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The Organizational Process Organizing, like planning, must be a carefully worked out and applied process.

This process involves determining what work is needed to accomplish the goal, assigning those tasks to individuals, and arranging those individuals in a decision-making framework (organizational structure). The end result of the organizing process is an organization a whole consisting of unified parts acting in harmony to execute tasks to achieve goals, both effectively and efficiently.

A properly implemented organizing process should result in a work environment where all team members are aware of their responsibilities. If the organizing process is not conducted well, the results may yield confusion, frustration, loss of efficiency, and limited effectiveness. In general, the organizational process consists of five steps (a flowchart of these steps is shown in Figure 1 ):

Figure 1 1. Review plans and objectives.

The organizational process.

Objectives are the specific activities that must be completed to achieve goals. Plans shape the activities needed to reach those goals. Managers must examine plans initially and continue to do so as plans change and new goals are developed. 2. Determine the work activities necessary to accomplish objectives. Although this task may seem overwhelming to some managers, it doesn't need to be. Managers simply list and analyze all the tasks that need to be accomplished in order to reach organizational goals. 3. Classify and group the necessary work activities into manageable units.

A manager can group activities based on four models of departmentalization: functional, geographical, product, and customer. 4. Assign activities and delegate authority. Managers assign the defined work activities to specific individuals. Also, they give each individual the authority (right) to carry out the assigned tasks. 5. Design a hierarchy of relationships. A manager should determine the vertical (decision-making) and horizontal (coordinating) relationships of the organization as a whole. Next, using the organizational chart, a manager should diagram the relationships.

ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE the framework, typically hierarchal, within which an organization arranges its line of authority and communications, and allocates rights and duties types:

Traditional structures - based on functional division and departments - characterized by having precise authority lines for all levels in the management a. Line Structure - has a very specific line of command - approvals and orders in this kind of structure come from top to bottom in a line b. Line and Staff Structure - combines the line structure where information and approvals come from top to bottom, with staff departments for support and specialization - more centralized c. Functional structures - classifies people according to the function they perform in their professional life or according to the functions performed by them in the organization Bureaucratic structure

this kind of structure can be seen in tall organizations where tasks, processes and procedures are all standardized - suitable for huge enterprises that involve complex operations and require smooth administration Divisional Structure - these types of organizations divide the functional areas of the organization to divisions - each division is equipped with its own resources in order to function independently Matrix Structure - groups employees by both function and product - combines the best of both worlds to make an efficient organizational structure Team Structure - emphasizes interpersonal relations as a determinant of conduct and performance - managers who serve more as facilitators and group leaders than final decisionmakers Network Structure - organization managers are required to maintain and coordinate business/professional relations with third parties such as clients, vendors and associates in order to achieve a collective goal of profitability and growth -

LINE AND STAFF RELATIONSHIPS Role and Responsibility of Line and Staff Managers The line managers are responsible for: The formulation of objectives, plans and policies. Making decisions for the implementation of plans and policies and attainment of objectives. Providing supervision and leadership, achieving coordination and exercising control. The staff managers have the responsibility to: Advice, help and guide the line managers in the performance of the above functions. Provide specified administrative services. Interpret objective plans and policies.

Help in the selection and training of employees. Measure organizational effectiveness. Report result to top management and suggest measures for improvement

Line and Staff Conflict Viewpoint of Line Managers Line managers, who are responsible for the final results leading to the achievement of organizational objectives, feel that staff people are against them in the following ways: 1. Lack of Responsibility 2. Encroachment of Line Authority 3. Dilution of Authority 4. Theoretical Bias Viewpoint of Staff Managers Like line managers, staff people have their own arguments and try to find faults with line managers which result in line-staff conflict. Their arguments and problems run on the following lines: 1. Lack of Proper use of Staff 2. Resistance of New Ideas 3. Lack of Proper Authority

Resolving Line and Staff Conflict 1. Recognition of Mutual Dependency 2. Clear Understanding of Staff Role 3. De-emphasis on Staff Control Function

Staffing Process by which organizations ensure that they have the number and type of people needed- at the times and places theyre needed- to create, produce, and deliver the organizations products and services. Process of acquiring, deploying, and retaining a workforce of sufficient quantity and quality to create positive impacts on the organizations effectiveness

Nature 1. Staffing is an important managerial function- Staffing function is the most important managerial act along with planning, organizing, directing and controlling. 2. Staffing is a pervasive activity- carried out by all managers and in all types of concerns where business activities are carried out. 3. Staffing is a continuous activity- continues throughout the life of an organization due to the transfers and promotions that take place. 4. The basis of staffing function is efficient management of personnel- Human resources can be efficiently managed by a system or proper procedure. 5. Staffing helps in placing right men at the right job. It can be done effectively through proper recruitment procedures and then finally selecting the most suitable candidate as per the job requirements. 6. Staffing is performed by all managers depending upon the nature of business, size of the company, qualifications and skills of managers, etc. Importance 1. 2. 3. 4. Filling the organizational positions Developing competencies to challenges Retaining personnel- professionalism Optimum utilization of the human resources

Staffing process Planning Designed to ensure that personnel needs will be constantly and appropriately met Accomplished through analysis of internal factors (e.g. current and expected skill needs, , vacancies and departmental expansions and reductions) and factors in the environment (e.g. labor market)

An organization should forecast its human resources requirements

Recruitment Develops a pool of job candidates from which to select qualified employees Recruited by running ads, contacting employment agencies and visiting college campuses

Selection Using application forms, resumes, interviews, employment and skills test and reference checks to evaluate and screen job candidates for the managers who will ultimately select and hire a candidate.

Socialization(Orientation) Designed to help the selected individuals fit smoothly into the organization Employees must be oriented to their jobs and to the organization in general

Training and Development Both aim to increase employees abilities to contribute to organizational effectiveness

Performance Appraisal Compares an individuals job performance to standards or objectives developed for the individuals position.

Promotions, transfers, demotion and separations reflect an employees value to the organization