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How slums and their negative connotations can be utilised as a positive agent in future urbanisation and in creating resilient

adaptable, mobile, sustainable cities? Introduction This study will investigate the current trends in urbanisation and the resulting effects on the environment. Weaknesses in the current master planning techniques will be identified; in addition the informal city structure will be studied to discover how their structure develops. Architects are intrigued by the complex flexible nature of the informal city and how it functions. The informal city may hold the potential to develop stronger social networks which could enhance the lives of the existing communities and their experience of the city. Population Growth Global population growth is measured through the natural population increase. The natural population increase is the difference between the difference between the death rate and higher birth rate. On the 31st October 2011, United Nations studies showed that the world population had reached the 7 billion mark. Based on these figures and fertility rates the United Nations went on to produce six projections of the potential future populations; the medium (average) scenario would see a continual growth rate before it is estimated to peak at 9.4 billion in 2070 before starting to decline. Whereas the high case scenario, based on continued fertility rates of 2.25 children per woman would create a population of approximately 30 billion people in 2300. It is essential to understand expected growth and the rate of which it is occurring; as to develop a suitable strategy to cope with expected growth. An understanding of these predictions is required an acceleration of population growth could increase the rate of migration, resource depletion and urbanisation.

Source: United Nations Population Division, 2007 Figure 1 shows the global projected human population growth from 1750 - 2050

As the population continues to increase there is a greater demand on resources such as energy, water and housing. (Anderson, 2012) The United Nations estimate that by 2050 food production need to increase by 70% to meet the expected demands of the expanding populations: this issue needs to be resolved and strategies need to be developed to stabilise current consumption rates as based on a study completed by The Guardian (Cavangah, 2012) the global population levels have never exceeded their level of consumption. The current populations trend of consumption habits are causing a detrimental effect on the environment and with an additional 3 billion middle class consumers by 2030: (Anderson, 2012) action needs to be taken in order to reduce current levels of consumption and to develop strategies need to be developed so that an equilibrium can be reached as the city becomes more sustainable. Immigration trends Throughout history the human population has survived on a mainly rural lifestyle dependent on hunting and agriculture. Around 10,000BC some clans began to Alongside this the clans learnt abandon hunting; having learnt how to control and rear animals to increase their numbers, once meat is needed they were killed. they are then harvested. how to prepare soil ready for seeding; once they have been planted and matured This process has taken many years to perfect with the aid of technological advancements (vlibe.ive.it/carrie/reference/worldhistory/sections/03agricu.html) Due to the agricultural revolution and the increased use of machinery, jobs where lossed and people began to move in search of work: as the population grew cities developed. In 1800, the area began to urbanise with 3% of the worlds population lived in the built environment; by 1900 the population growth had exploded leading to almost 14% of the population living in an urban area. At this time only 12 cities had a population of 1 million or more. 2008 marked the first time that the amount of people living in the city and rural environment was equal. (PRB, 2012)

Source: (nordpil, 2012) The worlds map above highlights the distribution of the urban centres and their population densities in 2005.

The move of population was caused by a variety of push and pull factors which encouraged the move towards the city. A push factor is a force that drives people from a place such as a lack of employment, whereas a pull factor is what draws people to city including more employment opportunities, better quality of life. (geography.about.com/od/geographyglossary/g/ggpushpull.html) The continual appeal of the city has continued to encourage migration and by 2015, at least 50 megacities will exist worldwide with at least 23 cities having an estimated population of more than 10 million. (www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2088/12/081219745.htm) Urbanisation Urbanisation is the process by which urban areas increase in size and population density (six sense. 2005) It is the process of a population density concentrating in an urban centre, the process of urbanisation is usually developed with social and economic growth. But the speed at which it is occurring at present is straining the capacity of local and national governments resources as they struggle to provide basic services like water, electricity and sewage; as a result slums are formed. Urbanisation was first present in the More Economically Developed Countries (MEDCs) during the industrial revolution as it was the source of many pull factors that accelerated the shift in population from the rural to urban areas in search of work. Technology aided the growth of the city through the development and improvement of the transport system as it increased accessibility into the city distances, in 1990 the urban surface area increased by 20%, exceeding the population growth which was just 6%. (www.unanpopulaplante.org/en/the-human-footprint/urbanisation-andtransportation.html) suggesting a sprawl like development with the city comprising of low density housing models that cover a greater distance.

Source: (Radberg, 1988) in Gren,2006, 18.Figure 3: Density of different urban blocks in Sweden, highlighting the potential of different built forms In comparison to the slums this suburban development leads to many housing being constructed on the fringe of the city a greater distance from its centre. Continued growth in this way leads to greater social fragmentation and the reduction of natural areas and productive farmland. 95km2 of productive farmland is lost to soil erosion and other forms of land degradation, weekly the area lost is equivalent to the size of New York every week, or a standard football pitch every 7 seconds. (Land Commodities, 2009) Due to the horizontal approach has been adopted for city growth distances between city and the home resulting in a large proportion of this destruction is due to the amount of transport infrastructure required to maintain high accessibility to all areas of the city. Increased use of transport will accelerate the rate that natural resources are depleted for example in India more than 50,000 hectares of croplands are lost each year due to urbanisation. (Davis, 2006) and also the fact that current transport systems are 98% dependent on oil (figure 4) (www.unanpopulaplante.org/en/the-human-footprint/urbanisation-andtransportation.html)
Fuel Reserves Years until depletion Oil 1,386 billion barrels 46.2 Gas 187.1 trillion cubic metres 58.6 Coal 860,938 million tonnes 118 Source: BP with reserves calculated at current prices and technologies

The Informal City Urbanisation is occurring at a faster rate in Less Economically Developed Countries (LEDCs) with more people migrating to urban areas. The International Development Committee noted that Africa is one of the fastest urbanising regions and that by the middle of the century it is expected that Africa will be home to around quarter of the worlds urban population. (Social Structure and Cultural Practices in Slum: A Study of Slums in Dhaka City by Tulshi Kumar Das) In many

LEDCs such as Africa urban population growth is rapidly increasing so much so that it has outpaced the ability of the cities authorities to cater to their needs resulting in a lack of the necessary housing and the environmental health infrastructure. A large proportion of the migrating population in LEDCs had a low income so they could not afford traditional housing. Thus creating the concept that poverty is urbanising and as a result shanty towns/ informal cities are developed. This resulted in the rural migrants to build their own houses in close proximately to the city on land that is free and could be built on. (Davis, 2006) A negative aspect of this is that the migrants swap safety and health for a small area of land that often is no more than a few square metres with some security from eviction, leading to the migrants becoming pioneer settlers of swamps, mountains, chemical dumps, railroad sidings and desert fringes, (Davis, 2006 p. 121)

Source: (Sultana, 2007) These images show the poor living conditions that the migrants settle for, just to get a space within the city.

Continued migration of the rural poor to city consists of a mainly young demographic of adults between the ages of 20 30 year olds who are employed in some short term employment with little job prospects or expectations the workforce is willing to do any form of work. (Social Structure and Cultural Practices in Slum: A Study of Slums in Dhaka City by Tulshi Kumar Das) As the majority of migrants are young, they use their expertise to construct their own homes using scrap materials including scrap wood and metal sheeting. These informal self-built cities continue to attract new migrants because they remain cheap, thus being the only affordable means of accommodation, unlike traditional city planning, slums are still produced, modify and expanded by the inhabitants which has led to its organic form, slums continue to have negative connotations and according to UN-Habitat a slum is defined as a run-down area that is characterised by substandard housing. However slums are considered to be one of the most efficient urban settlements due to their high density as often the population density within the slums is often a minimum of 16 times higher than an average city density, yet the average of size of a slum cluster is approximately 0.37acres suggesting a very compact form of living. (WHERE, 2009) The

compactness of the city has led to little need for motorised transport as everything can be accessed on foot, which has lessened there reliance on oil and as a result of pestrianisation the informal city consists of multiple communities with a strong social network. (Social Structure and Cultural Practices in Slum: A Study of Slums in Dhaka City by Tulshi Kumar Das) Life in a Slum Life within the slums is very sustainable as the high population ensures low costs per capita as everything is provided for the mass on site which enables the creation of more jobs within the informal sector, including casual or unskilled labour or in some case it can be unregistered and illegal work. slums and it is found in Mumbai. (Internet Geography, 2010) This can be expressed in the Case Study of Dharvai which is one of Indias largest Almost 20 percent of Indias GDP comes from Mumbai where at least half of the citys 12 million residents live in slums. 85% of the local slum dwellers have found employment within the informal sector which amounts to approximately one million dollars in turnover per year. (Kevin McCloud, Slumming It) Even though the income is generated within the informal economy the residents are now able to afford more luxury goods and services located outside of their informal neighbourhoods boosting the surrounding economy. which makes the informal city a major asset to the countrys GDP. In sub Saharan Africa 78% per cent of the countries non agricultural employment is in the slum which makes up 42 per cent of the countrys GDP. As the informal sector continues to develop new small scale enterprises will be created; thus increasing employment opportunities, which in total account for a minimum of 90% of the jobs generated in the next decade.(www.unhabitat.org/downloads/docs/Press_SG-visit_Kibera07/SG%2013.pdf) Lack of funds for expensive equipment in the informal city results in more jobs as all aspects of the production process are labour intensive, unlike in the planned city where most aspects are now mechanised. The disadvantages to this are that the informal city has widespread diseases which are a result of a lack of health and safety laws within the work matters. The organic compactness of the informal city creates a balance between the needs of the individual in compact yet well-equipped individual spaces and the needs of the community with multi functional public spaces (African Perspectives Conference 2011, The African Metropolis, Sarah Laisney and Sustainable Development of the Informal City, pg 4) (CNN, 2008) The Informal city generates more employment opportunities with cities in LEDCs

Source: (Sultana, 2007) Images highlight the different uses of space with image one showing washing hanging in a narrow walkway whereas the other shows a small market stall also along a footpath.

However life in the informal sector is hard as represented in the name penned for these sectors: slum is always used as a shorthand term for blighted, dirty, dysfunctional and unacceptable, all are true except for dysfunctional as slums may appear highly chaotic and disorganised but they are highly organised and flexible system that forms a highly defined organic structure. (www.iascblog.com/maa2011-2012-theoryconcepts/2012/01/slums-as-a-model-forfuture-projects) The organic form of the slum network has led to the creation of a maze of alleys and narrow courtyards with a mosaic of different colour and material buildings that are divided into small blocks (www.iaacblog.com/maa20112012-theoryconcepts/2012/01/slums-as-a-model-for-future-projects) suggesting a complex network of forms which are extremely difficult to navigate; impossible by motorised transport leading to all informal cities being pedestrianized. Due to the whole area being pedestrianized there is a strong sense of community as everyone knows each other leading to the creation of a strong social structure that is constantly evolving as traditions are inherited , which creates a sense of a respect and belonging to the area. (Kevin McCloud,Slumming IT) A Model for Change Designers and architects have come to respect the slum phenomenon as architecture in its own right as a creative, dynamic model that is flexible and can be maintained by community initiatives. The informal city is seen as a prime example of Vernacular Architecture. (African Perspectives Conference 2011, The African Metropolis, Sarah Laisney, Design and Sustainable Development of the Informal City, pg 4) Rio de Janerio in Brazil is a case study example of how the government is trying to improve living conditions within the slums. Rio de Janerio is one of Brazils largest urban settlements with a population of approximately 11.7million people; 67 per cent of the population growth is a result of migration. (www.geography.learnontheinternet.co.uk/topics/urbanprobsledus.html) This rapid influx in population has led to millions of people having to construct their own

home on the fringe of the city, Rocinha is the largest favela (slum) in Brazil and it is located on the southern hillside that overlooks the city and is just one kilometre from the beach. This favela is home to between 60,00 and 150,000 migrants (www.unanpourlaplanete.org/en/the-human-foorprint/urbanisation-andtransportation.html) Due to these housing shortages and the need for the migrants to build their own homes, the authorities have produced a series of self-help schemes where the authority provides the local residents with the materials required to construct permanent accommodation including breeze block and cement. As the residents provide the labour and the money saved is used to improve basic amenities like electricity and clean water.

Source: http://www.travel-images.com/photobrazil150.html Image shows brick slums in Rochina.

Source: http://www.architecturestudent.com/sustainable-design/slums-in-citiesproviding-low-cost-housing-to-end-slums/ Images showing traditionally constructed slums in Mumbai.

In comparison to a traditional slum, Rochina currently has a better and more developed infrastructure with most of the housing built from concrete and brick that vary from a few to four stories tall with basic sanitation, plumbing and electricity. Rio de Janeiro is an example of how simple changes can improve living conditions for existing favela residents, which could aid the development of vernacular architecture. Planned Urban Development In the next 40 years a large proportion of population growth will be absorbed by the city, the lack of planning results in the concentrate of poverty. (http://www.7billionactions.org/uploads/browser/files/7b_factsheets_urbanization_v5.p df) Planned Urban Development (PUD) has a critical role in limiting the effects of poverty within the city as it can improve the populations quality of life through the

provision of clean water and sanitation. Currently PUD is used to develop a classification for an area of land that can be zoned and eventually developed into a mixture of residential, non residential and open land. (Business Dictionary, 2012) Spatial planning is key in creating a sustainable development plan at the local level as, if it is utilised correctly the impact of settlements on the environment can be reduced whilst living conditions are improved (www.unhabitat.org/downloads/docs/10691-1-59420.pdf) The aim of a Planned Urban Development strategy is to create efficient and flexible infrastructure services and strategies that are realistic and attainable through consultation between the government and the key stakeholders. Previously issues have arisen at all levels of planning (orientation, master and detailed area) as they are developed by experts who have a clear vision of what their city could become with unlimited resources, yet they possess limited knowledge of the practicalities in how things function within a slum and what is actually attainable. (siteresources.worldbank.org/INTEAPINFRASTRUCT/Resources/Urban.pdf) CASE STUDY: Vietnam The spatial planning of the towns and cities in Vietnam were designed with the intention; that all construction of the master plan was to be carried out by state. The limitations of this are highlighted in the fact that before 2004, 80 per cent of the housing units where constructed by the owner, most of which have little living space with an area of less than 3 metres squared. (siteresources.worldbank.org/INTEAPINFRASTRUCT/Resources/Urban.pdf) highly ineffective. (siteresources.worldbank.org/INTEAPINFRASTRUCT/Resources/Urban.pdf) The increase in self built housing may be a result of the baby boom which occurred after the Vietnam war; resulting in an increase in people that the government was not prepared for. As a result it has been widely acknowledged that the master plans created for Vietnam where

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, International Data Base

The 2005 population pyramid shows that the life expectancy is increasing due to an increase in economy and profits, which has allowed investment in health-care. However the population in Vietnam is expected to grow at a exponential rate; which the government is struggling to cope with. The government continues to fear that another population explosion will strain health and education services by reducing economic growth as currently two thirds of 86 million people living in Vietnam are under the age of 35 the two child policy has been re- introduced. (MacKinnon, 2008) Below is the 2050 population pyramid for Vietnam suggesting that dynamic interventions need to be developed in order to provide enough resources for the expected aging population.

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, International Data Base.

Vietnam is a large scale example of the negative associations with the informal city; the cases study of Vietnam allows some of the issues faced by developing cities when the experience rapid population growth and urbanisation to be identified and understood so that interventions can be developed and applied. Statistics highlight some of issues; in 2002 a survey was conducted of all Vietnams water supply companies which was used to determine the existing water supply coverage, the survey revealed that on average only 50% of the urban residents had access to clean piped water. Further health issues are present as none of the cities or towns in Vietnam have wastewater treatment facilities and with the government classifying fifty urban dump sites as environmental hazards. The contaminations of water and land resources are expected especially as all Vietnams largest cities are known to flood in the rainy season. (Coulthart, Quang and Sharpe, n.d.) Vietnam most fertile soils are found along the river deltas and alluvial plains making this land the most suitable land for agriculture for food production. This has resulted in a spatial association of settlements along the Mekong and Red river Delta; as 75% of Vietnams population is known to live in rural settlements (Change is Vietnam, 2009) the population has moved to these areas due to exploit the potential of fertile soil to increase food production which should create more employment opportunities. This trend is clearly highlighted in the map below which

shows density and distribution of the population. Highlighting the uneven spread of people and how overcrowding may be apparent in the small settlements along the river.

Source: (Change is Vietnam, 2009) As a result of this flooding

may also be prominent as the largest cities of Hanoi,

HCMC and Haiphong are located river deltas. (Change is Vietnam, 2009) Especially as they continue to develop along the river bed as Vietnam is known to transform 10,000 hectares of prime agricultural land to urban every year. (Coulthart, Quang and Sharpe, n.d.) Flooding and continued expansion has the potential to cause resource depletion. Nevertheless the rivers make up a large proportion of their economy and due to the close proximity to the river little energy is required to transport produce as most of the food grown is transported and sold on boats along the river as shown in the image below.

Source: (Change is Vietnam, 2009) A floating market; selling local produce on the Mekong River.

Issues of Master planning In order to plan for future growth in a more sustainable manner: master

plans need to become more effective through the incorporation of phased work stages as it will generate a more flexible structure that can be implemented in co ordination with social economic plans. Inflexibility is one of the main weaknesses of master planning as they lack the ability to accommodate changes to population growth etc. at the rate required. The plans should be more realistic in terms of resource availability and how this can impact the implementation of a strategy. In comparison the spontaneity of slum developments allows them to become more flexible, modelled on planned cities and towns with all the amenities that are deemed the norm for example paths are widened in selected areas to serve ass good can be bought or traded. (Woods, 2001) As slum structures are built on a local level by the individual/community involved; it gives them a more adaptive form developed through immediate responses to immediate space issues. Resulting in spaces being altered as required which creates a complex spatial cityscape woven together with a labyrinth off footpaths. Vietnam has begun a process of decentralisation with the aim of creating more local strategies to generate more flexible plans that can be adapted for the community involved. Currently planning issues within Vietnam are dealt with through the four levels of government which maintain its 64 provinces that have populations ranging from 6 million to 0.3 million. The size and scale of some of places in Vietnam is emphasised by the fact that five of the countrys largest cities Hanoi, Ho Chi Minch City, Hai Phong, Danang and Can Tho where awarded provincial status. All 64 provinces have been subdivided into 643 districts which are made up of a total 10,602 communities. (Coulthart, Quang and Sharpe, n.d.) Each layer of decentralisation process has been allocated an individual government allowing all decisions to be made at the relevant scale; this has created the opportunities for a

large variety of tasks to be performed at the local scale including the use and allocation of resources. Decentralisation of Vietnam will provide immediate benefits The District People Committee brings the decision Due to the to communities as decisions will be made immediately allowing the governments to respond faster to change. making to those who will be affected by the change; allowing appropriate resources to be delivered, which in turn will delivers a more sustainable solution. success of decentralisation; the total expenditure of local governments has almost doubled in ten years. Vietnam has become one of the decentralised countries (Coulthart, Quang and Sharpe, n.d.) Urban Sprawl Sprawl is defined as the slow decentralisation of human occupancy (Cornell University, 2006) through the development of low density housing developments that spread out from the town centres; this type of development is known as suburbia. (International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, 2008) In comparison to the informal city these types of developments lack local facilities which have social, economic, political and environmental repocushions due to the dependency on motorised transport and the consumption of fossil fuels and the fragmentation of the cityscape which eats up valuable agricultural land and habitats whilst destroying any sense of community identity. (International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, 2008) Until the nineteenth century the growth of the city was generally limited with more localised amenities and employment opportunities. further away from the workplace. As the transport system developed it gave people the option of escaping the city as they could now live Suburban growth has accelerated by the mass production of motorcars and residential homes and the availability of cheap fuel and mortgages fuelled the cultural desire to own a home of their own which led to households to abandon the city and move up and out to greener pastures. (International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, 2008) the image below: This effect is shown in

Source: (GeogOnline, 2009)

Quebec is a prime case study of urban sprawl as between the period of 1971 and 2001 the urban area grew by 248% whereas the population grew by a mere 42& in comparison. (sagacitymovie.org/category/planned-urbanization/) Horizontalisation of the city has continued at the expense of the environment and agriculture as in an eight year period 7594 hectares of agricultural land was urbanised. Yet thousands of hectares of non agricultural land sat empty available for urbanisation. (sagacitymovie.org/category/planned-urbanization/) Suggesting if future developments where planned more carefully spaces within the city may be used more efficiently and land can be zoned and developed depending on suitability for either agriculture or settlement. This may limit the environmental impacts of sprawling urbanisation including fragmentation of land and its communities. Slum dwellers have a strong social structure as all communities have a strong neighbourhood identity because their city is walkable, not only does it cut down on emissions but allows residents to become familiar with their neighbours by chance encounters, some cities especially in South America have little opportunities for such encounters. Due to how some housing estates are designed with no footpaths or pavements along roads, which makes it impossible for people to travel around on foot. (International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, 2008) Dubai has a reputation for being extremely difficult to navigate on foot, with only eleven footbridges a simple journey across the road can result in a ten minute car ride down six lane motorways, complete with frequently lethal U-turns, simply to get across the street. (Global Culture, 2008) Increased transport infrastructure and the dependency on motorised transport is a symptom of current urban development, as

the urban perimeter continues to expand from the city centre; travelling distances are increased alongside congestion, air pollution and respiratory diseases. The Slum Phenomenon Slums are a result of rapid urban growth, they are generally located on the fringe of the city, they are constructed as a result of rapid population growth and they are often located close to employment opportunities. (Davis, 2006) Due to the limited space available the individual self-constructed structures are small and compact yet as multiple structures and the tight knit communities within them evolve; which enables the growth of shanty towns to continue, eventually merging into continued belts of shanty towns, forming what is known as Mega slums. (Davis, 2006) Informal settlements are the fastest growing segment of the urban population with the expected amount of people living in slums by 2050; estimated to be in the region of 3 billion, this equates to one in three of the worlds citizens. (New Towns for the 21st Century, The Planned vs. The Unplanned City, International Town Institute pg. 13) The slum phenomenon represents a form of proto planning that enables the inhabitants the option to modify and expand their own home as required, due to the lack of restrictions and laws within the informal city new ideas can be tried and tested which has led to innovative use of space. compactness of the city has many advantages through the use of vertical built forms to maximise space on the ground. The high density and flexible organic nature of the informal city is an example of the how it has the potential to form a highly sustainable model for future growth; as each dweller consumes less land, less water and generates less waste and pollution than areas of lower densities (Brand, 2010) Vernacular Architecture The informal city is one of the prime examples of Vernacular Architecture, which is defined as informal architecture or architecture without architects, the structures usually characterised by their simple design and use of locally sourced materials. (Farex, 2012) Similar together architecture it has a distinctive aesthetic and in the case of the slums each cluster represents local conditions and materials. Slum developments fill a necessary gap within the architecture field (Maat, 2012) as the residents have an accurate knowledge of local construction methods, these skills need to be maintained and perfected as can be used in future development programs. 90% of the worlds architecture is considered to be vernacular (Arboleda, 2006) suggesting that these skills can become invaluable. Especially since vernacular architecture is considered to be the future for sensitive development schemes that provide for the low ethnic minorities (Arboleda, 2006) by using their traditional The

architectural skills and materials.

These types of architecture are considered to be

more socially and environmentally beneficial. (Arboleda, 2006) Case Study: Dharavi Dharavi in India is prime case study of how one piece of land can serve as a workshop for multiple industries that make a huge contribution to Indias GDP as with 60,000 structures it is known to generate an annual economic output is estimated to be between $600 million to $1 billion. (The New York Times, 2011) This GDP is achieved through efficient use of space; for example in one building it is known that carpenters are assembling furniture on the ground floor. crouched over sewing machines making blouses. are fashioning mens suits and wedding apparel. businesses. (The New York Times, 2011) Urban planners could learn from slum dwellers ingenious use of both indoor and outdoor space to maximise social and economic sustainability; these model enterprises require investment from the government to improve sanitation and the necessary equipment to complete tasks without detrimental effects to the employees health. These multi-functional aspects of the slum are one of the assets to be used in Planned Urban Development; especially in the form of green infrastructure which currently being developed to improve social and ecological connectivity with the aim of improving sustainability and improve the populations wellbeing. (http://usheffield.academia.edu/IanMell/Papers/997530/GREEN_INFRASTRUCTURE__INNOVATIVE_LANDSCAPE_PLANNING_FOR_MULTI-FUNCTIONAL_ENVIRONMENTS Green Infrastructure-Innovative Landscape Planning for Multi-functional Environments? Ian C. Mell and Maggie Roe, Fabos Landscape Planning and Greenways Symposium, March 31st 2007, Amherst-Massachusetts) The use of green infrastructure and multifunctional spaces will increase connectivity within the city through decreasing landscape fragmentation; as a result more sustainable spaces will develop. One floor up, men are busily cutting and stitching jeans. Upstairs from them, workers are And at the top still more workers One crumbling shanty. Four

Source: (asla, 2009) The image above highlights how green infrastructure can be integrated into the urban framework. Green infrastructure is a concept for a multifunctional cityscape that provides a framework two levels of change. The first aspect is how they perform on an ecological level as it has the potential to connect park and wildlife systems and secondly on a urban level as increased green infrastructure will reduce energy consumption and water run-off. (asla, 2009) Slum Upgrading Education of authorities is required to gain a better understanding of how informal city works, to allow for the allocation of safe land that is suitable for settlement by the poor migrants, once this is achieved and the population feel secure in their right to inhabit this land, the residents will start to invest in the area themselves which will lead to gradual upgrading. (The Cities Alliance, 2012) Slum upgrading is a movement to improve all basic living conditions for the residents within the informal city; this generally includes gradual steps to improve existing economic, social and institutional services including citizenship; everything that is available to the residents of the planned city. Slum upgrading is essential for future urban development; as they continue to grow rapidly other issues such like poverty to continue to exist which slows all city development. (The World Bank Group, 2000) These services provide the slum dwellers with land tenure, infrastructure, and social services. More action is required than the obvious need for water and drainage facilities (The Cities Alliance, 2012) Education and health services are a priority, as many of these residents will become the future workforce and tax payers. Upgrading may be more successful then slum clearance and relocation of the population as it has been noted that some residents were allocated land or a home elsewhere which they sold and then have moved back to their previous dwelling within the slums. (Planet of Slums, Mike Davis, First published by Verso, 2006, Verso, London, and Chapter 2: The Prevalence of Slums, pg. 74) This may be caused through the disruption of the social and economic structure if people are moved to far from their original dwelling. These reasons need to be fully understood; in order to discover how slums work and what the best strategy of relocation could be. Upgrading and the prevention of new slum formation are key for the development of future sustainable cities because if slum conditions are allowed to deteriorate or if the population explodes crime and disease may impact the whole city. (The Cities Alliance, 2012)

Source: http://freepages.family.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~thecohens/feldbergdna.html

The informal cities where built due to rapid growth of population within the city as people searched for a better way of life. The fact that the population now wish to remain in the informal city suggests that a greater understanding of why this is, can be used as a tool to maintain migration rates are sustainable level. Slum upgrading will improve how these informal cities develop now, which in the future may become a solution for arising issues in the planned city. Upgrading will create a new image for the slum and as a result it will release a whole range of skills that can be utilised within the planned city to further economic development and enhance local productivity. Careful planning of how As a result the quality slums are to be upgraded will help the government to understand and address underlying city issues caused by uncontrolled urbanisation. secure. (The Cities Alliance, 2012) of life will be improved through provision of permanent shelter that is safe and

Source: (SLUM LAB, 2008) Expansible Units concept is an example of how slums can be upgraded.

In order for the upgrading to be successful and implemented on site, the strategies must be affordable, flexible and viable it is essential that the population of the informal city understands why these changes are important and that the strategies will benefit the community. Community participation is one of the main aspects of slum upgrading and it can be established in conjunction with other initiatives such as, the preservation of historic areas, traditions, health, education and a solution to poverty to become more successful. Conclusion Urban Heat Island Rapid urbanisation has led to many issues including the un planned city layouts like slums: these developments have consumed prime retail land, thus limiting future planned growth. (Gultzar, 2011) The continued consumption of land informally has led to an overdeveloped urban mass with little or no green space. The lack of green space within the urban mass has created the phenomenon known as the Urban Heat Island.

Source: (censam, 2008) Image shows the effect of the urban heat island on the night temperature.

The Urban Heat Island is a product of Urbanisation; the effect is enhanced when large proportions of surfaces like concrete and asphalt are installed. The properties of dark surfaces have an adverse effect on the surrounding environment, as they can efficiently absorb heat from the sun which is then reradiated through thermal infrared radiation which results in the surface being 50 70 degrees Fahrenheit hotter than the surrounding area. (www.cdc.gov/healthyplaces/articles/urban_sprawl_and_Public_Health_PHR.pdf - Urban Sprawl and Public Health, Howard Frumkin, MD, Dr, PH, Public Health Reports/ May June 2002/Volume 117) This is may become an issue as Urban Heat Islands are known to contribute to climate change and the greenhouse effect which contributes

to global warming. These effects are enhanced during hot days as increase is known to have the most negative effects on poor ventilated buildings and areas with little thermal isolation. These promote living conditions are prominent within the informal city, the extreme thermal discomfort is known to increase the risks of heat related illness including: heatstroke, exhaustion, syncope and cramps. (Urban Heat islands, 2011) Large areas of undisturbed urban environment lead to an increased opportunity for direct exposure to sun light, which is known to enhance this effiency. has proven efficient at lowering the temperatures that are re-radiated, in comparison to other inanimate objects that have the same colour. (Shashua-Bar and Hoffman, 2000) Investment in vegetation especially trees will be beneficial for the urban environment as they provide invaluable shade preventing up to 30% of the sun energy from reaching the surface below. (Climate Protection Partnership Division, n.d. p2) As a result the maximum temperature can be reduced by 45 degrees Farinheight. (Climate Protection Partnership Division, n.d. p2) and they have the ability to cool the air through evapotranspiration. Additionally integration of vegetation in the built form can help improve air quality through the reduction of CO2 by photosynthesis. www.cdc.gov/healthyplaces/articles/urban_sprawl_and_Public_Health_PHR.pdf - Urban Sprawl and Public Health, Howard Frumkin, MD, Dr, PH, Public Health Reports/ May June 2002/Volume 117). The use of green infrastructure within the slum could improve current slum conditions caused by the Urban Heat Island for example the implementation of green roofs or walls could benefit the residents through the process of evapotranspiration (shown below) which will cool the air. Vegetation

Source: Climate Protection Partnership Division, n.d.p3.

Green walls have proven effective at reducing solar heating especially on a south and west facing wall and are known to reduce daily fluctuations in temperature by 50%. (livingroofs.org, 2012)

Multifunctional Space The Informal Unplanned City is known to have positive and negative associations which have the potential to be modified and replicated to increase sustainability of the planned city. Kowloons Walled City was known as a dense labyrinth of high-rise self-built structures up to 16 stories high and covering an area of just 6.5 acres. The total population was 33,000 leading to Kowloons Walled being one of the most densely populated places in the world. (Urban Photo, 2011) The entire city was built by the residents; due to the lack of master planning the dense high form of the city led to tall dark narrow passages with unplanned staircases and bridges as the form of access available.

Source: (Urban Photo, 2011) Kowloons Walled City

The city was known as an intense hive of human activity, as multiple businesses where found within one structure; for example factories may exist in one room which is built next to a residential home that is followed by a restaurant. (Urban Photo, 2011) Typical slum conditions existed on the ground with piles of rubbish and hazardous waste, led many of the residents to escape the squalor by socialising on the rooftops amongst the freshest air (Urban Photo, 2011) suggesting that these spaces have the potential to continue the multi-functional design approach through the creation of green recreation spaces which would provide spaces to relax and socialise with the additional environmental benefits.

Source: (Urban Photo, 2011) the rooftops of Kowloons Walled City which have potential for future green spaces.

Source:

(Homa Therapy, 2009) Future visualisation of high rise recreational green spaces.

Due to the high level of waste in the unplanned cities with investment in this negative aspect could be redeveloped as a potential source of renewable energy.

Source: (Inhabitat, 2009) Cairo Garbage City

Source: (Inhabitat, 2009) Cairo Garbage City

A prime example of this potential is explored in Mekano Architects concept design for Cairo Garbage City. The concept was a response to the current living conditions of Zabbleen which was once a recycling centre, the design intention was to improve the sites living conditions whilst maintaining its core economy of recycling. potential for energy production in the form of methane production. The prefabricated homes where stacked on multi-functional pole stilts which were designed to act as conduits for biogas, water and electricity; in addition to the fact that they were designed to act like wind stalks in order to harvest the wind that The resulting design was a layered city that stood above the ground whilst utilising its

can be utilised within the settlements.

Finally all non-organic waste is to be

recycled as building components; in a similar way to how slums are built.

Source: (Green Prophet, 2011) Images of Mekano Architects Cairo Garbage City

This concept highlights some aspects that need to be considered in any future development such as how to deal with waste. Recycling is core part of what make the slum sustainable with all structures are made from recycled materials. On site waste utilisation either through biofuel, compost or recycling is essential as in 2011 23.5 million tonnes of waste was sent to landfill. (defra, 2012) This concept utilises the potential of the negatives; through a productive resource which is similar to how a slum is developed with everything having a function. Green Walls Future developments have the potential for multifunctional aspects to be built into them; an example of this is green walls and roofs. Green Walls have the potential to reduce the urban heat island effect. Traditionally Hedra is one of the most commonly used species for wall climbers and under the right conditions the vegetation can be used to generate a self-regenerating cladding system which can reach heights of 25 metres; through the use of sufficient irrigation greater heights can be achieved. (livingroofs.org, 2012) Aesthetically the softer green surfaces break up a mass of bleak urban surfaces, as a result additional greenery is known to improve the publics perception of the city.

As the slums occur mostly in tropical and sub-tropical zones a different planting palette is required; this provides the opportunity for a more dynamic possibly productive finish. Simple additions of a wooden trellis can provide the opportunity to grow fruit on vines including Kiwis, Grapes and Passion Fruit which could enhance the economy of a local slum. (MaCabe, 2010) Careful selection of vines can improve biodiversity as varieties with flowers and fruit can serve as a nectar source for insects and food for birds. (livingroofs.org, 2012) Additionally climbers are very effective at trapping dust, thus reducing air pollution. Studies have shown that the concentration of lead and cadmium where the highest in the dead leaves and wood; having stored the pollutants the metals and dispatching of them with minimal environmental impact. (livingroofs.org, 2012) There effectiveness of climbers will contribute to the reduction of air pollution, energy consumption, water run-off and improving biodiversity within the future cities. Green walls should be seen as an asset for future slum upgrading because they are designed to maximise the productivity of a vertical space whilst consuming little horizontal space making green walls especially suitable for the informal city. As more than 90% of construction in the informal city is done by the residents (www.policyinnovations.org/ideas/innovations/data/000161) as green walls would be a viable option for the informal city as with some education green walls can be planted and maintained by the residents. CASE STUDY: Puente Piedra Pitagoras school is one of the poorest schools in the Lomas de Zappalli community which has a population of 27,000 a small part of the mega-slum which has 1.5 million inhabitants. (University of Washington, 2012) As part of an Exploration Seminar with the University of Washington worked with the community to develop a number of designs for the 600 square metre park that connects both the upper and lower sections of the school, which has now become a ecological learning landscape with all vegetation labelled for reference. (University of Washington, 2012 The park was constructed over a two week period by the community. An estimated 200 plants ranging from geraniums to African tulip trees Additionally a grey water irrigation were planted. (University of Washington, 2012)

system was developed and installed alongside a program for further collaboration with the Slum Dwellers International to aid future Slum Upgrading (University of Washington, 2012)

Source: (University of Washington, 2012) Before:

Source: (University of Washington, 2012) After:

The informal city is known to be constructed and developed by its residents through a bottom up approach to urbanisation, in many cases this has led to the creation of a self-sufficient city. Construction materials are often scrap pieces of wood and metal sheeting; as migrants come to the city with nothing they are often very entrepreneurial as they continue to strive to better themselves by making the most of the assets available. (www.ft.com/cms/S/0/92994d10-f854-11e0-a41900144feab49ahtml#axzzlx6DEEfa0) As a result an organic, flexible city structure is developed which has a strong cultural heritage maintained by the presence of older generations that generates a strong community and social network. CASE STUDY: Rural Studio The rural studio was created to provide students with first-hand experience of designing and constructing buildings in a rural setting that are more appropriate response. This is due to the students living on site within the community which will enable them to gain an understanding; this should allow them to develop a more suitable response based on what is viable on site with the locals skills and materials, without the contradictions and opinions generated in an academic setting. (designboom, 2010) The project was developed as a form of context-based learning, which was created with the aim of improving living conditions in rural Alabama. (designboom, 2010) Some of their projects include:

Source:

(designboom, 2010) Hale

Source:

(designboom, 2010) Perry Lakes

County Animal Shelter

Park Project Bridge

Both examples are result of a flexible organic design approach, simple to the approach adopted by the slum dwellers that develop the Informal City. CASE STUDY: Metro Cable In comparison to how the planned city has developed with its intensive transportation network which has caused fragmentation of the city and its communities. The adverse effects of the transport network has been recognised by the Urban Think Tank when they developed the Metro Cable Car system in Caracas, the project was developed through observation and conferences over a three year period. The aim of the project was to treat a public transport system for the slum As the half an walk to the top of Barria community without destroying any homes or communities in the process of constructing the necessary infrastructure. la Cruz hill is the equivalent to the height of a 39 storey building, the journey consists of a dangerous 1000 stepped incline with spontaneous curves that wind their way up the hill. (www.policyinnovations.org/ideas/innovations.data/00161) Metro Cable is a cable-car system that was designed to integrate the slum communities to the subway lines in Caracas. The sensitive nature of the development causes minimal disturbance on site whilst maximising accessibility: this form of approach should be adopted in future slum upgrading. Urban Farming Urban farming could become a viable solution for the future of food production as the shortage of agricultural land becomes more prominent with currently over 800 million hectares committed to agriculture which equates to about 38% of the earths total landmass. In the next 50 years based on current (Despommier, n.d.) Community agricultural techniques it is expected that an additional 109 hectares (the size of Brazil) is required to feed the expected population. led urban farms within todays planned cities would increase social interaction and The

improve respect for an area through an increase in social connections. centres which are commonly known as Vertical Farms. agricultural land on every the

The

concept of an urban farm has been explored in the form of food production Tall buildings made with level will enhance productively immediately by increasing

land available, as well as the climate conditions as they can be monitored and Production on site with city would significantly reduce reliance on

adapted eliminating the risk of severe weather conditions such as flooding or drought. imported goods which in turn will reduce energy use and emissions. A long-term benefit of vertical farming is that gradually the earths natural ecosystems which have been damaged by intensive agriculture will begin to repair themselves. (Despommier, n.d.) Further benefits could be benefited from the structure itself These systems could through water collection and recycling, all other waste has the potential to be recycled on site and utilised within the city energy network. consist of utilising animal waste for methane collection, leaf litter for composting and where applicable algae can be used for harvesting; all of which are sustainable energy sources. CASE STUDY: inFARMal network The sustainability of the slums is achieved through their access to local amenities, as everything is located within walking distance. Zarachary Aders explored this idea through his concept of an Urban Farm which he designed as an additional layer to an existing informal city. options. In order to determine the arrangement of the agricultural layer Aders studied exiting slums to discover possible siting In order to develop an appropriate framework he studied the existing A key aspect of his approach was urban density and the topography of the land.

that it could be constructed from the existing housing structures; this would be achieved by pouring additional concrete around exiting or cleared housing footings. The sensitive nature of Aders approach was built on the foundations of existing structures; which allows it to form pre-determined networks which were unintentionally designed by the residents. The organic nature of the farm allows it to wind its way around existing houses with minimal intervention, but achieving maximum impact. (slumlab, 2008) Aders worked the concept on a new layer elevated above the ground to maximise productivity and to generate potential to improve energy and drainage within the slum.

Source: (slumlab, 2008)

Images illustrating concept

A raised farm will minimise impact on the ground as it would not interfere with the existing dynamic economy and finally by raising the farm it disconnected the productive space from the ground and its diseases improving food security. (slumlab, 2008)

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