Sie sind auf Seite 1von 11

Communication Terminology Circuit Switched Network - Example: telephone voice service - Allow large amount of data to be transferred with

guaranteed transmission capacity realtime traffic Packet Switched Network - Data stream is divided into standardized packets and sent through network where specific network switches / routers sort & direct each single packet - 2 types: o Connectionless IP packets are treated independently as complete destination information is contained in ach packet Packet order is not always preserved as packets may take different paths thru network Systems that do not employ virtual circuits are connectionless system wherein traffic is presented in ad hoc fashion o Connection-oriented Example: Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Network path (called logical channel / virtual circuit) need to be establish when data transfer begin Each packet header contains channel identifier that guide packet to the correct destination Systems that employ virtual circuits are connection-oriented requiring handshaking services - 4 types of media: o Copper wire Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Useful for analogue voice 2 limitations for high frequencies signal attenuation & leakage o Coaxial cable Single strand of copper running down cable axis shielded by insulator made of foam / dielectrics material Conductive shield covers the cable High frequencies can be carried TV channels (6MHz wide) can be carried on a single cable o Fibre Transmission speed up to 9.9 Gbps as compared to MHz of copper o Wireless Microwave, synchronous satellites, low earth orbit satellites, cellular, personal communication service (PCS), etc Virtual Circuits - Physical circuits are terminated at intermediate points such as routers, bridges and gateways - Virtual circuit describe a shared circuit wherein the sharing is not known to the circuit users - 3 types: o Permanent Virtual Circuit (PVC) provided on a continuous basis between usernetwork & user-to-use o Switched Virtual Circuit (SVC) not pre-provisioned; user need to submit connection request to the network

Semi-Permanent Virtual Circuit (SPVC)

Types of traffic - Variable Bit Rate (VBR) o Does not require constant & continuous allocation of bandwidth o Bursty ie. Transmit & receive traffic asynchronously (at any time and possible with periods of nothing is sent or received) - Constant Bit Rate( CBR) o Requires constant and continuous allocation of bandwidth between sender & receiver 2 Types of Addressing & Identification Schemes - Explicit Address o Address with location associated to the network or device attached to the network o Used by switches, routers & bridges as an index in routing tables (routing tables contain info about how to route traffic to destination) - Label o Contain no info about network identifiers or physical locations o May simply be a value assigned to users traffic that identifies each data unit of his traffic Multiplexing - Operation that accept lower speed voice, video or data signal from terminals, telephones, user application & combine them into high speed stream of transmission over a link - Receiving device demultiplexes & converts the combined stream into original multiple lower speed signals - This improves efficiency Network Interfaces - 2 types o User Network Interfaces (UNI) / Subscriber Network Interface (SNI) protocol that governs interface between user & network o Network-to-Network Interface (NNI) / Inter-Carrier Interface (ICI) protocol that governs interface between networks

Communication Technologies Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) - Set of CCITT/ITU standards for digital transmission over ordinary telephone copper wire & other media - As integration of analog & digital data over the same network - Include and number of B-channels (for carrying data, voice & other services) & a D-channel (for carrying control & signal info) - 2 level of services o Basic Rate Interface (BRI) For home & small enterprise Consists of two 64 Kbps B-channels (have up to 128Kbps) & 16 Kbps Dchannel o Primary Rate Interface (PRI) For larger users Consists of 30 B-channels & 1 D-channel - Requires Terminal Adaptor (TA) for his Terminal Equipment (TE) for example: computer, telephone, fax or combination of the above

X.25 -

Similar function as ISDN to provide interface between end user device & network Classified as UNI Provides procedures between user station (Data Terminal Equipment) and packet network (Data Circuit Equipment) for establishing session & exchanging data Procedures include functions such as: o Transmitting packets of specific user terminals o Acknowledging packets o Rejecting packets o Initiating error recovery, flow control

X.75 -

Complementary to X.25 Classified as NNI although it is often used today in other configurations such as amplifying & enhancing an interface on ISDN systems to support X.25 based applications

Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) - To support high capacity LANs such as ethernets & token rings by serving as backbone network - Speed up to 100 Mbps - Spec stipulate the use of optical fiber as transport medium Frame Relay - Cost efficient data transmission for intermittent traffic between LAN & end-points in wide area - Put data in a variable-size unit called frame and leaves and necessary error correction to the end-points (thus speeds up overall data transmission) - Network provides PVC which means customer sees continuous dedicated connection without having to pay for full-time leased line - ISDN (128 Kbps) Frame Relay ATM (622 Mpbs)

Switched Multimegabit Data Service (SMDS) - Public packet switched service for enterprise that need to exchange large amount of data with other enterprise over WAN on a non constant / bursty basis - Connectionless no need to set up connection thru network before sending data - Provides bandwidth on demand for the bursty data transmission - Broadcasting packets to multiple SMDS addresses

Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) - Evolution of packet switching - Like packet switching, ATM integrates multiplexing & switching functions but unlike packet switching, ATM is designed for high performance multimedia networking - Suitable for bursty traffic unlike circuit switching - Allows communication between devices that operate at different speeds - ATM virtual circuit has defined end points & routes but does not have bandwidth dedicated as it is allocated on demand - Benefits o High performance via hardware switching of fixed small size packets of 53 bytes called cells o Dynamic bandwidth for bursty traffic o Class of service support for multimedia enabling video, high speed data, audio & telephony to coexist on the same media without problem o Scalability of speed & network size o Common LAN / WAN architecture o Opportunities for simplification via VC architecture - Different from Frame Relay: o User data is segmented into fixed size small packets called cell whereas Frame Relay uses variable length frames o In absence of data, ATM sends no blank cells whereas Frame Relay uses blank frames once a connection has been established between 2 end points

o o

Bandwidth is dynamically allotted in ATM whereas Frame Relay follows a static principle of allocation Frame Relay is software-based network whereas ATM uses hardware switching in its nodes

Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) - ANSI standard for synchronous data transmission on optical media - International equivalent of SONET is Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) - Ensures digital networks can interconnect internationally and existing conventional transmission system can take advantage of optical media thru arbitrary attachments - Based on synchronous transmission clock is referenced to highly stable reference point so no need to align data streams - Demultiplexing is also not needed to access the bit-streams & signals can be stacked together without bit stuffing - For situations where reference frequencies may vary, SONET/SDH uses pointers (indicating location of data segment / stream within transmission frame) to allow streams to float within payload envelope

Residential Broadband - Typical bandwidth: 0.3 3.4kHz - Modem (for coding and modulating technique) allows transfer rate up to 56kbps xDSL -

Digital Subscriber Line & x simply means there are several variations Digital lines makes transmission of computer info faster & more reliable as compared to modem that need to establish a connection before can start handling traffic DSL enables much higher speed (2Mbps) across simple twisted pair copper wires lines using its own kind of modem Allows the network to manage the traffic rather than allocating complete end-to-end circuits, so that data connection appears to be always on Enables internet connection to be slod on fixed rate per month basis rather than per minute

Asynchronous Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) - Higher speed from the exchanger to user (downstream for download) and lower speed from user to the exchange (upstream for upload) - Can operate in parallel with conventional analog voice telephony over the same line High Speed Digital Subscriber Line (HDSL) - Broadband facilities (leased line) providing 2Mbps up to 3 miles of wire Very High Speed Digital Subscriber Line (VDSL)

Mobile Communication Technologies 2 forms o Cellular System Defined network with protocols for setting up & clearing calls & tacking mobile units thru wide geographical area Defines an UNI & NNI o Cordless System Personal communications focusing on access methods via transceiver location Cell o Basic geographic unit of a cellular system o Base stations transmitting over small geographic areas represented as hexagons Cluster o Group of cells o No channels are reused within a cluster Frequency Reuse o Assigning each cell a group radio channels used small geographic area completely different from neighbouring cells Footprint o Coverage area of cells o Limited by boundary so that same group of channels can be used in different cells that are far away from each other Cell splitting o As service area becomes full of users, the approach is to split a single area into smaller ones o Urban centres can be split into many areas to provide acceptable service levels in heavy traffic regions while larger less expensive cells can be used to cover remote rural regions Handoff o Mobile telephone network automatically transfer a call from one radio channel to another as mobile crosses adjacent cells Standard cellular system consists of components: o PSTN Made up of local networks, exchange area networks & long-haul networks that interconnect telephones & other communication devices o MTSO Central office for mobile switching Houses Mobile Switching Centre (MSC), field monitoring & relay stations for switching calls from cell sites to wire-line central offices (PSTN) o Cell Site Physical location of radio equipment that provides coverage within a cell Hardware located at a cell site includes power sources, interface equipment, radio frequency transmitters, receivers & antenna systems o Mobile Subscriber Unit (MSU) Consists of control unit & transceiver that transmits and receives radio transmission to & from a cell site 3 types of MSU Mobile telephone transmit power = 4W Portable transmit power = 0.6W

Transportable transmit power = 1.6W

Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) - One of the wireless communication technologies - Provides each call with time slots so that several calls can occupy one bandwidth - Each caller is assigned a specific time slot digital packets of info are sent during each time slot & re-assembled by receiving equipment into original voice components Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) - Different from TDMA - Uses single spectrum of bandwidth for all users in the cell - Transmits all users signal onto the channel at the same time which allows these signals to interfere with each other - Like TDMA, analog speech is coded into digital signals but unlike TDMA, each conversation is assigned a unique code (signature for each individual transmission) - The coded signal is extractable at receiver by using complementary code and final signal contains only the relevant conversation - Any other signal (other users coded signals) are picked up as noise - Language analogy: o Imagine sitting in a room where several people are speaking different languages to each other Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) - Digital mobile telephone system widely used in Europe and other parts of the world - Most widely used - Digitizes & compresses data then sends it down channel with 2 other streams of user data, each in its own time slot - Operates either 900MHz or 1800MHz frequency band - Requires the use of 2 databases: o Home Location Register (HLR) Provides info about user, its home subscription base & supplementary services o Visitor Location Register (VLR) Stores info on whether mobile stations are switched on or off and if any services have been activated or deactivated - 2 major components: o Authentication Centre (AC / AUC) Protect each subscriber from unauthorized access / subscriber number being used by unauthorized personnel Operates closely with HLR o Equipment Identity Register (EIR) Register type of equipment that exists in mobile stations Provide security features such as blocking calls that emanate from stolen mobile stations Preventing certain stations not approved by network vendor from using the network

Wireless in Local Loop (WLL) - Connects subscribers to PSTN using radio signals as a substitute for copper for all or part of the connection between subscriber and the switch - Includes cordless access systems, proprietary fixed radio access & fixed cellular systems - Uses wireless technology coupled with line interfaces & other circuitry to complete the last mile between customer premise & exchange equipment

Wireless Access Protocol (WAP) - Application environment and communication protocols for wireless devices to access Internet advanced telephony services - Improves existing services such as interfaces to voice mail, prepaid systems & facilitates unlimited range of new value-added services and applications such as account management and billing inquiries - End user will benefit from easy, secure access to relevant Internet info & services such as unified messaging, banking & entertainment thru mobile devices