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Basic Approaches to Leadership

Leadership
It is the ability to influence a group toward the achievement of a vision or set of goals Usually come from formal structure But not all managers are good leaders and not all good leaders are good managers Non-sanctioned leadership: ability to influence that arises outside the formal structure of the organization

Trait Theories
Theories that consider personal qualities and characteristics that differentiate leaders from nonreaders
Big Five Personality Agreeableness Conscientiousness Extraverted Emotional Stability Openness Experience

Behavioral Theories
Theories proposing that specific behaviors differentiate leaders from non leaders Difference between Trait Theory & Behavioral Theory?

Ohio State Studies:


Two Dimension Initiating structure and consideration! Initiating Structure: The extent to which a leader is likely to define and structure his or her role and those of subordinates in the search of goal attainment
Expect workers to maintain work standards and emphasize the meeting of deadlines

Consideration: The extent to which a leader is likely to have job relationships characterized by mutual trust, respect for subordinates ideas and regard for their feelings
Leaders who are friendly, understand personal problems of subordinates, express appreciation and support

University of Michigan Studies


Two Dimension Employee oriented leader and production oriented leader Employee oriented leader: A leader who emphasizes interpersonal relationships, takes a personal interest in the needs to employees and accepts individual differences among members Production Oriented Leader: A leader emphasizes technical or task aspects of the job According to research, employee oriented leader is associated with higher group performance and greater job satisfaction

Fielder Model
Its a contingency theory that implies that effective groups depend on a proper match between a leaders style of interacting with subordinates and the degree to which the situation gives control and influence to the leader Three dimension:
Leader Member Relation: The degree of confidence, trust and respect subordinates have in their leader Task Structure: to what degree job assignments are structured Position Power: It is the degree of influence a leader has over power variables i.e. recruitment, firing, discipline, rewards etc

Fielder Model
According to the model, there are two ways to improve the leader effectiveness:
Change the leader to fit in the situation Change the situation to fit the leader

Recently, he has redeveloped his theory and named it cognitive resource theory; he focused on stress as situational unfavorableness and how a leader's intelligence and experience influence his reaction to stress According to this new theory, it is difficult for leaders to make rational decisions under stress He figured that under low stress, intelligence has a positive relationship with performance while experience has a negative relationship. And vice versa!

Hersey and Blanchards Situation Theory


This theory actually focuses on the followers in determining leaders effectiveness He believes followers readiness define whether someone would be successful as leader or not Readiness is defined by followers willingness and ability
Willing but unable? Able but unwilling? Unable and Unwilling? Able and Willing?

Path Goal Theory


It implies leaders need to provide followers ample info, support, and other resources necessary for them to achieve their goals Take your followers to the goal with necessary support Leader Behavior:
Directive leaders he will tell followers what is expected of them and give specific directions to them Supportive leaders are friendly and shows concern for the needs of the followers Participative Leaders ask for suggestions from subordinates before making a decision Achievement Leaders sets high targets and expects followers to perform at their highest level

Leader Member Exchange Theory


This theory implies that due to time pressure leaders tend to create a relationship with few members who create a small group within the group they are more trusted, and given special attention and privileges. Outsiders of this small group are deprived from certain things Leaders induce LMX by rewarding those with whom they want to create a close relationship and punishing those who they dont But both party need to invest in the relation How are these insiders selected?

Class Activity Can you please pick 10 of the following qualities that you think is a must for a leader
Intelligence Good looks sense of humor Height Assertiveness Fairness Creativity Openness Magnanimity Humility Dedication Integrity Visionary Creativity Structure Intuition Knowledge Being Human Versatility Lightness Discipline/Focu s Big Picture, Small Actions

Contemporary Issues in Leadership

Charismatic Leadership
A certain quality of an individual personality for which he is perceived as supernatural, superhuman or at least exceptionally powerful Charismatic leaders have following four characteristics:
They have a vision They are willing to take personal risk They are sensitive to follower needs They exhibit behaviors which are not ordinary

Are Charismatic Leaders born or Made?


Research supports both school of thought I say charismatic leaders are born One set of authors believe charismatic leadership can be achieved through following: An individual needs to create an aura of charisma around him An individual draws others in by creating a bond that inspires others to follow The individuals bring out the potential in followers

How Charismatic Leaders influence followers?


First, charismatic leaders initiate a vision long term strategy to attain a goal He then communicates high performance expectations and expresses confidence on subordinates to achieve them Next, he conveys a certain type of behavior through words or actions which followers want to follow Finally, emotional attack it demonstrates a courage among followers to attain the vision no matter what.

Any relation with the situation?


Stress/ Unstable Situation Stable Situations

Any Darker Side?


Can make you do what you should not!!

Transactional Leadership
These kind of leaders guide or motivate their followers in the direction of goals by clarifying role and task requirement

Characteristics of Transactional Leadership:


Contingent Reward Management by Exception (Active) Management by Exception (Passive) Laissez Faire

Transformational Leadership
Leaders who inspire their followers to excel their own self interest and who are capable of having an extraordinary effect on followers

Characteristics of Transformational Leadership:


Idealized Influence Inspirational Motivation Intellectual stimulation Individualized Consideration