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- Surveying Book
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- Primary Directions Notation.pdf
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- Kiln Align Methods
- ENGR112 HW1(2)
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- CE6304 Surveying Part B With Hints
- Exercitii Nav Astro
- 1. Introduction to Surveying
- Surveying Section 1
- (3) Leveling Part 2
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- Definitions Tidal Levels

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CHAPTER 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

INDEX

SA Co-ordinate System Revision Join Calculations Revision Polar Calculations, to check the Join calculation Revision Setting up of Theodolite/Tach Revision Setting out PIs (E, PI 2, F) Calculate Circular Curve Data Setting out BC, CP and EC Setting out Reference points Levelling : Test the Level Instrument for Collimation Error Levelling: Longitudinal Section Levelling : Cross Sections Areas and Volumes - Trapezoid Batters Profiles 600 Pipe Levelling of Control Points (BMs) Site Survey (Spot heights = Contours) Intersection/Resection Practical plotting exercise

PAGE 2 5 9 13 18 25 26 27 27 28 31 34 36 40 44 49 50 51 54

Toppieshoek Program 1 2 3 Plot Start and End of Traverse BMs, 9, 104, 66 and 6 at 1:50 000 Calculate 14 Joins for Setting out of PIs Calculate Circular Curves data - Geometric data - Stake Values (SVs) - Setting out PIs - Setting out Circular Curves data - Setting out Reference pegs Levelling : Test the Level Instrument for Collimation Error Levelling and Check levelling of Longitudinal section Levelling of Cross sections Setting out Batters for Cut or Fill Setting out Profiles for Sub-Surface drainage Setting out a 600 pipe Levelling : Test the Level Instrument for Collimation Error Levelling of Bench Marks (BMs) = Traverse stations Site Survey Spot heights Draw Site Plan Draw contours Intersection for Engineers Resection for Surveyors

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

1

1.1 Outcomes

S.A.CO-ORDINATE SYSTEM

When you have completed this module, you should have achieved the following outcomes (should be able to do the following) : 1 2 3 Know about the Gauss conform projection Know that the Lo. System is divided into 2 strips Know that the Central Meridian is always an uneven number

1.2 The world is divided into LONGITUDES and LATITUDES to make it possible to be able to indicate position LONGITUDES are imaginary lines which stretch from the North Pole to the South Pole LATITUDES are imaginary lines which are parallel to the Equator It works the same as the X,Y Co-ordinates in Mathematics, to show the position of a point LONG & LAT 1.3 The Mathematical Systems 0 Direction points to the right, and the +X distances increase in that direction. The 90 points upwards and the +Y distances increases in that direction. The +X,+Y indicate the First Quadrant Thus the Quadrants are ANTI CLOCKWISE from this First Quadrant In S.A. the Co-ordinate Systems 0 Direction points downwards, and in the same way as Mathematics, it indicates the +X distances The 90 points to the LEFT and indicates the +Y distances, thus it is CLOCKWISE from the +X distances The Surveying instruments have protractors in them which work CLOCKWISE, thus we have a Mathematical mirror image which has been swung 1.4 Mathematics 90 +Y Surveying

1 (X,Y) ++

+X 0 90 +Y

1 (Y,X) ++ +X

0 1.5 Notice that the Surveying Co-ordinates are Y,X All calculations work the same as it worked in Mathematics, exept that the Y is written first, then the X

1.6 1.7

In Surveying the 0 points SOUTH and the 180 points NORTH Take a Cylinder which is transparent and place the GLOBE inside, which is also transparent, with a light bulb inside, which reflects everything on the globe onto the cylinder. This is known as the Gauss Conform Projection Now draw everything which is reflected onto the cylinder. Cut the cylinder open and open it up In this way we have a Rectangular System which can work with Y and X co-ordinates

MERCATOR PROJECTION

1.8 If we begin with 0 and take three LONGITUDES, then we have a 2 strip The middle Longitude (known as the Central Meridian) is then 1, an UNEVEN number The next 2 strip will then also have an uneven number for the Central Meridian, n.l. 3, and so on, up to S.A where the Cape begins with the Central Meridian of 21 and Natal ends with 31 For the LATITUDES we begin on the Equator with 0 These 2 strips are named after the Central Meridian Longitude and is known as Lo., i.e. Lo.21, Lo.23, Lo.25 Lo.31 ect. The 2 strips are necessary to decrease distortion

26 Central Meridian

2 strip Lo.27

28 Equator

1.9 There is a 15 minute overlap between strips The Trigonometrical Beacons, shown below, are everywhere in S.A., and their Y,X,Z values are available at the Surveyor Generals (SG) offices in the main cities Sometimes we work from one 2 strip over onto the one next to it while Surveying, then we can still obtain Y,X,Z values for the Trig.Beacons of one 2 strip on the next 2 strip, for a distance of approximately 10km (15 minutes)

1.10 The Y,X and Z Co-ordinates available at the Surveyor Generals office (SG), was known as Lo. Co-ordinates because they refer to the Central Meridian and the 2 strips With Satellite observations with GPS (Global Positioning System) equipment the world changed to WGS 84 co-ordinates The origin of the Geoid for the WGS system in S.A. was in Port Elizabeth The distortion of the co-ordinates became larger, the further away from PE In 1994 the Geoids origin was moved to HARTEBEESHOEK close to Hartebeestpoort dam, to facilitate the least amount of distortion in the co-ordinates all over S.A This co-ordinate system is known as the HARTEBEESHOEK 94 System Thus, make SURE which co-ordinates are used for your task/work Form of the world before 1984 and now

Geoid

2

2.1 Outcomes

JOIN CALCULATION

When you have completed this module, you should have achieved the following outcomes (should be able to do the following) : 1 2 3 4 5 Know Know Know Know Know how to determine Y and X using the co-ordinates how to use Y and X to determine the direction how to use Y and X to determine the distance where a Join is used in the field where a Join is used in calculations

2.2 The Join This is the calculation to determine the True Direction and Distance between two Coordinates (two known points) The whole calculation depends on your knowledge of the S.A.Co-ordinate System, and how it works in Surveying. Therefore, know the signs of the Quadrants, WELL !! If you know the first quadrant, then you CAN figure out the rest

90 +Y

1 (Y,X) ++ +X

0

2.3 Form of Calculations The form of the calculation is given below. The calculations are ALWAYS from the point on which you have set-up, TO the known point which you are about to orientate on with the Tache/Theodolite Notice that the FULL co-ordinates are written down, first the Y, then the X coordinates Y A9 7 -82 341,38 -81 108,35 Delta Y X +2 479 885,70 +2 471 086,39 Delta X Direction = Distance =

2.4 This same Join is easier to calculate WITH OUT the constants Count the number of numbers on the left hand side of the comma. They MUST have the same number of units for both co-ordinates A9 7 -2 341,38 -1 108,35 Y= +9 885,70 +1 086,39 X=

2.5 By inspection you can see that Y will be + (plus) [going from the Y co-ordinate -2 341,38 to -1 108,35], and X will be - (minus) [going from the X co-ordinate +9 885,70 to +1 086,39]. Write the signs in at the right place, below the co-ordinates To confirm this, ALWAYS take the second co-ordinate and SUBTRACT IT from the first co-ordinate [-1 108,35 (-2 341,38)] = + 1 233,030 A9 7 -2 341,38 -1 108,35 Y= + 1 233,030 +9 885,70 +1 086,39 X= - 8 799,310

2.6 Notice that you MUST calculate accurately to 3 decimal places, and show it like that ! This is NOT like Mathematics where a zero does not matter 2.7 Now your knowledge of the Surveying Co-ordinate System comes to work The differences in the co-ordinates (Y and X) gave you a + and a -, which means that the Direction you want to calculate is in the second quadrant, the +,quadrant

2.8 Draw the second quadrant and draw a line from the origin, into this quadrant From the point/tip of this line, another line is drawn to the side from which this quadrant starts, n.l. the 90 line Thus, the Direction will be 90 + (the direction with which the quadrant starts, + ) (Example : if the signs of Y and X where -, -, indicating 3rd quadrant, the direction would be 180 + )

X Y

0 +X

90 +Y

-1

Opposite Adjacent

X Y

-1

-1

7,136330827

N.B. The Degrees, Minutes and Seconds are shown with a dot. Notice that the dot is in the middle and not on the line below, like a comma or a full stop !! Note that where the sign of the s are the same, use Y X Where the signs are different use X Y Test yourself with the question "is 172 in the Second quadrant "? A9 7 - 2 341,38 - 1 108,35 + 1 233,030 + 9 885,70 + 1 086,39 - 8 799,310 1720124

2.10 Y en X form the sides of a right angled triangle, therefore with the Pythagoras'

therom :

Distance =

Y2 + X2

2.11 The calculation of the distance thus gives you : 8 885,281m N.B. The distance is ALWAYS written BELOW the Direction Note : All Survey calculations are done to 3 decimal places (notice the highlighted/bold zeros) Join A51 A51 7b - 307,02 - 298,50 + 8,520 + 45,73 + 31,00 - 14,730 1495716 17,017m 7b +8,520 - 298,500 - 14,730 + 31,000 Polar - 307,02 + 45,73

2.12

1

S1

TUTORIAL 1 JOINS

7

Mast

Y X A - 4 325,97 +3 294,18 B + 3 542,79 - 2 943,76 C + 5 243,59 + 4 923,61 D - 2 354,579 - 3 492,167 E - 4 523,957 + 2 349,716 F + 5 432,759 - 4 293,671 Calculate the following joins and check your calculations fully (with a Polar). 1 AB 2 BC 3 CD 4 DE 5 EF 6 AC 7 CE 8 EA 9 DF /8/ each Given : Calculate the join C to D from the following data, and check your calculations. C - 12 344,56 + 45 345,76 X = + 123,45 /10/

Y = - 234,56 4

Discuss point by point all the reasons why, when and where Joins are used in

the field and in calculations. /7/ 5 Calculate the Join from A9 to 7a : A9 7a +81 341,38 +81 308,35 +2 479 885,70 +2 479 886,39

/4/ 6 Calculate the Join from C17 to 3d : C17 3d -23 341,38 -23 348,35 +2 479 885,70 +2 479 896,39

/4/

3

3.1 Outcomes

POLAR CALCULATION

(This calculation must be done to check the Join calculation)

When you have completed this module, you should have achieved the following outcomes (should be able to do the following) :

2 3 4

to to to to

determine Y and X using the direction and distance determine the co-ordinates of the second point use a Polar in the field use a Polar in calculations

3.2 The form of the Polar calculation is shown below. The calculation is always FROM the first point used in the Join i.e. A9 and its co-ordinates

A9 Direction = Distance = 7

-82 341,38

+2 479 885,70

Y =

X =

3.3 The Direction and Distance which was calculated in the Join are carried over to the Polar calculation

10

A9 1720124 8 885,281m 7

-82 341,38

+2 479 885,70

Y =

X =

3.4 We know that Y and X are the DIFFERENCES between the two co-ordinates. To calculate them : Y = Distance x SIN (Direction) Y = 8 885,281 x Sin (1720124) and X = Distance x COS (Direction) X = 8 885,281 x Cos (1720124) N.B. It is ALWAYS SINE for Y, and COS for X

3.5 N.B. The Direction MUST first be decimalized (decimal degrees), before the SINE or COS can be calculated from it Y = 8 885,281 x Sin (1720124) Y = 8 885,281 x Sin (172,023333) Y = 8 885,281 x (+0,1387698) Y = +1 233,009 N.B. Only 3 decimals and X = 8 885,281 x Cos (1720124) X = 8 885,281 x Cos (172,023333) X = 8 885,281 x ( - 0,99032466) X = - 8 799,313 N.B. Only 3 decimals A9 1720124 8 885,281m 7 3.6 Again, these are the DIFFERENCES between the co-ordinates of A9 and 7 +1 233,009 - 8 799,313 -82 341,38 +2 479 885,70

11

Thus, the co-ordinates of 7 are now calculated : A9 1720124 8 885,281m 7 +1 233,009 - 81 108,371 - 8 799,313 + 2 471 086,387 - 82 341,38 +2 479 885,70

3.7 Now these calculated co-ordinates are compared with the original co-ordinates of 7, which where used in the Join It should be within approximately 0,020m. Now you know that you are set up over the right point and that you have done the Join calculation correctly Join co-ordinates 7 - 81 108,35 + 2 471 086,39

7 - 81 108,371 + 2 471 086,387

3.8 If the co-ordinates compare, as in this case, tick marks MUST be made at the Direction and the Distance which were calculated in the Join calculation The Join is NOT CHECKED with the Polar if the tick marks do not appear on the calculation Below is a combined Join and Polar calculation, without constants Exam standard : Join checked by a Polar Join A9 A9 7 - 2 341,38 - 1 108,35 + 1 233,030 + 9 885,70 + 1 086,39 - 8 799,310 1720124 8 885,281m 7 +1 233,009 - 1 108,371 - 8 799,313 + 1086,387 Polar - 2 341,38 +9 885,70

3.9 Remember that a Join is checked by a Polar, and that a Polar is checked by a Join 3.10 During Construction work it is often required from the person doing the Surveys to SET OUT A PEG/POINT The Theodolite or Tacheometre (Tache) is set up on a known point with known coordinates Then it is oriented with the help of the Join Directions to Trignometrical Beacons or Bench Marks (points with known co-ordinates)

12

Another Join is calculated to the co-ordinates of the point which has to be set out The Theodolite or Tache is set onto the calculated join direction and the calculated distance is SET OUT (measured out with a tape measure, and an iron peg is knocked in at the right place) It is always desirable to repeat the whole exercise from a second known peg, so that the work has been checked, independently

3.11

S1

TUTORIAL 2 POLARS

Calculate the Polar from point A7 to 9b , in the standard form : Direction from point A7 to 9b = 2221212 Distance from A7 to 9b = 456,789m Co-ordinates of A7 = +83 534,56Y +2 847 967,89X Check your calculation fully (with a Join) /4/

2 If the oriented direction from P to a point R = 1311651 and the reduced distance

is 847,964m, calculate the Polar P to R, using the standard format. Check your calculation fully (using a Join) P 3 - 8 417,42Y + 5 672,56X /8/ Calculate the Polar from A9 to 12 A9 3145529 7800.00m 12 /4/ 4 Discuss point by point the reasons why and when Polars are used in the field and in calculations. /7/ 5 You are standing on the corner of a Rugby field and see a 12mm iron peg in the ground. The one side in front of you is 85metres long and lies due North. The other side lies West of you and is 45metres long. The peg has local co-ordinates -81 341.38 +2 479 885.70

13

of +100,000Y and +200,000X. 1 2 Determine the co-ordinates of the centre of the field. Describe, step-by-step, how you would go about it to place a peg in the middle of the field. (8) (8) /16/

4

4.1

SETTING UP OF A THEODOLITE/TACHE

Outcomes

When you have completed the practical, you should have achieved the following outcomes (should be able to do the following) : Know how to open and set up a Tripod for use with a Theodolite or Tacheometer 2 Know how to Centre a Theodolite or Tacheometer, over a peg 3 Know how to Level a Theodolite or Tacheometer 4 Know how to Orientate a Theodolite 5 Know how to Orientate a Tacheometer 6 Know how to read and book readings taken with a Theodolite and Tacheometer Theodolite measures to 1(1 second) Tach measures to the nearest 5, 10, 30 or 1 minute Here we have a Theodolite, you need to remember that it has a small cover which covers the knob which moves the protractor inside to orientate it Also remember that a Tach has two extra screws below all the other screws, which are different from the other knobs, which will be used to orientate the protractor Every person in the group must now take out the Instrument, look at it and note how the different parts are in relation to the other parts. Now put it back into the case. You need to remember this because later you must be able to put it back To setup the instrument you start with opening the tripod The platform MUST be chest high, and it must be as level as you can estimate The legs must have about 10cm play, so that you can adjust it up or down Setting up the instrument happens in 3 stages. You need to practice until you can do this within 10 minutes (You can be examined at any time, so make sure YOU can set up the instrument yourself) Stage 1 = Centering Stage 2 = Levelling Stage 3 = Orientation 1

4.2 4.3

4.4

4.5 4.6

4.7

Stage 1 Centering over the peg [Read these steps] 1 Screw the fastening screw of the tripod into the instrument 2 Move tripod over the peg 14

3 Take a small stone and let it fall from the underside of the tripod ( there where the fastening screw is) 4 Look where the stone falls, relative to the peg 5 Move the tripod in the direction of the peg 6 Look through the optical plummet is the peg in the field of view ? YES = Tread tripod legs in firmly NO = use stone again 7 Using the foots crews, centre the optical plummet over the middle of the peg accurately 8 Using the tripod legs centre the ROUND bubble 9 Tests (a) is the optical plummet centered ? YES (b) is the round bubble centered ? YES 10 Instrument is centered

15

4.8

Levelling [Read these steps] Line up the long bubble with 2 foot screws Turn the foot screws together, inwards/outwards until long bubble is centered

Step 3

Turn the instrument 90, so that the long bubble is in line with the third foot screw, and centre the long bubble by turning the third foot screw

Step 4 Step 5

Repeat steps 1, 2 and 3 until the long bubble is centered in both positions Turn the long bubble back to the original position as in step 1 above

1 division

Step 6 Step 7

Now turn it 180 and adjust the foot screws for half of the error, with the 2 foot screws Turn the instrument 90, in line with the third foot screw and adjust the bubble for half of the error with the foot screw Test whether you have levelled correctly Turn the instrument through all 4 positions, 90 from each other, and look if the bubble has the same amount of error in all 4 positions The instrument is now level

16

.9

Stage 3

We ALWAYS orientate on the FURTHEST and CLEAREST known points/beacons (meaning points with known co-ordinates) The True directions are calculated using the Join calculation ie. You are at a point named A3, and have calculated true directions to Trig. Beacon 104 = 1772217, to Trig Beacon 66 = 2225431, and to A21 (which you will use later) NB : The MINIMUM is 3 known points

Trig. Beacon

Put the Vertical circle protractor on your left. This is known as circle left position of the Theodolite Aim the telescope at the Trig beacon 66 and clamp the horizontal clamp, gently Adjust the eyepiece to get cross hairs as dark as possible Adjust the focus of the telescope Step 2 Turn the slow motion screw until the cross hairs are centered on the pipe above the beacon Step 3 Open the mirror so that there is light on the protractor Turn the Micrometer to the desired SINGLE MINUTES and SECONDS ie. 4minutes and 31seconds as calculated to Trig 66 You should see a small screen at the bottom while looking through the second eyepiece

Step 1

Step 4

4 4 4 4 30 4 4 4 4 Open the orientation screws cover and turn it to the desired DEGREES and 4

TENS OF MINUTES

222

223

17

The lines must be in line with each other From one line to the next = 20 minutes The Degrees are always at the bottom, left hand side = 222 The tens of minutes are interpolated between the lines = 50minutes

222

223

Step 5 Close the cover Do not touch it again You have now Orientated the instrument Step 6 Checking Orientation Unclamp the horizontal clamp and aim the Theodolite at the second Trig beacon = Trig 104 Clamp the horizontal clamp and with the slow motion screw, put the cross hairs accurately onto the pipe of the beacon Turn the Micrometer until the lines inside the second eyepiece are in line with each other Read the direction = ie. 1772222 Your reading should be within 30 seconds, showing that you are on the right peg/beacon 4.10 ORIENTATION of a TACHEOMETER ( TACH) A Theodolite measures to 1(1 second) A Tach measures to the nearest 5, 10, 30 or 1 minute Step 1 Clamp the Orientation clamp, as well as the horizontal clamp Step 2 Make sure that the Vertical circle is on your LHS Step 3 While looking through the 2nd eyepiece, on the RHS of the telescope, set the MINUTES and SECONDS using the Micrometer 54 minutes and 31 second Remember, you are orientating on the FURTHEST and CLEAREST Trig beacon, which is Trig 66 Step 4 Unclamp the Horizontal clamp, and keep your hand on it While looking through the 2nd eyepiece, turn the instrument until you see 222 DEGREES in your field of view Now clamp the Horizontal clamp Step 5 With the Horizontal slow motion screw, put the line above or below the 222 degrees between the two lines Note : Only when the line for the degrees is between the 2 lines, do you have a direction Stage 3

54 222 30

Step 6 Now unclamp the Orientation clamp and keep your hand on it Turn the instrument and point the telescope at Trig 66. Clamp the Orientation clamp As you get closer to where Trig 66 is, look through the eyepiece of the telescope and stop just before the Trig beacon

18

Step 7

While looking through the telescope, turn the Orientation slow motion screw, until the pipe on top of the Trig beacon is bisected by the vertical cross hair

Cross hairs

Trig. Beacon

The Direction is right, the cross hairs are right, therefore you are Orientated Step 8 Check Orientation

Unclamp the horizontal clamp and aim the Tach at the second Trig beacon = Trig 104 Clamp the horizontal clamp and with the slow motion screw, put the cross hairs accurately onto the pipe of the beacon Turn the Micrometer until the line inside the second eyepiece showing the degrees, is between the two lines Read the direction = ie. 1772222 Your reading should be within 30 seconds, showing that you are on the right peg Write down the observed direction within brackets in the Orientation column of your field book You have just taken a direction reading. Follow this reading procedure to 3 known points as well as to a Traverse point chosen by you. Firstly with the Vertical circle on your left and going clockwise , then with the vertical circle on your right while going anticlockwise 4.11 Stage 4 You have just completed the following stages :

Stage 1 = Centering Stage 2 = Levelling Stage 3 = Orientation Now Stage 4 = Reading Directions to 3 known points and the first Traverse point (T1) and ending with the Reference Object(RO) going clockwise, with the Vertical circle on the left(L) Then putting the Vertical circle on your right , and read directions while going anti-clockwise (R)

19

5

5.1 Outcomes

When you have completed this module, you should have achieved the following outcomes (should be able to do the following) : 1 Know how to open and set up a Tripod for use with a Theodolite or Tacheometer Know how to Centre a Theodolite or Tacheometer, over a peg Know how to Level a Theodolite or Tacheometer Know how to Orientate a Theodolite Know how to read and book readings taken with a Theodolite and Tacheometer Know how to choose BMs to work from Know how to calculate Joins for Orientation and for Setting-Out Know how to check the Joins with Polars Know how to set the Direction on the Theodolite or Tacheometer to set out a point Know how to use the Join distances to set out the PIs at the right distance Know how to draw up a Field Book for Setting-Out PIs

2 3 4 5

6 7 8 9 10 11

On the Attachment 1, the Trig. Beacon co-ordinates are given On the Attachment 2, the Bench Mark (BM) co-ordinates are given : A1 to A59. Notice that A29 and A59 are Pipe Beacons. We will not use these two BMs. On Attachment 3, the PI co-ordinates are given for each Group. It is now necessary to choose a person you want to work with. Each student is responsible for his/her own work. The second students work is used as a check on the first students work, and vise versa To determine the CLOSEST BM to your PI (PI = E) : Notice that the X coordinates increase from the North to the South (X co-ordinates are X distances from the Equator) [Refer to the SA Co-ordinate system) This example is for Group 16 Look at the X co-ordinate of point E = +50 971,16X which is close to the A beacons (this is the starting point of the road) Look at the co-ordinates of the A beacons and find which X co-ordinate is the closest to the above co-ordinate = A31 with +50 206,86X (Always set out from a point (BM) closest to the point you want to set out). When setting out the PIs, one should always strive to setout using the shortest distances possible. Short distances are more accurate

5.5

5.6

Choose a second BM from which to set-out the PIs : Notice that the X coordinate of E is closer to the Equator, therefore you must choose a second BM c closer to the Equator

20

21

22

23

24

25

5.7

Notice that the Y co-ordinates are negative (-), and the X co-ordinates are positive (+), which means that we are working in the 4th Quadrant Calculate the 14 Joins and check them with Polars. At each BM you need 2 Orientation directions, and the directions and distances of the point/s you want to set-out Join Polar A31 - 7 076,08 + 52 206,86 A31 - 7 076,08 + 52 206,86 66 - 8 022,76 + 45 989,80 A31 - 7 076,08 + 52 206,86

A31 104

- 7 076,08 - 3 928,59

A31 E

- 7 076,08 - 7 072,17

+ 52 206,86 + 52 207,02

A31 A31 PI 2 - 7 076,08 - 6 885,22 + 52 206,86 + 52 186,94 A33 A33 66 - 7 077,18 - 8 022,76 + 52 212,70 + 45 989,80 A33 A33 104 - 7 077,18 - 3 928,59 + 52 212,70 + 48 941,05 A33 A33 E - 7 077,18 - 7 072,17 + 52 212,70 + 52 207,02

- 7 076,08

+ 52 206,86

- 7 077,18

+ 52 212,70

- 7 077,18

+ 52 212,70

- 7 077,18

+ 52 212,70

Do the same for the point F which is close to the D beacons. You are not allowed to use the Pipe Beacons D27 D27 66 - 6 702,13 - 8 022,76 + 52 298,53 + 45 989,80 - 6 702,13 + 52 298,53

26

D27 D27 104 - 6 702,13 - 3 928,59 + 52 298,53 + 48 941,05 D27 D27 F - 6 702,13 - 6 707,01 + 52 298,53 + 52 293,78 D27 D27 PI 2 - 6 702,13 - 6 885,22 + 52 298,53 + 52 186,94 D25 D25 66 - 6 703,70 - 8 022,76 + 52 304,28 + 45 989,80 D25 D25 104 - 6 703,70 - 3 928,59 + 52 304,28 + 48 941,05 D25 D25 PI 2 5.8 - 6 703,70 - 6 885,22 + 52 304,28 + 52 186,94

- 6 702,13

+ 52 298,53

- 6 702,13

+ 52 298,53

- 6 702,13

+ 52 298,53

- 6 703,70

+ 52 304,28

- 6 703,70

+ 52 304,28

- 6 703,70

+ 52 304,28

Draw up setting out Field book @A31 66 104 E PI 2 @D27 66 104 F PI 2 Direction Direction Direction and distance Direction and distance Direction Direction Direction and distance Direction and distance @A33 66 104 E @D25 66 104 F Direction Direction Direction and distance

27

5.9

D27

PI 2 E

A31 A33

D25

Procedure 1 Set up Theodolite/Tache at A 33 and Orientate onto 104. Check Orientation onto 66 2 Set the single MINUTES and the Seconds to E, using the Micrometre 3 Turn Theodolite/Tache until you see the correct DEGREES, and clamp the Horizontal calmp (Join direction from A33 to E) 4 With the Horizontal slow motion screw, put the DEGREES exactly on the correct reading The point E is in that direction 5 Measure out the Join Distance from A33 to E 6 Knock in a nail = position of E 7 Repeat steps 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 for point PI 2 8 Repeat steps 1 to 7 for point F and PI 2 Note : In practice : From the first BM, a nail is knocked in at approximately the correct distance, and another, a further step away. Both nails being on the correct direction From the second BM this procedure is repeated Where the 4 nails cross = position of E Remove the 4 nails, and leave E Repeat the same procedure to set out PI 2 and F The Instrumnet is now at the D27 BM, so set it up at F, and set out the Stake values between F and the EC first, then set out the EC. Now set up at the EC and stake out the circular curve upto the Crown Point (CP) At E, set out the Stake values between E and the BC, then set out the BC. From the BC, stake the circular curve upto the Crown Point (CP)

28

6

6.1 Outcomes

When you have completed this module, you should have achieved the following outcomes (should be able to do the following) :

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 6.2

Know how to calculate Joins, for determining the deflection angle of the straights (PI angle) Know how to calculate Polars, for checking the Joins Know how to calculate the Length of the Curve Know how to calculate the Radius of the Curve Know how to calculate the Deflection angles along the curve Know how to calculate the Chords necessary for setting-out the curve Know how to test the sum of the length of the curve, the sum of the deflection angles and the setting-out directions Know how to calculate the Tangent Length Know how to calculate the Crown Distance, from the Point of Intersection (PI) to the Crown Point (CP) Know how to calculate the Stake Values along the Curve Know how to calculate the setting-out data for a Left Hand and a Right Hand curve E + 52 207,02 + 52 186,94 960750 188,025m PI 2 PI 2 - 6 885,22 - 6 707,01 + 52 186,94 + 52 293,78 590324 207,783m F I = 960750 - 590324 = 370426 L = RI 220 = R [(370426) x ] 180] R = 339,999 = 350m L = 350 [(370426) x ] 180] = 226,472m L = 113,236m 2 TL = R tan (I/2) = 117,359m E = R[sec (I/2) -1] = 88,674m - 6 885,22 + 52 186,94 - 7 072,17 + 52 207,02

PI 2 F

6.3

Stake Values Given : E = SV 303 PI 2 = E + (Join E to PI 2) = 303 + 188,025 = SV 491,025 BC = PI 2 TL = 491,025 117,359 = SV 373,666 CP = BC + L/2 = 373,666 + 113,236 = SV 486,902 EC = BC + L = 373,666 + 226,472 = SV 600,138 F = EC + (Join PI 2 to F TL) = 600,138 + (207,783 117,359) = SV 690,562 29

6.4

Setting out data from BC to CP. This is a left hand curve, thus the Direction from the BC to the PI starts with 1800000 and decreases with each alpha() l SV Chord Direction 1800000 to PI BC 373,666 6,334 380 20 400 20 420 20 440 20 460 20 480 6,902 CP 486,902 1800000 l= = L/2= I/4= end Direction Setting out data from the EC to the CP : This is a right hand curve, thus the Direction from the EC to the PI starts with 00000 and increases with each alpha() SV l Chord EC 600,138 00000 to PI 0,138 600 20 580 20 560 20 540 20 520 20 500 13,098 486,902 l= = L/2= I/4= = l/2R = l 180 2R for each l for each l

6.5

30

6.6 1 1.1

TUTORIAL 8

Calculate the Circular Curve below : The Intersection angle of the straights (I) = 543734. The circular curve is to the right. Sketch

(2) 1.2 Given : L= Radius = 700m. Determine the length of the curve (L), and the length of half of the curve (L/2) L/2 = (2) 1.3 Determine the tangent length (TL) TL = 1.4 Determine the crown distance (E) E= 1.5 = (2) = (2) Determine the Stake Values for BC, Crown Point and EC. Stake value of PI = 1765,555m Stake Values PI = 1765,555 BC = Crown Point = EC = (3) 1.6 Peg intervals are multiples of 100 meters. Calculate the setting-out data for ONLY the first HALF of the curve, FULLY ! Pt. SV Chord BC To PI

(29) /40/

31

2 2.1

Calculate the Circular Curve below : The Intersection angle of the straights (I) = 283534. The circular curve is to the left Sketch

(2) 2.2 Given : Radius = 500m Determine the length of the curve (L) and the length of half of the curve (L/2) L= L/2 = (2) 2.3 Determine the tangent length (TL) TL = Determine the crown distance (E) E= = (2) 2.4 = (2) 2.5 Determine the Stake Values for BC, Crown Point and EC. Stake value of PI = 755,555m Stake values PI = 755,555 BC = Crown Point = EC = (3) 2.6 Peg intervals are multiples of 20 meters. Calculate the setting-out data for ONLY the first HALF of the curve, FULLY ! Pt. SV Chord BC

To PI

(29) /40/

32

3 3.1

Calculate the Circular Curve below : Given : (a) The co-ordinates of the PIs : Lo.27 WGS84 PI 1 = - 34 689,74 + 2 832 487,62 PI 2 = - 34 840,21 + 2 832 720,99 PI 3 = - 34 704,87 + 2 833 021,68 (b) Curve Length = 350m (Calculate R and Lc) (c) Stake value at PI 2 = 854,321m Plot a sketch of the co-ordinates relative to each other Calculate all Geometric data Calculate Stake values Calculate the Settingout data for only half of the curve, from the EC to the CP Use stake intervals which are multiples of 100m Note : (i) (ii) (iii) All calculations must be checked fully All calculations must be shown in the standard formats All calculations to be done to 3 decimal places /50/

33

7

7.1 Outcomes

When you have completed this module, you should have achieved the following outcomes (should be able to do the following) : 1 Know how to open and set up a Tripod for use with a Theodolite or Tacheometer Know how to Centre a Theodolite or Tacheometer, over a peg Know how to Level a Theodolite or Tacheometer Know how to Orientate a Theodolite Know how to read and book readings taken with a Theodolite and Tacheometer Know how to choose BMs to work from Know how to calculate Joins for Orientation and for Setting-Out Know how to check the Joins with Polars Know how to set the Direction on the Theodolite or Tacheometer to set out a point Know how to use the Join distances to set out the BC, CP and EC at the right distance Know how to Set-out the Crown Point from the PI

2 3 4 5

6 7 8 9 10 11

12 13 14 7.2

Know how to calculate the Tangent Length Know how to calculate the Crown Distance, from the Point of Intersection (PI) to the Crown Point (CP) Know how to calculate Chord distances for setting out along the curve, as well as Chord distances for setting out the curve from the BC or EC

You have just completed setting-out the PIs, ending with the set up at D27 Move the Instrument to F, and on the direction F to PI 2, set out the Stake Values (SVs) between F and the EC. If EC (SV) = 600,138 and F (SV) = 690,562 then set out 680, 660, 640 and 620 and EC The EC is set-out from F because the distance from F to EC is shorter than the distance from the PI to F (shorter distances are more accurate)

Move the Instrument to EC, Orientate onto PI 2 with the direction 00000 = Right Hand Curve Set out the right hand curve from EC to Crown Point (CP). See Table above Move the Instrument to PI 2, and observe the direction PI 2 to E and PI 2 to F. Subtract the 2 directions from each other, divide your answer by 2, and add the new answer to the direction read from PI 2 to E = direction to CP (this is the true CP) Do not use the calculated angle from the Geometric Data. Observe the angle, as stated, and compare it, as a check There should be 2 nails representing the CP, the one set out from the EC, and the true CP, which was set out from PI 2

34

7.6

Move the Instrument to E and repeat the procedure as stated in 7.2, 7.3 and 7.4 above, except that this is a left hand curve, therefore Orientate on the direction 1800000, from BC to PI 2 There will now be 3 nails representing the CP. Draw a sketch in the field book of the 3 nails relative to each other and measure and book the distances between them

7.7

8

8.1 Outcomes

When you have completed this module, you should have achieved the following outcomes (should be able to do the following) :

1 2 3 4 8.2

Know that Reference beacons must be set out before construction begins Know at what distance, from the centre line of the road, the Reference beacons should be placed Know the use of the Reference beacons Know what must be written on a Reference beacon

When looking along the road from the lowest SV towards the largest SV, the Left Hand Side of the road is on your left, and the Right Hand Side of the road is on the right. This does not change if you are working from the largest SV towards the smaller SV Reference points are set out to the Left and Right of the road at all multiples of 100 meters (SV 400, SV 500 and SV 600), including all BCs and ECs. The distance from the Centre Line of the road is 20 meters Left and 20 meters Right, at right angles to the road. The distance from the centre line of the road is relative to the width of the road As soon as Reference pegs are completed, the construction machines move in and remove the top soil, and the centre line pegs. The pegs can be replaced quickly by using a Tape Measure and the Reference pegs Reference beacons must have the following information on them : The distance from the centre-line = 20L, or 20R The Stake value = 500 (not SV 500)

8.3

8.4

8.5

35

9

9.1

Outcomes

When you have completed this module, you should have achieved the following outcomes (should be able to do the following) :

1 2 3 4 5

6

Set up a Tripod correctly for Levelling Set up the Level instrument correctly, by centering the bubble Read the Staff correctly, to 3 decimal places Read Back sights, Read Foresights, apply correction Calculate the collimation error Know when the instrument needs adjustment

9.2

For your Practical, you need to test the Instrument TWICE, straight after each other. If you obtain more or less the same Collimation error, and it is more than the 0,005m over 100m, then you need to be carefull with your BS distance and FS distance, making sure that they are more or less equal, to avoid Collimation error being part or your readings Remember to test your instrument for collimatiion error before levelling the Long Section and Cross Sections, using the HI Method, and before levelling the BMs (Traverse stations) with the Rise and Fall Method Refer to S1 notes

9.3

9.4

36

10

10.1 Outcomes

LONGITUDINAL SECTION

When you have completed this module, you should have achieved the following outcomes (should be able to do the following) : 1 2 3 4 Calculate plan distances Determine the final heights for a Longitudinal section Draw a Longitudinal section Know how to determine a Constant 5 Know how to determine the Horizontal and Vertical scales 6 Know how to determine the Datum 7 Know how to determine the percentage slope of the formation line 8 Know how to calculate the height difference over 20m 9 Know how to calculate the Formation Heights 10 Know how to determine Cut and Fill depths 11 Know how to calculate the SV and Ground Height by using Y= mx +c

10.2 All SVs which are a multiple of 20 meters must be Levelled and Check Levelled using the HI Method (From a BM to SV 300, to SV 680, end ing on a BM) 10.3 Draw the Long Section on an A4 sheet of paper. Determine the largest Horizontal and Vertical scales Calculation of Horizontal and Vertical Scales : N.B. When working with ANY Plan, ALWAYS use the following formulae : x mm = Distance mm Scale Plan Distance Horizontal SV 300 to SV 680 = 380m 380m = 380 000mm x mm = 380 000 Scale Portrait Page width = 297mm Minus 20mm for titles = 277mm = x mm H Scale = 1372 x mm = 11 200 Scale Page width = 210mm minus 4 rows of 15mm and 1 of 10mm = - 70mm = 210 70 = 140mm = x mm V Scale = 80 Vertical 11,2m = 11 200mm (from the height difference between the highest and lowest heights) Ground Distance

Round off to next multiple of 50 (Thus making sure that the plan fits onto the paper) H Scale = 1:1400 V Scale = !:100

37

10.4 The Formation line starts at SV 500 and rises by 0,3333%, towards SV 300 and SV 680 (apply this at Toppies hoek)

L Long Section

10.5 Example : HI Method Point BM 1 SV00 SV20 SV40 SV60 BM 2 BS 2,765 . . .2,344 . . +5,109 -3,758 +1,351 Test IS's IS . 2,216 1,768 . 2,767 . +6,751 FS . . . 2,542 . 1,216 -3,758 HI 58,221 . . 58,023 . . RH 55,456 56,005 56,453 55,679 55,256 56,807 +1,351 LCE = Corr. 0 -0,003 -0,003 -0,003 -0,005 -0,005 AH 55,456 56,002 56,450 55,676 55,251 56,802 Final H 55,456 . . . . 56,802 +1,346 Rem. 50mmIP

CP 1 50mmIP

+0,005 /27/

10.6

Sum of RH's(except the first one) = Sum [HI value x the number of IS's and FS] - [sum of IS's- (Sum of FS's)] 280,200 = [(58,221 x 3) + (58,023 x 2)] - [(+6,751) - (-3,758)] 280,200 = [(174,663) + (116,046)] - [(+6,751) + 3,758] 280,200 = [290,709] - [10,509] 280,200 = 280,200 LHS = RHS NOTE : Every time the HI method is used, the IS's must be tested. All calculations to rounded off 3 decimal places 10.7 During S1 the Formation Heights always passed through TWO Ground Heights. These two heights were used to calculate the Slope of the Formation line In S2 you are given ONE Formation Height passing through/crossing ONE Ground Height, plus the Slope of the Formation line (given as a percentage) All subsequent crossing points, SVs and Heights must be calculated 38

10.8 It must be noted that when Fill = 0. This means that the distance from the Ground to the Formation Height (on top of the Bitumen) = 0m. You still need to provide for the Bitumen and the minimum 0,450m Fill 10.9 For this course, soil will expand by a factor of 1,1, when it is dug out during Cut excavations For Fill, the soil will be compacted to 0,95 (95%) For different types of material, the expansion and compaction will differ 10.10 Worked Example : Given the Longitudinal Section below, the Formation line passes through/crosses SV 20 and rises with a Slope of + 1,8099% 20 60 100 140 0 40 80 120 160 3,778 19,410 15,632

SV

16,876

19,454

19,776

16,876

17,600

18,324

17,994

20,222

1,083

1,854

2,260

1,403

1,452

Fill

By inspection, it can be seen that the Formation line passes/crosses between SV 100 and SV 120 (were the Cut and Fill = 0). Determine the position (SV) and height of the Formation line at this point Use the straight line formula : y = mx + c for the Formation line and the Ground line

39

2,508

0,692

19,048

16,514

17,238

17,962

18,686

16,540

15,111

18,321

Determine the height and SV at x on the portion of the Longitudinal section which is drawn 19,776

C

x

Slope = + 1,8099%

18,324

17,994

Ground line

SV 100

SV 120 Formation mx + c subtract RHS minus LHS + 1,8099%x + 18,324 100 + 0,018099x + 18,324

y= y= y= y=

Ground mx + c = N.B. For Heights and SVs ALWAYS 17,994 19,776 x + 19,776 = SV120 SV100 - 1,782x + 19,776 = 20 - 0,0891x 0,018099x = - 0,107199x x =

y= y=

+ 18,324 19,776 = - 1,452 1,452 0,107199 x = 13,544902. Distance from SV 100 = 13,545, therefore SV = 113,545 Substitute the calculated value for x - 0,0891(13,544902) + 19,776 =+ 0,018099(13,544902) +18,324 18,569 = 18,569 = Height LHS = RHS N.B. Do calculations to 6 decimals and round off to 3 decimals TUTORIAL 3

10.11 1.1

After a Long-section was levelled and check levelled, final ground elevations where obtained. The Formation line is a straight line passing through the ground elevation at SV 20 and has a slope of -1,6471%. Draw the table at the largest horizontal and Vertical scale which fits on an A4 page : SV 00 = 9,175 SV 20 = 7,988 SV 40 = 6,854 SV 60 = 6,533 SV 80 = 7,000 SV 100= 7,778 SV 120 = 7,655 SV 140 = 6,943 Tabulate the Stake Values,Ground heights, Formation line heights, Cut and Fill, as you normally would below a standard Long-section, according to scale, WITHOUT DRAWING THE LONG-SECTION (Use y=mx+c) /10/ The soil which has been excavated for the cut portion, as calculated in (1.1) above, is unsuitable for road building purposes, thus, how much soil must be carted away ? /2/ 40

1.2

1.3 2

How much soil must be imported for the final earthworks in (1.1) above? /3/ Determine the height and SV at x on the portion of the Longitudinal section which is drawn 3,411 x 2,721 SV 40 SV 60 1,675Ground line 3,388 Formation line

/10/ Determine the height and SV at x on the portion of the Longitudinal section which is drawn 3,411 x 2,733 SV 60 SV 80 1,775 Ground line /10/ Formation line = +3,3336%

Point BM 1/ SV 00 SV 20 SV 20 SV 40 BM 2

Reduce the following levelling readings, up to Reduced Heights and Correction, using the HI method. Fill in your answers on the table below. Test the ISs. Exam Standard BS IS FS HI RH Corr AH Remarks 2,765 +3,216 2,868 +3,844 +1,867 2,216 +3,542 86,456 86,456 50mm IP Bridge 1 CL Road Bridge 2 Foot bridge 12mm IP

/17/ 7

After a Longitudinal section was levelled, the following final ground heights where obtained. The Formation-line is a straight line which passes through the ground height at SV 40 and has a slope of 0,6811%. Calculate all the Formation heights, Cut and Fill from SV 0 to SV 140, and fill in the table below, WITHOUT DRAWING THE LONGITUDINAL SECTION. Remember to show the calculated intersection of the ground and formation lines on the table below !

41

20

Stake Value

40

60

80

120

Ground Height

6,512

6,231

5,765

5,188

5,344

5,877

6,433

6,234

140

100

(6) /23/

42

11

11.1 Outcomes

CROSS SECTIONS

When you have completed this module, you should have achieved the following outcomes (should be able to do the following) : 1 2 3 Set up a Tripod correctly for Leveling Set up the Level instrument correctly, by centering the bubble Read the Staff correctly, to 3 decimal places Read and Book a Cross Section : Read a Back sight onto the centerline peg, and Intermediate sights onto all changes of slope Calculate all plan distances Draw a cross section Determine co-ordinates for the cross section Determine the area of a cross section using co-ordinates Determine the area of a cross section by using the single Trapezoid formulae Determine the area of a farm/plot/erven using co-ordinates

4

5 6 7 8 9 10

11.2 The road width = 5m, therefore, survey in the Centre line, 10m Left and 10m right. Note that Cross Sections are taken to pick up the changes in slope, at right angles to the centre line of the road, at each SV 11.3 All Cross Sections are to be drawn to scale. Refer to S1 notes 11.4 Typical Fill Cross Section : Note that the minimum amount of selected material = 450mm. Side Slopes = 1:1 for Fill 30mm Bitumen 150mm 150mm Stabalized Sub Base Sub-Base

150mm

Base

Toe line distance (measured on CS) 11.5 Toe-line distances are measured along the ground on the Cross Section, and set out with the Tape Measure laying on the ground

43

11.6 Typical Cut Cross Section : Note that each Cut Cross Section also has the minimum Fill. Side Slopes = 1:1

Formation Height

Sub-Surface Drainage Excavation 11.7 Toppieshoek Practical : Cross-section need to be surveyed at each Stake Value which is a multiple of 20m If your first Stake Value at E = SV 301,000, then the first cross section will be at SV 320 If your last Stake Value at F = SV 497,675, then the last cross section will be at SV 480 The road width = 5m, therefore the cross sections must be levelled to a distance of 10m Left and 10m Right. Level in all changes of slope Remember to survey in at least 30m to the Left for the cross section required for the Pipe

44

12

12.1 Outcomes

1 2

Know the End Area formula, and know when to use it Know the Prizmoidal formula, and know when to use it

The depth of Cut and Fill shown below, is the depth from the Centre-line, up to the Formation Height. Given : Bitumen = 30mm, Fill Side Slopes = 1:1, Cut Side Slopes = 1:1, Road Width = 5m and Sub-Surface Drainage = 0,5m wide

1.1

Draw and calculate the Areas of Cut and Fill for each SV, using a single Trapezoid for each sketch Note that each Cut will have a Fill (see Typical Cut) Also note that the minimum Fill = 0,450m of soil, excluding the Bitumen Calculate the Volume of Cut and Fill, using a different method for each 0 20 60 100 140 120 160 1,432 /18/ 40 80 0 0

1.2 SV

1,234

0,876

0,415

Cut

0,212

0,123

0,435

Fill

45

0,789

Determine the area of each cross section Given : SV Cut 120 1,344 140 0,333 160 180 @ SV 700 Fill 0,214 1,566

Area Cut =

Area Fill =

@ SV 720

Area Cut =

Area Cut =

Area Fill =

@ SV 760

Area Cut

Area Fill

Determine the toe-line distances from the Cross Section below. Scales : Horizontal = 1:250, Vertical = 1:50.

(6)

L=

R= /2/

46

13

13.1 Outcomes

BATTERS

When you have completed this module, you should have achieved the following outcomes (should be able to do the following) : 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Set up a Tripod correctly for Levelling Set up the Level instrument correctly, by centering the bubble Read the Staff correctly, to 3 decimal places Draw a sketch of a Fill cross-section Know what Traveler distance is and how it is used in practice Set out the poles for Batters at the correct distances from the centre line Calculate the height of the mark to set out onto the front pole Calculate the Height Difference to set out the mark on the back pole Set out Batters for Cut Set out Batters for Fill Mark each plank with its Stake Value

13.2 Typical Fill Batters :Batters are set out at each SV, which is a multiple of 20m. The front pole is set out on the toe line Traveler distance = 0,5m

0,5m

13.3 Usually, during Construction, the Traveler distance = 0,5m, therefore the poles of the Batters are also set-out 0,5m apart. Traveler distance is the free distance above the structure being build N.B. It is important that the poles are knocked in upright. Use a hand-bubble to insure that the poles are upright 13.4 The Batter board is a plank, tied onto the poles at the same slope as the fill

47

13.5 By looking over the Batter board, along its length, measure with a tape measure from your eye, at right angles to the fill, to the fill material = 0,5m. In this way you can monitor that the fill is being build at the right slope, and that the correct amount of fill material is used 13.6 The SVs are written on the Batter boards so that the other people on the Construction site know instantly were they are 13.7 Worked Example : There were fill batter boards are necessary, the following information is available : Road width = 15m. Fill side slopes for this road = 1 : 1. Toe line distances have been measured on the drawn Cross sections and converted to Ground distances using the formulae : x mm = Distance mm Scale Plan Distance Using sketches and calculations, determine the necessary height differences to setout the batters Ground Distance

48

B C E Calculations

In ABC Slope = height difference AC distance 1 = height differerence AC 1 0,5m Height difference AC = 0,333m In ADE AE = AB = = AC2 + BC2 0,3332 + 0,52

= 0,601m After the level is set up, there was read to the front pole (on the toe-line), while the staff was held on the ground. The reading was 2,578. What are the readings which you must read to be able to set-out the first mark on the front pole (A), as well as the mark on the back pole (B) (which stands 0,5m from the front one, traveler distance = 0,5m) Front pole (staff on ground) Staff reading = 2,578 Front pole (mark A) Back pole (mark B) Staff reading Staff reading = = 2,578 0,601 = 1,977 = 1,977 + 0,333 = 2,310

13.8 Practical : In practice, it is much easier to measure the calculated distance from A to E on the front pole, using the staff. Tape a piece of masking onto the pole so that the top of the masking tape is the required distance from the ground. Place the bottom of the staff on the top end of the masking tape and take the reading. Add the calculated height difference AB to the reading and move the staff up or down until required reading is read. Place another piece of masking tape in line with the bottom of the staff. Tie/nail the plank onto the poles 13.9 Typical Cut Batters : Side Slope = 1:1 (0,5m : 0,5m)

49

13.10Practical : Place a staff at the front pole and mark off 0,5m. Mark off at the 0,5m mark with sticking the top of a piece of masking tape, in line with 0,5m. Place the bottom of the staff on top of the top of the masking tape, and take a staff reading. Subtract 0,5m from the initial staff reading and move the staff up or down, on the back pole, until the new reading is achieved. Mark the bottom of the staff with the top end of a piece of masking tape. Tie/nail a plank in line with the top of the masking tape, on the poles 13.11 By looking over the length of the plank, it is possible to monitor the slope of the Cut 13.12 1 TUTORIAL 5 There were fill batter boards are necessary, the following information is available : Road width = 15m. Fill side slopes for this road = 1 : 3.

1.1 Using sketches and calculations, determine the necessary height differences to set-out the batters Sketch Calculations In ABC

In ADE

(4)

50

1.2 After the level is set up, there was read to the front pole (on the toe-line), while the staff was held on the ground. The reading was 2,578. What are the readings which you must read to be able to set-out the first mark, as well as the mark on the back pole (which stands 500mm from the front one, traveler distance = 500mm) Front pole (staff on ground) Staff reading = 2,578 Front pole (Mark A) Back pole (mark C) Staff reading = Staff reading = (4) /8/ 2 Fill batters are necessary from Stake Value 520 to + Stake Value 600 Given : Road width = 15m, Fill side slopes for this road = 1 : 2 Cut side slopes for this road = 1 : 1, Traveler is 500mm for fill. 2.1 2.2 Using sketches and calculations, determine the necessary distances on the poles, for placing the batter boards, where fill is required (4) After the levelling instrument is set up, there was observed to the front pole (on the toe-line of the fill), while the staff was on the ground. The reading is 2,678. What are the readings you must read to place the first mark, on the front pole, as well as the mark on the back pole (which is 500mm from the front pole), so that the batter board can be tied/nailed in place (4) /8/

14

14.1 Outcomes

When you have completed this module, you should have achieved the following outcomes (should be able to do the following) :

PROFILES

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Set up a Tripod correctly for Levelling Set up the Level instrument correctly, by centering the bubble Read the Staff correctly, to 3 decimal places Draw a sketch of a Cut cross-section, with sub-surface drainage Draw a sketch of the inlet invert Calculate the Height Difference of the invert levels over 20m Set out the poles for sub-surface drainage at the correct distances from the centre line Use the Height of Instrument method of levelling to set out the Profile planks Know what Traveler distance is, and know how to use it

14.2 Typical Cut Cross Section : Note that each Cut Cross Section also has the minimum Fill. Side Slopes = 1:1

51

Formation Height

Sub-Surface Drainage

14.3 Sub-Surface drainage drains away any water which threatens the Fill :

0,5m

0,5m

14.4 Profiles are set-out when laying pipes like Sub-Surface Drainage The ground water from the water table and rain destroys Fill 14.5 Sometimes, before an excavation is done, it is required to put in the Sub Surface drainage. Usually this is done if the Cut excavation is less than 3m

52

2,0m

Boning Rod

5m Fixed Depth 0,450 0,650 0,5m 14.6 The Profile planks are usually tied/nailed to the pole, which is extended towards the centre line of the required Sub-Surface excavation Formation Height

14.7 All the Profile poles are the same distance away from the centre-line of the road, which is dependent on the Side Slope of the Fill Given that the Side Slope of Fill = 1:1 Road width = 5m, therefore, from centre-line to edge of road = 2,500m Depth of Fill = 0,450m, therefore at a slope of 1:1 =0,450x1 = 0,675m Width of Sub Surface drain = 0,500m, therefore half the width = 0,250m The distance from the centre-line of the Sub Surface drain to pole = 2,000m Total distance = 5,425m 14.8 The Fixed Depth = depth of excavation (depth of Cut shown on Long Section), = 0,345 (for example) PLUS the thickness of the Bitumen = 0,030 PLUS the depth of Fill = 0,450 PLUS the depth of the Sub Surface drainage = 0,650 Fixed Depth = 1,475 Rounded off to nearest 0,1m = 1,5

53

Because you will be working with unskilled labour, it is best to round off to the nearest 0,1 14.9 The Boning Rod monitors the depth of the excavation. To determine the length of the Boning Rod, we need to make a decision at the first pole (closest pole to where the pipe starts). If the ground slopes upwards, you need to start as high as possible on the pole, lets say 1,5m above the centre-line peg of the Sub Surface drainage If the ground slopes downwards, you need to start as low as possible on the pole, lets say 1m above the centre-line peg of the Sub Surface drainage (1m is comfortable for bending down and looking over the Profile planks) Length of Boning Rod = Fixed Depth + 1m (ground slopes downwards) = 1,5 +1m = 2,500m The Boning Rod length is written onto the Boning Rod. This length must be checked each day before using the Boning Rod !!! The Stake Values (SVs) for which the Boning Rod was build must also be written onto the Boning Rod 14.10 To determine the distance above the ground at which the first Profile plank must be set-out, you take the Boning Rod length MINUS the Fixed Depth = 2,5 1,475 = 1,025 above the centre line peg of the sub-surface drainage at that stake value were the drainage starts (the depth of cut was determined from the Long Section height at the centre line of the road, to the Formation Height)

14.11 Practical, setting out Profile heights : Place the staff on the centre line of the sub-surface drainage, in line with the first pole and take a staff reading with the Level Instrument = 1,789 (for example) Subtract the distance above the ground = 1,789 - 1,025 = 0,764 Now, depending on the slope of the Sub Surface drainage and the distance the poles are apart (SVs are usually 20m apart), determine the height difference to the next pole. Apply the height difference for each successive pole Slope factor = height difference distance Thus, height difference = Slope factor x distance

54

14.12 1

TUTORIAL 6 It is clear that subsurface drainage must be provided where there is excavation. The excavation for the subsurface drainage is 650mm under the ground, after the normal excavation for cut is completed. N.B. Normal excavation for the road will be done later. Depth of cut from a Longitudinal section at SV 620 = 0,514m. The level instrument is set up at + SV 680, and the reading of 3,226 is read on the staff when the staff was held on the ground, on the centre-line of the subsurface drainages' proposed excavation, at SV 620. Slope of profiles = +1,1244%. Complete the tabulated form of the necessary field book that you would draw up and use in the field, from SV 620 to SV 700 Cut sketch Fixed depth

55

Boning Rod length BR = Distance above ground = Slope over 20m = SV 620 620 640 660 680 700 Readings On ground = 3,226 On pole = On pole = On pole = On pole = On pole = /10/

It is clear that Sub Surface drainage must be provided where there is excavation. The excavation for the subsurface drainage is 650mm under the ground, after the normal excavation for cut is completed. N.B. Normal excavation for the road has already been done. Depth of cut from a Longitudinal section at SV 440 = 0,514m. The level instrument is set up at + SV 460, and the reading of 1,987 is read on the staff when the staff was held on the ground, on the centre-line of the subsurface drainages' proposed excavation, at SV 440. Slope of profiles = -1,1244%. Complete the tabulated form of the necessary field book that you would draw up and use in the field, from SV 440 to SV 520 Cut sketch Fixed depth

56

Distance above ground = Slope over 20m = SV 440 440 460 480 500 520 Readings On ground = 1,987 On pole = On pole = On pole = On pole = On pole = /10/

15

15.1 Outcomes

600 PIPE

1 2 3 4 5

to to to to to

determine the toe-line distances on a cross-section drawn to scale determine the number of pipes needed do all the relevant calculations to be able to set out the profiles use the calculations to set out the profiles bulid a Boning rod for the relevant pipe

15.2 Fill prevents the natural flow of rain water, thus it is required to place pipes under the fill (from one side of the fill to the other side of the fill), at strategic places along the road

57

58

15.3 Typical Cross Section : 600 PIPE (Side Veiw) Sight Rails (Profiles)

10m 10m 10m

A 15.4 The length of the pipe is measured on the drawn Cross Section, from toe-line to toe-line. Then the distance is converted to the number of pipes required. If the Toe-line distances are 12,55m left and 11,08m right of the centre-line of the road = 23,630m. Each pipe = 2,25m (measure a 600 pipes length and allow for the join between pipes) Therefore 23,630m divided by 2,25m = 10,5 pipes = 11 pipes The extra length of pipe is extended on the down-hill side of the Fill 15.5 Inlet view and Sight Rail : Inlet Veiw Sight Rail (Profile)

50mm Bedding

15.6 The Bedding for the pipe = 50mm. The Bedding must be stone free 15.7 Pegs A, B and C are leveled to obtain the actual ground heights. Pegs can be nails or 10mm/12mm iron pegs 15.8 The amount of excavation is dependent on the thickness of the pipe (measure it). For this exercise use 30mm wall thickness

59

15.9

Worked Example : A 600mm diameter drainage pipe is required at SV 500, at right angles with the road. Ground height of the centre line peg of the road = 1219,422. Side slopes of the fill is 1:2. Point B, with a height of 1219,927 is 10m east of the invert of the pipe. Point C is 10m further east from point B. Point A is on the western side of the pipe and 10m from the outlet. Ground level of A = 1218,077. The wall thickness of the pipe is 0,030m and the bedding is 50mm. The gradient from A to C is even. Design slope of the pipe is 1:200 (Actual ground slope can be determined), and the pipe lengths are 2,25m each. The road width = 15m. Toe-line distances are 12,55m left and 11,08m right of the centre-line of the road. 1 Draw a section of the pipe and road as seen from the side as well as a cross section at the inlet. Sketches to be fully annotated Side view Inlet view

(4) 2 How many pipes are needed and the final pipe length Number of pipes = 12,55m + 11,08m = 23,630m = 23,630m 2,25 = 10,5 pipes = 11 pipes

= 24,750m (3)

Calculate the ground slope factor between the centre line peg and B The heights closest to the Invert are always used : Slope factor = height difference = 1219,927 1219,422 Distance 11,08 + 10m = + 0,023956 (2)

Calculate the height difference between the invert of the pipe and B. The Invert of the Inlet is at ground level Slope factor = height difference Distance + 0,023956 = height difference = + 0,240 10m (2) Calculate the height of pipe invert, closest to B Height of B height difference 1219,927 0,240= 1219,687 (1) Calculate the height of the invert of the excavation under the 'invert' of the pipe Height of pipe invert (pipe thickness + Bedding) 1219,687 (0,030 + 0,050) = 1219, 607 (1) 60

Calculate the height difference between the invert of the excavation untill you are under B Slope factor = height difference Distance Height difference = Slope factor x Distance = 1 x 10m = + 0,050m 200 (2)

Calculate the height below B Height below B = height of excavation invert + height difference = 1219,607 + 0,050 = 1219,657 (1) Calculate the fixed depth below B Fixed depth = Height of B height below B = 1219,927 1219,657= 0,270m (1) Calculate the Boning Rod length at B if the profile is + 1,3m above the ground Boning Rod length = 1,3 + fixed depth = 1,3 + 0,270m = 1,570m (round off to the nearest 0,1m) = 1,6m (1) Determine the height above the ground at B Height above ground at B = Boning Rod length fixed depth = 1,6 0,270 = 1,330 (1) A reading of 1,730 was taken on a staff on the ground at B. Calculate the staff readings at B and C to put up the profiles Readings At B (on ground) = 1,829 At B (on poles) At C (on poles) = 1,829 1,330 = 0,499

10

11

12

= 0,499 height difference over 10m = 0,499 0,050 = 0,449 (3) /22/

61

15.10 1

TUTORIAL 7

A 600mm diameter pipe is necessary, under the road at Stake Value 540, and SIGHT-RAILS (Profiles) must be set-out. The pipe is at right angles with the centre-line of the road. Given : Pegs are at A, B and C. Peg B is 10 meter from the one side of the proposed pipe, C is another 10 meters further from B and A is 10 metres from the other side of the pipe. There was leveled from the Traverse pegs and determined that the peg heights at A = 1222,627, B = 1221,976 and C = 1220,219 The pipe is 9,76 metre long (as determined from toe-line to toe-line on the Cross Section drawn The invert of the pipe (on the side nearest to B) is level with the ground The pipe has a wall thickness of 30mm, and slope is at the gradient of the ground. There must be provided for a 50mm, stone free, soil bedding under the pipe. The decision was made to set out the profile at C + 1,5 meters above the ground. 1.1 Draw a section of the pipe and road as seen from the side as well as a cross section at the invert Side view Inlet view

(4) 1.2 How many pipes are needed and the final pipe length Number of pipes =

(3) 1.3 Calculate the ground slope factor between the centre line peg and B The heights closest to the Invert are always used :

(2) 1.4 Calculate the height difference between the invert of the pipe and B.

(1)

62

1.6 Calculate the height of the invert of the excavation under the 'invert' of the pipe

(1) 1.7 Calculate the height difference between the invert of the excavation until you are under B

(1) 1.10 Calculate the Boning Rod length at B if the profile is + 1,3m above the ground Boning Rod length = (1) 1.11 Determine the height above the ground at B Height above ground at B = (1) 1.12 A reading of 2,876 was taken on a staff on the ground at C. Calculate the staff readings at C and B to put up the profiles Readings At C (on ground) = 2,876 At C (on poles) At B (on poles) = = (3) /22/

63

2 3

Draw an Orthographic drawing (side, front and plan views) of a fill with a pipe under the road. Also show the profiles and pegs /9/ Draw an Isometric drawing of a fill with a pipe under the road. Also show the profiles and pegs you used in the survey /12/ A 600mm diameter drainage pipe is required at SV 400, at right angles with the road. Ground height of the centre line peg of the road = 1 223,213. Side slopes of the fill is 1:2. Point B, with a height of 1 223,789 is 10m east of the invert of the pipe. Point C is 10m further east from point B. Point A is on the western side of the pipe and 10m from the outlet. Ground level of A = 1 222,345. The wall thickness of the pipe is 0,030m and the bedding is 50mm. The gradient from A to C is even. Design slope of the pipe is 1:150 (Actual ground slope can be determined), and the pipe lengths are 2,25m each. The road width = 15m. Toe-line distances are 13,22m left and 12,77m right of the centre-line of the road. 4.1 Draw a section of the pipe and road as seen from the side as well as a cross section at the invert Side view Inlet view

(4) 4.2 How many pipes are needed and the final pipe length Number of pipes =

(3) 4.3 Calculate the ground slope factor between centre line peg of the road and B The heights closest to the Invert are always used :

(2) 4.4 Calculate the height difference between the invert of the pipe and B

(1)

64

4.6 Calculate the height of the invert of the excavation under the 'invert' of the pipe

(1) 4.7 Calculate the height difference between the invert of the excavation untill you are under B

(1) 4.10 Calculate the Boning Rod length at B if the profile is + 1,2m above the ground Boning Rod length = (1) 4.11 Determine the height above the ground atB Height above ground atB = (1) 4.12 A reading of 2,543 was taken on a staff on the ground at B. Calculate the staff readings at B and C to put up the profiles Readings At B (on ground) = 2,543 = At B (on poles) = At C (on poles) (3) /22/

65

A 600mm diameter pipe is necessary, under the road at Stake Value 540, and SIGHT-RAILS (Profiles) must be set-out. The pipe is at right angles with the centre-line of the road. Given : Pegs are at A, B and C. Peg B is 10 meter from the one side of the proposed pipe, C is another 10 meters further from B and A is 10 metres from the other side of the pipe. There was leveled from the Traverse pegs and determined that the peg heights at B = 1 233,552 and C = 1233,987 The pipe is 16,74 metre long (as determined from toe-line to toe-line on the Cross Section drawn The invert of the pipe (on the side nearest to B) is level with the ground The pipe has a wall thickness of 30mm, and slope is at the gradient of the ground. There must be provided for a 50mm, stone free, soil bedding under the pipe. The decision was made to set out the profile Traveler distance at C = + 1,1 meters above the ground.

5.1 Draw a section of the pipe and road as seen from the side as well as a cross section at the invert Side view Inlet view

(4) 5.2 How many pipes are needed and the final pipe length Number of pipes =

(3) 5.3 Calculate the ground slope factor between B and C The heights closest to the Invert are always used :

(2) 5.4 Calculate the height difference between the invert of the pipe and B

(1)

66

5.6 Calculate the height of the invert of the excavation under the 'invert' of the pipe

(1) 5.7 Calculate the height difference between the invert of the excavation untill you are underB

(1) 5.10 Calculate the Boning Rod length at B if the profile is + 1,1m above the ground Boning Rod length = (1) 5.11 Determine the height above the ground at B Height above ground at B = (1) 5.12 A reading of 2,334 was taken on a staff on the ground at B. Calculate the staff readings at B and C to put up the profiles Readings At B (on ground) = 2,334 = At B (on poles) = At C (on poles) (3) /22/

67

16

16.1 Outcomes

Rise and Fall Method

When you have completed the practical, you should of achieved the following outcomes (should be able to do the following) : 1 2 3 4 5 Set up a Tripod correctly for Levelling Set up the Level instrument correctly, by centering the bubble Read the Staff correctly, to 3 decimal places Read Back sights, Foresights Calculate Rises, Falls, Reduced heights, corrections, Adjusted heights and Final heights. Apply all checks and determine the linear closing error

16.2 Note : For Control Points T1, T2, C17, T3 and T4, which you have chosen as your Traverse BMs, we usually use equal BS and FS distances to avoid collimation error being part of your readings CONTOL POINTS CHOSEN AROUND A BUILDING COMPLEX Secondly, when the calculation is completed, all readings have been fully checked, without having to do an additional calculation to check any Intermediate sights 16.3 Normal Back sights are handled as +, and normal Foresights are handled as Note : Inverted staff readings are handled with the opposite sign, ie. Change the sign from the NORMAL 16.4 N.B. Each Intermediate sight (IS) is used TWICE. Firstly as a Foresight when calculating the Rises and Falls, then secondly as a Back sight in the calculation of the Rises and Falls When you calculate, remember that the readings are taken relative to the lineof-sight. Try to see that they are either upwards (+), from the ground to the line of sight, or downwards (-), from the line of sight to the ground For inverted (Bridge/Roof) readings it is upwards (+) from the line of sight to the Bridge/Roof

ANOTHER WAY OF THINKING : Instead of seeing an IS, see it as a BS and a FS, on the same line, in place of the IS 16.5 Toppieshoek Practical : Each Group must level and check level his/her own Individual levelling line, from a BM, to 5 Control Points (Traverse Stations) and ending at another BM 16.6 Refer to S1 notes

68

17

SITE SURVEY

(Spot-heights)

17.1 The width of the Strip Survey is 60m. This means that centre line point at each SV must be SURVEYED, as well as 15L, 30L, 15R and 30R Note that all changes of slope must be surveyed 17.2 The Theodolite set-ups are at T1, C17 (your designated C BM) and T4. You are required to take Spot-heights from the above 3 stations to Spot-heights at each SV When set up at T1, take Spot heights from SV 320 until the SVs are in line with T2. Then from C17, take Spot heights from SVs in line with T2 until the SVs in line with T3. Finally, from T4 take Spot heights from SVs in line with T3 until the SV;s at the end of the road (say SV 680) NOTE : Fact 1 = Spot heights should be taken at all slope changes, Fact 2 = Spot heights should be taken according to the Scale of the plan, and should plot 30mm apart. Thus for a 1:500 plan Spot heights should be 15m apart 17.3 Refer to S1 Notes : Taking Spot heights Calculating Spot heights Plotting Spot heights Drawing Contours

69

18

INTERSECTION

18.1 You are required to choose 2 BMs which are inter-visible between each other and a chosen Traverse station (which is inter-visible from both BMs), and at least 2 other known points, for Orientation (s or BMs). At Toppieshoek, choose an A beacon and a D beacon, and 2 Trig. Beacons, visible from both points 18.2 The aim is to fix the co-ordinates of one of the Traverse stations, without measuring any distances 104 66

D23

T3

A7

18.3 In the triangle D23, T3 and A7 : 1 2 3 4 5 6 The angles at D23 and A7 can be obtained from the Reduced Directions The angle at T3 can be obtained by subtracting the sum of the 2 angles from 180 The direction and distance can be obtained from D23 to A7, by calculating a Join (checked by a Polar) Using the Join direction D23 to A7, and the angles at D23 and A7, the true directions from D23 and A7 can be obtained to the Intersected point T3 Using the Sine Rule, the distances from D23 and A7 can be obtained Calculate 2 Polars from D23 and A7, using the directions obtained in 4 above, and the distances obtained in 5 above = co-ordinates of T3

70

18.4 Worked Example : 1 Given the co-ordinates of the BMs Calculate the Join A7 to D23 and check your calculation. Use the tables below +51 037,58 +51 074,11 + 36,530 843640 388,969m A7 D23 -7 420,34 + 387,250 -7 033,090 +51 037,58 + 36,530 +51 074,110 (8) 2 Complete the setting out data below Given : Calculated setting out data (setting out field book) @A7 104 66 D23 T3 3 @D23 104 66 T3 A7

A7

= = = ++

(9) +51 037,58 40,560 +50 997,020 +51 074,110 77,090 +50 997,020

Determine the co-ordinates of T3 using double polars 1050037 156,608m A7 T3 2515433 248,258m D23 T3 -7 420,34 + 151,264 -7 269,076 -7 033,090 - 235,986 -7 269,076

T3

-7 269,076

71

18.5 1

TUTORIAL 9

Intersection : 1.1 Given the co-ordinates of the BMs Calculate the Join A7 to D23 and check your calculation. Use the tables below

A7 m D25

-7 420,34

+51 037,58

(8) 1.2 Complete the setting out data below Given : Calculated setting out data (setting out field book) @A7 104 66 D25 T2 1.3 @D25 104 66 T2 A7

4 345,456m 5 776,543m m

1.4

72

Intersection : 2.1 Given the co-ordinates of the BMs Calculate the Join A7 to D23 and check your calculation. Use the tables below A7 -7 420,34 D23 -7 044,27 +51 037,58 +51 074,38 A7 m D23 (8) 2.2 Complete the setting out data below Given : Calculated setting out data (setting out field book) @A7 104 66 D23 T3 2.3 @D23 104 66 T3 A7 -7 420,34 +51 037,58

4 345,456m 5 776,543m m

2.4

73

Intersection : 3.1 Given the co-ordinates of the BMs Calculate the Join A7 to D27 and check your calculation. Use the tables below A7 -7 420,34 D27 -7 011,17 +51 037,58 +51 062,43 A7 m D27 (8) 3.2 Complete the setting out data below Given : Calculated setting out data (setting out field book) @A7 104 66 D27 T2 3.3 @D27 104 66 T2 A7 -7 420,34 +51 037,58

4 345,456m 5 776,543m m

3.4

74

19

TO ILLUSTRATE GRAPHICALLY THE PRINCIPLES OF TRAVERSING, INTERSECTION, ORIENTATION AND TRI-LATERATION 19.1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 19.2 19.3 On the A2 sized paper draw up a plan showing a 10mm margin and carry out the 8 points below The Y grid lines at 100 m intervals from 200Y to +300Y The X grid lines at 100m intervals from +2615000X to + 2615300X The North Point in the top right hand corner The central meridian (the Lo. MUST be written on the grid line) The scale, in the bottom right hand corner, inside the margin Your name in the bottom right hand corner, outside the margin Show all Direction rays !!!! All Tables and calculations to be shown on your answer sheet Refer to the data sheet and plot the position of A, E and D from the co-ordinate list The Traverse A traverse was run fromA to D. The following reduced directions and distances were extracted from the field book. The directions have been orientated. DIRECTION A to B B to C C to D 19.3.1 19.3.2 19.4 DISTANCE

Plot and check the positions of traverse stations B and C Enter the co-ordinates of B and C on the co-ordinate list

To fix the position of F by triangulation using the method of intersection A theodolite was set up at A and E. The following oriented directions were observed from these beacons: A-F = 2700000 E-F = 111836 19.4.1 Plot the position of F by using the oriented observed directions. The theodolite was now set up at F, oriented on A and E and a direction of 277.07.30 was observed to D Check the plotted position of F by determining whether the observed direction FD agrees with the direction FD on your plan by using a protractor

19.4.2

75

19.4.3 JOIN F D

As an additional check calculate the Join F to D POLAR F D Or, using method number two (Survey Regulations) : Join (checked by Polar) F - D (format : F D direction m distance)

19.4.4 Enter the co-ordinates of F in your co-ordinate list. N.B. 1 A Trig Beacon is shown as a Triangle with a dot in i.e. 2 A Surveyed point is shown as a dot with a double circle i.e. 3 4 A Surveyed Direction, surveyed both forwards and backwards is shown as a solid line A Surveyed Direction, surveyed only forwards is shown as a solid line from the point it was surveyed from, and a dotted line from the point surveyed to i.e.

19.5 TO ORIENT A SET OF OBSERVATIONS At a point G an arc of horizontal angular observations were taken with a theodolite. The theodolite was not oriented before the observations were taken @G (un oriented) Swing (oriented) 82.38.45 A 220.57.49 E F 325.00.00 B 14.23.55 Subsequently the instrument was set up at E, oriented on A and D and the forward direction E to G was found to be 30.57.49 (Orientated) 19.5.1 19.5.2 Orient the observations at G and enter above Plot the position of G on your plan and enter the co-ordinates of G in the co-ordinate list.

19.6

To fix the position of H by tri-lateration The following distances were measured in the field: H to E = 160,000m H to F = 56,571mH to D = 211,905m 76

Plot the position of H by using distances HE and HD Check the position of H by using distances HF Enter the co-ordinates of H in the co-ordinate list DATA SHEET

CO-ORDINATE Constant A D E B C F G H + + +

LIST

N.B. The co-ordinate list must also appear on your answer sheet

77

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