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IRRIGATION:- The art, science and practice of supplying water artificially to land for producing crops
is called Irrigation.

NECESSITY OF IRRIGATION:1) Non uniformity of rainfall:Rainfall varies place to place as Punjab, Rajasthan, etc. rainfall is not same. Therefore in order to meet the water requirements of crop, it is very essential to provide facilities for irrigation. 2) Crop requirement:The requirement also depends upon the type of crop, its depends upon the time of sowing & the period of maturity. 3) Economical use of water:The crop production can be increased by supplying of proper quantity of water at proper time.

TYPES OF IRRIGATION:Artificial Irrigation:The process of supplying water artificially for the purpose of irrigation the field. The irrigation done by construction headwork sand canal is also referred as direct irrigation or river canal irrigation.

Types of Artificial Irrigation

1) Lift Irrigation :The process of supplying water to the field for crop production by lifting it from its sources is called Lift Irrigation. For e.g. by wells, tube wells 2) Flow Irrigation :The process of supplying water to the by flowing water by gravity is called flow Irrigation also called canal Irrigation. 3) Sprinkler Irrigation :The process of irrigation in which water is applied to the land through a system of pipe network connected to fine spray nozzles is called Sprinkler Irrigation.

1) Free Flooding :- In this method, water is supplied through ditches. It flows across the field. This method is mostly used in India, U.S.A., Egypt etc.

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2) Border Flooding:In this farm id divided into no. of strips. The width & length of each strip should not exceed 9-18 m & 100 400 m respectively.

3) Check Flooding :In this case, farm is divided into small check areas. These are surrounded on all sides by low, flat ridges.

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4) Basin Flooding :It is same as check except that it is applied to orchard.

5) Furrow Method :In this case crops are grown by supplying water b/w crops rows. This method consists in Appling water to the field by furrow supplying 8 24 cm per 100 m.

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Water Logging and Drainage and Ground Water Recharge

Unit 12 ( Irrigation Engineering) Water Logging and Drainage and Ground Water Re-charge
Definition of water logging:The natural process of making saturation of soil and unproductive due to excessive in its pore is known as the water logging. That area where it occurred is called water logging area. Equation:I = O+S Where, I= inflow of water O = outflow of water S= storage of water Cause of water logging:Topographic condition: - when the surface of soil is not uniform, then the rain water collects and make small pound. So due to permeability of soil, this water increases the water table, hence water logging occurred. Inadequate drainage:If the drainage facility is not adequate then, it will increase the chance of water logging by increasing the water table. Canal seepage:Seepage of water from the earthen canal also raises the water table and hence water logging occurred. Over irrigation:Irrigation water if used in excess over the fields .then it will raises the water table and hence water logging occurred. Rainfall and flood:Excess rainfall or flood will also cause the increasing in water table. By which water logging occurred. Download this files at:

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Effects of water logging:Anchorage problems of plants and trees:If the soil becomes saturated then, the plant roots become very shallow and are easily uprooted when wind blows. Growth of water loving wild plants:When the soil is water- logged water loving plant grow up which are harmful to the crop growth. Increase in harmful salts:When the water table rise, then the upward moment of water brings harmful salts in the crop root zone. After evaporation, the water leaves behind salt, which reduce the production of crops. Lowering of soil temperature:If moisture is present in the soil pores, the temperature of soil lowers down. Then bacteria activity retarded, which affects growth of crops badly. Reduction of time for maturity:When the underwater is logged, then the crop period shortens which reduces the crops maturity time. Detection of water logged area:1. The water logged area can be easily detected by knowing the intensity of rainfall and the amount of runoff. So to calculate the quantity of rain water which infiltrate into the sub soil and help in raising the level of water table. If the above information is no available then, a hole is made to be drilled to determine the level of underwater below the surface. If the water is available nearer to the root zone of the crops, then the area is called waterlogged area. Preventive measures:1. Controlling seepage from the canals: By following measures should be adopted to reduce seepage from the canals. a) By lowering the F.S.L of the canal:When the full supply level of canal is lowered then the loss of waters seepage loss is reduced, and hence water logging is also reduced. b) By lining of canal :Download this files at:


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The bed and sides of the canal should be lined by protective materials so that seepage loss is reduced and hence water logging is also reduced. Disposal of rain water:Rain water as soon as, it falls on the earths surface should be disposed of as soon as possible otherwise it will increase water logging. Reducing the intensity of irrigation:The intensity should be reduced in this area where water logging occurred. Irrigation should be done rotation wise in different seasons. REMEDIAL MEASURES:The followings methods are adopted to reclaim the water logged areas. Installation of lift irrigation system:When a tube well systems are introduce, then the level of underground water goes down and hence water logging is reduced. Implementation of drainage scheme:Area is reclaimed by introducing overland and subsurface drainage schemes. Surface drainage may be of:1) 2) 3) 4) Providing seepage drain By providing storm water or surface drain. By providing lining of canal. Implementation of tube well in fields or water logging area. Surface drain: Surface drains are that construction may be natural of artificial which remove surplus water from any area and placed over the surface of the soil. While aligning surface drains followings points which are given below, should be considered. 1) 2) 3) Drain should follow lowest contour in a natural drainage line. The total alignment of drain should be straight, so that length of the drain is reduced and all this reduces the cost of construction of that drain. The drain should not pass through any ponds and it also should not cross irrigation canals Sub surface drains:Download this files at:

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When the depth of the surface drain increases, then the drain scheme becomes uneconomical. In this situation subsurface drain is used. Subsurface drain is pipe drain laid in permeable stratum below a ground water table. These drains are circular pipes made of vitrified clay. The trench is excavated in the ground up to the required depth and tile line is laid on 15 cm sand bed. Ground water recharge:It is a process where water moves downward from surface water to ground water. This process usually below plant root. The water table recharge occurs naturally of artificially. Natural Ground water is recharge by rain water, by melting of snow, by river and lake through permeability of soil Artificial ground water is recharge by making a pond, reservoirs and by storing rain watered.

Tube Well Irrigation

Occurrence of ground water:-During the rain or if water is collected on the surface of soil, then this water is goes downward till the hard strata is came. The moisture/water is then becomes static and collected in zones of soil which may be saturated or unsaturated zone .this water collected is then called occurrence of ground water in that zone. Water table:-The upper most surface level of the zone of saturation is called a water table. When the rain water is collected in pound, then the water will goes downward due to seepage from unsaturated soil to saturated soil. This water is stopped by hard strata or rocks. So the seepage water is collected in saturated zone of soil layer. This water table is thus called underground water table. Radius of influence:- The radial distance from the centre of a wellbore hole to the point where there is no lowering of the water table is known as the radius of influence. Depression head:- When the water is pumped out from the wall, then the level of the well is reduced, then the difference in levels between original water level in the well is called depression head. Cone of depression:-A cone of depression are occurs in aquifers when ground water is pumped out from a well. In the unconfined aquifers the cone of depression is a reduction in pressure head surrounding the pumped well. Aquifers:-It is a wet underground layer of water bearing permeable rocks (gravels, silts or sand).these are saturated regions of the subsurface that produce economical quantity of water to lift irrigation by tube well or well.
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Unconfined aquifers:- Those aquifers which contains water table in their upper boundaries. This area contains almost all the ground water table. These aquifers cannot contain by any impervious layer. Confined aquifers:- It is the aquifer which is confined by an impervious stratum at the top. That the water is contained between the hard strata around it just like as water is flowing through pipe. Yield of well:- When the water is lifted from the well contineously. Then the water level goes decreasing and there will be contribution of water from the surroundings layer into the well. If the lifting / water taken is increasing then the drawdown of water will be increasing and the fine silt /sand also entered into the well will started from the previous strata of the soil. At this stage water structure become unstable . due to this drawdown is always kept

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