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MANUFACTURING PROCESS OF TURBO GENERATORS

"In the field of observation, chance favors only the prepared mind."

MANUFACTURING PROCESS OF TURBO GENERATORS


A Mini Project Work Submitted in partial fulfillment of the Requirements for the award of degree of BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
In

ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING


By

K.GOPI KRISHNA (07401A0218) B.NAVEEN KUMAR REDDY (07401A0204) CH.GRACY VIMALA (07401A0212) B.SHRAVANA SWAROOP (07401A0205) Under the guidance of

Ms. PARVATHI
Assistant Professor

Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engineering DVR COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY
KASHIPUR (VILL), SANGAREDDY (M), MEDAK (D).

2010
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We take this opportunity to record our gratitude to all those who helped us in successful completion of the project. We take immense pleasure in thanking Prof. V. LAKSHMIPATHY garu, Principal of our college and Prof. A. SUNDARAM garu, Head of the department for having permitted us to carry out this project. We wish to express our deep sense of gratitude to our Internal Guide Ms. PARVATHI for her able guidance and useful suggestions, which helped us in completing the project work in time. We immensely be grateful to Sri. B. PRASADA RAO garu, CEO (chief executive officer) of BHARAT HEAVY ELECTRICALS LIMITED for giving us permission for undergoing study project training in their company. We wish to thank Smt. B.K. SARALA ANAND garu, HRD-MANAGER, BHEL for allotting us this project. We also wish to thank Sri. V.RANGA RAO garu, Dy.Manager, EM (Production), BHEL for his time to time needed valuable guidance. Finally, we wish to express our profound thanks to all the employees, in charges and workmen without whose support, completion of this project would have been impossible.

ABSTRACT

BHEL is the largest engineering and manufacturing enterprise in India in the energy related infrastructure sector today which manufactures turbo generators (2-pole and 4-pole) ranging up to 150 MHz. The manufacturing process of turbo generator is mainly divided into stator section and rotor section where stator frame, stator core, stator windings, end covers are received from the stator building section and rotor with rotor windings and rotor retaining rings is received from rotor section and assembled at the assembly section. Each and every process is carried out in a sequential process. Turbo generators are designed with the Closed circuit air cooling with water or air coolers mounted in the pit. The layout of the manufacturing plant is such that it is well streamlined to enable smooth material flow from the raw material stages to finished goods. The raw material that are produced for manufacture are used only after thorough material testing in the testing lab and with strict quality checks at various stages of productions. Latest technologies like vacuum press impregnated micalastic high voltage insulation, polyester fleece tape impregnation for outer corona protection are implemented to produce high quality insulation for turbines, outstanding performance and long lasting lifetime.

INDEX Chapter 1.1-2 ABOUT THE COMPANY: BHARAT HEAVY ELECTRICALS LIMITED. Chapter 2.3-4 2. Introduction 2.2 History of Turbo Generators 2.3 Principle of operation 2.4 Synchronous generators classification based on the medium used for generation 2.5 Components of Turbo Generator 2.5.1 Stator 2.5.2 Insulation 2.5.3 Rotor Chapter 3..5-14 3. Stator 3.1 Stator frame 3.2 Stator core 3.2.1 The purpose of stator core 3.3 Preparation of laminations 3.3.1 Compounding operation 3.3.2 Blanking & notching operation 3.4 The different operation in manufacturing of laminations 3.4.1 Deburring operation

3.4.2 Varnishing 3.5 Assembly of core 3.6 Stator windings 3.6.1 Slot discharges 3.6.2 Manufacture of stator coils 3.6.3 Process of taping 3.7 Stator end covers 3.7.1 Phase connectors 3.7.2 RTDs Chapter 4.14-15 4. Assemble of windings 4.1 Winding holder assembly 4.1.1 Assembly of HG rings 4.1.2 Identification of RTD slots 4.2 Bottom bars Laying 4.2.1 Pressing of bottom bars 4.2.2 Inter layer inserts & RTDs assembler 4.2.3 Stiffner assembler 4.3 Top bars laying 4.3.1 Pressing of top bars 4.4 Connecting rings assembly Chapter 5..16-17 5. Insulation system

5.1 BHEL insulation system for Turbo Generators 5.2 BITUMEN system & life extension 5.3 Various insulation system & practices Chapter 6.18-22 6. VPI system 6.1 Introduction to VPI system 6.2 Features and benefits 6.3 VPI of resin poor insulated jobs 6.4 Process of VPI 1. General 2. Preheating 3. Impregnation 4. Post curing 5. Electrical testing Chapter 7..23-27 7. Rotor 7.1 Rotor shaft 7.2 Rotor winding 7.2.1 Construction 7.2.2 Conductor material 7.2.3 Insulation 7.2.4 Rotor slot wedges 7.3 Rotor Retaining rings

7.4 Rotor fans Chapter 8& 9.28-29 8. Bearings 9. Ventilation & Cooling Excitation system Chapter 10.30-33 Testing 10.1 Testing of Turbo Generator 10.1 Routine tests on Turbo Generator 10.1.1 Short circuit test 10.1.2 Open circuit test 10.2 Measure of shaft voltage 10.3 Checking of phase sequence 10.5 Before HV test 10.6 HV test 10.7 Measurement of DC resistance of stator & rotor Chapter 11.34 Conclusion and Future scope REFERENCES.35

ABOUT THE COMPANY: BHARAT HEAVY ELECTRICALS LIMITED

CHAPTER 1

ABOUT THE COMPANY: BHARAT HEAVY ELECTRICALS LIMITED


Bharat Heavy Electrical Limited (BHEL) is today the largest engineering Enterprise of India with an excellent track record of performance. Its first plant was set up at Bhopal in 1956 under technical collaboration with M/s. AEI, UK followed by three more major plants at Haridwar, Hyderabad and Tiruchirapalli with Russian and Czechoslovak assistance. These plants have been at the core of BHELs efforts to grow and Diversify and become Indias leading engineering company. The company now has 14 manufacturing divisions, 8 service centers and 4 power sector regional centers, besides project sites spread all over India and abroad and also regional operations divisions in various state capitals in India for providing quick service to customers.BHEL manufactures over 180 products and meets the needs of core sectors like power, industry, transmission, transportation (including railways), defense, telecommunications, oil business, etc. Products of BHEL make have established an enviable reputation for high quality and reliability. BHEL has installed equipment for over 62,000 MW of power generation for Utilities, Captive and Industrial users. Supplied 2,00,000 MVA transformer capacity and sustained equipment operating in Transmission & Distribution network up to 400kV AC & DC, Supplied over 25,000 Motors with Drive Control System Power projects. Petrochemicals, Refineries, Steel, Aluminum, Fertilizer, Cement plants etc., supplied Traction electric and AC/DC Locos to power over 12,000 Km Railway network. Supplied over one million Valves to Power Plants and other Industries. This is due to the emphasis placed all along on designing, engineering and manufacturing to international standards by acquiring and assimilating some of the best technologies in the world from leading companies in USA, Europe and Japan, together with technologies from its-own R & D centers. BHEL has acquired ISO 9000 certification for its operations and has also adopted the concepts of Total Quality Management (TQM). BHEL presently has manufactured Turbo-Generators of ratings up to 560 MW and is in the process of going up to 660 MW. It has also the capability to take up the manufacture of ratings unto 1000 MW suitable for thermal power generation; gas based and combined cycle power generation as-well-as for 13 diverse industrial applications like Paper, Sugar, Cement, Petrochemical, Fertilizers, Rayon Industries, etc. The Turbo generator is a product of high-class workmanship and quality. Adherence to stringent quality-checks at each stage has helped BHEL to secure prestigious global orders in the recent past from Malaysia, Malta, Cyprus, Oman, Iraq, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Saudi Arabia. The successful completion of the various export projects in a record time is a testimony of BHELs performance. Bharat Heavy Electrical Limited (BHEL) is, today, a name to reckon with in the industrial world. It is the largest engineering and manufacturing enterprises of its kind in India and is one of the leading international companies in the power field.

BHEL offers over 180 products and provides systems and services to meet the needs of

core sections like: power, transmission, industry, transportation, oil & gas, nonconventional energy sources and telecommunication. A wide-spread network of 14 manufacturing divisions, 8 service centers and 4 regional offices besides a large number of project sites spread all over India and abroad, enables BHEL to be close to its customers and cater to their specialized needs with total solutions-efficiently and economically. An ISO 9000 certification has given the company international recognition for its commitment towards quality. With an export presence in more than 50 countries BHEL is truly Indias industrial ambassador to the world. BHEL Hyderabad units manufacture includes the following. Gas turbines Steam turbines Compressors
Turbo generators Heat Exchangers

Pumps
Pulverizers

Switch Gears Oil rigs

BHEL Hyderabad is the only one in Asia that has the latest type of insulation system called the Vacuum Pressure Impregnation System.

INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER 2

2. INTRODUCTION: 2.1 TURBO GENERATOR


A turbo generator is a turbine directly connected to electrical generator for the generation of electric power. An electrical generator is a machine which converts mechanical energy to electrical energy.

2.2 HISTORY OF TURBO GENERATORS:


Generators are based on the theory of electromagnetic induction, which was discovered by Michael Faraday in 1831, a British Scientist. Faraday discovered that if an electric conductor, like a copper wire, is moved through a magnetic field, electrical current will flow(be induced) in the conductor. So the mechanical energy of the moving wire is converted into the electric energy of the current that flows in the wire.

2.3 PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION:


Turbo generator or A.C. generators or alternators operates on the fundamental Principles of FARADAYS LAWS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION. In them the standard construction consists of armature winding mounted on stationary element called stator and field windings on rotating element called rotor. The stator consists of a cast-iron frame, which supports the armature core, having slots on its inner periphery for housing the armature conductors. The rotor is like a flywheel having alternating north and south poles fixed to its outer rim. The magnetic poles are excited with the help of an exciter mounted on the shaft of alternator itself. Because the field magnets are rotating the current is supplied through two slip rings. As magnetic poles are alternately N and S, they induce an e.m.f and hence current in armature conductors. The frequency of e.m.f depends upon the no. of N and S poles moving past a conductor in 1 second and whose direction is given by Fleming s right hand rule.

2.4 SYNCHRONOUS GENERATORS CLASSIFICATION BASED ON THE MEDIUM USED FOR GENERATION:
Turbo generators in Thermal, nuclear, Gas station High speed 3000 rpm Min poles 2 poles Horizontal construction Cylindrical rotor Hydro generators in hydel plants low speed 1000 to 500 rpm more poles 6 or more

vertical construction salient rotor

2.5 COMPONENTS OF TURBO GENERATOR: 2.5.1 STATOR


Stator Frame Stator Core Stator Windings End Covers

2.5.2 INSULATION 2.5.3 ROTOR


Rotor Shaft Rotor Windings Rotor Retaining Rings

The following auxiliaries are required for operation: Bearings Cooling System Oil Supply System Excitation System

STATOR

CHAPTER 3

3. STATOR 3.1 STATOR FRAME:


The stator frame is of welded steel single piece construction. It supports the laminated core and winding. It has radial and axial ribs having adequate strength and rigidity to minimize core vibrations and suitably designed to ensure efficient cooling. Guide bars are welded or bolted inside the stator frame over which the core is assembled. Footings are provided to support the stator foundation.

Fig: stator frame 3.2 STATOR CORE:The stator core is stacked from the insulated electrical sheet steel lamination and mounted in supporting rings over the insulated dovetail guide bars. In order to minimize eddy current losses core is made of thin laminations. Each lamination layer is made of individual sections. The ventilation ducts are imposed so as to distribute the gas accurately over the core and in particularly to give adequate support to the teeth. The main features of core are 1. To provide mechanical support. 2. To carry efficiently electric, magnetic flux. 3. To ensure the perfect link between the core and rotor.

Fig: stator core

3.2.1 THE PURPOSE OF STATOR CORE


To support the stator winding To carry the electromagnetic flux generated by rotor winding. So selection of material for building up of core plays a vital role. The losses in the core are of two types. Hysterysis Loss: Due to the residual magnetism in the core material. Hysterysis loss is given by Wh max 1.6 Eddy Current Loss: Due to the e.m.f induced in the core of the stator. Eddy current loss is given by We max2 f2 t2 In order to reduce the hysterysis loss, silicon alloyed steel, which has low hysterysis constant is used for manufacture of core. The composition of silicon steel is Steel - 95.8% Silicon 4.0% Impurities - 0.2% From the formula it is seen that eddy current loss depends on the thickness of the laminations. Hence to reduce the eddy current loss core is made up of thin laminations which are insulated from each other. The thickness of the laminations is about 0.5mm. The silicon steel sheets are of COLD ROLLED NON-GRAIN ORIENTED (CRANGO) type as it provides the distribution of
flux throughout the laminated sheet.

3.3 PREPARATION OF LAMINATIONS:


For high rating machines each laminations is build of 6 sectors (stampings), each of 60 cut according to the specifications. Press tools are used in the manufacture of laminations. Press tools are mainly of two types. Compounding tools. Blanking and slot notching tools. LAMINATIONS ARE MANUFACTURED IN TWO DIFFERENT WAYS

3.3.1 COMPOUNDING OPERATION:


In this method the stamping with all the core bolt holes, guiding slots and winding slots is manufactured in single operation known as Compounding operation and the press tool used is known as Compounding tool. Compounding tools are used for the machines rated above 40 MW.

3.3.2 BLANKING AND NOTCHING OPERATIONS:


In case of smaller machines the stampings are manufactured in two operations. In the first operation the core blot holes and guiding slots are only made. This operation is known as Blanking and the tools used are known as Blanking tools. In the second operation the winding slots are punched using another tool known as Notching tool and the operation is called Notching.

3.4 THE DIFFERENT OPERATIONS IN MANUFACTURE OF LAMINATIOS: 3.4.1 Deburring operation:


In this operation the burrs in the sheet due to punching are deburred. There are chances of short circuit within the laminations if the burrs are not removed. The permissible is about 5 micrometer. For deburring punched sheets are passed under rollers to remove the sharp burs of edges.

3.4.2 Varnishing:
Then depending on the temperature withstand ability of the machine the laminations are coated by varnish which acts as insulation. The lamination sheets are passed through conveyor, which has an arrangement to sprinkle the varnish is obtained. The sheets are dried by a series of heaters at a temperature of around 260-350 C. Two coatings of varnish are provided in the above manner till 12-18mm thickness of coat is obtained. The prepared laminations are subjected to following tests: Xylol test To measure the chemical resistance. Mandrel test - When wound around mandrel there should not be any cracks. Hardness test - Minimum 7H pencil hardness. IR value test - For 20 layers of laminations insulation.

3.5 ASSEMBLY OF CORE:


The stator laminations are assembled as separate cage without stator frame. The entire core length is made in the form of packets separated by radial ducts to provide ventilating passages for the uniform cooling of the core. The thickness of each lamination is 0.5mm and the thickness of lamination separating the packets is about 1mm. The lamination separating each packet has strips of nonmagnetic material that are welded to provide radial ducts. The segments are staggered from layer to layer so that a core of high mechanical strength and uniform permeability to magnetic flux is obtained. Stacking mandrels and bolts are inserted into the windings slot bores during stacking provide smooth slot walls.

Fig: assembly of core


To obtain the maximum compression and eliminate under setting during operation, the laminations are hydraulically compressed and heated during the stacking procedure when certain heights of stacks are reached. The complete stack is kept under pressure and located in frame by means of clamping bolts and pressure plates. The clamping bolts running through the core are made of nonmagnetic steel and are insulated from the core and pressure plates to prevent them from short circuiting the laminations and allowing the flow of eddy currents. The pressure is transmitted from the clamping plates to the core by clamping fingers. The clamping fingers extend up to the ends of the teeth thus, ensuring a firm compression in the area teeth.

Fig: assembled core The core building or assembling method depends on the insulation system used. 1. For resin rich insulation system the laminations are stacked in the frame itself. 2. For resin poor insulation system (VPI) cage core of open core design is employed.

3.6 STATOR WINDINGS:


Stator winding is the one which induces emf and supplies the load. Stator winding is placed in the slots of stator core. Due to the advantages of generation and utilization of 3 phase power we use three phase windings for generation. So number of slots must be a multiple of 3 (or 6 if two parallel circuits are required).

Generally two layer lap winding, chorded to about 5/6 pitch which practically eliminates 5th and 7th harmonics from the flux wage or open circuit induced emf wave is used. The stator coil is made up of number of strips instead of single solid piece to reduce the skin effect. Copper material is used to make the coils. This is because Copper has high electrical conductivity with excellent mechanical properties. ii. Immunity from oxidation and corrosion. iii. It is highly malleable and ductile metal.
i.

There are two types of coils manufactured in BHEL, Hyderabad. Diamond pulled multiturn coil (full coiled): Roebel bar (half coiled). Generally diamond pulled multiturn coils are used for low capacity machine. In this coils are pulled in a particular shape similar as diamond thats why they are called so. In large capacity machines we use ROEBEL bars. These coils were constructed after considering the skin effect losses. In the straight slot portion, the conductors or strips are transposed by 360 degrees. The transposition is done to ensure that all the strips occupy equal length under similar conditions of the flux. High purity (99%) copper conductors/strips are used to make the coils. This results in high strength properties at higher temperatures so that deformations due to the thermal stresses are eliminated. The high voltage insulation is provided according to the resin poor mica base of thermosetting epoxy system. Several half overlapped continuous layers of resin poor mica tape are applied over the bars. The thickness of the tape depends on the machine voltage.

Fig: stator windings

3.6.1 Slot Discharges:


Slot discharges occur if there are gaps within the slot between the surface of the insulation and that of the core. This may cause ionization of he air in the gap, due to breakdown of the air at the instances of voltage distribution between the copper conductor and the iron. Within the slots, the outer surface of the conductor insulation is at earth potential, in the overhanging it will approach more nearly to the potential of the enclosed copper. Surface discharge will take place if the potential gradient at the transition from slot to overhang is excessive, and it is usually necessary to introduce voltage grading by means of a semiconducting (graphite) surface layer, extending a short distance outward from the slot ends.

3.6.2 MANUFACTURE OF STATOR COILS:


Various operations carried out during manufacture of stator coil are 1. Set the straightening and cutting machine using guide pilot. 2. Cut the conductor strips as per the requirement. 3. Set the press for Roebel Transposition. 4. Assemble strips with respect to template and transpose. 5.Assemble both halves of coil sides to from 1.One Roebel half bar 2. Insert insulation of halves between quarter bars matching the straight part zone as per drawing.

Fig: stator coils


6.Cure half coil on hydraulic press. This process is known as Baking.

(a) Remove insulation at the ends of the strips.

(b) Test for inter-strip and inter-halves shorts. 7.Set the universal former as per standards. Check the setting of universal former for (a)Length of straight part also mark diagonals/former walls inside for cross check. (b)Check for marking made by template. 8.(a) Place the bar on former. (b) Form the overhang bends as per standards. Remove clamps and inserts overhand insulation to both roebel halves with an application of araldite mixture. (d) The bar is allowed to cure by giving supply to heating clamps. 9.Remove heating clamps and take out the bar halves from former. (b)Round off sharp edges of straight part and dress up overhang halves insulation of both halves with out damage to copper strip insulation and to copper stacks.

3.6.3 PROCESS OF TAPING:


1.Tape the bar with Resin poor fine mica paper tape on straight part of bar taking copper foil outside the tape. 2.Tape with one layer of conductive polyester fleece tape. a)Provide main insulation b)OCP protection tape 3.Tape the straight part of bar with conductive polyester fleece tape with starting and ending shall be on straight part of bar. 4.Tape with mica splitting tape with accelerator taking Ocp layer into and leaving. 5.Tape the straight part of bar with polyester Conductive fleece tape. 6.Provide End Corona protection taping. 7.Provide overhang with protective tape (Polyester glass tape) 8.Test for inter-strip shorts.

Fig: mica taping machine.

3.7 STATOR END COVERS:


The stator end covers are attached to end flanges of stator frame and also rest on the foundation plate. The end covers are made up of non-magnetic material (Aluminium castings) to reduce stray load and eddy current losses.

3.7.1 PHASE CONNECTORS:


The phase connectors consist of flat copper sections, which results in low specific current loading. The phase connectors are wrapped with resin rich mica tape. After curing the connectors are attached to the pressure plate with clamps and bolts.

3.7.2 RESISTANCE TEMPERATURE DETECTORS :


The temperature measurements on the generator are made with RTDs. They are placed at various sections of the core and winding. When making measurements with RTDs the resistance element is exposed to the temperature to be measured. The RTD works on the principle of the change in electrical resistance of a conductor due to temperature. R= Ro (1+ T) ;Where Ro = reference resistance at room temperature; R= temperature coefficient of resistance ; T = temperature difference in C.

ASSEMBLE OF WINDINGS

CHAPTER 4

4.1 WINDING HOLDER ASSEMBLY:

Assemble the winding holder as per the drawing requirement and check all the winding hold with template with respect to core.

4.1.1 ASSEMBLY OF HG RINGS:


Assemble the HG rings on the both the side, turbine side as well as laminated side. Pass HGL gauge in all the slots to detect laminations projection of the bottom surface if any lamination projection are noticed then rectify the projection. Check prior operation completion.

4.1.2 IDENTIFICATION OF RTD SLOTS:


Identify all the RTD slots with respect to the drawing and assemble the RTD slots as per the drawing purposes required. Identify all the slots with slots number as per the drawing.

4.2 BOTTOM BARS LAYING: 4.2.1 Pressing of bottom bars:


Each individual bars subjected for pressing at 60 kg/cm2 horizontal & vertical in order to

obtain predetermine the dimensions up to 30 minutes. This process is carried out for all the bottom bars before laying to the respective slots. By following above procedure first bar is layed in to the respective slots when the bar is center to the core centre by measuring pitch dimensions on both sides. Similarly next bar is layed in to the respective bar by following procedure. After laying the every two bars the over hangs are reinforced with glass mat at three different locations on both sides and tying the bars with neoprene glass view. Similarly the above procedure is following for all the eliminating bars. After completion bottom bars laying the bars reinforced end wedges and middle wedges. Then the bottom bars are subjected to D.C high voltage.

4.2.2 Inter layer inserts & RTDS assembles: All the inter layer inserts & RTDS are
assembled as per drawing required i.e. inter layer inserts are assembled in each and every slots except RTDS slots. In RTDS slots only RTDS are assembled before laying top bars.

4.2.3 Stiffner assembles:


Stiffner are assembled on the winding layers on to the bottom bars by reinforcing & placing glass mat and tieing with neipring glass. Stiffeners are carried out on the both sides.

4.3 TOP BARS LAYING:

4.3.1 Pressing of top bars:


Each individual top bar is subjected to pressure 60kg/cm2 horizontally and vertically for

duration of 30minutes in order to obtain pre determine dimensions. The above operation for each top bar before laying in to their respective slots. First top bar laying is carried out by centering the bar with respect to the stator core & check the pitch dimensions on both sides. Similarly the next bar is assembled in to respective slots by following the above procedure. After laying every two bars the over hangs are reinforced by inserting glass mat at 3 different locations on the both sides. By following the above procedure all the top bars are layed in to the slots by full filling the drawing requirements then the top bars are reinforced wedging with HGW over layer and placing glass mat under the wedges. All the respective wedges are driven by matching with respective ventilation holes of the pores. Similarly all the wedges are driven in all respective slots by blocking the top bars. After completion top bars laying top bars are subjected to D.C. high voltage.

4.4 Connecting rings assembly: All connecting rings assemble as per the drawing requirements, and then the phase groups are processed by jointing, bracing and insulation. After completion of jointing bracing and insulation once again it is subjected to D.C. high voltage. Termination of desired RTDS on one side for monitoring the post curing temperature.

INSULATION SYSTEMS

CHAPTER 5

5.1BHEL INSULATION SYSTEM FOR TURBO GENERATORS:

BHEL had Bitumen insulation system for low & medium rating TGS and switched over to resin rich Thermo setting type as a step towards increasing reliability and upgrading technology. Micalastic system has been adopted for high rating machinery.

5.2 BITUMEN SYSTEM & LIFE EXTENSION:


The experience with Bitumen system has been generally satisfactory & practically negligible service failure has been reported on these sets. Mechanical damage most commonly associated with this system ie., tape separation, due to thermal expansion of the winding during normal or abnormal temperature eyeing is not met any of sets. Though outage due to insulation failures has been considerably low, yet these machinery would need to be attended to have life extension above their estimated life of 25 years. Major inspection of the machine condition is by checking the healthiness of windings & life of bar insulation. Rehabilitation, if needed, requires restoration of varnish, removal of bitumen & cleaning, tightening of fasteners/supports, modification of busbars, use of new wedges & other winding components.

The replacements are required because of vibration / external damage etc.

5.3 VARIOUS INSULATION SYSTEMS & PRACTICES:


Large & medium range motors are provided with following insulation system. 1.Resin flux Insulation System : This system is used on earlier designs & where duplicate or spare motors to suit the customer requirements are required. In the coming years this system may become absolute. 2.Resin Rich micalastic Insulation System : The system provides use of Resin rich polyester backed epoxy micafolium on straight portion & resin rich polyester backed epoxy mica paper tape on overhang with a final layer of polyester shrink tape. The system is highly productive during coil manufacture and housing. 3.Resin poor Micalastic Insulation System: Resin poor micalastic system is adopted for large range Ac Induction and synchronous machines. Theses are designated to meet specific customer requirement hence for unique in nature to each other. The main insulation consists of resin poor epoxy mica paper tape all over the oil periphery with varying number of layers on straight and overhang portions. The brief comparison of Resin poor over Resin rich is as follows:

RESIN POOR
1.Epoxy resin content is about 8%. 2.This method follows Thermo Setting Process. 3.There is a need for addition of resin from outside. 4.Time required for this cycle is less. 5.Repairing is very difficult.

RESIN RICH
1.Epoxy resin content is about 40%. 2. This method also follows Thermo Setting Process. 3. Further addition of resin is not required from outside. 4.Its a very long process and time consuming. 5.Repairing is easy. 6.Over all cost is more.

6.Over all cost is less compared to resin rich.

VACUUM PRESSURE IMPREGNATION

CHAPTER 6

6.1 INTRODUCTION TO VPI SYSTEM:


DR. MEYER brought the VPI system with the collaboration of WESTING HOUSE in the year 1956. Vacuum Pressure Impregnation has been used for many years as a basic process for thorough filling of all interstices in insulated components, especially high voltage stator coils and bars. VPI is a process, which is a step above the conventional vacuum system. VPI includes pressure in addition to vacuum, thus assuring good penetration of the varnish in the coil. The result is improved mechanical strength and electrical properties. With the improved penetration, a void free coil is achieved as well as giving greater mechanical strength. With the superior varnish distribution, the temperature gradient is also reduced . In order to minimise the overall cost of the machine & to reduce the time cycle of the insulation system vacuum pressure Impregnated System is used. The stator coils are taped with porous resin poor mica tapes before inserting in the slots of cage stator, subsequently wounded stator is subjected to VPI process, in which first the stator is vacuum dried and then impregnated in resin bath under pressure of Nitrogen gas.

Fig: VPI system

6.2 Features and Benefits:


State-of-the-art process for completely penetrating air pockets in winding insulation.

Increases voltage breakdown level. (Even under water!) Proven submergence duty system Improved heat transfer- windings are cooler, efficiency is improved. Improves resistance to moisture and chemicals. Increases mechanical resistance to winding surges.

6.3 Vacuum Pressure Impregnation of resin poor insulated jobs:

Variant-01 Variant-02
Preheating Vacuum to be maintained 60 for 605C for 5 C 3hrs 12hrs 0.4mbar 0.2mbar/0.4mbar

Variant-03
603C for 12hrs <0.2mbar

Any other information

Vacuum heating time 3hrs

Increase in pressure Maximum pressure Pressure holding Post curing

40min 3bar 3hrs

(both together shall not exceed 50hrs including rising time) 0.2mbar for 9hrs Stopping vacuum pumps 0.4mbar for 17hrs for 10min shall check 17hrs vacuum drop. The vacuum drop shall not exceed by 0.06mbar for 10min 80min 80min 4bar 3hrs 4bar 3hrs At1405C for 32hrs

At1405C At1405C for for 14hrs 32hrs

6.4 PROCESS:

1.General:

The jobs that are entering tank for Vacuum Pressurised Impregnation shall not have any

oil based coatings. Any such, rust preventive/ corrosion preventive viz., red oxide etc., shall be eliminated into the tank. Resin in the storage tank shall be stored at 10 to 12C and measured for its viscosity, viscosity rise. Proper functioning of the impregnation plant and curing oven are to be checked by production and cleared for taking up of job for impregnation

2.Preheating:
The job is to be loaded in the curing oven and heated. The temperature is to be monitored by the RTD elements placed on the job and the readings are logged by production. The time of entry into the oven, time of taking out and the temperature maintained are to be noted. Depending on convenience of production the jobs can be preheated in impregnation tank by placing them in tubs. The impregnation tubs used for impregnation of jobs are to be heated in the impregnated tank itself, when the jobs are preheated in the curing oven.

3.

Impregnation:

Job insertion into preheated tub and insertion into tank

By the time, the preheating of job is completed, it is to be planned in such a way that the heating of tub and tank heating matches with the job. This is applicable when the job is heated in the curing oven separately. The preheated job is to be transferred into the tub by crane handling the job safely and carefully with out damage to the green hot insulation.

Insertion of tub with job into the impregnation tank

Fig: VPI Resin tub The warm tub with job is inserted into impregnation tank by sliding on railing, in case of horizontal tank. The thermometer elements are to be placed at different places on the job. The connection for inlet resin is to be made for collection of resin into tub. After ensuring all these the lid of the impregnation tank is closed. In case of vertical tank the job along with tub is slinged and inserted carefully into impregnation tank without damage to insulation.

Drying the job in vacuum

The job is to be dried under vacuum. Drain out the condensed moisture/ water at the exhausts of vacuum pumps for efficient and fast vacuum creation. Also check for oil replacement at pumps in case of delay in achieving desired vacuum.

Heating the resin in the storage tank The completion of operations of drying and the heating of the resin in the storage tank are to be synchronized. The heating of resin in the tank and pipeline is to be maintained as at preheating temperature.

Admission of resin into impregnation tank

The resin is allowed into the impregnation tank tub if required from various storage tanks one after the other up to a level of 100mm above the job generally, after which the resin admission is stopped. After 10mins of resin settling the tank is to be pressurized by nitrogen. While admitting resin from storage tanks pressurize to minimum so that nitrogen will not affect resin to spill over in tank.

Pressurizing/gelling

The pressure cycle is to be maintained.

Withdrawal of resin from impregnation tank to storage tank

The resin that is pressurized as per pressure cycle by which the opening of relevant valves will allow the resin to come back to the storage tank. The job also shall be allowed for dripping of residue of resin for about 10min. After dripping, withdrawal of resin in various storage tanks is to be carried out.

Taking out the tub with job from impregnation tank

The lid is then opened after taking precautions of wearing mask and gloves for the operating personnel as a protection from fumes. The job is withdrawn from impregnation tank by sliding on railing for horizontal and slinging on to crane for vertical impregnation tanks.

4. Post curing:

The job is post heated. The time for raising from job temperature to this temperature as per relevant annexure. The time at which the heating is started, achieved and maintained is to be logged.

5.Electrical testing:
All jobs that are impregnated till above process, are to be tested for electrical tests. After ensuring that all the temperature/vacuum conditions stipulated for drying, impregnation and curing operations have been properly followed, the job is to be released for this operation.

ROTOR

CHAPTER 7

7. ROTOR:

Rotor is the rotating part of alternator. It is used to support field winding placed in slots on the rotor. FOR 2-POLE GENERATOR: Solid rotors are manufactured from forged alloy steel with suitable alloying elements to achieve very high mechanical and superior magnetic properties. This type of rotor can withstand even upto speed of 3000 rpm. Rectangular or trapezoidal rotor slots are accurately machined to close tolerances on slot milling machine.For indirectly cooled generator rotors, ventilation slots are machined in the teeth. FOR 4-POLE GENERATOR: For directly cooled rotors, sub slots are provided for cooling Generator rotors of 1500 RPM are of round laminated construction. In this case rotor is made up of two parts (1) core, (2) lamination. The outer diameter of core and the inner diameter of laminations are equal. So for inserting the core inside the laminations the laminations are first red heated at medium temperature for 15 hours in BELL FURNACE. After that the core is shrunk fitted inside the laminations. Thus punched and varnished laminations of high tensile steel are mounted over machined shaft and are firmly clamped by end clamping plates.

Fig: rotor body.

7.1ROTOR SHAFT :

Rotor shaft is a single piece solid forming manufactured from a vacuum casting. It is forged from a vacuum cast steel ingot. Slots for insertion or the field winding are milled into rotor body. The longitudinal slots are distributed over the circumference such that two solid poles are obtained. To ensure that only a high quality product is obtained, strength tests, material analysis and ultrasonic tests are performed during the manufacture of rotor. The high mechanical stresses resulting from the centrifugal forces and short circuit torques call for a high quality heat treated steel. After completion, the rotor is balanced in various planes at different speeds and then subjected to an over speed test at 120% of the rated speed for two minutes.

Fig. rotor shaft. Approximately 60% of rotor body circumference has longitudinal slots which hold the field winding. Slot pitch is selected so that the two solid poles are displaced by 180 degrees. The rotor wedges act as damper winding within the range of winding slots. The rotor teeth at the ends of rotor body are provided with axial and radial holes enabling the cooling air to be discharged into the air gap after intensive cooling of end windings.

7.2 ROTOR WINDINGS :The rotor windings consist of several coils inserted into the slots
and series connected such that two coil groups form one pole. Each coil consists of several series connected turns, each of which consists of two half turns connected by brazing in the end section. Thickness of each strip can be made upto 10.5 mm but here in BHEL we make only upto 5.3 mm. The rotor bearing is made of silver bearing copper ensuring an increased thermal stability. For ventilation purpose the slots are provided on the coil and on inter strip insulation layer both. The individual turns of coils are insulated against each other by interlayer insulation. L-shaped strips of laminated epoxy glass fiber fabric with nomex filter are used for slot insulation.

Fig: rotor winding.


The slot wedges are made of high electrical conductivity material and thus act as damper windings. At their ends the slot wedges are short circuited through the rotor body. The inter space between the overhang is called slot through.

7.2.1CONSTRUCTION
The field winding consists of several series connected coils inserted into the longitudinal slots of rotor body. The coils are wound so that two poles are obtained. The solid conductors have a rectangular cross section and are provided with axial slots for radial discharge or cooling air. All conductors have identical copper and cooling duct cross section. The individual bars are bent to obtain half turns. After insertion into the rotor slots, these turns are brazed to obtain full turns. The series connected turns of one slot constitute one coil. The individual coils of rotor are connected in a way that north and south poles are obtained.

7.2.2 CONDUCTOR MATERIAL: The conductors are made of copper with a silver
content of approximately 0.1%. As compared to electrolytic copper, silver alloyed copper features high strength properties at high temperatures so that coil deformations due to thermal stresses are eliminated.

7.2.3INSULATION
The insulation between the individual turns is made of layer of glass fiber laminate. The coils are insulated from the rotor body with L-shaped strips of glass fiber laminate with nomex interlines. To obtain the required leakage paths between the coil and the rotor body thick top strips of glass fiber laminate are inserted below top wedges. The top strips are provided with axial slots of the same cross section and spacing as used on the rotor winding. Insulation b/w overhang is done by blocks made of HGL.

7.2.4 ROTOR SLOT WEDGES

To protect the winding against the effects of centrifugal forces, the winding is secured in the slots with wedges. The slot wedges are made of copper alloy featuring high strength and good electrical conductivity. They are also used as damper winding bars. The slot wedges extend beyond the shrink seats of retaining rings. The wedge and retaining rings act on the damper winding in the event of abnormal operations. The rings act as short circuit rings in the damper windings.

7.2.5 END WINDING BRACING


The spaces between the individual coils in the end winding are filled with insulated members that prevent coil movement. Two insulation plates held by HGL high glass laminate plates separate the different cooling zones in the overhangs on either sides.

7.3 ROTOR RETAINING RINGS


The centrifugal forces of the rotor end winding are contained by single piece rotor retaining rings. Retaining rings are made of non-magnetic high strength steel in order to reduce stray losses. Each retaining ring with its shrink fitted. Insert ring is shrunk on to the rotor body in an overhang position. The retaining ring is secured in the axial position by snap rings.

Fig: rotor retaining rings The rotor retaining rings withstand the centrifugal forces due to end windings. One end of each ring is shrunk fitted on the rotor body while the other end overhangs the end windings without contact on the rotor shaft. This ensures an unobstructed shaft deflection at the end winding.
7.4

ROTOR FANS

The cooling air in generator is circulated by two axial flow fans located on the rotor shaft one at each end. To augment the cooling of the rotor winding, the pressure established by the fan works in conjunction with the air expelled from the discharge parts along the rotor. The blades of the fan have threaded roots for being screwed into the rotor shaft. The blades are drop forged from an aluminium alloy. Threaded root fastenings permit angle to be changed. Each blade is secured at its root with a threaded pin.

Fig: rotor fan

BEARINGS VENTILATION AND COOLING

EXCITER SYATEM

CHAPTERS 8 & 9

8.BEARINGS
The turbo generators are provided with pressure lubricated self-aligning elliptical type bearings to ensure higher mechanical stability and reduced vibration in operation. The bearings are

provided with suitable temperature element devices to monitor bearing metal temperature in operation. From inside the bearings are made of very soft metal called Babbitt so that rotor doesnt get harmed even if it comes in contact with Babbitt. Inside this Babbitt there is a very thin film of pressurized lubrication oil on which the shaft rotates. The temperature of each bearing is monitored with two RTDs (Resistance Thermo Detectors) embedded in the lower bearing sleeve such that the measuring point is located directly below the babitt. To prevent damage to the journals due to shaft currents, bearings and oil piping on either side of the non-drive end bearings are insulated from the foundation frame. For facilitating and monitoring the healthiness of bearing insulation, split insulation is provided.

9.VENTILATION AND COOLING


Turbo generators are designed with the following ventilation systems: Closed circuit air cooling with water or air coolers mounted in the pit. Closed circuit hydrogen cooling with water or hydrogen coolers mounted axially on the stator frame. The fan design usually consists of two axial fans on either made of cast aluminum with integral fan blades or forged and machined aluminum alloy blades screwed to the rotor. In case of 1500 RPM generators, fabricated radial fans are provided

EXICTATION SYSTEM:

Fig: exciter rotor.


The basic use of given exciter system is to produce necessary DC for turbo generator system. Principal behind this is that PMG is mounted on the common shaft which generates electricity and that is fed to yoke of main exciter. This exciter generates electricity and this is of AC in nature. This AC is that converted into DC and is that fed to turbo generator via C/C bolt. For rectifying purpose we have RC block and diode circuit. The most beautiful feature is of this type of exciter is that is automatically divides the magnitude of current to be circulated in rotor circuit. This happens with the help of AVR regulator which means automatic voltage regulator. A feedback path is given to this system which compares theoretical value to predetermine and than it sends the current to rotor as per requirement.

Fig: BLE exciter

The brushless exciter mainly consists of:1. Rectifier wheels 2. Three phase main exciter 3.Three phase pilot exciter 4. Metering and supervisory equipment. The brushes exciter is an AC exciter with rotating armature and stationery field. The armature is connected to rotating rectifier bridges for rectifying AC voltage induced to armature to DC voltage. The pilot exciter is a PMG (permanent magnet generator). The PMG is also an AC machine with stationery armature and rotating field. When the generator rotates at the rated speed, the PMG generates 220 V at 50 hertz to provide power supply to automatic voltage regulator.

TESTING

CHAPTER 10

10. TESTING OF TURBO GENERATOR:


To ensure that all functional requirements are fulfilled, and to estimate the performance of generator, the TURBO GENERATORS are required to undergo some tests. For testing, the TURBO GENERATOR was mechanically coupled to a drive motor-motor generator set with gearbox. The rotor was excited by thyristor converter system located in an independent test room and the operation was controlled from the test gallery. The following first two tests will be conducted on the stator and rotor before assembling and the third and final routine tests will be conducted after assembling the turbo generator.

10.1 ROUTINE TETSTS ON TURBO GENERATOR MECHANICAL RUN AND MEASUREMENT OF VIBRATIONS AT RATED SPEED:
The machine is rolled and run at rated speed after ensuring the bearing oil and kept at rated speed for stabilization of bearing temperatures. The vibrations are measured at rated speed on both the bearing housings in Horizontal, Vertical and Axial directions. The temperature of stator is monitored by monitoring RTDs embedded in core, tooth and winding. The vibrations should be less than 5 microns and noise level should be in between 7590 db.

10.1.1 SHORT CIRCUIT TEST :


The machine is prepared for short circuit characteristic using current transformers and shorting the terminals . The machine is run at rated speed and drive motor input voltage and current are noted and machine is excited gradually in steps, at 20%, 40%,60%,80%,100% rated current of machine (In). The excitation is reduced and cut off. The speed is reduced and the machine is cooled at lower speed. The temperature are checked from machine RTDs. The machine is stopped when it is sufficiently cooled down. The stator winding temperature should be less than 60 C) From the Short Circuit test, we will get copper losses.

The short circuit characteristics is plotted from SCC results by selecting X-axis as field current and Y-axis as % rated current.

10.1.2 OPEN CIRCUIT TEST :


The machine is prepared for Open Circuit Characteristics. The machine is run at rated speed and the motor input voltage and current are noted and machine is excited gradually in steps, cat 20%,40%,60%,80%,90%,95%,100%,105%,110% and 120% of rated voltage of machine (En). At 100% rated voltage the following parameters are noted: Shaft voltage, checking of phase sequence, bearing vibration, RTDs readings The excitation is reduced, cut off, the speed is reduced, and the machine is cooled at lower speed. The temperatures are checked from machine RTDs. The machine is stopped when it is sufficiently cooled down. The stator core temperatures to be less than 60 C. From the Open Circuit test, we will get Iron losses. The Open Circuit Characteristics is plotted on a graph paper from OCC results by selecting X-axis as field current and Y-axis as % rated voltage.

10.2 MEASUREMENT OF SHAFT VOLTAGE :


When the rotor shaft rotates inside the stator there will be some induced EMF will be developed inside the rotor. In addition, this voltage will go to the bearings and pedestal and to the earth as it is grounded and it will again come back to the pedestal, to the bearings through the earth. It will become a cyclic process. This voltage has to be reduced otherwise, the rotor will get heated. For this bearing pedestal is placed on, insulation called HGL.

10.3 CHECKING OF PHASE SEQUENCE :


When the machine is under OCC condition at 100% rated voltage, phase sequence of generator is checked using a phase sequence indicator across PT.

10.4 MEASUREMENT OF ROTOR IMPEDANCE (rotor inside stator) :


A variable 50 HZ A.C voltage of single phase is applied across the input leads and readings of voltage and current are noted down from 50v-200 v in steps of 50V. Impedance is measured by using the formula:

Z = V/I Where Z = impedance in ohms; V = voltage in volts; I = current in amps; Rotor Impedance is measured at standstill and at rated speed of the machine.

10.5 MEASUREMENT OF INSULATION RESISTANCE OF STATOR AND ROTOR WINDINGS BEFORE AND AFTER HIGH VOLTAGE TEST (Machine at rest):
Insulation Resistance of the stator and rotor windings is measured separately before and after high voltage test using Megger of 2500 V for stator & 1000 V for rotor windings. The Insulation Resistance values are taken at 15 sec and at 60 sec. The ratio of insulation resistance at 15 sec and 60 sec is known as Absorption Coefficient. Absorption Coefficient = IR at 60/IR at 15 .This Absorption Coefficient for High Voltage test should be > =1.3

10.6 HIGH VOLTAGE TEST ON STATOR AND ROTOR WINDINGS (MACHINE AT REST):
The High Voltage is applied to windings by increasing gradually to required value and maintained for one minute and reduced gradually to minimum. The transformer is switched off and winding is discharged to earth by shorting the terminal to earth using earthing rod connected to earthen wire. The test is conducted on all the phases and rotor winding separately. When High Voltage test is done on one phase winding, all other phase windings, rotor winding, instrumentation cables and stator body is earthed. High Voltage test levels : Stator winding = (2 Ut +1) KV Rotor winding = (10 * Up) V Where Ut = Rated voltage of the machine under test Up = Excitation voltage

10.7 MEASUREMENT OF D.C.RESISTANCE OF STATOR AND ROTOR WINDINGS IN COLD CONDITION:


In cold condition means that measuring the D.C. resistance of the stator and rotor windings before testing. Variation of D.C is 5% acceptable. D.C. Resistances of stator and rotor windings are measured separately using micro ohmmeter. The instrument terminals are connected to the machine terminals and proper range in the meter is selected.

EVALUATION OF SHORT CIRCUIT RATIO:


From the test data Short Circuit Ratio is calculated using the formula. S.C.R= Field current at 100% Rated voltage from OCC/Field current at 100% rated current from SCC.

CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE

CHAPTER 11

CONCLUSION :
The Vocational training at BHEL Hyderabad helped us in improving our practical knowledge and awareness regarding Turbo Generator to a large extent. Here we came to know about the technology and material used in manufacturing of turbo generators. Besides this, we also visualized the parts involved or equipments used in the power generation. Here we learnt about how the electrical equipments are being manufactured and how they tackle the various problems under different circumstances. At least we could say that the training at BHEL Hyderabad is great experience for us and it really helped us in making or developing our knowledge about turbo generator and other equipment used in power generation.

FUTURE SCOPE:
The technology research and investigations division of BHEL is currently investigating the technical and logistical merit of performing offline quadratic-rate partial discharge tests on the stator winding insulation of its hydro & turbo generators. A series of laboratory based insulation research studies on stator bars have been conducted to gain a better understanding of the various partial discharge phenomena involved. Results thus far obtained from these tests have provided valuable insight into the discharge activity of operation.

REFERENCES: www.indiamart.com www.eriks.co.uk www.seimens.com www.bhel.com A text book of electrical technology by B.L.THERAJA. A text book of electrical machines by P.S.BIMBRA.

BHEL Internal material.