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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Firstly I am briefing the current Derivative market and comparing it with it past. Then at the last I am giving my suggestions and recommendations.

Derivatives trading in the stock market have been a subject of enthusiasm of research in the field of finance the most desired instruments that allow market participants to manage risk in the modern securities trading are known as derivatives. The derivatives are defined as the future contracts whose value depends upon the underlying assets. If derivatives are introduced in the stock market, the underlying asset may be anything as component of stock market like, stock prices or market indices, interest rates, etc. The main logic behind derivatives trading is that derivatives reduce the risk by providing an additional channel to invest with lower trading cost and it facilitates the investors to extend their settlement through the future contracts. It provides extra liquidity in the stock market.

Derivatives are assets, which derive their values from an underlying asset. These underlying assets are of various categories like Commodities including grains, coffee beans, etc. Precious metals like gold and silver. Foreign exchange rate. Bonds of different types, including medium to long-term negotiable debt securities issued by governments, companies, etc. Short-term debt securities such as T-bills. Over-The-Counter (OTC) money market products such as loans or deposits. Equities For example, a dollar forward is a derivative contract, which gives the buyer a right & an obligation to buy dollars at some future date. The prices of the derivatives are driven by the spot prices of these underlying assets. However, the most important use of derivatives is in transferring market risk, called Hedging, which is a protection against losses resulting from unforeseen price or volatility changes. Thus, derivatives are a very important tool of risk management.

There are various derivative products traded. They are; 1. Forwards 2. Futures 3. Options, Swaps 1

A Forward Contract is a transaction in which the buyer and the seller agree upon a delivery of a specific quality and quantity of asset usually a commodity at a specified future date. The price may be agreed on in advance or in future. A Future contract is a firm contractual agreement between a buyer and seller for a specified as on a fixed date in future. The contract price will vary according to the market place but it is fixed when the trade is made. The contract also has a standard specification so both parties know exactly what is being done. An Options contract confers the right but not the obligation to buy (call option) or sell (put option) a specified underlying instrument or asset at a specified price the Strike or Exercised price up until or an specified future date the Expiry date. The Price is called Premium and is paid by buyer of the option to the seller or writer of the option.

A call option gives the holder the right to buy an underlying asset by a certain date for a certain price. The seller is under an obligation to fulfill the contract and is paid a price of this, which is called "the call option premium or call option price".

A put option, on the other hand gives the holder the right to sell an underlying asset by a certain date for a certain price. The buyer is under an obligation to fulfill the contract and is paid a price for this, which is called "the put option premium or put option price". Swaps are transactions which obligates the two parties to the contract to exchange a series of cash flows at specified intervals known as payment or settlement dates. They can be regarded as portfolios of forward's contracts. A contract whereby two parties agree to exchange (swap) payments, based on some notional principle amount is called as a SWAP. In case of swap, only the payment flows are exchanged and not the principle amount

I had conducted this research to find out whether investing in the derivative market is beneficial or not? You will be glad to know that derivative market in India is the most booming now days. So the person who is ready to take risk and want to gain more should invest in the derivative market.

On the other hand RBI has to play an important role in derivative market. Also SEBI must encourage investment in derivative market so that the investors get the benefit out of it. Sorry to say

that today even educated persons are not willing to invest in derivative market because they have the fear of high risk.

So, SEBI should take necessary steps for improvement in Derivative Market so that more investors can invest in Derivative market.

INTRODUCTION OF THE PROJECT

A Derivative is a financial instrument whose value depends on other, more basic, underlying variables. The variables underlying could be prices of traded securities and stock, prices of gold or copper. Derivatives have become increasingly important in the field of finance, Options and Futures are traded actively on many exchanges, Forward contracts, Swap and different types of options are regularly traded outside exchanges by financial intuitions, banks and their corporate clients in what are termed as over-the-counter markets in other words, there is no single market place or organized exchanges.

NEED OF THE STUDY

The study has been done to know the different types of derivatives and also to know the derivative market in India. This study also covers the recent developments in the derivative market taking into account the trading in past years.

Through this study I came to know the trading done in derivatives and their use in the stock markets.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY To understand the concept of the Derivatives and Derivative Trading. To know different types of Financial Derivatives To know the awareness & familiarity investors regarding derivatives. To know the experience of investors with derivatives till date.

SCOPE OF THE PROJECT

The project covers the derivatives market and its instruments. For better understanding various strategies with different situations and actions have been given. It includes the data collected in the recent years and also the market in the derivatives in the recent years. This study extends to the trading of derivatives done in the National Stock Markets.

INTRODUCTION TO DERIVATIVE

The origin of derivatives can be traced back to the need of farmers to protect themselves against fluctuations in the price of their crop. From the time it was sown to the time it was ready for harvest, farmers would face price uncertainty. Through the use of simple derivative products, it was possible for the farmer to partially or fully transfer price risks by locking-in asset prices. These were simple contracts developed to meet the needs of farmers and were basically a means of reducing risk.

A farmer who sowed his crop in June faced uncertainty over the price he would receive for his harvest in September. In years of scarcity, he would probably obtain attractive prices. However, during times of oversupply, he would have to dispose off his harvest at a very low price. Clearly this meant that the farmer and his family were exposed to a high risk of price uncertainty.

On the other hand, a merchant with an ongoing requirement of grains too would face a price risk that of having to pay exorbitant prices during dearth, although favourable prices could be obtained during periods of oversupply. Under such circumstances, it clearly made sense for the farmer and the merchant to come together and enter into contract whereby the price of the grain to be delivered in September could be decided earlier. What they would then negotiate happened to be futures-type contract, which would enable both parties to eliminate the price risk.

In 1848, the Chicago Board Of Trade, or CBOT, was established to bring farmers and merchants together. A group of traders got together and created the to-arrive contract that permitted farmers to lock into price upfront and deliver the grain later. These to-arrive contracts proved useful as a device for hedging and speculation on price charges. These were eventually standardized, and in 1925 the first futures clearing house came into existence.

Today derivatives contracts exist on variety of commodities such as corn, pepper, cotton, wheat, silver etc. Besides commodities, derivatives contracts also exist on a lot of financial underlying like stocks, interest rate, exchange rate, etc.

DERIVATIVE DEFINED A derivative is a product whose value is derived from the value of one or more underlying variables or assets in a contractual manner. The underlying asset can be equity, forex, commodity or any other asset. In our earlier discussion, we saw that wheat farmers may wish to sell their harvest at a future date to eliminate the risk of change in price by that date. Such a transaction is an example of 8

a derivative. The price of this derivative is driven by the spot price of wheat which is the underlying in this case.

The Forwards Contracts (Regulation) Act, 1952, regulates the forward/futures contracts in commodities all over India. As per this the Forward Markets Commission (FMC) continues to have jurisdiction over commodity futures contracts. However when derivatives trading in securities was introduced in 2001, the term security in the Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act, 1956 (SCRA), was amended to include derivative contracts in securities. Consequently, regulation of derivatives came under the purview of Securities Exchange Board of India (SEBI). We thus have separate regulatory authorities for securities and commodity derivative markets.

Derivatives are securities under the SCRA and hence the trading of derivatives is governed by the regulatory framework under the SCRA. The Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act, 1956 defines derivative to includeA security derived from a debt instrument, share, loan whether secured or unsecured, risk instrument or contract differences or any other form of security. A contract which derives its value from the prices, or index of prices, of underlying securities.

TYPES OF DERIVATIVES MARKET

Exchange Traded Derivatives

Over The Counter Derivatives

National Stock Exchange

Bombay Stock Exchange

National Commodity & Derivative Exchange

Index Future

Index option

Stock option

Stock future

TYPES OF DERIVATIVES

Derivatives Future Option Forward Swaps

FORWARD CONTRACTS

A forward contract is an agreement to buy or sell an asset on a specified date for a specified price. One of the parties to the contract assumes a long position and agrees to buy the underlying asset on a certain specified future date for a certain specified price. The other party assumes a short position and agrees to sell the asset on the same date for the same price. Other contract details like delivery date, price and quantity are negotiated bilaterally by the parties to the contract. The forward contracts are n o r m a l l y traded outside the exchanges. BASIC FEATURES OF FORWARD CONTRACT o They are bilateral contracts and hence exposed to counter-party risk. o Each contract is custom designed, and hence is unique in terms of contract expiration date and the asset type and quality. o The contract price is generally not available in public domain. o On the expiration date, the contract has to be settled by delivery of the assets. o If the party wishes to reverse the contract, it has to compulsorily go to the same counter-party, which often results in high prices being charged. However forward contracts incertain markets have become very standardized, as in the case of foreign exchange, thereby reducing transaction costs and increasing transactions volume. This process of standardization reaches its limit in the organized futures market. Forward contracts are often confused with futures contracts. The confusion is primarily because both serve essentially t h e same economic functi ons of allocating risk in the presence of future price uncertainty. However futures are a significant improvement over the forward contracts as they eliminate counterparty risk and offer more liquidity. size,

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FUTURE CONTRACT In finance, a futures contract is a standardized contract, traded on a futures exchange, to buy or sell a certain underlying instrument at a certain date in the future, at a pre-set price. The future date is called the delivery date or final settlement date. The pre-set price is called the futures price. The price of the underlying asset on the delivery date is called the settlement price. The settlement price, normally, converges towards the futures price on the delivery date. A futures contract gives the holder the right and the obligation to buy or sell, which differs from an options contract, which gives the buyer the right, but not the obligation, and the option writer (seller) the obligation, but not the right. To exit the commitment, the holder of a futures position has to sell his long position or buy back his short position, effectively closing out the futures position and its contract obligations. Futures contracts are exchange traded derivatives. The exchange acts as counterparty on all contracts, sets margin requirements, etc. BASIC FEATURES OF FUTURE CONTRACT Standardization: Futures contracts ensure their liquidity by being highly standardized, usually by specifying: o The underlying. This can be anything from a barrel of sweet crude oil to a short term interest rate. o The type of settlement, either cash settlement or physical settlement. o The amount and units of the underlying asset per contract. This can be the notional amount of bonds, a fixed number of barrels of oil, units of foreign currency, the notional amount of the deposit over which the short term interest rate is traded, etc. o The currency in which the futures contract is quoted. o The grade of the deliverable. In case of bonds, this specifies which bonds can be delivered. In case of physical commodities, this specifies not only the quality of the underlying goods but also the manner and location of delivery. The delivery month. o The last trading date. o Other details such as the tick, the minimum permissible price fluctuation. Margin: Although the value of a contract at time of trading should be zero, its price constantly fluctuates. This renders the owner liable to adverse changes in value, and creates a credit risk to the exchange, who always acts as counterparty. To minimize this risk, the exchange demands that contract owners post a form of collateral, commonly known as Margin requirements are waived or reduced in some cases for hedgers who have physical 11

ownership of the covered commodity or spread traders who have offsetting contracts balancing the position. Initial Margin: is paid by both buyer and seller. It represents the loss on that contract, as determined by historical price changes, which is not likely to be exceeded on a usual day's trading. It may be 5% or 10% of total contract price. Mark to market Margin: Because a series of adverse price changes may exhaust the initial margin, a further margin, usually called variation or maintenance margin, is required by the exchange. This is calculated by the futures contract, i.e. agreeing on a price at the end of each day, called the "settlement" or mark-to-market price of the contract. To understand the original practice, consider that a futures trader, when taking a position, deposits money with the exchange, called a "margin". This is intended to protect the exchange against loss. At the end of every trading day, the contract is marked to its present market value. If the trader is on the winning side of a deal, his contract has increased in value that day, and the exchange pays this profit into his account. On the other hand, if he is on the losing side, the exchange will debit his account. If he cannot pay, then the margin is used as the collateral from which the loss is paid. Settlement:Settlement is the act of consummating the contract, and can be done in one of two ways, as specified per type of futures contract: o Physical delivery: the amount specified of the underlying asset of the contract is delivered by the seller of the contract to the exchange, and by the exchange to the buyers of the contract. In practice, it occurs only on a minority of contracts. Most are cancelled out by purchasing a covering position - that is, buying a contract to cancel out an earlier sale (covering a short), or selling a contract to liquidate an earlier purchase (covering a long). o Cash settlement: a cash payment is made based on the underlying reference rate, such as a short term interest rate index such as Euribor, or the closing value of a stock market index. A futures contract might also opt to settle against an index based on trade in a related spot market. Expiry: is the time when the final prices of the future are determined. For many equity index and interest rate futures contracts, this happens on the Last Thursday of certain trading month. On this day the t+2 futures contract becomes the t forward contract.

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TABLE:- 1 DISTINCTION BETWEEN FUTURES AND FORWARDS CONTRACTS

FEATURE Operational Mechanism

FORWARD CONTRACT

FUTURE CONTRACT

Traded directly between two Traded on the exchanges. parties (not traded on the exchanges).

Contract Specifications Counter-party risk

Differ from trade to trade.

Contracts are standardized contracts.

Exists.

Exists. However, assumed by the clearing corp., which becomes the counter party to all the trades or unconditionally

guarantees their settlement.

Liquidation Profile

Low, as contracts are tailor High,

as

contracts

are

standardized

made contracts catering to exchange traded contracts. the needs of the needs of the parties.

Price discovery

Not efficient, as markets are Efficient, as markets are centralized and scattered. all buyers and sellers come to a common platform to discover the price.

Examples

Currency market in India.

Commodities, futures, Index Futures and Individual stock Futures in India.

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OPTIONS: A derivative transaction that gives the option holder the right but not the obligation to buy or sell the underlying asset at a price, called the strike price, during a period or on a specific date in exchange for payment of a premium is known as option. Underlying asset refers to any asset that is traded. The price at which the underlying is traded is called the strike price.

There are two types of options i.e., CALL OPTION & PUT OPTION.

CALL OPTION: A contract that gives its owner the right but not the obligation to buy an underlying asset-stock or any financial asset, at a specified price on or before a specified date is known as a Call option. The owner makes a profit provided he sells at a higher current price and buys at a lower future price.

PUT OPTION: A contract that gives its owner the right but not the obligation to sell an underlying asset-stock or any financial asset, at a specified price on or before a specified date is known as a Put option. The owner makes a profit provided he buys at a lower current price and sells at a higher future price. Hence, no option will be exercised if the future price does not increase.

Put and calls are almost always written on equities, although occasionally preference shares, bonds and warrants become the subject of options. SWAPS: Swaps are transactions which obligates the two parties to the contract to exchange a series of cash flows at specified intervals known as payment or settlement dates. They can be regarded as portfolios of forward's contracts. A contract whereby two parties agree to exchange (swap) payments, based on some notional principle amount is called as a SWAP. In case of swap, only the payment flows are exchanged and not the principle amount. The two commonly used swaps are: INTEREST RATE SWAPS: Interest rate swaps is an arrangement by which one party agrees to exchange his series of fixed rate interest payments to a party in exchange for his variable rate interest payments. The fixed rate payer takes a short position in the forward contract whereas the floating rate payer takes a long position in the forward contract. CURRENCY SWAPS: Currency swaps is an arrangement in which both the principle amount and the interest on loan in one currency are swapped for the principle and the interest payments on loan in another currency. The parties to the swap contract of currency generally hail from two different countries. This arrangement allows the 14

counter parties to borrow easily and cheaply in their home currencies. Under a currency swap, cash flows to be exchanged are determined at the spot rate at a time when swap is done. Such cash flows are supposed to remain unaffected by subsequent changes in the exchange rates. FINANCIAL SWAP: Financial swaps constitute a funding technique which permit a borrower to access one market and then exchange the liability for another type of liability. It also allows the investors to exchange one type of asset for another type of asset with a preferred income stream.

OTHER KINDS OF DERIVATIVES The other kind of derivatives, which are not, much popular are as follows:

BASKETS - Baskets options are option on portfolio of underlying asset. Equity Index Options are most popular form of baskets.

LEAPS - Normally option contracts are for a period of 1 to 12 months. However, exchange may introduce option contracts with a maturity period of 2-3 years. These long-term option contracts are popularly known as Leaps or Long term Equity Anticipation Securities.

WARRANTS - Options generally have lives of up to one year, the majority of options traded on options exchanges having a maximum maturity of nine months. Longer-dated options are called warrants and are generally traded over-the-counter.

SWAPTIONS - Swaptions are options to buy or sell a swap that will become operative at the expiry of the options. Thus a swaption is an option on a forward swap. Rather than have calls and puts, the swaptions market has receiver swaptions and payer swaptions. A receiver swaption is an option to receive fixed and pay floating. A payer swaption is an option to pay fixed and receive floating.

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HISTORY OF DERIVATIVES:

The history of derivatives is quite colourful and surprisingly a lot longer than most people think. Forward delivery contracts, stating what is to be delivered for a fixed price at a specified place on a specified date, existed in ancient Greece and Rome. Roman emperors entered forward contracts to provide the masses with their supply of Egyptian grain. These contracts were also undertaken between farmers and merchants to eliminate risk arising out of uncertain future prices of grains. Thus, forward contracts have existed for centuries for hedging price risk. The first organized commodity exchange came into existence in the early 1700s in Japan. The first formal commodities exchange, the Chicago Board of Trade (CBOT), was formed in 1848 in the US to deal with the problem of credit risk and to provide centralised location to negotiate forward contracts. From forward trading in commodities emerged the commodity futures. The first type of futures contract was called to arrive at. Trading in futures began on the CBOT in the 1860s. In 1865, CBOT listed the first exchange traded derivatives contract, known as the futures contracts. Futures trading grew out of the need for hedging the price risk involved in many commercial operations. The Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME), a spin-off of CBOT, was formed in 1919, though it did exist before in 1874 under the names of Chicago Produce Exchange (CPE) and Chicago Egg and Butter Board (CEBB). The first financial futures to emerge were the currency in 1972 in the US. The first foreign currency futures were traded on May 16, 1972, on International Monetary Market (IMM), a division of CME. The currency futures traded on the IMM are the British Pound, the Canadian Dollar, the Japanese Yen, the Swiss Franc, the German Mark, the Australian Dollar, and the Euro dollar. Currency futures were followed soon by interest rate futures. Interest rate futures contracts were traded for the first time on the CBOT on October 20, 1975. Stock index futures and options emerged in 1982. The first stock index futures contracts were traded on Kansas City Board of Trade on February 24, 1982.The first of the several networks, which offered a trading link between two exchanges, was formed between the Singapore International Monetary Exchange (SIMEX) and the CME on September 7, 1984.

Options are as old as futures. Their history also dates back to ancient Greece and Rome. Options are very popular with speculators in the tulip craze of seventeenth century Holland. Tulips, the brightly coloured flowers, were a symbol of affluence; owing to a high demand, tulip bulb prices shot up. Dutch growers and dealers traded in tulip bulb options. There was so much speculation that people even mortgaged their homes and businesses. These speculators were wiped out when the tulip craze collapsed in 1637 as there was no mechanism to guarantee the performance of the option terms.

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The first call and put options were invented by an American financier, Russell Sage, in 1872. These options were traded over the counter. Agricultural commodities options were traded in the nineteenth century in England and the US. Options on shares were available in the US on the over the counter (OTC) market only until 1973 without much knowledge of valuation. A group of firms known as Put and Call brokers and Dealers Association was set up in early 1900s to provide a mechanism for bringing buyers and sellers together.

On April 26, 1973, the Chicago Board options Exchange (CBOE) was set up at CBOT for the purpose of trading stock options. It was in 1973 again that black, Merton, and Scholes invented the famous Black-Scholes Option Formula. This model helped in assessing the fair price of an option which led to an increased interest in trading of options. With the options markets becoming increasingly popular, the American Stock Exchange (AMEX) and the Philadelphia Stock Exchange (PHLX) began trading in options in 1975.

The market for futures and options grew at a rapid pace in the eighties and nineties. The collapse of the Bretton Woods regime of fixed parties and the introduction of floating rates for currencies in the international financial markets paved the way for development of a number of financial derivatives which served as effective risk management tools to cope with market uncertainties.

The CBOT and the CME are two largest financial exchanges in the world on which futures contracts are traded. The CBOT now offers 48 futures and option contracts (with the annual volume at more than 211 million in 2001).The CBOE is the largest exchange for trading stock options. The CBOE trades options on the S&P 100 and the S&P 500 stock indices. The Philadelphia Stock Exchange is the premier exchange for trading foreign options.

The most traded stock indices include S&P 500, the Dow Jones Industrial Average, the Nasdaq 100, and the Nikkei 225. The US indices and the Nikkei 225 trade almost round the clock. The N225 is also traded on the Chicago Mercantile Exchange.

INDIAN DERIVATIVES MARKET: Starting from a controlled economy, India has moved towards a world where prices fluctuate every day. The introduction of risk management instruments in India gained momentum in the last few years due to liberalisation process and Reserve Bank of Indias (RBI) efforts in creating currency forward market. Derivatives are an integral part of liberalisation process to manage risk. NSE gauging the market requirements initiated the process of setting up derivative markets in India. In July 1999, derivatives trading commenced in India 17

Table 2. Chronology of instruments 1991 14 December 1995 Liberalisation process initiated NSE asked SEBI for permission to trade index futures.

18 November 1996 SEBI setup L.C.Gupta Committee to draft a policy framework for index futures. 11 May 1998 7 July 1999 L.C.Gupta Committee submitted report. RBI gave permission for OTC forward rate agreements (FRAs) and interest rate swaps. 24 May 2000 SIMEX chose Nifty for trading futures and options on an Indian index. 25 May 2000 SEBI gave permission to NSE and BSE to do index futures trading. 9 June 2000 12 June 2000 Trading of BSE Sensex futures commenced at BSE. Trading of Nifty futures commenced at NSE.

25 September 2000 Nifty futures trading commenced at SGX. 2 June 2001 Individual Stock Options & Derivatives

Need for derivatives in India today: In less than three decades of their coming into vogue, derivatives markets have become the most important markets in the world. Today, derivatives have become part and parcel of the day-to-day life for ordinary people in major part of the world. Until the advent of NSE, the Indian capital market had no access to the latest trading methods and was using traditional out-dated methods of trading. There was a huge gap between the investors aspirations of the markets and the available means of trading. The opening of Indian economy has precipitated the process of integration of Indias financial markets with the international financial markets. Introduction of risk management instruments in India has gained momentum in last few years thanks to Reserve Bank of Indias efforts in allowing forward contracts, cross currency options etc. which have developed into a very large market. Myths and realities about derivatives: In less than three decades of their coming into vogue, derivatives markets have become the most important markets in the world. Financial derivatives came into the spotlight along with the rise in uncertainty of post-1970, when US announced an end to the Bretton Woods System of fixed exchange rates leading to introduction of currency derivatives followed by other innovations including stock index futures. Today, derivatives have become part and parcel of the day-to-day life for ordinary people in major parts of the world. While this is true for many countries, there are still apprehensions about the introduction of 18

derivatives. There are many myths about derivatives but the realities that are different especially for Exchange traded derivatives, which are well regulated with all the safety mechanisms in place. Myths behind derivatives: Derivatives increase speculation and do not serve any economicpurpose: Numerous studies of derivatives activity have led to a broad consensus, both in the private and public sectors that derivatives provide numerous and substantial benefits to the users. Derivatives are a low-cost, effective method for users to hedge and manage their exposures to interest rates, commodity prices or exchange rates. The need for derivatives as hedging tool was felt first in the commodities market. Agricultural futures and options helped farmers and processors hedge against commodity price risk. After the fallout of Bretton wood agreement, the financial markets in the world started undergoing radical changes. This period is marked by remarkable innovations in the financial markets such as introduction of floating rates for the currencies, increased trading in variety of derivatives instruments, on-line trading in the capital markets, etc. As the complexity of instruments increased many folds, the accompanying risk factors grew in gigantic proportions. This situation led to development derivatives as effective risk management tools for the market participants. Looking at the equity market, derivatives allow corporations and institutional investors to effectively manage their portfolios of assets and liabilities through instruments like stock index futures and options. An equity fund, for example, can reduce its exposure to the stock market quickly and at a relatively low cost without selling off part of its equity assets by using stock index futures or index options. By providing investors and issuers with a wider array of tools for managing risks and raising capital, derivatives improve the allocation of credit and the sharing of risk in the global economy, lowering the cost of capital formation and stimulating economic growth. Now that world markets for trade and finance have become more integrated, derivatives have strengthened these important linkages between global markets, increasing market liquidity and efficiency and facilitating the flow of trade and finance Indian Market is not ready for derivative trading:Often the argument put forth against derivatives trading is that the Indian capital market is not ready for derivatives trading. Here, we look into the pre-requisites, which are needed for the introduction of derivatives, and how Indian market fares:

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TABLE 3. PRE-REQUISITES Large market Capitalisation INDIAN SCENARIO India is one of the largest market-capitalised countries in Asia with a market capitalisation of more than Rs.765000 crores.

High

Liquidity

in

the The daily average traded volume in Indian capital market today is around 7500 crores. Which means on an average every month 14% of the countrys Market capitalisation gets traded. These are clear indicators of high liquidity in the underlying.

underlying

Trade guarantee

The first clearing corporation guaranteeing trades has become fully functional from July 1996 in the form of National Securities Clearing Corporation (NSCCL). NSCCL is responsible for guaranteeing all open positions on the National Stock Exchange (NSE) for which it does the clearing.

A Strong Depository

National Securities Depositories Limited (NSDL) which started functioning in the year 1997 has revolutionalised the security settlement in our country.

A Good legal guardian

In the Institution of SEBI (Securities and Exchange Board of India) today the Indian capital market enjoys a strong, independent, and innovative legal guardian who is helping the market to evolve to a healthier place for trade practices.

Comparison of New System with Existing System: Many people and brokers in India think that the new system of Futures & Options and banning of Badla is disadvantageous and introduced early, but I feel that this new system is very useful especially to retail investors. It increases the no of options investors for investment. In fact it should have been introduced much before and NSE had approved it but was not active because of politicization in SEBI. The figure 3.3a 3.3d shows how advantages of new system (implemented from June 20001) v/s the old system i.e. before June 2001 20

New System Vs Existing System for Market Players

Figure 3.3a Speculators

Existing

SYSTEM

New

Approach

Peril &Prize Approach 1) Both profit & loss to extent of price change.

Peril &Prize 1)Buy &Sell stocks on delivery basis 2) Buy Call &Put by paying premium 1)Maximum loss possible to premium paid

1) Deliver based Trading, margin trading & carry forward transactions. 2) Buy Index Futures hold till expiry. Advantages

Greater Leverage as to pay only the premium. Greater variety of strike price options at a given time.

Figure 3.3b

Arbitrageurs

Existing

SYSTEM

New

Approach

Peril &Prize

Approach

Peril &Prize 1) B Group more promising as still in weekly settlement 2) Cash &Carry arbitrage continues 21 1) Risk free game.

1) Buying Stocks in 1) Make money one and selling in another exchange. forward transactions. 2) If Future Contract whichever way the Market moves.

more or less than Fair price

Fair Price = Cash Price + Cost of Carry.

Figure 3.3c

Hedgers

Existing

SYSTEM

New

Approach 1) Difficult to offload holding during adverse market conditions as circuit filters

Peril &Prize

Approach

Peril &Prize 1) Additional cost is only premium.

1) No Leverage available risk reward dependant on market prices

1)Fix price today to buy latter by paying premium. 2)For Long, buy ATM Put Option. If market goes up, long position benefit else exercise the option.

limit to curtail losses.

3)Sell deep OTM call option with underlying shares, earn premium + profit with increase prcie

Advantages Availability of Leverage

Figure 3.3d Small Investors

Existing

SYSTEM

New

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Approach 1) If Bullish buy stocks else sell it.

Peril &Prize

Approach

Peril &Prize 1) Buy Call/Put options based on market outlook 2) Hedge position if holding underlying stock 1) Downside remains protected & upside unlimited.

1) Plain Buy/Sell implies unlimited profit/loss.

Advantages Losses Protected. Exchange-traded vs. OTC derivatives markets: The OTC derivatives markets have witnessed rather sharp growth over the last few years, which has accompanied the modernization of commercial and investment banking and globalisation of financial activities. The recent developments in information technology have contributed to a great extent to these developments. While both exchange-traded and OTC derivative contracts offer many benefits, the former have rigid structures compared to the latter. It has been widely discussed that the highly leveraged institutions and their OTC derivative positions were the main cause of turbulence in financial markets in 1998. These episodes of turbulence revealed the risks posed to market stability originating in features of OTC derivative instruments and markets. The OTC derivatives markets have the following features compared to exchange-traded derivatives: o The management of counter-party (credit) risk is decentralized and located within individual institutions, o There are no formal centralized limits on individual positions, leverage, or margining, o There are no formal rules for risk and burden-sharing, o There are no formal rules or mechanisms for ensuring market stability and integrity, and for safeguarding the collective interests of market participants, and o The OTC contracts are generally not regulated by a regulatory authority and the exchanges self-regulatory organization, although they are affected indirectly by national legal systems, banking supervision and market surveillance. o Some of the features of OTC derivatives markets embody risks to financial market stability.

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The following features of OTC derivatives markets can give rise to instability in institutions, markets, and the international financial system: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) The dynamic nature of gross credit exposures; Information asymmetries; The effects of OTC derivative activities on available aggregate credit; The high concentration of OTC derivative activities in major institutions;

There has been some progress in addressing these risks and perceptions. However, the progress has been limited in implementing reforms in risk management, including counter-party, liquidity and operational risks, and OTC derivatives markets continue to pose a threat to international financial stability. The problem is more acute as heavy reliance on OTC derivatives creates the possibility of systemic financial events, which fall outside the more formal clearing house structures. Moreover, those who provide OTC derivative products, hedge their risks through the use of exchange traded derivatives. In view of the inherent risks associated with OTC derivatives, and their dependence on exchange traded derivatives, Indian law considers them illegal. FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO THE GROWTH OF DERIVATIVES: Factors contributing to the explosive growth of derivatives are price volatility, globalisation of the markets, technological developments and advances in the financial theories. o PRICE VOLATILITY A price is what one pays to acquire or use something of value.The concept of price is clear to almost everybody when we discuss commodities. There is a price to be paid for the purchase of food grain, oil, petrol, metal, etc. the price one pays for use of a unit of another persons money is called interest rate. And the price one pays in ones own currency for a unit of another currency is called as an exchange rate. Prices are generally determined by market forces. In a market, consumers have demand and producers or suppliers have supply, and the collective interaction of demand and supply in the market determines the price. These factors are constantly interacting in the market causing changes in the price over a short period of time. Such changes in the price are known as price volatility. This has three factors: the speed of price changes, the frequency of price changes and the magnitude of price changes. The changes in demand and supply influencing factors culminate in market adjustments through price changes. These price changes expose individuals, producing firms and governments to significant risks. The break down of the BRETTON WOODS agreement brought and end to the stabilising role of fixed exchange rates and the gold convertibility of the dollars. The globalisation of the markets and rapid industrialisation of many 24

underdeveloped countries brought a new scale and dimension to the markets. Nations that were poor suddenly became a major source of supply of goods. The Mexican crisis in the south east-Asian currency crisis of 1990s has also brought the price volatility factor on the surface. The advent of telecommunication and data processing bought information very quickly to the markets. Information which would have taken months to impact the market earlier can now be obtained in matter of moments. Even equity holders are exposed to price risk of corporate share fluctuates rapidly.These price volatility risks pushed the use of derivatives like futures and options increasingly as these instruments can be used as hedge to protect against adverse price changes in commodity, foreign exchange, equity shares and bonds. o GLOBALISATION OF MARKETS Earlier, managers had to deal with domestic economic concerns; what happened in other part of the world was mostly irrelevant. Now globalisation has increased the size of markets and as greatly enhanced competition .it has benefited consumers who cannot obtain better quality goods at a lower cost. It has also exposed the modern business to significant risks and, in many cases, led to cut profit margins o TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCES A significant growth of derivative instruments has been driven by technological breakthrough. Advances in this area include the development of high speed processors, network systems and enhanced method of data entry. Closely related to advances in computer technology are advances in telecommunications. Improvement in communications allow for instantaneous worldwide conferencing, Data transmission by satellite. At the same time there were significant advances in software programmes without which computer and telecommunication advances would be meaningless. These facilitated the more rapid movement of information and consequently its instantaneous impact on market price. Although price sensitivity to market forces is beneficial to the economy as a whole resources are rapidly relocated to more productive use and better rationed overtime the greater price volatility exposes producers and consumers to greater price risk. The effect of this risk can easily destroy a business which is otherwise well managed. Derivatives can help a firm manage the price risk inherent in a market economy. To the extent the technological developments increase volatility, derivatives and risk management products become that much more important.

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o ADVANCES IN FINANCIAL THEORIES Advances in financial theories gave birth to derivatives. Initially forward contracts in its traditional form, was the only hedging tool available. Option pricing models developed by Black and Scholes in 1973 were used to determine prices of call and put options. In late 1970s, work of Lewis Edeington extended the early work of Johnson and started the hedging of financial price risks with financial futures. The work of economic theorists gave rise to new products for risk management which led to the growth of derivatives in financial markets.

The above factors in combination of lot many factors led to growth of derivatives instruments DEVELOPMENT OF DERIVATIVES MARKET IN INDIA: The first step towards introduction of derivatives trading in India was the promulgation of the Securities Laws (Amendment) Ordinance, 1995, which withdrew the prohibition on options in securities. The market for derivatives, however, did not take off, as there was no regulatory framework to govern trading of derivatives. SEBI set up a 24member committee under the Chairmanship of Dr.L.C.Gupta on November 18, 1996 to develop appropriate regulatory framework for derivatives trading in India. The committee submitted its report on March 17, 1998 prescribing necessary preconditions for introduction of derivatives trading in India. The committee recommended that derivatives should be declared as securities so that regulatory framework applicable to trading of securities could also govern trading of securities. SEBI also set up a group in June 1998 under the Chairmanship of Prof.J.R.Varma, to recommend measures for risk containment in derivatives market in India. The report, which was submitted in October 1998, worked out the operational details of margining system, methodology for charging initial margins, broker net worth, deposit requirement and realtime monitoring requirements. The Securities Contract Regulation Act (SCRA) was amended in December 1999 to include derivatives within the ambit of securities and the regulatory framework were developed for governing derivatives trading. The act also made it clear that derivatives shall be legal and valid only if such contracts are traded on a recognized stock exchange, thus precluding OTC derivatives. The government also rescinded in March 2000, the three decade old notification, which prohibited forward trading in securities. Derivatives trading commenced in India in June 2000 after SEBI granted the final approval to this effect in May 2001. SEBI permitted the derivative segments of two stock exchanges, NSE and BSE, and their clearing house/corporation to commence trading and settlement in approved derivatives contracts. To begin with, SEBI 26

approved trading in index futures contracts based on S&P CNX Nifty and BSE30 (Sense) index. This was followed by approval for trading in options based on these two indexes and options on individual securities.

The trading in BSE Sensex options commenced on June 4, 2001 and the trading in options on individual securities commenced in July 2001. Futures contracts on individual stocks were launched in November 2001. The derivatives trading on NSE commenced with S&P CNX Nifty Index futures on June 12, 2000. The trading in index options commenced on June 4, 2001 and trading in options on individual securities commenced on July 2, 2001. Single stock futures were launched on November 9, 2001. The index futures and options contract on NSE are based on S&P CNX Trading and settlement in derivative contracts is done in accordance with the rules, byelaws, and regulations of the respective exchanges and their clearing house/corporation duly approved by SEBI and notified in the official gazette. Foreign Institutional Investors (FIIs) are permitted to trade in all Exchange traded derivative products.

The following are some observations based on the trading statistics provided in the NSE report on the futures and options (F&O):

Single-stock futures continue to account for a sizable proportion of the F&O segment. It

constituted 70 per cent of the total turnover during June 2002. A primary reason attributed to this phenomenon is that traders are comfortable with single-stock futures than equity options, as the former closely resembles the erstwhile badla system.

On relative terms, volumes in the index options segment continue to remain poor. This may

be due to the low volatility of the spot index. Typically, options are considered more valuable when the volatility of the underlying (in this case, the index) is high. A related issue is that brokers do not earn high commissions by recommending index options to their clients, because low volatility leads to higher waiting time for round-trips.

Put volumes in the index options and equity options segment have increased since January

2002. The call-put volumes in index options have decreased from 2.86 in January 2002 to 1.32 in June. The fall in call-put volumes ratio suggests that the traders are increasingly becoming pessimistic on the market.

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Farther month futures contracts are still not actively traded. Trading in equity options on

most stocks for even the next month was non-existent.

Daily option price variations suggest that traders use the F&O segment as a less risky

alternative (read substitute) to generate profits from the stock price movements. The fact that the option premiums tail intra-day stock prices is evidence to this. If calls and puts are not looked as just substitutes for spot trading, the intra-day stock price variations should not have a one-to-one impact on the option premiums.

The spot foreign exchange market remains the most important segment but the

derivative segment has also grown. In the derivative market foreign exchange swaps account for the largest share of the total turnover of derivatives in India followed by forwards and options. Significant milestones in the development of derivatives market have

been (i) permission to banks to undertake cross currency derivative transactions subject to certain conditions (1996) (ii) allowing corporates to undertake long term foreign currency swaps that contributed to the development of the term currency swap market (1997) (iii) allowing dollar rupee options (2003) and (iv) introduction of currency futures (2008). I would like to emphasise that currency swaps allowed companies with ECBs to swap their foreign currency liabilities into rupees. However, since banks could not carry open positions the risk was allowed to be transferred to any other resident corporate. Normally such risks should be taken by corporates who have natural hedge or have potential foreign exchange earnings. often corporate assume these risks due to interest rate differentials and views on currencies. But

This period has also witnessed several relaxations in regulations relating to forex markets and also greater liberalisation in capital account regulations leading to greater integration with the global economy.

Cash settled exchange traded currency futures have made foreign currency a separate

asset class that can be traded without any underlying need or exposure a n d on a leveraged basis on the recognized stock exchanges with credit risks being assumed by the counterparty Since the commencement of trading of currency futures in all the three exchanges, the value of the trades has gone up steadily from Rs 17, 429 crores in October 2008 to Rs 45, 803 crores in December 2008. The average daily turnover in all the exchanges has also increased from Rs871 crores to Rs 2,181 crores during the same period. The turnover in the currency futures central

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market is in line with the international scenario, where I understand the share of futures market ranges between 2 3 per cent.

Table 4.1ForexMarketActivity April05Total turnover (USD billion) Inter-bank to Merchant ratio Spot/Total Turnover (%) Forward/Total Turnover (%) Swap/Total Turnover (%) Source: RBI Mar06 4,404 2.6:1 50.5 19.0 30.5 April07Mar08 12,304 2.37: 1 49.7 19.3 31.1 April08Dec08 9,621 2.66:1 45.9 21.5 32.7

April06Mar07 6,571 2.7:1 51.9 17.9 30.1

BENEFITS OF DERIVATIVES

Derivative markets help investors in many different ways: RISK MANAGEMENT Futures and options contract can be used for altering the risk of investing in spot market. For instance, consider an investor who owns an asset. He will always be worried that the price may fall before he can sell the asset. He can protect himself by selling a futures contract, or by buying a Put option. If the spot price falls, the short hedgers will gain in the futures market, as you will see later. This will help offset their losses in the spot market. Similarly, if the spot price falls below the exercise price, the put option can always be exercised. PRICE DISCOVERY Price discovery refers to the markets ability to determine true equilibrium prices. Futures prices are believed to contain information about future spot prices and help in disseminating such information. As we have seen, futures markets provide a low cost trading mechanism. Thus information pertaining to supply and demand easily percolates into such markets. Accurate prices are essential for ensuring the correct allocation of resources in a free market economy. Options markets provide information about the volatility or risk of the underlying asset.

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OPERATIONAL ADVANTAGES As opposed to spot markets, derivatives markets involve lower transaction costs. Secondly, they offer greater liquidity. Large spot transactions can often lead to significant price changes. However, futures markets tend to be more liquid than spot markets, because herein you can take large positions by depositing relatively small margins. Consequently, a large position in derivatives markets is relatively easier to take and has less of a price impact as opposed to a transaction of the same magnitude in the spot market. Finally, it is easier to take a short position in derivatives markets than it is to sell short in spot markets. MARKET EFFICIENCY The availability of derivatives makes markets more efficient; spot, futures and options markets are inextricably linked. Since it is easier and cheaper to trade in derivatives, it is possible to exploit arbitrage opportunities quickly and to keep prices in alignment. Hence these markets help to ensure that prices reflect true values. EASE OF SPECULATION Derivative markets provide speculators with a cheaper alternative to engaging in spot transactions. Also, the amount of capital required to take a comparable position is less in this case. This is important because facilitation of speculation is critical for ensuring free and fair markets. Speculators always take calculated risks. A speculator will accept a level of risk only if he is convinced that the associated expected return is commensurate with the risk that he is taking.

The derivative market performs a number of economic functions. The prices of derivatives converge with the prices of the underlying at the expiration of derivative contract. Thus derivatives help in discovery of future as well as current prices. An important incidental benefit that flows from derivatives trading is that it acts as a catalyst for new entrepreneurial activity. Derivatives markets help increase savings and investment in the long run. Transfer of risk enables market participants to expand their volume of activity.

NATIONAL EXCHANGES In enhancing the institutional capabilities for futures trading the idea of setting up of National Commodity Exchange(s) has been pursued since 1999. Three such Exchanges, viz, National MultiCommodity Exchange of India Ltd., (NMCE), Ahmedabad, National Commodity & Derivatives Exchange (NCDEX), Mumbai, and Multi Commodity Exchange (MCX), Mumbai have become operational. National Status implies that these exchanges would be automatically

permitted to conduct futures trading in all commodities subject to clearance of byelaws and contract 30

specifications by the FMC. While the NMCE, Ahmedabad commenced futures trading in November 2002, MCX and NCDEX, Mumbai commenced operations in October/ December 2003 respectively.

MCX MCX (Multi Commodity Exchange of India Ltd.) an independent and de-mutulised multi commodity exchange has permanent recognition from Government of India for facilitating online trading, clearing and settlement operations for commodity futures markets across the country. Key shareholders of MCX are Financial Technologies (India) Ltd., State Bank of India, HDFC Bank, State Bank of Indore, State Bank of Hyderabad, State Bank of Saurashtra, SBI Life Insurance Co. Ltd., Union Bank of India, Bank Corporation Bank. Headquartered in Mumbai, MCX is led by an expert management team with deep domain knowledge of the commodity futures markets. Today MCX is offering spectacular growth opportunities and advantages to a large cross section of the participants including Producers / Processors, Traders, Corporate, Regional Trading Canters, Importers, Exporters, Cooperatives, Industry Associations, amongst others MCX being nation-wide commodity exchange, offering multiple commodities for trading with wide reach and penetration and robust infrastructure. MCX, having a permanent recognition from the Government of India, is an independent and demutualised multi commodity Exchange. MCX, a state-of-the-art nationwide, digital Exchange, facilitates online trading, clearing and settlement operations for a commodities futures trading. of India, Bank of Baroda, Canera Bank,

NMCE National Multi Commodity Exchange of India Ltd. (NMCE) was promoted by Central Warehousing Corporation (CWC), National Agricultural Cooperative Marketing Federation of India (NAFED), Gujarat Agro-Industries Corporation Limited (GAICL), Gujarat State Agricultural Marketing Board (GSAMB), National Institute of Agricultural Marketing (NIAM), and Neptune Overseas Limited (NOL). While various integral aspects of commodity economy, viz., warehousing, cooperatives, private and public sector marketing of agricultural commodities, research and training were adequately addressed in structuring the Exchange, finance was still a vital missing link. Punjab National Bank (PNB) took equity of the Exchange to establish that linkage. Even today, NMCE is the only Exchange in India to have such investment and technical support from the commodity relevant institutions. NMCE facilitates electronic derivatives trading through robust and tested trading platform, Derivative Trading Settlement System (DTSS), provided by CMC. It has robust delivery 31

mechanism making it the most suitable for the participants in the physical commodity markets. It has also established fair and transparent rule-based procedures and demonstrated total commitment towards eliminating any conflicts of interest. It is the only Commodity Exchange in the world to have received ISO 9001:2000 certification from British Standard Institutions (BSI). NMCE was the first commodity exchange to provide trading facility through internet, through Virtual Private Network (VPN). NMCE follows best international risk management practices. The contracts are marked to market on daily basis. The system of upfront margining based on Value at Risk is followed to ensure financial security of the market. In the event of high volatility in the prices, special intra-day clearing and settlement is held. NMCE was the first to initiate process of dematerialization and electronic transfer of warehoused commodity stocks. The unique strength of NMCE is its settlements via a Delivery Backed System, an imperative in the commodity trading business. These deliveries are executed through a sound and reliable Warehouse Receipt System, leading to guaranteed clearing and settlement.

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NCDEX National Commodity and Derivatives Exchange Ltd (NCDEX) is a technology driven commodity exchange. It is a public limited company registered under the Companies Act, 1956 with the Registrar of Companies, Maharashtra in Mumbai on April 23,2003. It has an independent Board of Directors and professionals not having any vested interest in commodity markets. It has been launched to provide a world-class commodity exchange platform for market participants to trade in a wide spectrum of commodity derivatives driven by best global practices, professionalism and transparency. Forward Markets Commission regulates NCDEX in respect of futures trading in commodities. Besides, NCDEX is subjected to various laws of the land like the Companies Act, Stamp Act, Contracts Act, Forward Commission (Regulation) Act and various other legislations, which impinge on its working. It is located in Mumbai and offers facilities to its members in more than 390 centres throughout India. The reach will gradually be expanded to more centres.

NCDEX currently facilitates trading of thirty six commodities - Cashew, Castor Seed, Chana, Chilli, Coffee, Cotton, Cotton Seed Oilcake, Crude Palm Oil, Expeller Mustard Oil, Gold, Guar gum, Guar Seeds, Gur, Jeera, Jute sacking bags, Mild Steel Ingot, Mulberry Green Cocoons, Pepper, Rapeseed - Mustard Seed ,Raw Jute, RBD Palmolein, Refined Soy Oil, Rice, Rubber, Sesame Seeds, Silk, Silver, Soy Bean, Sugar, Tur, Turmeric, Urad (Black Matpe), Wheat, Yellow Peas, Yellow Red Maize & Yellow Soybean Meal.

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