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# CLASS XII

PHYSICS

## By:DR. VIKRAM SINGH TANUSHREE SINGH

YEAR OF PUBLICATION-2010
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transmitted in any form or by any meansElectronic, Mechanical, Photocopying, Recording or otherwise, without prior permission of the Authors and Publisher

TM

SAVANT INSTITUTE

Physics

Alternating current

6
ALTERNATING CURRENT
Slide 1 An alternating voltage v = vm sin t applied to a resistor R v drives a current i = im sin t in the resistor, im = m R The current is in phase with the applied voltage. _____________________ Slide 2 ______________________ For an alternating current i = im sin t passing through a resistor R, the average power loss P (averaged over a cycle) due to joule heating is (1/2)i2m R. To express it in the same form as the dc power (P = I2R), a special value of current is used. It is called root mean square (rms) current and is denoted i by I = 0 = 0.707 i0 The mean or average value of 2 alternating e.m.f. over positive half cycle (0 to T/2) is 2E0 Em = = 0.637 E0 The average power loss over a complete cycle is given by P = V I cos . The term cos is called the power factor. When a value is given for ac voltage or current, it is ordinarily the rms value. The usual domestic power supply 220 volt ac has an rms voltage of 220 V. The voltage amplitude or peak value is Em = 2 Erms = 2 ( 220V ) = 311V _____________________ Slide 3 ______________________ Wattless current: Phase angle between Erms and Irms sin is /2, average power consumed in the circuit due to components Irms sin is zero. Only the component Irms cos which is to actually responsible for consumption of power in an a.c. circuit. The current through the capacitor is /2 ahead of the applied voltage. As in the case of inductor, the average power supplied to a capacitor over one complete cycle is zero. In a high frequency A.C. circuit, the capacitor acts like a conductor. In an ac circuit, while adding voltages across different elements, one should take care of their phases properly. For example, if VR and VC are voltages across R and C, respectively in an RC circuit, then the total voltage across
2 2 RC combination is VRC = VR + VC and not VR + VC since

Slide 4 An ac voltage V = Vm sin t applied to pure inductor L, drives a current in the inductor i = im sin (t /2), where im = vm/XL. XL = L is called inductive reactance. The current in the inductor lags the voltage by /2. The average power supplied to an inductor over one complete cycle is zero.

Inductor offers no opposition to the flow of d.c. or where as a resistive path to a.c. An ac voltage V = Vm sin t applied to a capacitor drives a current in the capacitor: i = im sin (t + /2). Here. v 1 im = m , XC = is called capacitive reactance. Xc C
f

XC

## VC is /2 out of phase of VR.

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84

Alternating Current
In a purely inductive or capacitive circuit, cos = 0 and no power is dissipated even though a current is flowing in the circuit. In such cases, current is referred to as a wattles current. (b) When L <

Physics

## _____________________ Slide 5 ______________________

For a series RLC circuit driven by voltage v vm sin t, the current is given by vm i = im sin ( t + ) , where im = 2 2 R + ( Xc XL ) and = tan1
XC XL R Z = R2 + ( XC XL )
2

1 , then tan is ve i.e., is negative. In this C case, the alternating e.m.f. lags behind the current I by a phase angle . The a.c. circuit is then capacitance dominated circuit. 1 (c) When L = then tan = 0 i.e., = 0. C In the case, the alternating e.m.f. and current I are in phase. The a.c. circuit is then non inductive

## _____________________ Slide 7 ______________________ Half power points

On the resonance curve there are two points where power in the circuit is half of the power at resonance. R R R The 1 = 0 and 2 = 0 + (if << 0 ) 2L 2L 2L

## is called impedance of the circuit.

At lower half power frequency 1, the circuit is capacitance Xc > XL. At upper half power frequency 2, the circuit is inductive XL > XC. The reciprocal of impedance is called admittance
_____________________ Slide 6 ______________________ _____________________ Slide 8 ______________________ Band Width:

An interesting characteristic of a series LCR circuit is the phenomenon of resonance. The circuit exhibits resonance, i.e., the amplitude of the current is maximum at the resonant 21 frequency, 0 = ( XL = XC ) . LC L I The quality factor Q defined by Q = 0 = is an R 0CR indicator of the sharpness of the resonance, the higher value of Q indicating sharper peak in the current. 1 (a) When L < , then tan is +ve i.e., is positive. C In this case, the alternating elm leads the current I by a phase angle . The a.c. circuit is then inductance dominated circuit.

R R R = 2 1 = 0 + 0 = 2L 2L L The band width is large R and small for small R. The band width does nor depends on C in the circuit (note that resonance frequency r does not depends on R while band width depends on R).

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Physics
Slide 8 Choke coil:

Alternating current
Slide 16 Resistance

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A choke coil is simply an inductor with a large selfinductance and negligible resistance (zero in ideal case). It is used in A.C. circuits for reducing current without consuming power.
IMPORTANT RESULTS _____________________ Slide 9 ______________________

It is denoted by R and is given by p ( /a) Reactance It is denoted by XL or XC and is 2fL or 1/2fC respectively. Impedance It is denoted by Z and is given by Z = R2 + ( XL XC )
2

In LCR series circuit before Resonance ( < 0) : Current in the circuit lags in phase by the applied voltage (XL > XC)
_____________________ Slide 10 _____________________

## _____________________ Slide 17 _____________________ Alternating Voltage

In LCR series circuit after Resonance ( > 0) : Current leads is phase by the applied voltage (XC > XL).
_____________________ Slide 11 _____________________

## In an AC circuit voltage add according to a formula

2 VR + ( VL VC ) = V 2 , where V is the supply voltage, VR 2

voltage across the resistor, VC voltage across the capacitor. This formula is valid only for rms voltages.
_____________________ Slide 12 _____________________

Ideal resistance E = E0 sin t Alternating Current I = I0 sin t Phase relationship between voltage and current In phase Impedance Z=R Power Loss 2 IrmsR
_____________________ Slide 18 _____________________ Alternating Voltage

AC measuring instruments like AC voltmeter, AC ammeter will not have uniform calibration because they measure square of current.
_____________________ Slide 13 _____________________

In LCR circuit the potential difference across an inductor or a capacitor can exceed supply voltage.
_____________________ Slide 14 _____________________ Comparison among Resistance, Reactance and Impedance Resistance

Ideal inductance E = E0 sin t Alternating Current I = I0 sin t 2 Phase relationship between voltage and current Current lags by rad or 90 2 Impedance Z = XL = L = 2fL Power Loss nil
_____________________ Slide 19 _____________________ Alternating Voltage

It is opposition to the flow of any type of current. Reactance It can be inductive or capacitive opposing the flow of alternating current. Impedance It is the total opposition offered to current due to resistance inductive reactance and capacitive reactance.
_____________________ Slide 15 _____________________ Resistance

Ideal capacitor E = E0 sin t Alternating Current I = I0 sin t + 2 Phase relationship between voltage and current Current leads by rad or 90 2 Impedance 1 1 Z = XC = = C 2fC Power Loss nil

It is independent on frequency of source of supply. Reactance It depends on the frequency of the source of supply. Impedance It depends on the frequency of the source of supply .

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Slide 20 Alternating Voltage

Alternating Current

Physics

Series resistance and inductance Alternating Current I = I0 sin (t ) Phase relationship between voltage and current Current lags by Impedance
2 Z = R 2 + XL

## Power Loss ErmsIrms cos

_____________________ Slide 21 _____________________ Alternating Voltage Series resistance and capacitance E = E0 sin t Alternating Current I = I0 sin (t + ) Phase relationship between voltage and current Current leads by Impedance
2 Z = R 2 + XC

## Power Loss ErmsIrms cos

_____________________ Slide 22 _____________________ Alternating Voltage

Series LCR (i) Mainly inductive E = E0 sin t (ii) Mainly capacitive E = E0 sin t Alternating Current I = I0 sin (t ) I = I0 sin (t + ) Phase relationship between voltage and current Current lags by Current leads by Impedance
Z = R2 + ( XL XC )
2

Z = R2 + ( XC XL )

## Power Loss Erms Irms cos Erms Irms cos

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Physics

Alternating current
One microfarad capacitor is joined to 200 volt, 50 Hz alternator. Calculate the rms current through capacitor. 5. A 60 F capacitor is connected to a 110 V, 60 Hz AC supply. Determine the rms value of current in the circuit. 6. A coil of inductance 0.50 H and resistance 100 is connected to a 240 V, 50 Hz AC supply. (a) What is the maximum current in the coil. (b) What is the time lag between the voltage maximum and current maximum Note: Voltage specification of an AC supply refers to its rms value. 7. A transformer has 200 primary turns and 150 secondary turns. If the primary supply voltage is 230 V, what is the secondary voltage? 8. A transformer has an efficiency of 80% and works at 100 volt and 4kW. If the secondary voltage is 240 V, calculate the primary and secondary currents. 9. A pure inductance of 1 henry is connected across a 110 V, 70 Hz source. Find (a) reactance (b) current (c) peak value of current. 10. A bulb of resistance 10 , connected to an inductor of inductance L, is in series with an AC source marked 100 V, 50 Hz. If the phase angle between voltage and current is 4.

## CURRICULUM BASED WORKSHET

Topics for Worksheet I Alternating current, R, C, Circuits Worksheet I
1. 2. The instantaneous current from an AC source is I = 6 sin 314t. What is the rms value of the current? (a) The peak voltage of an AC supply is 300 V. What is its rms voltage? (b) The rms value of current in an AC circuits 10 A. What is the peak current? A 100 resistor is connected to 220 V, 50 Hz AC supply. Calculate (i) peak potential difference (ii) mean potential difference (iii) rms value of current (iv) net power consumed over a full cycle. An inductor (L = 200 m H) is connected to an AC source of peak elm 210 V and frequency 50 Hz. Calculate the peak current. What is the instantaneous voltage of the source when the current is at its peak value? The peak value of an alternating current 5 A and its frequency is 60 Hz. Find its rms value. If the effective current in a 50 cycle per second AC circuit is 5.0 A, what is (a) the peak value of current? (b) 1 the value of the current second after it was zero? 300 A sinusoidal voltage V = 200 sin 314t is applied to a resistor of 10 resistance. Calculate (a) the frequency of the supply (b) the rms value of the voltage (c) the rms value of the current (d) the power dissipated as heat in watt. How much inductance should be connected to 200 V, 50 cycle per second supply so that a maximum current of 0.9 A flows through it? A 100 Hz AC is flowing in a 14 m mH coil. Find its reactance.

3.

4.

5. 6.

7.

8.

9.

## Topics for Worksheet II

Inductive circuit, RLC-Circuit Transformer Worksheet II
1. 2. Find the maximum value of current when inductance of 2 henry is connected to 150 V, 50 cycle supply. Calculate the value of the current through an inductance of 1 henry and of negligible resistance when connected to an AC source of 200 V and 50 Hz. Calculate the capacitive reactance of a 5 F capacitor
6

3.

11. A 100 V, 50 Hz AC source is connected to a series combination of an inductance of 100 mH and a resistance of 25. Calculate the magnitude and phase of the current. 12. When 100 volt DC is applied across a coil, a current of one ampere flows through it. When 100 volt AC of 50 cycle per second is applied to the same coil, only 0.5 ampere flows. Calculate (i) resistance of coil (ii) impedance of coil (iii) inductive reactance of coil (iv) inductance of coil. 13. A Student connects a long sir-cored coil of managing wire to a 100 V DC source and records a current of 1.5 A. When the same coil is connected across 100 V, 50 Hz AC source, the current reduces to 1 A. Calculate the reactance of the coil. 14. A transformer of 100% efficiency has 500 turns in the primary and 10,000 turns in the secondary coil. If the primary is connected to 220 V mains supply, What is the voltage across the secondary coil? 15. A power transmission line feeds input power at 2300 V to a step down transformer with its primary windings having 4000 turns. What should be the number of turns in the secondary in order to get output power at 230 V?

Alternating Current
CURRICULUM BASED CHAPTER ASSIGNMENT
1 Mark Question
Peak value of emf of an ac source is E0. What is its rms value? 2. Two identical loops, one of copper and another of constant are removed from a magnetic field within the same time interval. In which loop will the induced current be greater? 3. In a series LCR circuit, the voltage across an inductor, capacitor and resistor are 20 V, 20 V and 40 V respectively. What is the phase difference between the applied voltage and the current in the circuit? 4. A coil A is connected to a voltmeter V and the other coil B to an alternating current source D. If a large copper sheet C, is placed between the two coils, how does the induced e.m.f. in the coil A change due to current in the coil B? 5. Draw a graph to show the variation of capacitive reactance with frequency of an ac source. 6. The instantaneous voltage from an ac source is given by E = 300 sin 314 t. what is the rms voltage of the source? 7. What is the phase difference between the voltage across an inductor and a capacitor in an ac circuit? 8. In which direction will the current be induced in the closed loop if the magnet is moved as shown in figure? 9. In a series LCR circuit, the voltages across an inductor, capacitor and resistor are 40 V, 20 V and 20 V respectively. What is the total voltage operative across the combination? 10. The current through the wire PQ is increasing. In which direction does the induced current flow in the closed loop? 1.

Physics

15. An ac current of frequency 50 Hz has rms value of current 10 A. what will be the instantaneous current (1/300) sec after if is zero? 16. Why is radio frequency choke air-cored where as audio frequency choke iron-cored? 17. For an inductance of 2 Henry connected to an ac source of 157V, Hz, find the maximum current through if. 18. If a capacitor is connected in series with LR circuit, what happens to the ac flowing through it? Given reason. 19. How can 11 V ac appliance work with a 220 V ac? Name the device which makes this possible. If a transformer steps down 220 V to 11 V, what is the ratio of the number of turns in the primary to that in the secondary? 20. A 200 km ling telegraph wire has a capacity of 0.014 F/Km. If its carries an ac of 50 kHz, what should be the value of an inductance required in series so that the impedance is minimum. Take 2 = 10. 21. Obtain the resonant frequency and Q factor of a series of LCR circuit with L = 3.0 H, C = 27 F and R = 7.4 . It is desired to improve the sharpness of the circuit by reducing the sharpness of the circuit by reducing its full width at half maximum by a factor 2. Suggest a suitable way. 22. Find the maximum current when an inductance coil of one Henry is connected to an ac source of 50 Hz, 200 Volts.

3 Mark Question
23. A capacitor and a resistor are connected in series with an ac source. If the potential difference across C, R are 120 V, 90 V respectively and if the rms current of the circuit is 3 A, calculate the (i) impedance, (ii) power factor of the circuit. 24. An inductor 200 mH, a capacitor C and a resistor 10 ohm are connected in series with a 100 V, 50 s1 ac source. If the current and voltage are in phase with each other, calculate the capacitance of the capacitor. 25. State the underlying principle of an ac generator. Write the relationship between the peak value and rms value of alternating voltage? 26. State the condition under which the phenomenon of resonance occurs in a series LCR circuit. Plot a graph showing variation of current with frequency of ac source in a series LCR circuit. 27. A coil of inductance, L, a capacitor of capacitance, C, and a resistor of resistance R, are all put in series with an alternating source of emf E (= E0 sin t). Write an expression for the (i) total impedance of the circuit. (ii) frequency of the source emf for which the circuit will show resonance.

2 Mark Question
11. A series LCR circuit with L = 0.12 henry, R = 23 and 7 C = 4.8 10 F is connected to a variable frequency. At what frequency is the current maximum? 12. A power line feeds input power at 2300 V to a step down transformer with 4000 turns in primary. What should be the number of turns in the secondary to get the output power at 230 V? 13. The effective value of current in an ac circuit is

3A . If

## 1 s after if is zero? 300

14. What is the average value of AC during (i) half cycle and (ii) full cycle?

Physics

Alternating current

89

28. An ac voltage E = E0 sin t is applied across an inductor L. obtain an expression for current I. 29. An inductor L of reactance XL, is connected in series with a bulb B to an ac source as shown in figure Briefly explain how does the brightness of the bulb change, when (i) number of turns of the inductor is reduced and (ii) a capacitor of reactance XC = XL is included in series in the same circuit. ? 30. Calculate the current drawn by the primary of a transformer, which steps down 200 V to 20 V to operate a device of resistance 20 Assume the efficiency of the transformer to be 80%. 31. The output voltage of an ideal transformer, connected to a 240 V ac. mains is 24 V. When this transformer is used to light a bulb with rating 24 V, 24 W, calculate the current in the primary coil of the circuit. 32. A 100 resistor is connected to a 220 V, 50 Hz ac supply. (a) What is the rms value of current in the circuit? (b) What is the net power consumed over full cycle?

38. For a given ac circuit distinguish between resistance, reactance and impedance. An ac source of frequency 50 Hz is connected to a 50 mH inductor and bulb. The bulb glows with some brightness. Calculate the capacitance of the capacitor to the connected in series with the circuit, so that the bulb glows with maximum brightness. 39. Draw the curve showing variation of inductive reactance and capacitive reactance, with applied frequency of an ac source. A capacitor, resistor of 5, and an inductor of 50 mH are in series with an ac source marked 100V, 50 Hz. It is found that voltage is in phase with the current. Calculate the capacitance and the impedance of the circuit. 40. The frequency of ac is being increased. Explain in effect of current in each case. (i)

5 Mark Question
33. When the series combination of inductance and resistance are connected with 10 V, 50 Hz ac source, a current of 1 A flow through the circuit. The voltage leads current by /3. Find the resistance and (ii)

inductance of the circuit. 34. Define root mean square value of alternating current. Derive an expression for root mean square value in terms of peak value of alternating current. 35. Explain with the help of labeled diagram the principle, construction and working of an alternating current generator. Derive an expression for the emf induced. Define the term form factor. 36. Explain with the help of a labeled diagram the principle, construction and working of a transformer. Derive a relation between various variables involved. What are the various energy losses in a transformer? Explain the role of transformer in long distance transmission of power? 37. What is meant by impedance? Give its unit. Using a phasor diagram or otherwise derive the expression for the impedance of an a.c. circuit containing L, C and R in series. Find the expression for resonant frequency. (iii)

90

## Alternating Current QUESTION BANK FOR COMPETITIONS

1. In an LR circuit current at t = 0 is 20 A. After 2s it reduces to 18 A. The time constant of the circuit is: (in second) 10 (a) In 9 (b) 2 (c)
2 10 In 9

Physics

4. In L-C oscillation of a circuit, which of the following is true at t = 3T/4 (T = time period of the oscillation). Assume that at t = 0, the capacitor is fully charged? (a) Energy stored in the inductor is zero, while in capacitor is maximum (b) Energy in the inductor and capacitor is shared equally (c) Energy in the inductor is maximum while in the capacitance is zero (d) None of the above 5. A circular loop of radius 1 m is kept in a magnetic field of strength 2 T (plane of loop is perpendicular to the direction of magnetic field) Resistance of 2 the loop wire is m. A conductor of length 2 m in sliding with a speed 1 m/s as shown in the figure. Find the instantaneous force acting on the rod: [assume rod has negligible resistance]

10 (d) 2 In 9
2. Two inductors L1 and L2 are connected in parallel and a time varying current flows as shown. The ratio of currents i1/i2 at any time t is:
L1 i1 i i2 L2 i

2

## (d) L22 / (L1 + L 2 )

3. Two identical conductors P and Q and placed on two frictionless rails R and S in a uniform magnetic field directed into the plane. If P is moved in the direction shown in figure with a constant speed then rod Q:
P R v S Q B

(a) will be attracted towards P (b) will be repelled away from P (c) will remain stationary (d) may be repelled or attracted towards P

(a) 8 N (b) 16 N (c) 32 N (d) 64 N 6. An alternating voltage frequency is induced in electric consisting of an inductance L and capacitance C, connected in parallel. Then across the inductance cell: 1 (a) current is maximum when 2 = LC 1 (b) current is minimum when 2 = LC 1 (c) voltage is minimum when 2 = LC 1 (d) voltage is maximum when 2 = LC 7. Power factor in series LCR circuit at resonance is: (a) 1 1 (b) 2 (c) zero (d) infinite

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Physics

Alternating current

91

8. The circuit through an inductor of 1 H is given by i = 3t sin t The voltage across the inductor of 1 H is: (a) 3 sin t + 3 cos t (b) 3 cos t + t sin t (c) 3 sin t + 3t cos t (d) 3t cos t + sin t 9. The electric current in a circuit is given by i = 3t Here, t is in second and i in ampere. The rms current for the period t =0 to t = 1 s is: (a) 3 A (b) 9 A (c)

13. In an AC circuit, the current lags behind the voltage by /3. The components in the circuit are (a) R and L (b) R and C (c) L and C (d) only R 14. The voltage of an AC source varies with time according to the equation V = 100 sin 100 t cos 100 t Where t is in second and V is in volt. The (a) the peak voltage of the source is 100 volt. (b) the peak voltage of the source is 50 volt. (c) the peak voltage of the source is 100 2 volt. (d) the frequency of the source is 50 hertz. 15. A series LCR AC circuit contains L = 8.0 H, C = 0.5 F, and R = 100 . Then the resonant frequency will be (a) 5 rad s1 (b) 50 rad s1 (c) 500 rad s1 (d) 1500 rad s1 16. The frequency of AC is 50 Hz. How many time s current becomes zero in one second? (a) 25 times (b) 50 times (c) 100 times (d) 200 times. 17. The potential difference V and current i flowing through an instrument in an AC circuit are given by V = 5 cos t volt and i = 2 sin t ampere respectively. Then the power dissipated in the instrument is (a) 0 W (b) 2.5 W (c) 5 W (d) 10 W 18. The voltage of AC main is represented by V = 200 2 sin 100 t volt where t is in second. The frequency of AC is (a) 50 Hz (b) 50 Hz (c) 100 Hz (d) 100 Hz

3A

(d) 3 3 A 10. 0 the reactance of a certain capacitor equals that of a certain inductor. If the frequency is changed to 2 0, what is the ratio of the reactance of the inductor to that of the capacitor? (a) 4 : 1

(b)

2 :1

(c) 1: 2 2 (d) 1 : 2 11. What will be the reading of the voltmeter across the resistance and ammeter in the circuit shown in the figure?
V 100 V A V 100 V V

200V, 50Hz

(a) 300 V. 2A (b) 800 V, 2 A (c) 100 V, 2A (d) 200 V, 2 A 12. The voltage of on AC supply varies with time (t) as V = 120 sin 100 t. The maximum voltage and frequency respectively are (a) 120 V, 100 Hz 120 V,100Hz (b) 2 (c) 60 V, 200 Hz (d) 60 V, 100 Hz.

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92

Alternating Current
19. A coil of resistance R and inductance L is connected across an ac power supply of rms voltage V. The power dissipated in the coil is (a) V2/R (b) V 2 / (c)
2

Physics

(R V R / (R

) + L )
+ 2L2
2 2

(d) Zero. 20. A sinusoidal supply of frequency 100 Hz and rms voltage 12 V is connected to a 2.2. F capacitor. What is the rms value of the current? (a) 5.5 A (b) 2.6 mA (c) 26 A (d) 17 mA (e) 0.42 mA 21. An LCR circuit contains resistance of 100 ohm and a supply of 200 volt at 300 radian s1 angular frequency, If only capacitance is taken out from the circuit and the rest of the circuit is joined, current lags behind the voltage by 60. If on the other hand only inductor is taken out, the current leads by 60 with applied voltage. The current flowing in the circuit is (a) 1 A (b) 1.5 A (c) 2 A (d) 2.5 A

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