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Power Conversion

Version 1.2 , May 2000


Application Note
AN-SMPS-1683X 1
CoolSET

TDA16831 ... 34 for OFF Line Switch Mode Power Supplies


Authors: Harald Zllinger
Rainer Kling
Published by Infineon Technologies AG
http://www.infineon.com
N e v e r s t o p t h i n k i n g
TDA1683X for OFF Line Switch Mode Power Supplies
Page 1 of 28 AN-SMPS-1683X 1
V1.2
Contents:
CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION............................................................................................ 2
OPERATING PRINCIPLES........................................................................................ 2
SMPS CALCULATION SOFTWARE FLYCAL .......................................................... 2
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: .................................................................................................. 4
DESIGN PROCEDURE
DEFINE INPUT PARAMETERS:....................................................................................... 5
INPUT DIODE BRIDGE (BR1): ...................................................................................... 5
DETERMINE INPUT CAPACITOR (C3): ........................................................................... 5
TRANSFORMER DESIGN (TR1): ................................................................................... 7
WINDING DESIGN: ...................................................................................................... 8
OUTPUT RECTIFIER (D1):.......................................................................................... 10
OUTPUT CAPACITORS (C5 & C9): ............................................................................. 10
OUTPUT FILTER (L3 & C9): ...................................................................................... 11
VCC SUPPLY:....................................................................................................... 11
CALCULATION OF SNUBBER NETWORK: ...................................................................... 12
CALCULATION OF LOSSES: ........................................................................................ 13
VOLTAGE REGULATION LOOP: ................................................................................... 15
REGULATION LOOP:.................................................................................................. 16
TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS OF REGULATION LOOP ELEMENTS: ................................ 16
TRANSFORMER CONSTRUCTION ................................................................................ 21
LAYOUT RECOMMENDATION: .............................................................................. 22
OUTPUT POWER TABLE........................................................................................ 23
SUMMARY OF USED NOMENCLATURE............................................................... 24
PARAMETERS........................................................................................................... 24
REFERENCES ......................................................................................................... 26
TDA1683X for OFF Line Switch Mode Power Supplies
Page 2 of 28 AN-SMPS-1683X 1
V1.2
Circuit Description
The TDA 16831 ... 34 is a current mode pulse width modulator with an integrated CoolMOS
Transistor. It meets the need for minimum external control circuitry for a flyback application.
Current mode control means that the current (I
PRI
) through the CoolMOS Transistor and flyback
transformer is compared with a feedback signal derived from the output voltage (V
OUT
) of the flyback
application. The result of that comparision determines the on time (t
ON
) of the CoolMOS Transistor.
To minimize external circuitry the current sense circuitry is integrated within the CoolSET controller.
The oscillator resistor and capacitor which determine the switching frequency are also integrated,
reducing the external connections. Special efforts have been made to compensate temperature
dependancy of clock frequency and to minimize the number of the passive components.
Operating Principles
The TDA 16831 ... 34 is designed for a current mode flyback configuration in discontinous current
mode.
The control circuit has a fixed frequency and the duty cycle (D) of integrated CoolMOS Transistor is
controlled to maintain a constant output voltage (V
OUT
).
The diagram below (Fig. 1) shows the input voltage (V
DC IN
) and the primary (I
PRI
) and secondary (I
SEC
)
transformer current.
When the CoolMOS Transistor is turned on, the start of all windings on the transformer will go positive.
The rectifier diode (D1) on the secondary side will be reverse-biased and will not conduct. Therefore
no current will flow in the secondary while the CoolMOS Transistor is turned on. During this phase,
energy is being stored in the primary winding inductance and the transformer may be treated as a
simple series inductor. The diagram shows (Fig. 1) that there will be a linear increase of primary
current (I
PRI
) while the primary CoolMOS Transistor is on.
When the CoolMOS Transistor is turned off, the voltage will reverse on all windings (flyback action)
until clamped by the secondary side widing through the secondary rectifier diode. Now the secondary
rectifier diode (D1) will conduct, and the magnetizing energy in the core will now transfer to the
secondary side during the reset interval.
This current will decrease from its peak value to zero, as shown in the diagram (I
SEC
). In this period
the complete stored energy in the primary inductance will be transferred to the secondary side
(neglecting losses), before the next store cycle starts. The secondary voltage (V
SEC
) is reflected back
(V
R
) through the transformer turns ratio to the primary winding and added to the input voltage
(V
DC IN
+ V
R
). Additional transient voltage may appear on the primary winding due to energy stored in
uncoupled leakage inductance in the primary winding which isnt clamped by the secondary side
winding. If the flyback current does not reach zero before the next on Cycle the converter is
operating in continous current mode. When this system reverts to the continous operation, the transfer
function is changed to a two pole system with low output impedance and additional design rules
become important.
SMPS Calculation Software FLYCAL
FLYCAL is an EXCEL spread sheet with all needed Equations for calculating your SMPS easier.
FLYCAL corresponds with the calculating example in this application note, starting at page 5. You only
have to put in the main parameters of your application in FLYCAL and to follow
(like the calculating example in this application note) step by step. FLYCAL contents all used
equations from the example with the same consecutive numbering.
TDA1683X for OFF Line Switch Mode Power Supplies
Page 3 of 28 AN-SMPS-1683X 1
V1.2
Voltage and Current waveforms in discontinous mode operation:
V
DC IN
= V
DC IN min
V
DC IN
> V
DC IN min
VDC IN min + VR
VDC IN min
0 T
IPEAK
IPRI
VIN + VR
VDC IN
0
IPEAK IPRI
ISEC
IPEAK
ISEC
IPEAK
Light load
tOFF
tON tOFF T
tON
Full load
Duty Cycle: D = 0,5 Duty Cycle: D < 0,5
Voltage
Current
Fig. 1
Duty Cycle:
T
t
D
ON

TDA1683X for OFF Line Switch Mode Power Supplies


Page 4 of 28 AN-SMPS-1683X 1
V1.2
Circuit Diagram:
Fig. 2
TDA1683X for OFF Line Switch Mode Power Supplies
Page 5 of 28 AN-SMPS-1683X 1
V1.2
Design Procedure for fixed frequency Flyback Converter with
TDA16831 ... 34 operating in discontinuous current mode.
Procedure Example
Define input Parameters:
Minimal AC input voltage: V
AC min
Maximal AC input voltage: V
AC max
Line frequency: f
AC
Max. Output power: P
OUT max
Min. Output power: P
OUT min
Output voltage: V
OUT
Output ripple voltage: V
OUT Ripple
Reflection voltage: V
R
Estimated efficiency:
DC ripple voltage: V
DC IN Ripple
Auxiliary Voltage: V
Aux
Optocoupler Gain: G
C
Used CoolSET
85V
270V
50Hz
40W
1W
12V
0,05V
100V
0,8
20V
12V
1
TDA16834 for 40W @ 25C
There are no special requirements imposed on the
input rectifier and storage capacitor in the flyback
converter. The components will be selected to meet
the power rating and hold-up requirements.
Maximum input power:

max

OUT
MAX IN
P
P (Eq 1)
Input Diode Bridge (BR1):
cos
min

AC
MAX IN
PRMS
V
P
I (Eq 2)
2
max max

AC PK DC
V V (Eq 3)
Determine Input Capacitor (C3):
Minimum peak input voltage at no load condition
2
min min

AC PK DC
V V (Eq 4)
W
W
P
MAX IN
50
8 , 0
40


A
V
W
I
PRMS
98 , 0
6 , 0 85
50

V V V
PK DC
382 2 270
max

V V V
PK DC
120 2 85
min

TDA1683X for OFF Line Switch Mode Power Supplies
Page 6 of 28 AN-SMPS-1683X 1
V1.2
Ripple PK DC DC
V V V
min min
(Eq 5)
Calculating discharging time at each half line cycle:

(
(
(
(
,
\
,
,
,
,
(
j
+
90
arcsin
1 5
min
min
PK DC
DC
D
V
V
ms T (Eq 6)
Required energy at discharging time of C3:

D MAX IN IN
T P W

(Eq 7)
Calculating input capacitor value C
IN
:
2
min
2
min
2
DC PK DC
IN
IN
V V
W
C

(Eq 8)
Alternative a rule of thumb on choosing C
IN
:
Input voltage C
IN
115V 2F/W
230V 1F/W
85V ...270V 2 ...3F/W....................
Postcalculation of input Capacitore:
Select a capacitor out of Epcos Databook
of Aluminium Electrolytic Capacitors.
The following types are preferred:
For 85C Applications:
Series B43303-........ 2000h lifetime
B43501-........ 10000h lifetime
For 105C Applications:
Series B43504-........ 3000h lifetime
B43505-........ 5000h lifetime
IN
IN
PK DC DC
C
W
V V


2
2
min min
(Eq 9)
we choose a ripple voltage of 20V
V V V V
DC
100 20 120
min

ms
V
V
ms T
D
1 , 8
90
120
100
arcsin
1 5
(
(
(
(
,
\
,
,
,
,
(
j
+
Ws ms W W
IN
41 , 0 1 , 8 50
F
V V
Ws
CIN 185
10000 14400
41 , 0 2
2 2

F
W
F
W

150 3 50
We choose 180F 400V (based on Eq 8)
V
F
Ws
V V
DC
2 , 99
180
41 , 0 2
14400
2
min

TDA1683X for OFF Line Switch Mode Power Supplies


Page 7 of 28 AN-SMPS-1683X 1
V1.2
Transformer Design (TR1):
Calculation of peak current on primary inductance:
max min

2
D V
P
I
DC
MAX IN
LPK

(Eq 10)
3
max
D
I I
LPK LRMS
(Eq 11)
Calculating of primary inductance within limit of
maximum Duty-Cycle :
f I
V D
L
LPK
DC
P

min max
(Eq 12)
Select core type and inductance factor (A
L
) from
Epcos ferrite Databook or CD-ROM
Passive Components.
Fix maximum flux density:
B
max
0,2T ...0,3T for ferrite cores depending on core
material.
We choose 0,2T for material N27
The primary turns can be calculated as:
L
P
P
A
L
N (Eq 13)
Number of secondary turns can be calculated as:
( )
R
FDIODE OUT P
V
V V N
Ns
+
(Eq 14)
D
max
= 0,5 (see datasheet TDA16834)
A
V
W
I
LPK
02 , 2
5 , 0 2 , 99
50 2

A A I
LRMS
83 , 0
3
5 , 0
02 , 2
H
Hz A
V
L
P
246
10 * 100 02 , 2
2 , 99 5 , 0
3

Selected core: E 32/16/9


Material = N27
A
L
= 244 nH
s = 0,5 mm
A
e
= 83 mm
2
A
N
= 108,5 mm
2
l
N
= 64,4 mm
weight 30g
P
V


= 190mW/g (200mT, 100kHz, 100C)
75 , 31
244
246

nH
H
N
P

turns
we choose Np = 32 turns
( )
06 , 4
100
7 , 0 12 32

V
V V
Ns
we choose N
S
= 4 turns
TDA1683X for OFF Line Switch Mode Power Supplies
Page 8 of 28 AN-SMPS-1683X 1
V1.2
Number of auxiliary turns can be calculated as:
( )
R
FDIODE Aux P
Aux
V
V V N
N
+
(Eq 15)
Postcalculation of primary inductance, primary peak
current, max. flux density and gap:
l P P
A N L
2
(Eq 16)
f Lp
D V
I
DC
LPK

max min
(Eq 17)
e P
LPK P
A N
I L
B

max
(Eq 18)
P
e P
L
A N
s

2 7
10 4
(Eq 19)
Winding Design:
(see also page 21
Transformer Construction)
The primary winding of 32 turns has to be split into
16+16 turns in order to get best coupling between
primary and secondary winding.
The effective bobbin width and winding cross section
can be calculated:
M BW BW
e
2 (Eq 20)
BW
BW A
A
e N
Ne

(Eq 21)
Calculate copper section for primary and secondary
winding:
The winding cross section A
N
has to be splitted into
the number of windings.
Primary winding 0,5
Secondary winding 0,45
Auxiliary winding 0,05
( )
06 , 4
100
7 , 0 12 32

V
V V
N
Aux
we choose N
Aux
= 4 turns
H nH L
P
250 244 32
2

A
Hz H
V
I
LPK
98 , 1
10 * 100 250
5 , 0 2 , 99
3

mT
mm
A H
B 186
83 32
98 , 1 250
2
max


mm
H
mm
s 43 , 0
250
83 32 10 4
2 2 7

From bobbin datasheet E32/16/9: BW = 20,1mm


Margin determined: M = 4mm
mm mm mm BW
e
1 , 12 4 2 1 , 20
TDA1683X for OFF Line Switch Mode Power Supplies
Page 9 of 28 AN-SMPS-1683X 1
V1.2
Copper space factor f
Cu
:0,2 ....0,4
BW N
BW f A
A
P
e Cu N
P

5 , 0
(Eq 22)
( ) ( ) ( ) d AWG log 2 8277 , 1 97 , 9 (Eq 23)
BW N
BW f A
A
s
e Cu N
s

45 , 0
(Eq 24)
BW N
BW f A
A
aux
e Cu N
aux

05 , 0
(Eq 25)
With the effective bobbin width we check the number
of turns per layer:
P
P
d
BWe
N (Eq 26)
We calculate the available area for each winding:
Used for calculation: f
Cu
=0,3
2
2
31 , 0
1 , 20 32
1 , 12 3 , 0 5 , 108 5 , 0
mm
mm
A
P

diameter dp 0,64mm 22 AWG


2
2
20 , 2
1 , 20 4
1 , 12 3 , 0 5 , 108 45 , 0
mm
mm
A
s

diameter ds 2 x 0,8mm 2 x 20 AWG


2
2
24 , 0
1 , 20 4
1 , 12 3 , 0 5 , 108 05 , 0
mm
mm
A
aux

diameter da 0,64mm 22 AWG


Primary:
17
64 , 0
1 , 12

mm
mm
N
P
turns per layer
2 layer needed
Secondary:
4
8 , 0 2
1 , 12

mm
mm
N
S
turns per layer
Auxiliary:
Can be neglected !
TDA1683X for OFF Line Switch Mode Power Supplies
Page 10 of 28 AN-SMPS-1683X 1
V1.2
Output Rectifier (D1):
The output rectifier diodes in flyback converters are
subject to a large PEAK and RMS current stress. The
values depend on the load, leakage inductance,
operating mode and output capacitor ESR.
Calculation of the maximum reverse voltage:
(
(
,
\
,
,
(
j
+
P
S
PK DC OUT RDiode
N
N
V V V
max
(Eq 27)
Calculation of the maximum current on secondary
side:
S
P
LPK SPK
N
N
I I (Eq 28)
max
3
1
D I I
SPK SRMS
(Eq 29)
V V V V
RDiode
8 , 59
32
4
382 12 (
,
\
,
(
j
+
A A I
SPK
8 , 15
4
32
98 , 1
A A I
SRMS
5 , 6 5 , 0
3
1
8 , 15
Output Capacitors (C5 & C9):
Output capacitors are highly stressed in flyback
converters. Normally the capacitor will be selected for
3 major parameters: capacitance value, low ESR
and ripple current rating.
Max. voltage overshoot: V
OUT
Number of clock periods: n
CP
f V
I
C
OUT
OUT
OUT

CP max
n
(Eq 30)
Select a capacitor out of Epcos Databook
of Aluminium Electrolytic Capacitors.
The following types are preferred:
For 85C Applications:
Series B41826-........ 2000h lifetime
For 105C Applications:
Series B41856-........ 2000h lifetime
To calculate the output capacitor, it is necessary to fix
the maximum voltage overshoot in case of switching
off @ maximum load condition.
After switching off the load, the regulation loop needs
about 5...10 periods of internal clock to reduce the
duty cycle.
V V
OUT
5 , 0
n
CP
= 5
F
Hz V
A
C
OUT
333
10 * 100 5 , 0
5 33 , 3
3

We select 470F 25V (based on Eq 30):


B41826-A5477-M
ESR Zmax = 0,06 @ 100kHz
Iac
R
= 2,2A
I
SRMS
= 6,6A (Eq 29) you need 3 capacitor
TDA1683X for OFF Line Switch Mode Power Supplies
Page 11 of 28 AN-SMPS-1683X 1
V1.2
Output Filter (L3 & C9):
The output filter consists of one capacitor (C9) and
one inductor (L3) in a L-C filter topology.
Zero frequency of output capacitor (C9) and
associated ESR:
OUT ESR
ZCOUT
C R
f

2
1
(Eq 31)
Calculating the needed inductance (L3) for substitute
the zero of the 3 output capacitors:
pCOUT ZCOUT
ESR
OUT
n f
R
L

2
(Eq 32)
VCC Supply:
Start-up Resistor (R6 & R7):
I
CCLmax
= max. Quiescent Current (Control IC)
I
LoadC
= VCC-Capacitor Load-Current (C4)
C
VCC
= Value of VCC-Capacitor (C4)
LoadC CCL
DC
Start
I I
V
R
+

max
min
(Eq 33)
Start up Time t
Start
:
LoadC
CCH VCC
Start
I
V C
t

(Eq 34)
Internal Zener Diode:
Depending on the transformer construction and load
condition the auxiliary supply voltage varies within an
operating range. If VCC exceeds V
Z
(16V), the
internal zener diode conducts. In this case we have
to observe the internal power dissipation limits or
use an external zener diode on VCC pin.
kHz
F
f
ZCOUT
6 , 5
470 06 , 0 2
1


H
kHz
L
OUT

57 , 0
3 6 , 5 2
06 , 0

I
CCLmax
= 80A
I
LoadC
= 40A
C
VCC
= 22F

+
k
A
V
R
Start
827
) 40 80 (
2 , 99

R6 = R7 =1/2 R
Start
= 413,5k
Choose 2 with value: 410k
s
A
V F
t
Sstart
6 , 6
40
12 22

Note:
Before the IC can be plugged into the application
board, the VCC capacitor has always to be
discharged!
TDA1683X for OFF Line Switch Mode Power Supplies
Page 12 of 28 AN-SMPS-1683X 1
V1.2
Calculation of Snubber Network:
(R10/C12/D3)
R DC DSS BR Snub
V V V V
max ) (
(Eq 35)
For calculating the snubber network it is neccesary to
know the leakage inductance. Most common way is
to have the value of the leakage inductance (L
LK
) in
percent of the primary inductance (Lp). If it is known
that the transformer construction is very consistent,
measuring the primary leakage inductance by
shorting the secondary windings will give an exact
number, assuming the availability of a good LCR
analyser.
% x Lp L
LK

( )
Snub Ssnub R
LK LPK
Snub
V V V
L I
C
+

2
(Eq 36)
( )
f I L
V V V
R
LPK LK
R R Ssnub
Snub

+

2
2 2
5 , 0
(Eq 37)
V V V V V
Snub
168 100 382 650
In our example we choose 5% of primary inductance
for leakage inductance.
H H L
LK
5 , 12 % 5 250
( )
nF
V V V
H A
C
Ssnub
1 , 1
168 168 100
5 , 12 ) 98 , 1 (
2


1,2nF
( )


+
k
Hz A H
V V V
R
Snub
3 , 25
10 * 100 ) 98 , 1 ( 5 , 12 5 , 0
100 100 168
3 2
2 2

25k
TDA1683X for OFF Line Switch Mode Power Supplies
Page 13 of 28 AN-SMPS-1683X 1
V1.2
Calculation of Losses:
Input diode bridge (BR1):
2
F PRMS DIN
V I P (Eq 38)
Calculation of copper resistance R
Cu
:
P
P N
PCu
A
p N l
R
100

(Eq 39)
Calculating of copper loss (TR1):
Cu MAX LPK Cu
R D I P
3
1
2
(Eq 40)
Output rectifier diode (D1):
FDIODE SPK DDIODE
V
D
I P


3
1
max
(Eq 41)
COOLMOS TRANSISTOR:
TDA16834
Calculated @ V
DCmin
= 99V
C
O
50pF (C
O
= C
OSS
+ C
Extern
)
R
DSON
= 1,6 (@ 150C)
Switching losses:
f V C P
DC O SON

2
min
2
1
(Eq 42)
( )
r LPK R DC SOFF
t f I V V P +
min
6
1
(Eq 43)
Conduction losses:
max
2
3
1
D I R P
LPK DSON D
(Eq 44)
W V A P
DIN
96 , 1 2 1 98 , 0
Copper resistivity p
100
@ 100C = 0,0172mm
2
/m


m
mm
m mm m m
R
PCu
3 , 114
31 , 0
/ 2 , 17 32 0644 , 0
2
2


m
mm
m mm m m
R
SCu
01 , 2
20 , 2
/ 2 , 17 4 0644 , 0
2
2
mW m A P
PCu
7 , 74 3 , 114
3
1
5 , 0 ) 98 , 1 (
2

mW m A P
SCu
1 , 84 01 , 2
3
1
5 , 0 ) 8 , 15 (
2

+ mW mW mW P
Cu
8 , 158 1 , 84 7 , 74
W V A P
DDIODE
52 , 4 7 , 0
3
5 , 0 1
8 , 15


(see also TDA 16831 ... 34 Data Sheet)
mW Hz V pF P
SON
5 , 24 10 * 100 99 50
2
1
3 2

( ) mW ns kHz A V V P
SOFF
197 30 100 02 , 2 100 99
6
1
+
W A P
D
05 , 1 5 , 0 ) 98 , 1 ( 6 , 1
3
1
2

TDA1683X for OFF Line Switch Mode Power Supplies
Page 14 of 28 AN-SMPS-1683X 1
V1.2
Summary of Losses:
D SOFF SON Losses
P P P P + + (Eq 44a)
Thermal Calculation:
Table of typical thermal Resistance [
W
K
]:
Heatsink DIP8 SO14
No 90 112
3 cm 64 92
6 cm 56 78
th Losses
R P dT * (Eq 44b)
Ta dT Tj + (Eq 44c)
W mW mW mW P
Losses
27 , 1 1005 197 4 , 25 + +
K
W
K
W dT 2 , 71 56 * 27 , 1
C C K Tj + 121 50 2 , 71
TDA1683X for OFF Line Switch Mode Power Supplies
Page 15 of 28 AN-SMPS-1683X 1
V1.2
Voltage Regulation Loop:
Reference: TL431 (IC2)
V
REF
=2,5V
I
KAmin
=1mA
Optocoupler: SFH617-3 (IC1)
Gc = 1 ...2 CTR 100% ...200%
V
FD
= 1,2V
I
Fmax
=10mA (maximum current limit)
Primary side:
Feedback voltage:
Values from TDA16831...34 datasheet
V
Ref int
= 5.5V typ.
V
FBmax
= 4,8V
R
FB
= 3,7k typ.
FB
f
FB
R
V
I
int Re
max
(Eq 45)
FB
FB f
FB
R
V V
I
max int Re
min

(Eq 46)
Secondary side:
(
(
,
\
,
,
(
j
1
2 1
REF
OUT
V
V
R R (Eq 47)
the value of R2 can be fixed at 4,7k
( )
max
3
) (
F
REF FD OUT
I
V V V
R
+
(Eq 48)
min
min
3
4
KA
FB
FD
I
Gc
I
R V
R
(
,
\
,
(
j
+
(Eq 49)
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
mA
k
V
I
FB
5 , 1
7 , 3
5 , 5
max

mA
k
V V
I
FB
19 , 0
7 , 3
8 , 4 5 , 5
min

k
V
V
k R 86 , 17 1
5 , 2
12
7 , 4
1
(
,
\
,
(
j

( )
k
mA
V V V
R 83 , 0
10
) 5 , 2 2 , 1 ( 12
3

+
910R
k
mA
mA
R V
R 4 , 1
1
1
2 , 0
910 2 , 1
4

(
,
\
,
(
j
+
1,2k
FB
3,7k
5,5V
VFB
R3
R1 R4
R5
R2
C2
C1
TL431
Vout
TDA1683X for OFF Line Switch Mode Power Supplies
Page 16 of 28 AN-SMPS-1683X 1
V1.2
Regulation Loop:
Fig. 5
Transfer Characteristics of Regulation Loop Elements:

3
7 3
R
k G
K
C
FB

Feedback

OUT
REF
VD
V
V
R R
R
K
+

2 1
2
Voltage Divider

( )
(
(
(
(
(
,
\
,
,
,
,
,
(
j
(
(
,
\
,
,
(
j
(
,
\
,
(
j
+ +
+



5
5
2
1
1
2
1
) (
C R
R
p
C R p R
R
f L
Z
p F
ESR
L
ESR L
L
P
PWM
PWR

Power stage
Z
PWM
= Transimpedance V
FB
/I
D

9
2
9
9
1
1
) (
C L p C R p
C R p
p F
ESR
ESR
LC
+ +
+
Output filter

( )
) 2 5 1 ( 1
2 1
2 1
2 1 5 1
) (
C R p C
R R
R R
p
C C R p
p Fr
+
+

+ +
Regulator
_
+
K
FB
K
VD
F
PWR
(p)
F
LC
(p)
Fr(p)
Vout
Vref
V
IN
TDA1683X for OFF Line Switch Mode Power Supplies
Page 17 of 28 AN-SMPS-1683X 1
V1.2
Zeros and Poles of the transfer characteristics:
Poles of powerstage @ min. and max. load:
6 , 3
40
12
2
max
2
W
V
P
V
R
OUT
OUT
LH
144
1
12
2
min
2
W
V
P
V
R
OUT
OUT
LL

5
1
C R
f
LH
OH

Hz
F
f
OH
7 , 62
1410 6 , 3
1



5
1
C R
f
LL
OL

Hz
F
f
OL
57 , 1
1410 144
1


The gain (Gc) of the optocoupler stage K
FB
and the voltage divider K
VD
we use as a constant.
3
7 3
R
k G
K
C
FB

K
FB
= 6,6 G
FB
= 16,4db
OUT
REF
VD
V
V
R R
R
K
+

2 1
2
K
VD
= 0,208 G
VD
= -13,6db
With adjustment of the transfer characteristics of the regulator we want to have equal gain within the
operating range and to compensate the pole fo of the powerstage F
PWR
().
Because of the compensation of the output capacitors zero (see page 11 Eq31, Eq32) we neglect this zero
and the LC-Filter pole.
So the transfer characteristics of the power stage is reduced to a single pole response.
In order to calculate the gain of the open loop we have to select the crossover frequency.
We calculate the gain of the Power-Stage with max. output power at the selected crossover frequency
fg = 3kHz:
Z
PWM
of TDA16834 =1,3 V/A
( )
]
]
]
]
,
,

,
+
]
]
]
]
,
,

,
+

2 1
1 6 , 0 1 1
1
T
t
T
t
ON
ON
PWM ON PWM
ON ON
e e T T t
t
Z t Z (formula according data sheet p. 12)
TDA1683X for OFF Line Switch Mode Power Supplies
Page 18 of 28 AN-SMPS-1683X 1
V1.2
with this formula we calculate ZPWM @ max. duty cycle:
( )
A
V
e e ns ns s
s A
V
t Z
ns
s
ns
s
ON PWM
7 , 1 1 6 , 0 850 850 7 , 4
7 , 4
1
3 , 1
200
7 , 4
850
7 , 4

]
]
]
,

,
+
]
]
]
,

,
+

Gain @ crossover frequency:


(
(
(
(
(
(
,
\
,
,
,
,
,
,
(
j
(
(
,
\
,
,
(
j
+



2
1
1
2
1
) (
fo
fg
f L R
Z
fg F
p L
PWM
PWR

073 , 0
7 , 62
3000
1
1
2
8 , 0 100 250 6 , 3
7 , 1
1
) 3 (
2

(
(
(
(
(
(
,
\
,
,
,
,
,
,
(
j
(
,
\
,
(
j
+



kHz H R
kHz F
PWR

G
PWR
(3kHz) = -22,7db
Transfer characteristics:
Fig. 6
1 10 100 1 10
3
1 10
4
1 10
5
50
0
50
50
50
G
PWR
( )
Gr( )
G
FB
G
MOD
0
.
1 10
5 1 ( ) i
.
2
G
PWR
()
Gain
[db]
G
VD
Gr()
G
FB
TDA1683X for OFF Line Switch Mode Power Supplies
Page 19 of 28 AN-SMPS-1683X 1
V1.2
At the crossover frequency (fg) we calculate for the open loop gain:
G
ol
() = Gs () + Gr () = 0.
With the equations of the transfer characteristics we calculate the gain of the regulation loop @ fg.
The gain of the regulation loop we calculate:
Gs = G
FB
+ G
PWR
+ G
VD
= 16,4db 22,7db 13,6db
Gs = -19,9db
We calculate the separate components of the regulator:
Gs () + Gr () = 0 Gr = 0 (-19,9db) = 19,9db
( )
) 2 5 1 ( 1
2 1
2 1
) 2 1 5 1
) (
C R p C
R R
R R
p
C C R p
p Fr
+
+

+ +


( )
2 1
2 1 5
log 20
R R
R R R
Gr

+

2 1
2 1
10 5
20
R R
R R
R
Gr
+


k k R 7 , 41 72 , 3 10 5
20
9 , 20
43k

2 5 2
1
C R
fp


fg R
C

2 5 2
1
2

fp = 2*fg
pF
kHz k
C 617
6 43 2
1
2

680pF
In order to have enough phase margin @ low load condition we select the zero frequency of compensation
network at the middle between min. and max. load pole of power stage.
oh
ol
f
f
oh om
f f
log 5 , 0
10

Hz Hz f
om
92 , 9 10 7 , 62
7 , 62
57 , 1
log 5 , 0



( ) 2 1 5 2
1
C C R
fz
+

2
5 2
1
1 C
fom R
C

nF pF
Hz k
C 384 680
92 , 9 43 2
1
1

390nF
TDA1683X for OFF Line Switch Mode Power Supplies
Page 20 of 28 AN-SMPS-1683X 1
V1.2
Open Loop Gain
Fig. 7
Open Loop Phase
Fig. 8
1 10 100 1 10
3
1 10
4
1 10
5
50
0
50
70
60
Gr( )
Gs( )
G( )
0
.
1 10
5 1 ( ) i
.
2
1 10 100 1 10
3
1 10
4
1 10
5
180
142
104
66
28
10
10
180
r( )
s( )
( )
0
.
1 10
5 1 ( ) i
.
2
TDA1683X for OFF Line Switch Mode Power Supplies
Page 21 of 28 AN-SMPS-1683X 1
V1.2
Transformer Construction
The winding topology has a considerable influence on the performance and relaibility of the
transformer.
To reduce leakage inductance and proximity to acceptable limits, the use of a sandwich construction is
recommended.
In order to meet international safety requirements a transformer for Off - Line power supply must have
adequate insulation between primary and secondary winding.
This can be achived by using a margin wound construction or using triple insulated wire for the
secondary winding.
The creepage distance for universal input voltage range is typically 8mm. This sets a minimum margin
width as a half of the creepage distance to 4mm. Additional the neccesary insulation between primary
and secondary winding is provided using three layers of basic insulation tape.
Example of winding topology for margin wound transformers:
Fig. 9
Example of winding topology with triple insulated wire for secondary winding:
Fig. 10
BW* : value from bobbin datasheet
Primary
second half
BW*
Primary
first half
Auxiliary
Secondary
Triple Insulated
Wire
Primary
second half
Auxiliary
Secondary
margin margin
Triple insulation
Creepage
distance
BW*
BWe
Primary
first half
TDA1683X for OFF Line Switch Mode Power Supplies
Page 22 of 28 AN-SMPS-1683X 1
V1.2
Layout Recommendation:
Fig. 11
In order to avoid crosstalk between Power- and Signal-Path on the board we have to use care
regarding the track layout when designing the PCB.
The Power-Path (see Fig. 11) has to be as short as possible and separated from the VCC-Path and
the Feedback-Path. All GND-Paths have to be connected together at pin 8 (star ground) (1 and 14 at
G-type) of TDA16831...34.
TDA1683X for OFF Line Switch Mode Power Supplies
Page 23 of 28 AN-SMPS-1683X 1
V1.2
Output Power Table
Output Power @
V
IN
= 190 270V
Output Power @
V
IN
= 85 270V
Device
TDA
Package Heatsink
No
Heatsink
3 cm
Heatsink
6 cm
Heatsink
No
Heatsink
3 cm
Heatsink
6 cm
16831 DIP8 *17W *17W *17W *12W *12W *12W
16832 DIP8 24W 30W 32W 15W 18W 20W
16833 DIP8 **36W 49W 55W 26W 31W 34W
16834 DIP8 **34W 52W 60W 34W 42W 45W
16831G SO14 *17W *17W *17W *12W *12W *12W
16832G SO14 **21W 24W 26W 13W 15W 16W
16833G SO14 **23W 25W 28W 23W 25W 28W
Output Power Table Notes:
This output power table was created with the equations of this application note (see Calculation of
Losses on page 13 / 14), it shows the maximum practical continuous power @ Ta = 50 C and
Tj = 125 C with the recommended heatsink.
The conduction losses are calculated with the typical R
DSON
@ Tj = 125C (see Data Sheet TDA 1683x
page 13). The OFF switching losses are calculated with a typical rise time of tr = 50 ns (see Data
Sheet TDA 1683x page 13), the ON switching losses with the effective capacitance (+ estimated
external capacitances) of the used device (see also Data Sheet TDA 1683x page 13).
*The current limitation regulates the output power (see Data Sheet TDA 1683x page 13)
** The power losses are splitted in switching losses (CoolMOS) and conduction losses. Its depending
on V
DCin
and witch part of losses having more impact on the power losses (Chart: Select your
device).
Chart: Select your Device (Tj @ 125C, Ta @ 50C, Vreflection = 100V )
Power Losses of all Devices @ typical Pout
0,00
0,20
0,40
0,60
0,80
1,00
1,20
1,40
1,60
90 115 140 165 190 215 240 265 290 315 340 365
Input Voltage - Vdcin [V]
P
o
w
e
r

L
o
s
s
e
s

[
W
]
TDA16834@35W TDA16833_G@35W TDA16831_32_G@15W TDA16822@15W
Small Range
TDA1683X for OFF Line Switch Mode Power Supplies
Page 24 of 28 AN-SMPS-1683X 1
V1.2
Summary of used Nomenclature
Parameters
B
max
Magnetic Inductance
BW Bobbin Width
BWe Effective Bobbin Width
C
IN
Capacitance of Bulk Capacitor
C
O
Output Capacitance
C
OSS
Output Capacitance of CoolMOS
C
Extern
Output Capacitance of external Components
C
Snub
Capacitance of Snubber Capacitor
C
VCC
Capacitance of VCC Capacitor
D Duty Cycle
D
max
Maximum Duty Cycle
f Operating Frequency of CoolSET (f = 100kHz)
f
AC
Line Frequency (Germany f
AC
= 50Hz)
f
g
Crossover Frequency
f
Cu
Copper Space Factor (0,2 ... 0,4)
f
OH
Frequency Open Loop (High)
f
Om
Frequency Open Loop (middle)
f
OL
Frequency Open Loop (Low)
f
ZCOUT
Zero Frequency of output Capacitor
G
C
Optocoupler Gain
I
CCLmax
Maximum quiescent Current of CoolSET (Control IC)
I
FBmax
Maximum Feedback Current
I
FBmin
Minimum Feedback Current
I
Fmax
Maximum Current (Optocoupler)
I
KAmin
Minimum Current (TL431)
I
LoadC
VCC Capacitor Load Current
I
LPK
Peak Current through the primary Inductance
I
LRMS
Root Mean Square Current through the primary Inductance
I
PRMS
Root Mean Square Current through the Bridge Rectifier
I
PRI
Primary Current @ time t
I
SEC
Secondary Current @ time t
I
SPK
Peak Current through the secondary Inductance
I
SRMS
Root Mean Square Current through the secondary Inductance
L
OUT
Inductance output Filter
L
P
Primary Inductance
L
LK
Leakage Inductance
M Margin (of Transformer)
n
CP
Number of Clock Periods
n
pCOUT
Number of parallel output Capacitors
N
P
Number of primary Turns
N
S
Number of secondary Turns
N
Aux
Number of auxiliary Turns
P
Cu
Power losses of Copper Resistor
P
D
Conduction losses
P
DIN
Power losses input Diode
P
DDIODE
Power losses rectifier Diode (secondary side)
P
IN MAX
Maximum Input Power
P
OUT max
Maximum Output Power
P
OUT min
Minimum Output Power
P
PCu
Power losses of Copper Resistor (primary Inductance)
P
SCu
Power losses of Copper Resistor (secondary Inductance)
P
SOFF
Switching losses of CoolMOS Transistor (Off Operation)
P
SON
Switching losses of CoolMOS Transistor (On Operation)
TDA1683X for OFF Line Switch Mode Power Supplies
Page 25 of 28 AN-SMPS-1683X 1
V1.2
R
Cu
Copper Resistor (Transformer)
R
DSON
Resistance of switching CoolMOS Transistor (On Operation)
R
L
Load - Resistance
R
LH
Maximum Load
R
LL
Minimum Load (defined by Designer)
R
FB
Internal Feedback Resistor (CoolSET)
R
PCu
Copper Resistor of primary Inductance
R
SCu
Copper Resistor of secondary Inductance
R
Snub
Snubber Resistor
R
Start
Start up Resistor
T Time of one Period s
f
T 10
sec 10 * 100
1 1
3

T
D
Discharging Time of Input Capacitor C3
t
ON
On Time (CoolMOS)
t
OFF
Off Time (CoolMOS)
t
r
Rising Time (Voltage)
t
Start
Start up Time
V
AC min
Minimal AC Input Voltage
V
AC max
Maximal AC Input Voltage
V
Aux
Auxiliary Voltage
V
(BR)DSS
Drain Source Breakdown Voltage
V
CCH
Turn On Threshold for CoolSET @ Vcc - Pin
V
DC IN
DC Input Voltage
V
DC IN max
Maximum DC Input Voltage
V
DC IN min
Minimum DC Input Voltage
V
DC max PK
Maximum DC Input Voltage Peak
V
DC min PK
Minimum DC Input Voltage Peak
V
DC min
Minimum DC Input Voltage @ maximum load
V
DDIODE
Reverse Voltage rectifier Diode (secondary side)
V
FBmax
Maximum Feedback Voltage (CoolSET)
V
FDIODE
Output Diode Forward Voltage
V
FD
Forward Diode Voltage (Optocoupler)
V
OUT
Output Voltage (secondary Side)
V
OUT Ripple
Output Ripple Voltage (secondary Side)
V
R
Reflected Voltage (from secondary side to primary side)
V
RDiode
Reverse Voltage Diode
V
Refint
Internal Reference Voltage (CoolSET)
V
REF
Reference Voltage TL431
V
Ripple
DC Ripple Voltage (on primary Side)
V
SEC
Voltage on Sekondary Inductor
V
Snub
Maximum Voltage overshoot @ snubber
W
IN
Discharging Energie Input Capacitor
Z
PWM
Transimpedanz
TDA1683X for OFF Line Switch Mode Power Supplies
Page 26 of 28 AN-SMPS-1683X 1
V1.2
References
[1] Keith Billings,
Switch Mode Power Supply Handbook
[2] Ralph E. Tarter,
Solid-State Power Conversion Handbook
[3] R. D. Middlebrook and Slobodan Cuk,
Advances in Switched-Mode Power Conversion
[4] Herfurth Michael,
Ansteuerschaltungen fr getaktete Stromversorgungen mit Erstellung eines
linearisierten Signalfluplans zur Dimensionierung der Regelung
[5] Herfurth Michael,
Topologie, bertragungsverhalten und Dimensionierung hufig eingesetzter
Regelverstrker
[6] Infineon Technologies,
Datasheet TDA16831 ... 34 Off Line SMPS Controller with 600V CoolMOS
Transistor on Board,
Revision History
Application Note AN-SMPS-1683X-1
Actual Release: V1.2 Date:11.05.2000 Previous Release: V1.1
Page of
actual
Rel.
Page of
prev. Rel.
Subjects changed since last release
28 21 Formatting
TDA1683X for OFF Line Switch Mode Power Supplies
Page 27 of 28 AN-SMPS-1683X 1
V1.2
For questions on technology, delivery and prices please contact the Infineon
Technologies Offices in Germany or the Infineon Technologies Companies and
Representatives worldwide: see the address list on the last page or our webpage at
http://www.infineon.com
CoolMOS and CoolSET are trademarks of Infineon Technologies AG.
Edition 2000--05--11
Published by Infineon Technologies AG,
St.-Martin-Strasse 53,
D-81541 Mnchen
Infineon Technologies AG 2000.
All Rights Reserved.
Attention please!
The information herein is given to describe certain components and shall not be considered as warranted characteristics.
Terms of delivery and rights to technical change reserved.
We hereby disclaim any and all warranties, including but not limited to warranties of non-infringement, regarding circuits, descriptions and charts
stated herein.
Infineon Technologies is an approved CECC manufacturer.
Information
For further information on technology, delivery terms and conditions and prices please contact your nearest Infineon Technologies Office in
Germany or our Infineon Technologies Representatives worldwide (see address list).
Warnings
Due to technical requirements components may contain dangerous substances. For information on the types in question please contact your
nearest Infineon Technologies Office.
Infineon Technologies Components may only be used in life-support devices or systems with the express written approval of Infineon
Technologies, if a failure of such components can reasonably be expected to cause the failure of that life-support device or system, or to affect the
safety or effectiveness of that device or system. Life support devices or systems are intended to be implanted in the human body, or to support
and/or maintain and sustain and/or protect human life. If they fail, it is reasonable to assume that the health of the user or other persons may be
endangered.
TDA1683X for OFF Line Switch Mode Power Supplies
Page 28 of 28 AN-SMPS-1683X 1
V1.2
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Fax (+351)1-4 17 80 83
PK
Siemens Pakistan Engineering
Co.Ltd.
PO Box 1129,Islamabad 44000
23 West Jinnah Ave
Islamabad
T (+92)51-21 22 00
Fax (+92)51-21 16 10
PL
Siemens SP.z.o.o.
ul.Zupnicza 11
PL-03-821 Warszawa
T (+48)22-8 70 91 50
Fax (+48)22-8 70 91 59
ROK
Siemens Ltd.
Asia Tower,10th Floor
726 Yeoksam-dong,Kang-nam Ku
CPO Box 3001
Seoul 135-080
T (+82)2-5 27 77 00
Fax (+82)2-5 27 77 79
RUS
INTECH electronics
ul.Smolnaya,24/1203
RUS-125 445 Moskva
T (+7)0 95 -4 51 97 37
Fax (+7)0 95 -4 51 86 08
S
Siemens Components Scandinavia
stergatan 1,Box 46
S-164 93 Kista
T (+46)8-7 03 35 00
Fax (+46)8-7 03 35 01
Email:
scs@components.siemens.se
RC
Infineon Technologies
Asia Pacific Pte.Ltd.
Taiwan Branch
10F,No.136 Nan King East Road
Section 23,Taipei
T (+8 86)2-27 73 66 06
Fax (+8 86)2-27 71 20 76
SGP
Infineon Technologies Asia
Pacific,Pte.Ltd.
168 Kallang Way
Singapore 349 253
T (+65)8 40 06 10
Fax (+65)7 42 62 39
USA
Infineon Technologies Corporation
1730 North First Street
San Jose,CA 95112
T (+1)4 08-5 01 60 00
Fax (+1)4 08-5 01 24 24
Siemens Components,Inc.
Optoelectronics Division
19000 Homestead Road
Cupertino,CA 95014
T (+1)4 08-2 57 79 10
Fax (+1)4 08-7 25 34 39
Siemens Components,Inc.
Special Products Division
186 Wood Avenue South
Iselin,NJ 08830-2770
T (+1)7 32-9 06 43 00
Fax (+1)7 32-6 32 28 30
VRC
Infineon Technologies
Hong Kong Ltd.
Beijing Office
Room 2106,Building A
Vantone New World Plaza
No.2 Fu Cheng Men Wai Da Jie
Jie
100037 Beijing
T (+86)10 -68 57 90 -06,-07
Fax (+86)10 -68 57 90 08
Infineon Technologies
Hong Kong Ltd.
Chengdu Office
Room14J1,Jinyang Mansion
58 Tidu Street
Chengdu,
Sichuan Province 610 016
T (+86)28-6 61 54 46 /79 51
Fax (+86)28 -6 61 01 59
Infineon Technologies
Hong Kong Ltd.
Shanghai Office
Room1101,Lucky Target Square
No.500 Chengdu Road North
Shanghai 200003
T (+86)21-63 6126 18 /19
Fax (+86)21-63 61 11 67
Infineon Technologies
Hong Kong Ltd.
Shenzhen Office
Room 1502,Block A
Tian An International Building
Renim South Road
Shenzhen 518 005
T (+86)7 55 -2 28 91 04
Fax (+86)7 55-2 28 02 17
ZA
Siemens Ltd.
Components Division
P.O.B.3438
Halfway House 1685
T (+27)11-6 52 -27 02
Fax (+27)11-6 52 20 42