, can the semi-soft handoff be implemented. In
this case, the base station needs to transmit messages such as PMRO, PPMRO and
CFSRQM to the MS to learn about the wireless environment where the MS is in, so that
it can be determined whether or not to implement semi-soft handoff.
The conditions for implementing the semi-soft handoff are as follows:
1. There is no leg to be added;
2. All legs are in the critical cell;
3. The search window center of all legs in the valid diversity should be >T_RTD;
4. In the valid diversity, the number of legs whose strength exceeds the threshold
T_Drop should be <2;
5. The strength of all PNs in the PSMM should be lower than T_DropSSHO.
The initial neighboringing cells of the dual carrier system should be set according to the
following principles:
1. The principle for setting the neighboringing cells of the first carrier is the same as
that mentioned above;
2. for the central cell of the second carrier (a non-critical cell), the configuration of
its neighboringing cell list is the same as that of the first carrier;
3. The critical cell of the second carrier should be configured with preferred
neighboringing cells for frequency change handoff. These preferred
neighboringing cells can be selected by finding the single carrier cells that have
most frequent handoff relation with the local cell. The number of preferred cells
that can be selected depends on the handoff mode. In the Handdown mode, only
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Post-sales staff CDMA Network Planning course
3 preferred neighboringing cells can be selected and the MS is switched over to
the basic carrier of the local cell and other three preferred cells. In the Handover
mode, 4 preferred neighboringing cells can be selected and the MS is switched
over to four cells other than the local cell. Generally the first mode is selected;
4. Three cells that are closest to the critical cell in geographical position can be
selected, as the initial preferred neighboringing cells of the critical cell. They can
be adjusted according to the handoff situation after formal activation.
6.5 PN planning by use of CNO
The CNO1 PN planning module is used for the PN planning of CDMA wireless network.
The precondition for PN planning is that the system has loaded the CNO1 data or ZRC
data files which contain geographic information of BTSs, such as longitude, latitude,
sector orientation, and so on. Consequently, before conducting PN planning, make sure
that the CNO1 or ZRC data files have been loaded by the system. The PN planning
module includes the following major functions, and its main interface in CNO1 is shown
in Figure 6-22.
Conduct the PN planning for the network without PN configuration
Check up the PN reuse status in the network that has been PN- configured
Specify the cells that can reuse the same PN
Specify the cells on which the PN planning is to be performed
Query the information on PN reuse and PN offset
Conduct the PN planning for the BTS that is to be capacity-expanded
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6 Principles for PN Planning and Setting of Initial Neighboringing Cell
Figure 6-22 Interface of PN Planning
The function buttons are shown in Table 6-24.
Table 6-24 Toolbar of PN Planning
Button Function
Load CNO1 data
Load ZRC data
Set PN planning parameters
Query PN reuse and PN offset information
Configure PN-reusing BTS
Conduct PN planning
Check up the PN reuse of original BTS
Output PN planning and PN reuse info.
Two PN planning modes for selection
6.5.1 Parameters Setting of PN Planning
Before conducting PN planning and PN reuse check-up, it is necessary to set a series of
planning parameters, including:
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Post-sales staff CDMA Network Planning course
1. PN_INC: PN increase
2. PN interval: PN interval among the same PN group
3. Group interval: PN interval between two PN groups
4. Reuse distance: Minimum PN reuse distance
5. Reserved Num: spare PN groups reserved for future usage
6. PN setting for boundary cell: for instance, if this parameter is set as 12, it means
that the PN groups that are multiples of 12 will be reserved; if the value equals 0,
it means that there is no restriction on PN setting for the boundary cell.
7. Cell radius: Cell coverage radius, which is an empirical value.
Click the button and open the parameter setting interface, as shown in Figure 6-23.
Figure 6-23 Parameters Setting of PN Planning
By default, the system has two PN grouping schemes.
1. Scheme 1 is setting PN_INC as 3, PN interval as 168 and PN group interval as 3.
The grouping result of this scheme is shown in the following table:
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6 Principles for PN Planning and Setting of Initial Neighboringing Cell
Table 6-25 PN grouping scheme 1
PN Group No. PN 1 PN 2 PN 3
1 3 171 339
2 6 174 342

56 168 336 504
2. Scheme 2 is setting PN_INC as 4, PN interval as 4 and PN group interval as 12.
The grouping result of this scheme is shown in the following table:
Table 6-26 PN grouping scheme 2
PN Group No. PN 1 PN 2 PN 3
1 4 8 12
2 16 20 24

42 496 500 504
The user can also customize the PN grouping. Having finished the setting of PN_INC,
PN interval and PN group interval, it can be viewed the PN grouping and reservation
status by clicking the button. The interface is shown in Figure 6-24.
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Post-sales staff CDMA Network Planning course
Figure 6-24 PN Grouping And Reservation
After setting the above parameters related to PN grouping, the user can continue to set
other parameters including Min Reuse Distance, Reserved Num (PN groups for
reservation), and Cell Radius.
When parameter setting is finished, click <OK > to save the current parameter values, or
Cancel to abandon the modification to the current setting.
6.5.2 Setting PN-reusing BTSs
Before PN planning, it can be set in advance some BTSs that can reuse same PN even
though the minimum PN reuse distance can not be satisfied.
1. Click the button to set BTSs that can reuse the same PN. The setting
interface is shown like Figure 6-25 .
2. In the left frame, select BTSs that are to be PN-reused, and then click to
add them into the PN-reusing BTS group. Or, select BTSs from the PN-using
BTS list in the right frame and then click to remove them from the group.
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6 Principles for PN Planning and Setting of Initial Neighboringing Cell
Figure 6-25 The Setting of PN-reusing BTS
3. Click the button to save the current setting;
4. To delete the previously set BTS under PN reuse, switch to the View Reuse PN
tab and enter its displayed view; then select the item to be deleted, and click
to remove it, as shown in Figure 6-26.
Figure 6-26 The Deletion of PN-reusing BTS
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Post-sales staff CDMA Network Planning course
6.5.3 Querying PN Reuse and PN Offset Information
For the current network or BTSs that have been PN planned, it can be queried the PN
reuse status of each cell, as well as the situation of PN alias resulting from those isolated
BTSs located on high mountains.
6.5.3.1 Query of PN reuse information
1. Click the button in the main menu to open the interface of PN Using View,
as shown in Figure 6-27.

Figure 6-27 Interface of PN Querying
The interface consists of two tabbed sub-pages. The PN reuse view page can be
used for querying PN reuse distances among the cells that share the same PN
before or after PN planning. As for the cell whose minimum reuse distance has
been set by cell users, it should be highlighted in red font.
2. Make sure the current PN status: is it original or after-planned. For example, if
the PN information being queried is original, select Original from the
expandable list of Select PN status; otherwise, select Planned for the planned
PN.
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6 Principles for PN Planning and Setting of Initial Neighboringing Cell
3. Select the queried PN value from the expandable list of the Select PN value
item, and the distance between any two cells that use this PN will be displayed in
the lower table. The querying result is just like Figure 6-28.
Figure 6-28 The Distance between PN-reusing Cells
4. If you want to query the PN reuse status after PN planning, it only needs to
select Planned in the expandable list of Select PN Status item and then follow
the same operations mentioned in the above step. The query result of PN reuse
information is displayed in Figure 6-29.
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Post-sales staff CDMA Network Planning course
Figure 6-29 the Query of PN Reuse Information after PN Planning
6.5.3.2 Query of PN offset information
In a real network, radio signals transmitted from an isolated BTS that is located on the
high mountain is capable of reaching far areas, which can cause the phenomenon of PN
alias. For example, due to transmission delay, a PN of 3 received by the mobile is
probably misunderstood to be 6. The query interface of PN confusion is shown in Figure
6-30.
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6 Principles for PN Planning and Setting of Initial Neighboringing Cell
Figure 6-30 the Query of PN Confusion
1. In the Figure 38, for querying the PN confusion information of original or
planned BTS, you can select Original or Planned from the expandable list of
Select PN status item and view their query results respectively.
2. Under the Set PN offset item, input the related parameters for querying PN alias.
PN_INC represents PN increment set by the user, and its default value is the
PN_INC set by the user before PN planning. Level represents the level of PN
alias. The PN offset can be calculated by the following formula:
Offset PN = Current PN + PN_INC Level
(Level = [-Level, +Level])
For instance, when examining PN alias of a cell whose PN is 6, if Level value is
selected to be 0, it means PN alias parameters are not configured. If Level equals
1, it means cells whose PN are 3, 6 or 9 will be examined.
3. Selecting the cell to be queried in the left table, the information of cells that have
PN alias with the queried cell will all be listed accordingly in the right table.
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Post-sales staff CDMA Network Planning course
6.5.4 PN Planning
This module provides two types of PN planning modes: manual planning and automatic
planning. The user can click the button to make a choice.
6.5.4.1 Manual PN Planning
Manual planning means that the user selects one certain BTS from the BTS information
table and then starts PN planning.
1. Choose the Manual Plan Mode in the button.
2. Click to start PN planning.
During the PN planning, the selected BTS is taken as the center, and the distance
between other BTSs and the selected BTS acts as the judging criterion of
planning. The PN planning goes based on the principle of "maximum PN reuse
distance and minimum PN reuse pairs". The planning result will output the PN of
each cell in BTSs, the PN planning result centering the selected BTS and the PN
reuse status of the whole network. The planning process can be seen in Figure 6-
31. Clicking Cancel button can stop planning process.
Figure 6-31 Manual PN Planning
3. The manual PN planning result is displayed in the PN plan result page, as
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6 Principles for PN Planning and Setting of Initial Neighboringing Cell
shown in the left frame of Figure 6-32.
Figure 6-32 PN Planning Result
4. Meanwhile, the check-up on PN reuse will be done automatically, with the check
result being listed in the right frame of the page. If the right frame displays blank,
it means there is no PN reuse distance that is less than the set distance value.
5. Click and then choose PN planning result to save the PN planning result into
CSV files.
6.5.4.2 Automatic PN Planning
The idea of automatic PN planning is: firstly, based on the algorithm of manual PN
planning, the automatic PN planning goes by centering BTSs one by one; the minimum
PN reuse distance and pairs of each centered BTS will be listed. Then the user designates
one certain qualified BTS from the result list of automatic PN planning and conduct a
manual PN planning centering this designated BTS, the final PN planning result can thus
be obtained.
1. Select the Auto Plan from the item.
2. Click , and the automatic PN planning will start.
The speed of automatic planning depends on the quantity of BTSs. And the
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Post-sales staff CDMA Network Planning course
planning result will be listed by presenting the schemes that conduct the PN
planning respectively centering one of BTSs. The scheme whose minimum PN
reuse distance is less than the set value will be highlighted in red. The scheme
output is just like the Figure 6-33.
Figure 6-33 Auto PN Planning Scheme
6.5.5 Checking-up PN Reuse
As the network that has been PN configured or that has been planned, this function can
do the check-up on the networks PN reuse status. The check-up result is displayed in the
list. The user can examine the PN reuse information by customizing PN reuse restriction
(minimum PN reuse distance):
1. If checking PN reuse status of the current network, please switch to Original PN
information page first.
2. Click the button in the tool bar, the check-up result on PN reuse status will be
listed in the right frame as shown in Figure 6-34.
3. Click and then choosing Original PN reusing or Planned PN reusing will
respectively save the PN reuse check-up result of original or planned PN
situation into CSV file.
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6 Principles for PN Planning and Setting of Initial Neighboringing Cell
Figure 6-34 The Result of PN Reuse Check-up
6.5.6 Selection of BTSs to be PN Planned
Before PN planning, the user can exclude some BTSs or some types of BTSs that are not
necessary to be PN planned.
1. In the main interface, select the BTS information tab and enter the sub-interface.
Through checking or non-checking BTSs listed in the left frame, the user can
select the BTSs not to be PN planned. Alternatively, the user can right-click in
the list of BTSs and then select from the pop-up menu which types of BTSs are
not to be PN planned, as shown in Figure 6-35.
2. After selecting the BTSs that are not to be PN planned, the user can continue to
conduct the PN planning according to the normal planning method mentioned
above.
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Post-sales staff CDMA Network Planning course
Figure 6-35 The Selection of BTSs to be PN Planned
6.5.7 PN Planning of Capacity-expanded BTS
As for the PN planning of the capacity-expanded BTS, firstly cancel checking the box
before original BTSs which means the original PN planning will be maintained. Then
check the box before capacity-expanded BTSs and conduct the PN planning with the
normal planning method.
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