Sie sind auf Seite 1von 18

Midterm mechanical 2012

1-a)

b)

c)
The flow enters with a very high pressure to the nozzle which increases its velocity and decreases its pressure and then the energy decreases which make another fluid enters because of the suction pressure and mix together to reach the diffuser which the pressure increases and the velocity decreases.

2-a)
1. Valve unloaders 2. Clearance pockets 3. External bypassing

b)
1. They impart Energy to the Gas being compressed by way of an input shaft moving Rotating Elements. 2. They perform Compression in an Intermittent Mode. 3. They do not use Inlet and Discharge Valves. 4. Lighter in weight than reciprocating compressors. 5. Doesnt exhibit the shaking force of the reciprocating compressors. 6. Foundation requirements less rigorous. 7. Simple in construction.

c)

surge
Back-flow which occurs at very low flow rate and high pressure which results in pulsation may cause noise, vibration, and high discharge temperature. And to avoid it we must make anti-surge control which has flow rate limit at higher flow rate than the surge happens.

Choke
Happens at very high velocity (high Q) which the flow velocity higher than the impeller, so the flow velocity at high mach number begins when the flow has the sonic speed.
Max flow that can be reached by compressor. At this flow the velocity reaches sonic speed.

midterm 2008

1-a)

b)

c)
When the energy transfer arranged to provide 50% of the Pressure rise in the rotating row and the other 50% in the Stationary Row.

2-a)
1. Valve unloaders 2. Clearance pockets 3. External bypassing

b)
1- ratios of compressions are running high 2- valves are broken , worn , or seating improperly 3- cylinder cooling is inadequate 4-piston rings are worn or damaged , allowing excessive slip 5- cylinder walls are out of round , scored or worn 6- cylinder lubrication is inadequate

c)
1. They impart Energy to the Gas being compressed by way of an input shaft moving Rotating Elements. 2. They perform Compression in an Intermittent Mode. 3. They do not use Inlet and Discharge Valves. 4. Lighter in weight than reciprocating compressors. 5. Doesnt exhibit the shaking force of the reciprocating compressors. 6. Foundation requirements less rigorous. 7. Simple in construction.

Final 2008

a)

b)

c)
Sliding vane Liquid piston Helical lobe

Straight lobe d)
The flow enters with a very high pressure to the nozzle which increases its velocity and decreases its pressure and then the energy decreases which make another fluid enters because of the suction pressure and mix together to reach the diffuser which the pressure increases and the velocity decreases.

a)

Draw curves of both

b)
SCFH :Standard cubic feet per hour MMSCFD Million standard cubic feet per 24-hour day (ICFM), ft3/min, or ft3/s (inlet cubic feet per minute)

c)
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. open-radial impeller semi-open impeller, radial blade type open inducer impeller semi-open impeller, advanced inducer blades closed impeller
Correct answer: overhung + drawing between bearing + drawing

d)
Inlet-guide vanes Throttling of suction pressure Throttling of discharge pressure 4- Bypass Inlet guide vanes way is most efficient

a)
Advantages of centrifugal fans over axial fans: Easy to control Robust in construction Less noisy Wider operating range at their highest efficiencies

b)

Inlet boxes and elbows can be used without affecting performance

What are the methods used to control the flow rate of centrifugal or axial fans? 1. Varying the speed 2. Changing pressure conditions at the inlet and/or outlet with dampers or with inlet guide vanes 3. Axial-flow fans may be controlled by varying the pitch of the blades. i) the most efficient: varying the speed ii) Next best: inlet guide vanes iii) Most common: inlet damper Inlet or outlet dampers

c)
What are the various types of anti-surge control for fans service: i) Gases other than air: it may be necessary to bypass some of the gas
from discharge back to suction side to keep the flow above the minimum needed to avoid surge. The gas must be cooled. ii) Air: flow can be maintained above the surge point by damping air to the atmosphere or by bleeding some air into the suction side

First midterm electro

a)

b)

c)
1. Valve unloaders 2. Clearance pockets 3. External bypassing

d)

surge
Back-flow which occurs at very low flow rate and high pressure which results in pulsation may cause noise, vibration, and high discharge temperature. And to avoid it we must make anti-surge control which has flow rate limit at higher flow rate than the surge happens.

Choke
Happens at very high velocity (high Q) which the flow velocity higher than the impeller, so the flow velocity at high mach number begins when the flow has the sonic speed.
Revise previous comment

Second midterm electro

a)

b)

Affect efficiency and P

Does not Affect efficiency and P

Final 2012 electro

a)

b)

Please revise the CC graphs at the end of the chapter "Equipment Interaction 8 graphs"

7 2 - 4 - 4 :

C)
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Ratios of compression are running high Valves are broken, worn, or seating improperly Cylinder cooling is inadequate Piston rings are worn or damaged, allowing excessive slip Cylinder walls are out of round, scored, or worn Cylinder lubrication is inadequate

d)

a)
1. They impart Energy to the Gas being compressed by way of an input shaft moving Rotating Elements. 2. They perform Compression in an Intermittent Mode. 3. They do not use Inlet and Discharge Valves. 4. Lighter in weight than reciprocating compressors. 5. Doesnt exhibit the shaking force of the reciprocating compressors. 6. Foundation requirements less rigorous. 7. Simple in construction.

b)

Moves parallel to the rotor axis and change the area of the opening in the bottom of the rotor casing.

c)
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Tubular centrifugal only

tube axial vane axial radial backward-inclined airfoil

18

d)

Please revise the last page in the fans course notes and study carefully the graphs

1. Varying the speed (best method) 2. Changing pressure conditions at the inlet and/or outlet with dampers or with inlet guide vanes 3. Axial-flow fans may be controlled by varying the pitch of the blades.