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Composites

Many engineering components are composites

Composites
ISSUES TO ADDRESS...
What are the classes and types of composites ? Why are composites used instead of metals, ceramics, or polymers? How do we estimate composite stiffness & strength? What are some typical applications?

MSE 406: Thermal and Mechanical Behavior of Materials D.D. Johnson 2005

MSE 406: Thermal and Mechanical Behavior of Materials D.D. Johnson 2005

Classification of Composites
Composites: Matrix:
- Multiphase material w/significant proportions of ea. phase.

COMPOSITE SURVEY: Particle-I


Particle-reinforced Examples:
Adapted from Fig. 10.10, Callister 6e .

- The continuous phase - Purpose is to:


transfer stress to other phases protect phases from environment

- Classification: MMC, CMC, PMC metal ceramic polymer


From D. Hull and T.W. Clyne, An Intro to Composite Materials , 2nd ed., Cambridge University Press, New York, 1996, Fig. 3.6, p. 47.

Adapted from Fig. 16.4, Callister 6e .

Dispersed phase:
-Purpose: enhance matrix properties.
MMC: increase y, TS, creep resist. CMC: increase Kc PMC: increase E, y, TS, creep resist.

Adapted from Fig. 16.5, Callister 6e .

-Classification: Particle, fiber, structural


MSE 406: Thermal and Mechanical Behavior of Materials D.D. Johnson 2005 MSE 406: Thermal and Mechanical Behavior of Materials D.D. Johnson 2005

COMPOSITE SURVEY: Particle-II


Particle-reinforced

COMPOSITE SURVEY: Fiber-I


Particle-reinforced
Fiber-reinforced

Elastic modulus, E c, of composites:


-- two approaches.

Structural

Aligned Continuous fibers Ex: --Metal: '(Ni3Al)-(Mo) --Glass w/SiC fibers


by eutectic solidification. formed by glass slurry E glass = 76GPa; E SiC = 400GPa.

From Fig. 16.3, Callister 6e .

(a)

Application to other properties:

(b)
From W. Funk and E. Blank, Creep deformation of Ni3Al-Mo in-situ composites", Metall. Trans. A Vol. 19(4), pp. 987-998, 1988.

-- Electrical conductivity, e: Replace E by e. -- Thermal conductivity, k: Replace E by k.


MSE 406: Thermal and Mechanical Behavior of Materials D.D. Johnson 2005

From F.L. Matthews and R.L. Rawlings, Composite Materials; Engineering and Science , Reprint ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 2000. (a) Fig. 4.22, p. 145 (photo by J. Davies); (b) Fig. 11.20, p. 349 (micrograph by H.S. Kim, P.S. Rodgers, and R.D. Rawlings).

MSE 406: Thermal and Mechanical Behavior of Materials D.D. Johnson 2005

COMPOSITE SURVEY: Fiber-II


Particle-reinforced Fiber-reinforced Discontinuous, random 2D fibers Example: Carbon-Carbon
--process: fiber/pitch, then burn out at up to 2500C. (b) --uses: disk brakes, gas turbine exhaust flaps, nose cones.
(a)

Chapter 6: Elasticity of Composites


Stress-strain response depends on properties of reinforcing and matrix materials (carbon, polymer, metal, ceramic) volume fractions of reinforcing and matrix materials orientation of fibre reinforcement (golf club, kevlar jacket) size and dispersion of particle reinforcement (concrete) absolute length of fibres, etc. concentration size shape

Structural

C fibers: very stiff very strong C matrix: less stiff view onto plane less strong fibers lie in plane

Other variations:
--Discontinuous, random 3D --Discontinuous, 1D

distribution

orientation

MSE 406: Thermal and Mechanical Behavior of Materials D.D. Johnson 2005

MSE 406: Thermal and Mechanical Behavior of Materials D.D. Johnson 2005

Families of Composites: particle, fibre, structural reinforcements

Two simplest cases: Iso-load and Iso-strain


Isostrain: Load & Reinforcements Aligned F Strain or elongation of matrix V = V and fibres are the same! V
Tot

Volume fraction F Isoload:


(Isostress below)

E =
c

= 1,N

EV

Twisting, Bending ceramics Orientation dependence

Load & Reinforcements Perpendicular F Load (Stress) across matrix and fibres is the same!

F
MSE 406: Thermal and Mechanical Behavior of Materials D.D. Johnson 2005

1= E
c

= 1,N

V E

MSE 406: Thermal and Mechanical Behavior of Materials D.D. Johnson 2005

Iso-strain Case in Ideal Composites


Isostrain Case: strain forces

Consider Density, Heat Capacity, and Thermal Expansion


F
For Elastic case:

F Load is distributed over matrix and fibers, so cAc = mAm + fAf.

c =m =r Fc =Fm +Fr

= E = E V + E V = (E V +E V )
c c c m m m f f f c m m f f

Composite Property: density, heat capacity,

P =
c

= 1,N

PV

*like law of mixtures

= (A /Ac)+ (A /Ac) or = V + V
c m m f f c m m f f

*if the fibers are continuous, then volume fraction is easy.

N =2 c = = 1,N V 1 1 + 2V2 V
C V + C2 2V2 Cc = 1 1 1 1 1 + 2V2 V E V + E V c = 1 1 1 2 2 2 E1 1 + E 2V2 V

For Elastic case:

= E = E V + E V = (E V +E V )
c c c m m m f f f c m m f f

thermal expansion, Composite Property:

P =
c

= 1,N

PV

*like law of mixtures


How?

Properties include: elastic moduli, density, heat capacity, thermal expansion, specific heat, ...
MSE 406: Thermal and Mechanical Behavior of Materials D.D. Johnson 2005

d d c 1 dc c = c c = c = = Ec dT dT Ec Ec dT (d1 / dT )E1 1 + (d2 / dT )E 2V2 1E1 1 + 2E 2V2 V V = = Ec E1 1 + E 2V2 V

Need to assess the proper dependence of the properity to get Rule-of-Mixture correct.
MSE 406: Thermal and Mechanical Behavior of Materials D.D. Johnson 2005

Iso-Load Case for Ideal Composites


Isoload Case: strain forces

c =m +r Fc =Fm =Fr

ISOSTRAIN Example Suppose a polymer matrix (E= 2.5 GPa) has 33% fibre reinforcements of glass (E = 76 GPa). What is Elastic Modulus?

Without de-bonding, loads are equal, therefore, strains must add, so

= V + V = V + V
c m m f f m

elastic case

*if the fibers are continuous or planar, then area of applied stress is the same.

Ec = VmE m + Vf E f =(1 Vf )Em + Vf Ef Vf Ef


= 26.7 GPA ~ 25 GPA

Composite Property

1= P
c

= 1,N

V P

*like resistors in parallel.

* Stiffness of composite under isostrain is dominated by fibres.

Properties include: elastic moduli, density, heat capacity, thermal expansion, specific heat, ...
MSE 406: Thermal and Mechanical Behavior of Materials D.D. Johnson 2005 MSE 406: Thermal and Mechanical Behavior of Materials D.D. Johnson 2005

ISOLOAD Example Suppose a polymer matrix (E= 2.5 GPa) has 33% fibre reinforcements of glass (E = 76 GPa). What is Elastic Modulus?

Modulus of Elasticity in Tungsten Particle Reinforced Copper

1 = Vm + Vf Ec Em Ef
= 3.8 GPA

isostrain

Rearrange:

E=
C

EmEf Em Vf E m + (1 Vf )E f (1 Vf )

isoload

* Elastic modulus of composite under isoload condition Strongly depends on stiffness of matrix, unlike isostrain case where stiffness dominates from fibres.
MSE 406: Thermal and Mechanical Behavior of Materials D.D. Johnson 2005

Particle reinforcements usually fall in between two extremes.


MSE 406: Thermal and Mechanical Behavior of Materials D.D. Johnson 2005

Simplified Examples of Composites

COMPOSITE SURVEY: Fiber-III


Particle-reinforced
fiber strength in tension

Fiber-reinforced

Structural

Critical fiber length for effective stiffening & strengthening:


fiber diameter shear strength of fiber-matrix interface

d fiber length > 15 f c

Ex: For fiberglass, fiber length > 15mm needed Why? Longer fibers carry stress more efficiently! Are these isostrain or isoload? What are some real life examples?
Adapted from Fig. 16.7, Callister 6e .

Shorter, thicker fiber: d fiber length < 15 f

d fiber length > 15 f c

Longer, thinner fiber:

Poorer fiber efficiency


MSE 406: Thermal and Mechanical Behavior of Materials D.D. Johnson 2005

Better fiber efficiency

MSE 406: Thermal and Mechanical Behavior of Materials D.D. Johnson 2005

COMPOSITE SURVEY: Fiber-IV


Particle-reinforced
Fiber-reinforced

COMPOSITE SURVEY: Structural


Structural

Structural
-- stacking sequence: e.g., 0/90 -- benefit: balanced, in-plane stiffness

Estimate of E c and TS:

d --valid when fiber length > 15 f c

Stacked and bonded fiber-reinforced sheets


Adapted from Fig. 16.16, Callister 6e .

-- Elastic modulus in fiber direction:

Ec = EmVm + KE f Vf
efficiency factor:
--aligned 1D: K = 1 (anisotropic) --random 2D: K = 3/8 (2D isotropy) --random 3D: K = 1/5 (3D isotropy)
Values from Table 16.3, Callister 6e .

Sandwich panels
-- low density, honeycomb core -- benefit: small weight, large bending stiffness

--TS in fiber direction:

(TS)c = (TS)m Vm + (TS) f Vf

(aligned 1D)
Adapted from Fig. 16.17, Callister 6e .

MSE 406: Thermal and Mechanical Behavior of Materials D.D. Johnson 2005

MSE 406: Thermal and Mechanical Behavior of Materials D.D. Johnson 2005

Composite Benefits
CMCs: Increased toughness PMCs: Increased E/

Laminate Composite (Ideal) Example


Gluing together these composite layers composed of epoxy matrix (E m= 5 GPa) with graphite fibres (Ef= 490 GPa and Vf = 0.3). Central layer is oriented 90 0 from other two layers. Case I - Load is applied parallel to fibres in outer two sheets. Case II - Load is applied parallel to fibres of central sheet. What are effective elastic moduli in the two case? First need to know how individual sheets respond, then average.

MMCs:
Increased creep resistance

Adapted from T.G. Nieh, "Creep rupture of a silicon-carbide reinforced aluminum composite", Metall. Trans. A Vol. 15(1), pp. 139-146, 1984.

1 = 0.3 + 0.7 E = 7.1GPa E 490 GPa 5GPa E|| = 0.3(490GPa)+ 0.7(5GPa)E|| =150.5GPa

For isoload case. For isotrain case.

Case I: E lam=(2/3)(150.5 GPa) + (1/3)(7.1 GPa) = 102.7 GPa Case II: Elam=(1/3)(150.5 GPa) + (2/3)(7.1 GPa) = 54.9 GPa

MSE 406: Thermal and Mechanical Behavior of Materials D.D. Johnson 2005

MSE 406: Thermal and Mechanical Behavior of Materials D.D. Johnson 2005

Mechanical Response of Laminate is Complex and NOT Ideal 3 Conditions required: consider top and bottom before laminated
strain compatibility- top and bottom must have same strain when glued. stress-strain relations - need Hookes Law and Poisson effect. equilibrium - forces and torques, or twisting and bending. Isostrain for load along x-dir: Poisson Effect and Displacements in :

COMPATIBILITY: When glued, displacements have to be same!

top = x

E top E bott E top

bott x bott y

top = y

E bott

When glued together displacements have to be same! Unequal displacements not allowed! So, top gets wider (ytop > 0) and bottom gets narrower (ybott < 0). Equilibrium: Fy = 0 = (ybot t bot + ytop t top )L. (t = thickness) As stress is applied, compatibility can be maintained, depending on the laminate, only if materials twists.
MSE 406: Thermal and Mechanical Behavior of Materials D.D. Johnson 2005

MSE 406: Thermal and Mechanical Behavior of Materials D.D. Johnson 2005

Symmetry of laminate composite dictates properties

Orientation of layers dictates response to stresses

Want compressive stresses at end of laminate so there are no tensile stresses to cause delamination - failure!

Elastic constants are different for different symmetry laminates.


MSE 406: Thermal and Mechanical Behavior of Materials D.D. Johnson 2005 MSE 406: Thermal and Mechanical Behavior of Materials D.D. Johnson 2005

NO delamination - failure!

Why Laminate Composite is NOT Ideal Depending on placement of load and the orientation of fibres internal to sheet and the orientation of sheets relative to one another, the response is then very different. Examples of orientations of laminated sheets that provided compressive stresses at edges of composite and also tensile stresses there. >>>> Tensile stresses lead to delamination! The stacking of composite sheets and their angular orientation can be used to prevent twisting moments but allow bending moments. This is very useful for airplane wings, golf club shafts (to prevent slices or hooks), tennis rackets, etc., where power or lift comes or is not reduced from bending.

Apply in-pane Tensile Stress A B +90 +45 +45 45 45 +90 45 +90 +45 45 +90 +45 Tensile -> delaminate Compressive
MSE 406: Thermal and Mechanical Behavior of Materials D.D. Johnson 2005

MSE 406: Thermal and Mechanical Behavior of Materials D.D. Johnson 2005

Thermal Stresses in Composites


Not just due to fabrication, rather also due to thermal expansion differences between matrix and reinforcements Tm and Tr. Thermal coatings, e.g.
At T 1

Summary
Composites are classified according to:
-- the matrix material (CMC, MMC, PMC) -- the reinforcement geometry (particles, fibers, layers).

m r | T T | TE = T TE c
At T 2 If compatible, composite will bend and rotate

Composites enhance matrix properties:

Material with most contraction (least) has positive (negative) residual stress. (For non-ceramics, you should consider plastic strain too.) Ceramic-oxide thermal layers, e.g. on gas turbine engines: ceramic coating ZrO2-based (lower Tr) metal blade (Ni xCo1-x )CrAlY (higher Tm) Failure by delamination without a good design of composite, i.e. compatibility maintained.
MSE 406: Thermal and Mechanical Behavior of Materials D.D. Johnson 2005

-- MMC: enhance y, TS, creep performance -- CMC: enhance Kc -- PMC: enhance E, y, TS, creep performance Particulate-reinforced: -- Elastic modulus can be estimated. -- Properties are isotropic. Fiber-reinforced: -- Elastic modulus and TS can be estimated along fiber dir. -- Properties can be isotropic or anisotropic. Structural : -- Based on build-up of sandwiches in layered form.
MSE 406: Thermal and Mechanical Behavior of Materials D.D. Johnson 2005