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CHAPTER-IV
Analysis & Interpretation of Data
4.1 Introduction
In this chapter an attempt has been made by the researcher to analyse
the data collected so as to find out how far the Right to Education Act is
known to the different sect of the society, i.e., head of the school, teacher,
parents / community head, students and teacher-educator.
After the information was collected through the questionnaire
developed for the research, the researcher analysed the collected data.
Analysis is the ordering, the taking down of data into constituent part in order
to obtain answer to reach the question Karlinger, 1964.
The data collected has been processed scientifically and analysed to
get the conclusions which are relevant. Processing of data implies editing,
coding, classification and tabulation of the collected data so that they are
amenable for analysis.
The subsequent step of data processing is the interpretation of data.
The interpretation gives an answer to the meaning and significance about the
original problem. Interpretation is not a routine or mechanical process, rather
it is a careful, logical and critical examination of the results obtained after
analysis, keeping in view the limitations of the sample chosen and the tools
selected and used in the study.
The first step in analysis is the classification of data into different
classes or groups according to similarities and dissimilarities.
There are five objectives of the study. These objectives are
1. To study the awareness of the Headmaster/Headmistress of the
schools on the provisions of RTE Act.
35

2. To study the awareness of the school teachers on the provisions of
RTE Act.
3. To study the awareness of the parents on the provisions of RTE Act.
4. To study the awareness of the students on the provisions of RTE Act.
5. To study the awareness of the teacher-educators on the provisions of
RTE Act.
The researcher has used frequency and percentage for analyzing the
responses from the sample population and interpretation was made
accordingly. The response of sample was qualitatively analysed and logically
presented.
The researcher divided the chapter into 5 sections. They are as
follows:-
4.1. Analysis of awareness of headmasters / headmistress towards Right
to Education Act, 2009.
4.2. Analysis of awareness of school teachers towards Right to Education
Act, 2009.
4.3. Analysis of awareness of students towards Right to Education Act,
2009.
4.4. Analysis of awareness of parents / community towards Right to
Education Act, 2009.
4.5. Analysis of awareness of teacher-educators towards Right to
Education Act, 2009.
4.2 Analysis of awareness of headmasters / headmistress towards
Right to Education Act, 2009
The foremost objective of this research study was to find out the
awareness of the headmaster/headmistress about the Right to Education Act,
2009 which is a recent phenomenon. The researcher approached five
headmasters/headmistress (N=5) of different schools located at Bhubaneswar
and administered the questionnaire on them to collect data.
36

In the questionnaire developed for them, as appended in Appendix A,
from the serial no. 1 to 7, general information were gathered such as name,
address of the school, their qualifications, gender, age, availability of various
facilities available in their schools and number of trained / untrained teachers
available in their schools.
In the subsequent questions, excepting question at serial no. 9, of the
questionnaire for the headmasters / headmistress, i.e., from serial number 8
and 10 to 20, information on awareness of the headmasters / headmistress
about RTE Act, 2009 has been collected and analysed. The analysed data
has been presented in the following table no. 1.
Table 4.1: Awareness of headmasters / headmistress towards Right to
Education Act, 2009 (N = 5)
Sl.No. Description Yes No
No. % No. %
8 Are you aware that the Rights of
Children to free and compulsory Act
2009 has been recently implement-
ed in our country 1
st
April 2010?
5 100 0 0
10 Do you know, at least 25 percent of
the strength of the class will be
admitted from weaker section and
disadvantaged group of the
neighbourhood area under this Act?
5 100 0 0
11 Do you know the school will be
reimbursed expenditure incurred per
child in this Act?
5 100 0 0
12 Are you aware, that school already
under obligation to state govt. to
provide specific number of children
on account of it having received any
land, building, equipments or other
facilities either free of cost or at a
concessional rate such school will
not be entitled for reimbursement for
admitting 25% of the total strength
from under-privileged group?
1 20 4 80
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13 Are you aware that no school while
admitting a child, collect any
capitation fee, and screening
procedure of parent or guardian of
the child?
4 80 1 20
14 Are you aware that if capitation fee
is collected for admission of a child
it will lead to punishable with fine of
25,000/- and 50,000/- for 1
st
and 2
nd

time violation of the rule?
3 60 2 40
15 Do you know no child shall be
denied admission in a school for
lack of age proof or seek admission
after the commencement of
academic year?
5 100 0 0
16 Are you aware that no child
admitted in a school can be
detained in any class or expelled
from the school till the completion of
elementary education?
2 40 3 60
17 Do you know that no school can be
established without obtaining
certificate of recognition?
5 100 0 0
18 Are you satisfied with the provisions
made regarding teacher-pupil ratio
and examination reform, and
teacher grievance redressal system
in RTE Act, 2009?
4 80 1 20
19 Have you attended any seminar
workshop organized by Govt. / Semi
Govt. / Pvt./ NGOs in recent past ?
4 80 1 20
20 Is the existing infrastructure of your
school is sufficient for successful
implementation of RTE Act 2009?
4 80 1 20
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Fig. 4.1 Shows the responses of headmasters / headmistress to question
no. 8 and 10 to 14 in percentage.

Fig. 4.2 Shows the responses of headmasters / headmistress to question
no. 15 to 20 in percentage.
An analysis of the question no. 8 shows that 100 percent, i.e., all the
sample headmasters / headmistress are aware of the RTE Act, 2009
implemented from 1
st
April 2010. That is because wide spread advertisement
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Q.8 Q.10 Q.11 Q.12 Q.13 Q.14
Yes %
No %
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Q.15 Q.16 Q.17 Q.18 Q.19 Q.20
Yes %
No %
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by Education Department of both Central Govt. and State Government and
discussions through newspapers, and media.
The perusal of question no. 10 is that 100 percent of the sample
headmasters / headmistress are aware that 25 percent of the strength of the
class will be admitted from weaker section and disadvantaged group of the
neighbourhood area under the RTE Act, 2009.
All the sample headmasters / headmistress, i.e. 100 percent, as
question no. 11 reveals, are aware of the reimbursement of expenditure
incurred per child to the child under the RTE Act, 2009.
The answer to question no. 12 of table 4.1 by the respondents i.e.,
school heads reveals that 20 percent of the respondents are aware that
school already under obligation to state govt. to provide specific number of
children on account of it having received any land, building, equipments or
other facilities either free of cost or at a concessional rate such school will not
be entitled for reimbursement for admitting 25% of the total strength from
under-privileged group. Rest 80 percent of the respondents are not aware of
the above mentioned fact.
The question 13 of the table 4.1 reveals that 80 percent of the
respondents are aware that collection of capitation fee, screening procedure
of parents or guardian of child is prohibited under the RTE Act while admitting
a child at the elementary level of education. Whereas 20 percent of the heads
of schools are not aware of such provisions of the RTE Act.
An analysis of the responses in question no. 14 for head of schools
about awareness of rules of RTE Act regarding financial punishment for 1
st

violation of Rs.25,000/- and for 2
nd
violation of Rs.50,000/-, shows that 60
percent of respondents are aware of such financial punishment whereas rest
40 percent are not aware of such punishment.
The answer to question no. 15 of table 4.1 by the respondents i.e.,
school heads reveals that 100 percent of the respondents are aware that no
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child can be denied admission in a school for lack of age proof or seek
admission after the commencement of academic year.
The responses to question 16 of table 4.1 reveals that 40 percent of
respondents, i.e., head of schools are aware of the fact under RTE Act, that
no child can be detained in any class or expelled from the school till the
completion of elementary education whereas 60 percent of respondents are
not aware of such provisions of the RTE Act.
The answer to question no. 17 of table 4.1 by the respondents i.e.,
school heads reveals that 100 percent of the respondents are aware no
school can be established without obtaining certificate of recognition.
From the question 18 of the table 4.1, it is revealed that 80 percent of
the respondents are satisfied with the provisions of RTE Act regarding (a)
teacher pupil ratio, (b) examination reform, and (c) teacher grievance
redressal system. On the other hand, 20 percent of respondents are not
aware of these provisions of RTE Act.
The perusal of question no. 19 is that 80 percent of the sample
headmasters / headmistress have attended seminar, workshop organized by
Govt. / Semi Govt. / Pvt./ NGOs in recent past. 20 percent of the respondents
denied such attendance to any seminar, workshop organized by Govt. / Semi
Govt. / Pvt. / NGOs in the recent past.
80 percent of the respondents to question no. 20 consented that
existing infrastructure of their schools is sufficient for successful
implementation of RTE Act 2009 whereas 20 percent of the school heads
want more infrastructure for the successful implementation of the RTE Act,
2009.
4.3 Analysis of awareness of teachers towards Right to Education
Act, 2009
The second objective of the research study was to find out the
awareness of the teachers about the Right to Education Act, 2009.
41

The researcher approached fifty teachers (N=50) of five different
schools located in Bhubaneswar and administered the questionnaire
developed for them, as appended in Appendix B, on them to collect data.
In the questionnaire developed for them from the serial no. 1 to 6,
general information were gathered such as name, address of the school, their
qualifications, gender, age, etc.
In the subsequent questions, excepting question at serial no. 8, of the
questionnaire for the teachers, i.e., from serial number 7 and 9 to 22,
information on awareness of the headmasters / headmistress about RTE Act,
2009 has been collected and analysed. The analysed data has been
presented in the following table no. 2.
Table 4.2: Awareness of teachers towards Right to Education Act,
2009 (N=50)
Sl.No. Description Yes No
No. % No. %
7 Are you aware RTE Act 2009 for
free and compulsory education for
children has been implemented in
our country as well as in our state?
50 100 0 0
9 Have you gone through all the
provisions of the RTE Act?
24 48 26 52
10 Do you feel the provision like
compulsory admission, attendance
and completion of elementary
education by every child of the age
of six to fourteen years enough?
25 50 25 50
11 Do you feel the local authority
under Government administration
can ensure and monitor admission,
attendance and completion of
elementary education by every
child?
24 48 26 52
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12 Do you support the provision that, a
child admitted in a school, shall not
be held back in any class or
expelled from school?
42 84 8 16
13 Are you aware that no child shall be
subjected to physical punishment or
mental harassment?
45 90 5 10
14 Do you feel all teachers who are not
trained should be trained and
acquire the desired qualification
within five years?
35 70 15 30
15 Do you strongly support the terms
and conditions of RTE, 2009
maintaining regularity and
punctuality, holding regular meeting
with parent and guardian, appraisal
of child's performance regarding
attendance, progress of study,
ability of learn is sufficient ?
45 90 5 10
16 Do you feel teachers default in
performance of duties is liable to
disciplinary action immediately?
15 30 35 70
17 Do you support the redressal of
grievances of teacher should be
made regularly?
48 96 2 4
18 Do you support the provision made
for prohibition of deployment of
teacher for non education purposes
and prohibition of private tuition and
private coaching activity?
28 56 22 44
19 Do you feel the pupil teacher ratio
as prescribed by RTE 2009 is
appropriate?
50 100 0 0
20 Do you feel the minimum no. of
working days / instructional hour
per academic session as prescribed
in RTE 2009 is sufficient?
50 100 0 0
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21 Do you feel more teaching /
learning material based in ICT
(Information and Communication
Technology) is necessary for
elementary school?
45 90 5 10
22 Do you feel necessity of provision
of more play material, games,
sports equipments as per provision
of RTE 2009?
45 90 5 10
23 Are you happy with provision of
term and condition of service of
teachers in RTE 2009?
30 60 20 40

Fig. 4.3 Shows the responses of teachers to question no. 7 and 9 to 15 in
percentage.
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Q.7 Q.9 Q.10 Q.11 Q.12 Q.13 Q.14 Q.15
Yes %
No %
44


Fig. 4.4 Shows the responses of teachers to question no. 16 to 23 in
percentage.
It is obvious from table 4.2 and question no. 7 put to the teachers that,
100 percent teachers are aware of compulsory education for children under
the RTE Act, 2009 implemented in the State.
It also reveals, under question no. 9, that only 48 percent, i.e. 24
teachers out of 50, are fully aware of all the provisions of RTE Act, 2009. But
rest 52 percent, i.e. 26 teachers out of 50 are either partially or not at all
aware of all of the provisions of RTE Act, 2009 implemented since 1
st
April
2010.
A perusal of the analysis of the responses to question 10 to school
teachers reveals that 50 percent of the respondents agreed to the sufficiency
of the provision like compulsory admission, attendance and completion of
elementary education by every child of the age of six to fourteen years.
Whereas rest 50 percent disagreed with such sufficiency. Likewise the
response to question 11 reveals that 48 percent teachers felt that the local
authority under Government administration can ensure and monitor
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Q.16 Q.17 Q.18 Q.19 Q.20 Q.21 Q.22 Q.23
Yes %
No %
45

admission, attendance and completion of elementary education for every
child. Whereas 52 percent of the teachers disagreed to this statement. In nut
shell, rather they are of opinion that it can be monitored by NGOs or through
community participation.
84 percent of teachers in the question 12 opine that they support the
provision that a child admitted in a school shall not be held back in any class
due to poor performance in studies or expelled from school for any reason.
On the other hand 16 percent of the respondents put their views against the
provision of minimum standard to be maintained for promotion to a higher
class.
The response of teachers on question no. 13 reveals that, 90 percent
of the teachers are against any physical punishment or mental harassment.
But rest 10 percent of the teachers advocates for punishment for maintaining
disciplined students life.
A perusal of the analysis of the question 14 put to the teachers reveals
that 70 percent teacher agreed that training is essential for them and also
they honour the idea of untrained teacher should undergo training within five
years. Rest 30 percent of teachers are not in favour of no such training. The
existing qualifications and experience is enough to teach in the elementary
level.
90 percent of the teachers, in question no. 15, strongly supported the
provisions of RTE, 2009 for maintaining regularity and punctuality in doing
duties and holding regular meetings with parent / guardian, appraise child's
performance regarding attendance, progress of study, ability to learn.
Whereas rest 10 percent of teachers do not feel such provisions of RTE, 2009
are important.
30 percent of the teachers agreed to the statement in question 16 that
immediate disciplinary action should be taken for default in performance of
duties of the teachers. But 70 percent of the teachers went against such
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statement putting their views that such immediate action would demoralize
the teachers and would affect their integrity.
As analysed, in question no. 17, by the researcher 96 percent of the
teachers support the regular redressal of grievances of teacher. On the hand,
4 percent of the teachers do not support such system of redressal under the
RTE Act, 2009.
The analysis of question no. 18 to the teachers shows that 56 percent
of teachers support the provision in RTE Act for prohibition of deployment of
teachers for non education purposes, like preparation of voter list, census
duty, BPL survey, and prohibition of private tuition and private coaching
activity as these hamper normal discharge of their teaching duties. Whereas
In response to question 19 and 20, cent percent of the sample
respondents support for (1) the minimum pupil teacher ratio of 30:1, and (2)
minimum number of working days or instructional hours per academic
session, respectively as prescribed in the RTE Act, 2009.
90 percent of teachers, in question no. 21, put their views that they
should be provided with more teaching / learning materials based on ICT
(Information and Communication Technology) at elementary schools.
Whereas 10 percent of the teachers are not in favour of ICT based teaching/
learning materials rather believe in traditional method of teaching materials.
An analysis of question 22 reveals that 90 percent of the teachers felt
that more play material, games, sports equipments to be provided to each
class at elementary level as per provision of RTE, 2009. Whereas 10 percent
of teachers feel the importance of study materials rather than play
equipments.
60 percent of teachers in question no. 23 are happy with the provision
of terms and conditions of service of teachers under RTE Act, 2009 such as
minimum qualification, training experience. On the other hand, rest 40
percent of teachers show their unhappiness of the provisions and they
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support for more leniency in recruitment, training and promotion, pay hike at
par with other employees.
4.4 Analysis of awareness of students towards Right to Education
Act, 2009
The third objective of the research study was to find out the awareness
of the students about the Right to Education Act, 2009.
Table 4.3: Awareness of students towards Right to Education Act,
2009 (N=50)
Sl.No.
Description Yes No
No. %age No. %age
6 Are you aware RTE Act 2009 for
free and compulsory education for
the children has been
implemented in our country as
well as in our state?
35 70 15 30
8 Are you aware that every child will
be compulsory admitted in
elementary school?
30 60 20 40
9 Are you aware that a child
admitted in a school shall not be
held back in any class or expelled
from school?
20 40 30 60
10 Are you aware that no child shall
be subjected to physical
punishment or mental
harassment?
40 80 10 20
11 Are you aware that more teaching
learning materials will be provided
to you under this Act?
30 60 20 40
48


Fig. 4.5 Shows the responses of students to question no. 6 to 12 in
percentage.
An analysis of response to question no. 6 by the students reveals that
70 percent of students are aware of RTE Act, 2009 for free and compulsory
education for the children implemented in our country as well as in our state,
from different sources such as posters, hoardings, print and audio-visual
media. Rest 30 percent of students have no knowledge of RTE Act, 2009.
60 percent of the students, in response to question no. 8, are aware
that every child would be compulsory admitted in a nearby elementary school.
Whereas 40 percent of the sample students are not aware of such
compulsory admission.
In question 9, as analysed by the researcher, 40 percent students are
aware that a child once admitted in a school will not be deprived of promotion
to next higher class at any cost or be expelled from the school for any reason.
Whereas 60 percent sample students are not aware of this provision. They
think only good performance in study can promote them to next higher class
and in case of any indiscipline they would be expelled from school.
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
Q.6 Q.8 Q.9 Q.10 Q.11
Yes %age
No %age
49

80 percent of students are aware that no child would be subject to any
physical punishment or mental harassment for any mistake or negligence in
studies, whereas 20 percent of students are ignorant about this.
A perusal of the analysis of responses by students to question no. 11 is
that 60 percent of students are in favour of providing scientific and innovative
teaching learning materials would be provided to them under this Act. 40
percent of the students do not feel the importance of providing more teaching
learning materials.
4.5 Analysis of awareness of parents / guardians towards Right to
Education Act, 2009 (N=50)
The fourth objective of the research study was to find out the
awareness of the parents / community about the Right to Education Act, 2009.
Table 4.4: Awareness of parents / guardians towards Right to
Education Act, 2009
Sl.No. Description Yes No
N % N %
9 Have you admitted your child early
in the school?
40 80 10 20
10 Do you feel that your child should
be provided with free and
compulsory elementary education?
30 60 20 40
11 Are you aware that Right to
Education Act 2009 for free and
compulsory education for children
up to 14 years has been
implemented since 1
st
April 2010?
40 80 10 20
12 Do you send your child regularly to
school?
25 50 25 50
13 Do you know as per RTE Act 2009
every parent or guardian has to
admit their children, at any cost, in
the neighbourhood school?
15 30 35 70
50

14 Do you feel that children of weaker
section stay at home helping the
parent rather than going to school?
35 70 15 30
15 Do you feel that the school has
adequate infrastructure facility
before admitting your child in that
school?
40 80 10 20
16 Do you feel that special
interventions other than RTE 2009
are necessary to ensure access of
educationally deprived categories to
elementary education?
45 90 5 10
17 Are you satisfied with the curriculum
and reforms in exam system such
as no detention of student in any
class, as per the provision of RTE
2009?
30 60 20 40
18 Do you feel school inspection
system needs to be revamped as
per RTE 2009?
40 80 10 20
19 Do you feel more role should be
played for implementation of RTE
2009 by school management
comprised with community
participation for school development
plan?
45 90 5 10
20 Do you feel teacher training (pre
service and in-service) will help to
implement RTE 2009 successfully?
30 60 20 40
21 Do you support the crucial
provisions like pupil-teacher ratio,
prohibition of deployment of teacher
for non-educated purposes,
prohibition of private tuition,
minimum no. of working hours of
teacher in a day, in RTE 2009?
43 86 7 14
51

22 Are you aware that there are
provisions made in RTE about (a)
preparation of curriculum
development and (b) evaluation
procedure taking in to consideration
of learning through activities,
discovery and exploration in a child
friendly and child centered manner
to make the child free of fear,
trauma and anxieties to express
views freely?
25 50 25 50
23 Do you feel RTE 2009 can be
successfully implemented in
Odisha.
10 20 40 80


Fig. 4.6 Shows the responses of parents / guardians to question no. 9 to 15
in percentage.
A graphical representation of the percentage of response, as analyzed,
in the form of Yes and No calculated from the raw data has been put in Fig.
4.1 above.
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
Q.9 Q.10 Q.11 Q.12 Q.13 Q.14 Q.15
Yes %age
No %age
52

An analysis of Question 9 relating to admission of children into school
by the parents shows that 80 percent of parents have admitted their child into
various schools and rest 20 percent have not put their children into school.
This obviously reveals that there are still parents who are not aware of
provisions of RTE Act.
An analysis of Question 10 which relates to free and compulsory
education of children put to the parents shows that 60 percent of parents are
aware of free and compulsory elementary education as envisaged in the RTE
Act and whereas 40 percent are not aware of such provisions of free and
compulsory education under the RTE Act.
From 1
st
April 2010 the RTE Act made education compulsory upto the
age of 14 years for every child. And regarding this a question was put to the
parents in Question 11. An analysis of the response of parents shows that 80
percent of parents are aware of such compulsory education upto age 14 years
under the RTE Act whereas 20 percent are not aware of such provisions of
under the RTE Act.
On analyzing the response of parents in question no. 12, whether they
send their child regularly to schools, it was revealed that 50 percent of parents
give their positive response whereas 50 percent parents do not send their
children regularly to schools. This may be due to their unawareness, weak
financial condition, engagement of their children in domestic/industrial work
etc.
The analysis of question 13 on admission of children in the
neighbourhood school, it was found that 30 percent of parents / guardian
agree on their awareness of provisions of RTE Act in this regard. Whereas 70
percent of sample parents / guardians are not aware in this regard.
On analyzing question no. 14, it was found that 70 percent of parents /
guardians agree that the children of weaker section do stay at home helping
their parents rather than going to schools, whereas 30 percent parents /
guardians do not agree with this statement. The tendency of economically
53

weak parents in India is such that they lack knowledge on effectiveness of
education. Therefore they do not send their children to neighbourhood
schools and huge percentage of parents / guardians do agree with this
statement.
The analysis of question no. 15 put to the parents / guardians reveals
that 80% of the respondents feel that the schools have adequate
infrastructural facilities before admitting their children in the schools, whereas
20 percent of them do not agree with the infrastructural facilities in the schools
to be adequate at the time of admission of their children.

Fig. 4.7 Shows the responses of parents / guardians to question no. 16 to
23 in percentage.
A perusal of analysis of question no. 16 reveals that 90 percent of the
sample respondents felt that special interventions other than RTE 2009, are
necessary to ensure access of educationally deprived categories to
elementary education. On the other hand, 10 percent of sample respondents
are of opinion that present provisions in the RTE Act are not enough for
special interventions, such as schools with flexible time table, schools at work
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Q.16 Q.17 Q.18 Q.19 Q.20 Q.21 Q.22 Q.23
Yes %age
No %age
54

places and mobile schools, are necessary for ensuring access of
educationally deprived categories to elementary education.
The analysis of question no. 17 to parents / guardians shows that 60
percent of the respondents are satisfied with the curriculum and reforms in
examination system such as no detention of student in any class, as per the
provision of RTE Act 2009. But 40 percent of the respondents object to the
system of reform rather they prefer the traditional method of examination and
promotion to the next higher class to any student. They are in favour of
curriculum development particular bridge courses and continuous and
comprehensive evaluation mechanism of the examination system.
80 percent of the sample respondents to the question no. 18 felt that
school inspection system needs to be revamped as per RTE Act 2009. Rest
20 percent of the respondents disagree to the current system of school
inspection as there is insufficiency in number of inspection staff and other
administration work load. They advocate for inspection by village education
committee and NGOs through community participation.
An analysis of question no. 19 to the sample respondents reveals that
90 percent of the respondents agreed that more roles should be played by
school management comprised with community participation for school
development plan for implementation of RTE Act 2009. On the other hand 10
percent disagree to this statement as they do not want to interfere with the
functioning of the school management probably because of their low
education and knowledge in the field.
60 percent of the respondents to the question no. 20, as analysed by
the researcher, go in favour of teacher training, pre-service and in-service, as
it would help implementing RTE Act 2009 successfully. Whereas 40 percent
of the respondents feel that only trained teachers should be recruited so that
so that no pre-service or in-service training is necessary for elementary school
teachers and there would be no shortage of teacher during an academic
session.
55

Maximum number of respondents i.e., 86 percent to question no. 21,
are in support of the crucial provisions like pupil-teacher ratio, prohibition of
deployment of teacher for non-educated purposes, prohibition of private
tuition, minimum number of working hours of teacher in a day. Whereas
negligible respondents i.e., 14 percent are against such views as they
advocate for 20:1 pupil teacher ratio, private tuition by teachers beyond
school working hours and providing more attention to meritorious students.
They also opine that there should not be any fixed working hours rather it
should be flexible. Extra classes may be taken by the teachers for students
having poor performance.
As revealed from the analysis of question no. 22, only 50 percent of
the respondents are aware of the provisions made in RTE (a) for preparation
of curriculum development and (b) evaluation procedure taking in to
consideration of learning through activities, discovery and exploration in a
child friendly and child centered manner to make the child free of fear, trauma
and anxieties to express views freely. Comprehensive evaluation under the
RTE Act, should be based on childs behaviours, personality and attitude.
Rest 50 percent of the respondents are not in favour of such two provisions as
they go in favour of (a) curriculum should be based on childrens everyday
experiences and environmental related knowledge and (b) for acquiring true
knowledge / education, there should be traditional procedure of evaluation like
the examination system and students should be taught accordingly in the
classrooms.
As evaluated in question no. 23, the opinions of the 20 percent
respondents are that RTE 2009 can be successfully implemented in Odisha
with the present infrastructure, teacher availability and financial grants both
from Central and State Government and people consciousness. But majority
of the respondents, i.e. 80 percent are in doubt for successful implementation
of the Act due to (a) non-availability of sufficient number of schools in the
neighborhood, (b) poor infrastructure in rural/remote area schools, (c) non-
availability of sufficient number of trained teachers, and transparent policy for
56

teachers recruitment, (d) financial constraints, and (e) improper mind-set of
socially/financially weaker section people.
4.6 Analysis of awareness of teacher-educators towards Right to
Education Act, 2009
The fifth objective of the research study was to find out the awareness
of the teacher-educators about the Right to Education Act, 2009.
Table 4.5: Awareness of teacher-educators towards Right to
Education Act, 2009 (N=20)
Sl.No.
Description SA A DA
No. % No. % No. %
1 RTE 2009 is a useful Act
for increasing enrollment of
school going children.
5 25 4 20 11 55
2 The guidelines of RTE as
prescribed in the Act are
feasible.
7 35 8 40 5 25
3 The vision, mission and
goal as found in RTE Act is
relevant.
8 40 9 45 3 15
4 Teacher-Pupil ratio as
prescribed in the Act is
justified.
15 75 3 15 2 10
5 The existing infrastructure
available for a school is
sufficient to implement
RTE Act 2009.
4 20 2 10 14 70
6 The school and class room
climate need to be
democratic and free from
fear.
15 75 3 15 2 10
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7 Reform in the examination
pattern is highly essential.
15 75 5 25 0 0
8 Training of pre-service and
in-service teacher is highly
essential.
16 80 4 20 0 0
9 Provision of adequate
teaching-learning
equipment is mandatory.
14 70 6 30 0 0
10 The terms and conditions
of service of teacher, pay
and allowances will be
guided by National
Advisory Council is
relevant.
13 65 7 35 0 0
11 The Right of the children to
free and compulsory
education is protected by
this Act.
18 90 2 10 0 0
12 Teacher committing default
in performance of duties
shall liable to disciplinary
action immediately.
4 20 12 60 4 20
13 School Development Plan
should be prepared by
School Management
Committee.
9 45 11 55 0 0
14 No school will be
established or recognized
unless if fulfils the norms
and standards as
prescribed in RTE 2009.
17 85 3 15 0 0
15 No child should be given
physical punishment or
mental harassment.
15 75 5 25 0 0
16 The vacancy of teacher in
a school shall not exceed
ten percent at any point of
time.
13 65 4 20 3 15
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17 The teacher grievances
can be redressed properly
through this act.
11 55 9 45 0 0
18 Such an Act will lead the
teachers to be oriented
properly from time to time.
12 60 8 40 0 0
19 It is high time for
implementing this Act.
17 85 3 15 0 0


Fig. 4.8 Shows the responses of teacher-educators to question no. 1 to 10
in percentage.

0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
Q.1 Q.2 Q.3 Q.4 Q.5 Q.6 Q.7 Q.8 Q.9 Q.10
SA %age
A %age
DA %age
59


Fig. 4.9 Shows the responses of teacher-educators to question no. 11 to 19
in percentage.
As studied from the responses of various questions put to the teacher-
educators reveals the following conclusions by the researcher.
In questions no. 1, as analysed, 25 percent of the teacher educators
strongly agreed, 20 percent agreed with some reservation, to the fact that
RTE Act 2009 can play major role for increasing enrolment of school going
students at elementary level. But 55 percent disagreed to the above fact
because many such scheme in the recent past such as (a) mid-day-meal, (b)
operation black board, (c) Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, have failed to achieve the
expected target of enrolment in the school going children at elementary level.
An analysis of question no. 2 reveals that only 35 percent of teacher
educators strongly agreed and 40 percent agreed that the guidelines of RTE
Act 2009 are feasible because they are hopeful that the provisions on (a)
school infrastructure (b) teacher recruitment and training (c) school
management committee, (d) curriculum development and (e) financial grants /
aids to private school for enrolling 25 percent children from the social-
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Q.11 Q.12 Q.13 Q.14 Q.15 Q.16 Q.17 Q.18 Q.19
SA %age
A %age
DA %age
60

economically weaker section are sufficient. Only 25 percent disagreed to the
guidelines in RTE Act, 2009 as insufficient as there is no sufficient
infrastructures like schools in neighbourhood, adequate teacher strength in
rural school, special provisions for disabled children and required timely
financial assistance from the government.
In questions no. 3, as analysed by the researcher, 40 percent of the
teacher educators strongly agreed, 45 percent agreed with some reservation,
to the fact that the vision, mission and goal of RTE Act which is a global
campaign of UNESCO and Universalization of Elementary Education (UEE)
are relevant in the current literacy situation in India. Only 15 percent of the
respondents did not agree with relevancy of vision, mission or goal of RTE Act
as there is no fixed time frame for fulfillment and review of the vision, mission
and goal in the near future.
From the analysis of question no. 4 it is evident that 75 percent strongly
agreed and 15 percent agreed that the pupil teacher ratio as prescribed in
RTE Act i.e., 30:1 as justified at elementary level. Whereas only negligible 10
percent disagreed and suggested 20:1 pupil teacher ratio for more individual
attention to slow learners.
20 percent of the respondents strongly agreed and 10 percent agreed
in question no. 5, that the availability of existing infrastructure for schools are
sufficient to implement RTE Act 2009. But a majority of the respondents i.e.
70 percent disagreed to the fact rather they suggested for more infrastructural
facilities like play ground, activity halls, audio-visual centres should be added
according to the current demand.
From the analysis of question no. 6 it is obvious that 75 percent
strongly agreed and 15 percent agreed that the school and classroom climate
need to be democratic and free from fear. They feel that the teachers should
make the atmosphere of the class and school such that the child would be
free from fear trauma, and anxiety to attend the classes regularly. But only 10
percent felt that there should be strong disciplinary measures for development
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of concentration and interest in a child towards learning. Minor physical
punishments should be there for only repetitive case of mistakes.
In question no. 7, a majority of the respondents, i.e., 75 percent of the
respondents strongly agreed and 25 percent agreed that reform is highly
necessary in existing examination pattern as (a) the fear complex for
examination should not be there within the students, (b) there would not be
parents anxieties about the performance of their children at elementary level.
There is no negative comment from any of the teacher-educators on this
subject.
A perusal of analysis of question no. 8 is that 80 percent of the
respondents strongly agreed and 20 percent agreed for motivation of the
teachers and development of academic capacity, pre-service and in-service
teacher training are must. The implementation of RTE Act greatly depends on
significant improvement in pre-service and in-service training for the
elementary stage.
In question no. 9, regarding provision of adequate teaching-learning
equipment, 70 percent of the teacher-educators strongly agreed whereas 30
percent agreed with the fact as the provisions of these types of equipments
has been made in the Sarva Shikshya Abhiyan scheme. An emphasis on
these items under RTE Act would add more interest of the children for
learning.
The provision like acquiring minimum qualifications within a period of
five years for untrained teachers is appreciated by majority of the teacher-
educators i.e. 65 percent strongly agreed and 35 percent agreed in question
no. 10. The central govt. will constitute a National Advisory Council consisting
of members having knowledge and practical experience in the field of
elementary education and child development. This would frame a guide lines
for service, pay and allowances. No negative comments are given by any of
the teacher-educators.
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90 percent of the sample respondents strongly agreed, in response to
question no. 11, and 10 agreed for protection of free and compulsory
education. The provisions made for protection of right of children in the RTE
Act, 2009 and both State Commission for Protection of Child Right and
National Commission for Protection of Child Right of the Central Government
monitor the above provisions is strongly supported by the teacher educators.
The redressal of grievances related to right of child is also be done by local
authority within the jurisdiction.
In question no. 12 out of total sample respondents 20 percent strongly
agreed and 60 percent agreed that reasonable opportunity of being heard
before any discipline action be initiated against the defaulting teachers.
Whereas 20 percent disagreed and are of opinion that no such immediate
disciplinary action be initiated immediately for minor mistakes against the
defaulting teachers.
45 percent of the respondents, in question no. 13, strongly agreed for
supporting the school development plan through school management
committee. Whereas 55 percent of the teacher-educators agreed and
advocated for inclusion of technical experts in the field of construction and
maintenance of school infrastructure.
85 percent of the teacher educators are of opinion that the rules for
permission for opining of schools should be made stringent so that no schools
can be established deviating the norms and standards fixed under the RTE
Act, 2009 like provision of toilet, drinking water and construction of pucca
classes. 15 percent of the respondents put their views as agreed to the
statements.
In question 16, regarding the vacancy of teachers, 65 percent of the
respondents strongly agreed. They are of opinion that the schools
established and controlled through funds provided directly or indirectly by the
Government or local authority shall ensure that the vacancy of teachers would
not be exceeded 10 percent of the total strength. 20 percent of the
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respondent agreed with some reservations. Whereas rest 15 percent
disagreed to the abovementioned fact.
In question no. 17, out of total respondents 55 percent strongly agreed
whereas 45 percent strongly agreed that the provisions of giving reasonable
opportunity of being heard before any disciplinary action against the defaulting
teachers. They also appreciated the provisions of redressal for grievances of
teachers on time.
A perusal of analysis of question no. 18 is that 60 percent of the
respondents strongly agreed and 40 percent agreed for motivation of the
teachers and development of academic capacity, pre-service and in-service
teacher training are must. The implementation of RTE Act greatly depends on
significant improvement in pre-service and in-service training for the
elementary stage. The provisions made for teachers training such as in the
State level SCERTs and CTEs, IASEs and in District level DIETs, BRCs,
CRCs provide in the Act will be enough for the orientation of the teacher in the
elementary level from time to time.
85 percent of the respondents in question no. 19 strongly agreed that it
is high time for implementing this Act as there are poor educational results in
recent census report and annual education report of India. 15 percent of the
respondents agreed to the above fact. The NGOs are coming forward to have
helping hand for implementation of this Act in the present scenario.
4.7 Suggestions of teachers towards implementation of Right to
Education Act, 2009
The last objective of the research study was to seek suggestions from
teachers towards implementation of Right to Education Act, 2009.
The nut shell of the suggestions given by the sample teachers are
given as following:
1. Quality of foundations of all educational systems will remain weak until
quality pre-primary education is provided to children in the age group of
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0-6. Therefore, the state shall endeavour to provide early childhood
care and education for all children until they complete the age of six
years. Teaching faculty should be strengthens with professional
training and skills enhancement.
2. All the children, including child labour should be motivated to learn.
3. Only qualified person should be appointed for teaching in every part of
the country. Hence those who are practicing teaching without proper
qualification will be sacked if they dont complete it in a stipulated time.
4. For equitable education proper infrastructure should be provided to
remove economical, social, cultural, linguistic, locational and disability
related barriers.
5. Children with disabilities should be provided extra facilities in
neighbourhood schools and specially trained teachers should be
recruited in every school to provide the right to education for all.
6. Technology and teaching aids should be provided for different
laboratories, libraries and workshops.
7. Adequate facilities for training of teachers and other personnel to meet
the human resource requirement for the implementation of this act
should be created.
8. Provision of financial assistance to local authorities for implementation
of this act in accordance with such formula regarding sharing of costs
of such implementation as the appropriate movement may determine
from time to time.
9. Perception and periodic revision by the competent academic authority
of the curriculum for elementary education and courses of study for
each grade should be followed.
10. To provide sufficient financial assistance to educational institutions,
10% of the development funds should be spent on the school
education and health of the children.
11. For equitable quality education minimum infrastructure, administrative
faculties, financial, curricular, pedagogic, linguistic and socio-cultural
norms should be fulfilled.
12. Special assistance such as ramps, Braille readers, etc. for learning
disabled students should be provided in schools.
65

13. Parents should be educated about need of education in present era
and material should be provided to create awareness among rural
masses.
14. Women is the basis of family education therefore, women or mother
should be educated through adult education.
* * * * * *