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The First Humans, Prehistory to 3500 BCE

1.1 Early Humans 1.2 The Neolithic Revolution and the Rise of Civilization

Early Humans

Objectives: 1.Describe the spread of Homo Sapiens throughout the world by 10,000 BCE 2. Explain howPaleolithic peoples used technology to enhance their lives

Before History
Historians rely mostly on documents, or written records, to create their pictures of the past *Prehistorythe period before writing was developed Archaeological, Biological and anthropological information

Archaeology and Anthropology


*Archaeologythe study of past societies through an analysis of what people have left behind *artifactstools, pottery, paintings, weapons, buildings *Anthropologythe study of human life and culture through the use of artifacts and human remains Reconstruction of life and society through these studies

Dating Artifacts and Fossils


The most difcult is dating such artifacts and digs *radiocarbon datinglimit of 50,000 years *thermoluminescencelimit of 200,000 Biological analysis of organic remains (blood, hairs, etc.) which survives millions of years reconstruction of ancient DNA

Early Stages of Development From Hominids to Homo Sapiens


The earliest humanlike creatures lived in Africa as long as 3 to 4 million years ago *australopithecines southern apes discovered by *Donald Johnson were the rst *hominidshumans and other creatures that walk upright

1.5 Million years ago, *Homo erectus upright human being emerged using larger and more varied tools and was the rst to leave Africa into Europe and Asia due to the ability to manipulate re *Homo sapiens and *Neanderthals emerged from them as two distinct groups Neanderthals used stone tools, made clothes, and buried their dead, perhaps an indication of a belief in the afterlife *Homo sapiens sapiens appeared c. 150,000 years ago

The Spread of Homo Sapiens Sapiens By 30,000 BCE, Homo Sapien Sapien had replaced Neanderthals Through competition or conict Through shifting hunting grounds, they moved 2-3 miles per generation as they spread through the globe

The Hunter-Gatherers of the Old Stone Age Distinguishing features of the human species is the ability to make tools *Paleolithic Ageold stone, an age of stone tools from 2.5 million to 10,000 BCE

The Paleolithic Way of Life


Humans relied on hunting and gatheringwild nuts, berries, fruits, wild grains, and green plants, buffalo, horses, bison, and reindeer invention of spears and arrows *nomadspeople who moved from place to place

The Roles of Men and Women


Because women bore and raised the children, they were likely to have stayed close to their camps Important role in acquiring food by gathering berries, nuts, and grains

Adapting and Surviving


Cold climates drove the indwelling of caves Homo erectus who rst learned to make res deliberately, known by archaeologists from ashes and charred bones in caves Fire gave warmth and undoubtedly fostered a sense of community, protection, cooked foodusually through rubbing two pieces of wood together

Creating Cave Art


Hunters and gathers painted the cave walls of those in which they lived The most famous in in *Lascaux, France They mixed animals fats with colors and painted in the dark, lit with stone lamps

Objectives: 1.Describe the spread of Homo Sapiens throughout the world by 10,000 BCE 2. Explain howPaleolithic peoples used technology to enhance their lives

The Neolithic Revolution and the Rise of Civilization

Objectives: 1.Discuss the changes that occurred during the Neolithic Revolution that made the development of cities possible 2. Identify the major economic, political, and social changes for early humans brought about by systematic agriculture

The Neolithic Revolution


The end of the last Ice Age, c. 8000 BCE, followed by *Neolithic Revolutionnew stone The shifting from hunting/ gathering to *systematic agriculture *domestication (adaption for human use) of animals added a steady source of meat, milk, and wool Neolithic Revolutionacquire food on a regular basis gave humans greater control over their environment

The Growing of Crops Between 8000 and 5000 BCE, systematic agriculture developed in different area of the world

Neolithic Farming Villages


The growing of crops on a regular basis gave rise to more permanent settlements The oldest and biggest in Southwest Asia in *Jericho in Palestine *atal Hyk, located in modern Turkey, was even larger with 32 enclosed acres from 6700 to 5700 BCE Mud brick houses built closely to one another, domesticated animals, and crops

Surplus resulted in specialization of labor *artisans (weapons, jewelry, etc.) Female statues of goddess have also been foundmother/ earth goddess (birth/nursing/ fertility)

Consequences of the Neolithic Revolution Organized communities stored food and other material goods, which encouraged the development of trade. The trading of goods caused people to begin specializing in certain crafts, and a division of labor developed

The change to systematic agriculture in the Neolithic Age also had consequences for the relationship between men and women The solidication of gender roles

The End of the Neolithic Age


The use of metals marked a new level of control over the environment Heating metal-bearing rocks to melt to liquid Copper was the rst metal. After 4000 BCE, combination of copper and tin created bronze The *Bronze Age, 3000 to 1200 BCE *Iron Age, 1000 BCE

The Emergence of Civilization


*Civilization a complex culture in which large numbers of human beings share a number of common elements: Cities, government, religion, social structure, writing, and art

The Rise of Cities, Governments, the Role of Religion


The rst civilizations developed in river valleys Governments grew out of necessity to organize and regulate human activity *priests supervised rituals aimed at pleasing them

New Social Structures and the Use of Writing


Abundant food supplies created new opportunities, enabling some people to work in occupations other than farming As urban populations exported nished goods to neighboring populations in exchange for raw materials, organized trade began to grow Above all, rulers, priests, merchants, and artisans used writing to keep accurate records

Objectives: 1.Discuss the changes that occurred during the Neolithic Revolution that made the development of cities possible 2. Identify the major economic, political, and social changes for early humans brought about by systematic agriculture