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Global Governance Chapter III : Foundations of the Pieces of Global Governance

Introduction :
Political communities historically created norms and rules for interacting with their neighbors.

The Greeks establish protective alliances among city-state to address conflict, arbitrator also involving and promoting cooperation. The Hanseatic League (1200s-1400s) was formed on common economic interests in order to facilitate trade and commerce. During 14th & 15th ,system of governance is founded among Italian city-states- system of balancing power , diplomacy and commercial interaction regularized

The state system & Its weakness:

Treaty of Westphalia(1648) articles 64,65,67- established key principles of a new state system: Territorial Sovereignty; right of state(chose it own religious, determine its own domestic policies); prohibition of interference from supranational authorities

Jean Bodin (French philosopher 1530-1596) stated sovereignty is the distinguish mark of sovereign that he cannot in anyway be subject to the commands of other, it is he who makes law, abrogates(practice) law, amends law. (Although there is no supreme arbiter among states, Bodin acknowledged that sovereignty maybe limited by divine law or natural law, by the type of regime, or by promises to the people) Krasner (1993:235) content of sovereignty& scope of authority that state exercise, has always contested- challenged by the creation of new institutional forms that better met specific national needs. James Rosenau(1997: 217-236) see states as vulnerable(easily harm or hurt) to demand: decentralizing tendencies including globalization and international organization. The weakness of the state system became increasingly with the up-coming issues like international trade, immigration, democratization, technological innovation & other developments that undermined the capacity of state to govern effectively- so these gave rise to the international organization

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Governance innovations in the Nineteenth Century:

o Concert of Europe(1815) A concert of major powers making system wide decisions by negotiation and consensus, a king of informal intergovernmentalism (multilateral meeting among leaders of major European power to settling problem and coordinating actions). States agreed to coordinate behavior on certain right and responsibilities operation as separate states and societies but within a framework of rules and consultation Public International Unions Established among European states to deal with problems stemming from industrial revolution, expanding commerce, communications, and technological innovation The Hague System(1899 and 1907) Czar Nicholas II of Russia convened 2 conferences in Hague(Netherlands) involving Europe and non-Europe the emergence of generalized conference in which all states were invited to participate in problem-solving (what techniques states should have available to prevent war and under what conditions arbitration, negotiation, and legal recourse would be appropriate. Hague conference led to convention for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes, ad hoc international commissions of inquiry, and the permanent Court of Arbitrator. Establish twin principles ; universality and legal equality 1st time participants utilized such techniques as electing chairs, organizing committees, and taking roll call Promoted the novel ideas of common interests of humankind and the codification of international law

League of Nations:
Two Basic Principle(preventing war) Organs Council, Assembly, and secretariat Respect and preserve the territorial integrity and political independence of states Try different methods of dispute settlement

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Two organization : Permanent court of international justice(PCIJ); International Labor organization (ILO) Four permanent members (England, France, Italy, and Japan) + four elected members with the role: settle disputes, enforce sanctions, supervise mandate, supervise disarmament plans, implement peaceful settlements. Assembly could authorized to admit new members, approve the budget, elect the elected members,

Success and failure Success : demarcated the German-Polish border; settled territorial disputes between Lithuania and Poland, Finland and Russia, Bulgaria and Greece; establishing and administering the mandate system which German colonies were entrusted to advanced countries Failure: Japan invaded Manchuria(1931) which League took no action; Italian invasion of Ethiopia(1935) ; the League neither intervened in the Spanish nor opposed Hitlers remilitarization; ct respond to the economic; US absence from League membership

The strengthening of Functional and Specialized Organization Evolving economic governance: international institutions were needed to help countries with balance of payments difficulties, provide stable exchange rates and economic assistance, and to promote nondiscrimination in and reciprocal lowering of barriers to trade.(US and British economist) Labor Issues and The International Labor Organization (ILO): To protect labor from abuses of industrialization, the labor movement grew, long factory hours, exploitation of labor, and low wages led to the formation of labor union to advance the rights of workers. Health care and World Health Organization: As outbreak of cholera, international Sanitary Conference was convened in Paris(1815); WHO (World Health Organization), UNICEF(United Nations Children Fund ) The International food regime: conceptualize the pieces of governance on food issues- Food and Agriculture Organization(FAO in 1945), World food program(WFP in 1963)

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Chapter 4

Summarize the United Nations: Centerpiece of Global Governance

Since World War II, the United Nations has been the central piece of global governance. It is the only IGO with global scope and nearly universal membership whose agenda encompasses the broadest range of governance issues. Its functions are the creation of international law, norms, and principles. There is also the creation of other IGOs within the UN system such as the UN conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) and the United Nations Drug Control Programmed (UNDCP), as well as countless other committees and programs; it has sponsored global conferences and summits. Moreover, UN Security Council is also the core of the global security system and is the primary legitimizer of actions initiated to deal with threats and aggression.At the beginning of the twenty first century, two things symbolized the UNs continuing role as the centerpiece of global governance: the unprecedented Millennium Summit and Declaration and the awarding of the 2001 Nobel Peace Prize to the UN and Secretary-General Kofi Annan. Foundations of the United Nations: The Atlantic Charter of August 14, 1941- a joint declaration by U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill calling for collaboration on economic issues and a permanent system of securitywas the foundation for the declaration by the United Nations in January 1942. Twenty-Six nations affirmed the principles of the Atlantic Charter and agreed to create a new universal organization to replace the League of Nations. The UN Charter and Key Principles also express both hopes and aspirations of the founders for a better world and the realities of what the fifty states were able to agree on in 1945. In addition, UNs primary goal of maintaining peace and security are the twin principles that l member states shall refrain from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state, or in any manner inconsistent with United Nations purposes, and settle their international disputes by peaceful means. Another major organ of the UN includes six major bodies: the Security Council, the General Assembly, the Economic and Social Council, the trusteeship Council, the International Court of Justice, and the Secretariat. Firstly, the General Assembly, like the Leagues assembly, was designed as the general debate arena where all UN members would be equally represented according to a one-state, on vote formula. Secondly, the Security Council has primary responsibility under article 24 for maintenance of international peace
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and security and the authority to act on behalf of all members of the UN. Provisions for carrying out this role are spelled out in Chapters VI and VII. Thirdly, the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) deal with coordination, as well as undertaking research and preparing reports on economic and social issues, making recommendations, preparing conventions (treaties), and convening conferences. Fourthly, the early IGO secretariats were established by the Universal Postal Union and International Telegraph Union in the 1860s and 1870s, but their members were not independent of national governments. Moreover, the secretary-general is the manager of the organization, responsible for providing leadership to the secretariat, preparing the UNs budget, submitting an annual report to the General Assembly, and overseeing studies conducted at the request of the other major organs. Fifty, the International Court of Justice (ICJ) role is providing states with an impartial body for settling legal disputes in accordance with international law and giving advisory opinions on legal questions referred to it by international agencies. Finally, the trusteeship Council was originally established to oversee the administration of the non-self-governing trust territories that carried over from the League of Nations mandate system. Persistent Organizational Problems and the Need for Reform: Like any organization, the UN has had institutional problems. The most persistent of these involve financing, coordination, management, and structural weaknesses. Firstly, Financing is the UN system itself; the UNs budget is complex. The UNs regular budget covers its administrative machinery, major organs, and their auxiliary agencies and programs. Secondly, the coordination and management is the UN system persistent. Coordination for economic and social development, however, also involves dialogues with the World Bank and IMF, more effective relationships with the specialized agencies, funds, and programs, as well as greater involvement of NGOs in policymaking processes. For instance, Globalization issues such as the HIV/AIDS epidemic particularly demand better coordination and management. Another is about the structural reform of the Security Council. For structural reform, it focus on the UNs enlarged membership virtually all groups agree that more states should be added to the Security Council. Thus, the first key issue is to increase the number of members for geographic representation and enhanced legitimacy, while maintaining a small enough size to ensure efficiency. Moreover, the second issue concerns whether or not to continue the distinction between permanent and nonpermanent members. Finally the integrating non state Actors also involvement of NGOs and private businesses with UN programs and activities

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demonstrates another area of needed reform: how to better integrate non-state actors into the UN system of operations.

Chapter 5 Regionalism Organizsations

Regionalism and globalism have both evident in the processes of developing international organizations and institutions for governance. And Cold War competition between the United States and Soviet Union involved establishment of regional security arrangements (alliances) such as NATO in 1949 countered by Warsaw Treaty Organization. Regional Organizations can be categorized along the same lines as global organizations with the general Purpose, peace and security, economic, functional, and technical. Some of them have evolved formal organizational structures with budgets, secretariats and headquarter, courts, voting procedures, elaborate patterns of meeting, extensive transparency and monitoring, formal ruled and agreements duly ratified, and binding commitments by state members. However, not all attempts at regionalism have been successful. The Roots and Dynamics of Regionalism 1- Defining a Region: regionalism has evolved the formation of interstates grouping that less than global in scope. The essentialist approach is based on the premise that there is a natural, essential core economic, security, religious, or cultural links between states and peoples that define regions. 2- Political Factors: several political factors are linked to the development of regionalism. Among them are identify, internal or external threats, domestic politics, and leadership. Identity or shared perception of being part of definable regions is a key factor in the definition of region. And there have been divided into 2 internal and external. Internal factors might include common culture and religion; external could include a common security or economic threat. A shared sense of external or internal threats can be a key political factor driving states toward closer regional cooperation. Leaderships as the key of individuals are also the one who binding agreements among the states. 3- Economic Factors: high levels of economic interdependence, most notably trade flows, the complementary of economics and policies, the availability of compensatory mechanisms for integration in developing countries, and desire to attract foreign investment through creation of a larger market are commonly linked to regional economic initiatives. Europes Regional Organizations

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Since the end of World War II, European states have established a dense network of regional organizations to address security, economic, and other needs. In the cold War years, the Iron Curtain formed a sharp boundary line between two sets of such organizations. In Eastern Europe, Soviet created the Warsaw Pact for common defense and the Council of Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON) to manage their economic relations. While in Western Europe US created the Organization for European Economic (OEEC) in 1948, and also NATO in 1949. Europe themselves created the Council of European in 1949 for multipurpose. OEEC and Council of Europe have perceived more news set of institutions while the Warsaw Pact and COMECO were failed in 1991 with the collapse of communist. NATO It is the most highly organized regional security organizations in the world that it was established in 1949. Although it began as a cold war military alliance, it has now evolved into far more than just a treaty of alliance. Since 1991, it has enlarged it membership and take on new roles in the conflicts. NATOs transformation has also involved new contributions to European and international security. Since the Global war against terrorism began in September 2001, NATO has moved to adapted to this new security environment. An important corollary to NATOs enlargement and expanding mission is its efforts to build constructive relations with Russia. Alongside the 1997 decision on enlargement, the Founding Act on Mutual Relation, Cooperation and Security between NATO and the Russian Federation was signed. \ Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) It is the broadest organization in the European security architecture, covering the entire Eurasian region with 55 member states in Europe, plus the US, Canada, and all the states of the former Soviet Union. It has evolved into an important instrument for broadly defined security cooperation and coordination, conflict prevention and resolutions. The Europe Union It is a unique entity, involving mush more commitment than any other regional organization. It encompasses aspects of both supranationlism and intergovermentalism. Regional political and economic integration in (western) Europe began in part as an effort by European leaders to find ways to overcome the national rivalries between US and USSR that led to war in the first half of the twentieth century. Security threats, economics incentive, and visions all play parts that led governments to look for ways to respond to new opportunities for promoting economic gains. The European Coal and Steel Community: it is the birth of European integration, and it is established in 1951 with six member states (France, Germany, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands) in order to boost coal and steel production, and to expand their cooperation under the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) and the European Economic Community (EEC).

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The treaty of Rome: represented recognition that the community could not develop the coal and steel sectors in isolation from other economic sectors. This treaty is to create the common market through removal of all restrictions on internal trade; a common external tariff; reduction of barriers to free movement of people, services, and capital among EU members. Single European Act (SEA): was established in 1987 by European country members in the goal of completing a single market by December 1992. Maastricht Treaty: was signed by 12 EU members that it is called for an ever closer union among the peoples of Europe, and with this treaty, Europe Community became the Europe Union. Regional Organizations in Americas Evolution of Regionalism in the Americas Simon Bolivar, who liberated many Latin America countries from Spanish colonialism, convened Congress of Panama in 1826 with the hope of creating an association of newly independent Latin America states. There are 2 approaches Hemispheric Regionalism and sub regional integration. One is the idea of hemispheric regionalism or panAmericanism, encompassing the entire Western Hemisphere. Sub regional integration has promoted regional cooperation and economic integration among Latin American countries as a strategy for development and has involved a large number of sub regional initiatives. Hemispheric Regionalism The Organization of America States (OAS) The OAS is the most comprehensive IGO in the Americas, a multifaceted institution that has became far more active since the Cold Wars end than during in its earlier history. It was established in 1948, when twenty-one countries in the hemisphere adopted the Charter of the Organization of America States. And the primary organs of the OAS include the General Assembly, the Permanent Council, the Inter-America Council for Integrate Development, and the Secretariat. And there are some goals of this OAS such as mutual security and collective defense, promoting democracy, and fostering economic and social development. Sub regional Integration NAFTA. Where the EUs founding Treaty of Rome is the model for common markets, NAFTA is a model for free trade areas. And it is Mexicos decision to enter negotiation for a free trade area with the US. Mercosur. It is an interesting illustration of what can happen in a region when longstanding rivalries are reduced. Reconciliation between Brazil and Argentina during the 1980s led to a set of bilateral agreements on nuclear issues and energy cooperation, arms control, trade, integration, and development. The Caribbean Community, Central American Common market, and the Andean Community. Indicative of the distinctive sub regions within the Western Hemisphere is the
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persistence of efforts by the many small countries in difference areas to join together for both political and economical reasons. The Caribbean Community or CARICOM, established in 1973 as the successor to the Caribbean Free Trade Association (CARIFTA), includes fifteen states in the Caribbean region, many of them tiny island states. The Central America Common Market (CACM) was originally established in 1960 by Nicaragua, Guatemala, Honduras, EL Salvador (who were later joined by Costa Rica). Like other Latin American sub regional initiatives in the 1960s, it was based around the use of regional integration as a means to expand market size while protecting local manufactures from outside competition through import-substitution policies. The Andean Community was established in 1969 by Bolivai, Colombia, Equador, Peru, and Venezuela to promote development through a common external tariff , common economic policies, and liberalization of trade within the region, and to reduce their external vulnerability and improve their position in the international economy. Asias Regional Organizations In contract to Latin America, Asian regionalism has both belated and limited. This is attributed to the persistence of Cold War divisions on the Korean peninsula and communist states in the region (china, Vietnam, and North Korea); the diversity of cultures and levels of interdependence; and the absence of the idea that Asia-Pacific may constitute the regions. Since t many ASEAN countries were European colonies and only gained their independence after World War II, this has left them strongly attached to state sovereignty and suspicious of new forms of dependency or perceived domination. ASEAN ASEAN was established in 1967 by Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia, Philippines, and Thailand to promote regional security and economic development. And the core principle of ASEAN is nonintervention in the internal affairs of other members. Up to now. ASEAN have enlarged their member to 10. Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) It was established in 1989 to facilitate intergovernmental dialogue on economic policy issues with the goal of sustaining growth and development. An important unstated purpose, especially for ASEAN members, is to support a process of confidence building among countries of the region that have no tradition of multilateral cooperation and were reluctant to create a regional organization that might compete with ASEAN or lead to domination by the US and Japan. ASIA-Pacific Security Dialogue in the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) The creation of APEC made the establishment of a counterpart forum for discussion of Pacific Rim security issues a logical next step. Still note, Washington, Tokyo, Beijing had to convinced that security multilateralism was in their best interest. Africas Regional Organizations
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The ideal of unity among the inhabitants of Africa continent was one prominent reaction to enslavement, imperialism, and colonialism of Africa by Western Europe powers from the sixteenth century through early twentieth century. From the Organization of Africa Unity (OAU) to the Africa Union (AU) Meeting in May 1964, the leaders of thirty-one newly independent African states established the organization of Africa Unity. However, it was conceived as the loose association base on voluntary cooperation, whose resolutions would carry moral rather than legal obligation. This organization was created along with goal of resolving dispute and fostering economic development. Sub regional Integration Initiatives Economic Community of West Africa States (ECOWAS). Of the African sub regional grouping, ECOWAS is the largest and most ambitious undertaking. Established in 1975 with the explicit goal of becoming a common market, ECOWAS adopted the EU approach of moving from freeze on tariffs and ending import duties to creation of a common external tariff and free movement of labor among the sixteen West African states. Southern African Development Community (SADC). It is a successor to the Southern African Development coordination Conference that was originally established to reduce economic dependency on Southern Africa when the latter was still ruled by white minority regime. Common Market for Eastern and Sothern Africa (COMESA). It was established in 1994 to replace the Preferential Trade Area for Eastern and Southern Africa, which had functioned since 1981, and its goal for its members is to take advantage of larger market size and foster economic and social cooperation. Middle East Regional Organization The League of Arab States It was formed in March 1945, three months before the UN. The Arab League is an important player in the Middle East, and it was created as a manifestation of Arab unity, in a period when Arab States had recently gained independence and were eager to assert themselves against the great powers of the time. Member states fared foreign influence if they remained completely separate, but the league charter emphasizes state sovereignty. The Gulf Cooperation Council Economically, politically, and culturally, Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates are among the most homogeneous nations in the world. The ideas of collective security merged, and the GCC was created in 1981 in response to several new threats in the region including the Iranian Revolution of 1979, the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, and the war between Iran and Iraq.
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Assessing the Consequences of Regionalism Regional organizations are among the key pieces of global governance. Although in some quarters there is a tendency to see regionalism in competition with global efforts to address issues and problems, in most areas of governance, regional organizations and activities complement global ones through either shared or overlapping responsibilities. Moreover, issues and problems may require coordination of global and regional (or sub regional) governance activities. Such is certainly true of efforts to deal with terrorism, drug trafficking, certain types of environment degradation, and security. Regional organizations vary widely in the nature of their organizational structures, the types of obligations they impose on member states, and the scope of activities from the formality and supranationalism.

Chapter 6 Non state actor Take 1: Expanding and Limiting the scope of global governance: In the space of three months in 1998 and 1999, an international treaty to ban on land mind entered to affect, and negotiate on the multilateral agreement on investment (MAI) were permanently halt. Both events underscored the emergence of transnational political process in which international NGO plays a key role. NGO were the primary player and be able to accomplish their goal more quickly and effectively thanks to the way in which the web permitted them to gather and disseminate information to the private citizens and government all over the world. Take 2 the dark side of none state actor:Terrorist group and network along with organized criminal groups such as Mafia, drug trafficker, paramilitary force are not new participant in international politics. Both state and international community wage war against them.The range of Nonestate actor (see figure 6.1) page 214 Nongovernmental organization(NGO): NGO are the voluntary organization form by individual to perform a verity of function and roles. Some are organized around a very specific issue area, while some are organized to address broad issue such as human right, peace or the environments. Yet NGO are unique organizational entity, they, like MNC, are subject to the law of the nation which they reside. Network and coalitions :Transnational network and coalition creates multilevel linkage between difference organization that each retain their separate organizational character and membership but through their linkage enhanced power, information sharing and reach. Network and coalitions was organized by two ways. One they work closely with the government like sharing staff and information. second, they bring a new idea to policy,
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debate, along with a new way of framing the issue make them comprehensible and attract the support, information and resources. Social movement:Transantional social movement work at many level, trying to influence IGOs, INGOs attentive public and elite in key country, government and the general public. Like advocacy network, they mobilize the support for change, widen public participant in international policy process attention on critical global issue, frame issue and set agenda. Global public policy network:This network differenct form other nonestate actor since it include the government agencies, IGOs, Corporation, professional group, NGOs and sometime religious group. Expert and epistemic community:This community are network of knowledge base expert professional wich spacilaize in the particular domains. It just like Global public policy network but it include only the expert group that can address the complex and technical issue. MNCS:MNCs are the special type of NGO working for profit. MNCs are the key actor but they are the target of NGO activist. Toward global civil society:Civil society include association of professional group, advocacy group, labor union, chamber of commerce, religions group, sport association and political party. The explosion of democracy in the world stimulates the demand for global civil society. The growth of none stare actor:A historical perspective on the growth of NGO influence said thatNGO were heavily involve in promoting the international cooperation Explaining the accelerate growth of none state actor participation: NGO participation is stimulated by the virtue of Globalization and interdependence issue: NGO with their ability to collect and disseminate of information, to mobilize key constituencies, and to target resources on particular goal have develop to fulfill these need, giving them significant opportunity for influence; Of Globalconference and none state actor :UN sponsor on global conference have increasingly involve participation by NGO; of Communiction revulotion has mad it possible to link individual and group. The fax most importantly internet and e-mail mad the communication possible; of The cold war ended band the spreads of democracy brought the attention to the none security issue and the democracy enhances civil society and NGO NGO role see figure 6.2 (page 229) NGO relation to IGO:Consultation in regime creation and implementation; lobbying; surveillance of governmental activity; involvement in international program implementation ; participation in decision making.

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Participation in global conference:Before most conference starting, NGO under takes considerable publicity and agenda-setting activities. NGO also take place during the actual global conference. For the future: A forum of their ownThe people millennium assembly held in 2000 is the adhoc form of such forum. EU and NGO :EU, the interactive process between the intergovernmental institution and the NGO also view as fundamental legitimacy of EU since most of the NGO based in Europe. Source of influences and the cause of decline The NGO possess only the soft power.NGO effective involve identifying what is being attempted, characteristic of the target, the strategies being used, managerial and leadership skill and the resources applied. NGO influences can be measured by their proliferation, especially in developing country, by the Nobel peace prize, NGO demand to change in agenda in government position, corporation, international institution; their impact on people and problem. However, NGO influences also limited from the sixe and diversity of NGO community; multilevel game in which NGO must be influenced to all people but it is quite hard for Government; the backlash against NGO by Government, IGO and MNCs; the cycle of the NGO that resulted from the needs of government and the capability of MGO. More over the issue of representationwho the NGO represent; A question about the democracyhoe to choose the representative; the lack of transparency are the others determinants causing the decline of NGO power. Suggest reading: Dose NGO serve public goods? Is the state sovereignty diminished because of none state actor?

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Chapter 7 The roles of States in global governance

States in Action:
States as central actors in global governance, for the international system remains fundamentally a system of sovereign states, albeit one in which nonstate actors have proliferated in numbers and influence. It is states that create IGOs and international norms and law to serve their needs for order and collective action. IGOs depend on states for funding and operational capabilities. International norms and rules are effective only to the degree that states comply with them. NGOs participation in intergovernmental conferences, humanitarian relief, development assistance, and other activities is heavily dependent on states approval.

Sates and other Actors: A complex interaction

As might be expected, patterns of global governance often appear to favor the wealthy and powerful. Yet, outcomes do not always conform to the distribution of power, for multilateral diplomacy affords numerous opportunities for building coalitions and other initiatives that can put small states or middle powers in influential leadership positions. The decision-making processes of some IGOs privilege some states more that others. Thus, the veto power of the five permanent members of the security Council gives them particular influence over outcomes while the weighted voting systems in the World Bank and IMF have a similar affect. The information IGOs and NGOs gather and analyze improves the quality of information available to governments. International meetings afford opportunities for gathering information on other governments attitudes and policies. Nondemocratic states, for example, tend to limit the presence and activities of NGOs within their territories and to oppose expanded NGO participation in global governance.

The key role of the United States

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As the dominant power after World War II, the United States played a key role in shaping the international system structure, including the establishment of many IGOs from the UN to the Bretton Woods institutions and the International Atomic Energy Agency. Over time, the US has used the UN, the specialized agencies, and the OAS for collective legitimation of its own actions, such as in Korea in 1950, Cuba in 1960, the Dominican Republic in 1965, the Iran hostage crisis in 1979. In the Security Council, the United States used its veto thirtyfour times between 1976 and 1985. The US post-Cold War support for multilateral institutions has, however, been more complex and fragile that the public rhetoric suggests. The U.S. blatant willingness to go to war against Iraq in 2003 without Security Council authorization was further evidence that the US did not consider itself bound by the obligations of the UN Charter. It also underscored the Bush administrations sharp unilateral turn.

US is becoming more crucial to other countries in the realization of their economic and security goals but the growth of American power makes the US less dependent on weaker states, and so it is easier for the US to resist or ignore these states.

Explaining U.S. IGO Relationships

Over time, U.S.-IGO relationships have depended on at least four dynamic factors. First, the relationship depends on the nature of the issues. Resistance to meeting UN financial contributions. Second, the relationship depends on the dynamics of U.S. domestic politics--- including presidential leadership(or the lack thereof), executive-legislative relations, lobbying by domestic groups, and public opinion. Third, the U.S.-IGO relationships can be partially explained by American political culture. Fourth, from the viewpoint of many both inside and outside of the US, the exceptional power that the US currently enjoys explains its unilateralist tendencies.

The US has more easily embraced the multilateralism of the international financial institutions in part because it has tremendous power over those organizations. It controls almost 20 percent of the votes on the executive board of the IMF and World Bank; both institutions are located in Washington D.C., and their staffs of economists, trained mainly in US.

Concerned about the future of the global multilateral trade system in the early 1990s, the US embraced the formation of APEC and NAFTA, both of which were also seen as sources of leverage against the EUs single market.

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The US has the power to act alone, but by acting unilaterally, the US risks undermining the very multilateral system that it established, the system that is congruent with American interests 95 percent of the time.

Other Powerful States

The US is not the only powerful state in global governance. The other permanent members of the UN Security Council ( Russia, Great Britain, France, and China ) are important actors, along with Japan and Germany, whose economic weight has given them influence on many global governance issues. The roles of these other powerful states have changed over time and have varied among regional and global institutions.

Middle-Power states
The so-called middle power states have played and continue to play an important role in both IGOs and global governance more generally. In terms of policies, they tend to pursue multilateralism, take compromise positions in disputes, and engage in coalition building to secure reform in the international system. Canada, Australia, Norway, Sweden, Argentina, Brazil, India, Nigeria, and South Africa are among the middle powers that have played uniquely facilitative roles during and after the Cold war, when disputing parties were wary of great-power involvement. Many middle powers have been frequent contributors to UN peacekeeping. Helping to train peacekeepers, setting up command structures and providing communication facilities, linguistic facility, and medical expertise.

Middle-power states have also been leaders of coalitions. India helped create the Non-Aligned Movement in the 1950s, and it used the movement to reinforce its activist multilateral agenda.

Small States, Developing States

For the large number of less developed countries and small states, IGOs, including the UN, enlarge their voice and offer opportunities to set global agendas, particularly through adroit use of coalition building and issue linkage strategies. Multilateral agreements are also valuable to weaker states in creating constraints on the dominant powers autonomy. Most small developing states have little opportunity to voice their positins in the international economic organizations. For example, in the WTO. Small states have been able to bargain with major powers for support on key issues in return of economic con cessions.

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Coalition Building
States use multilateral arenas to build coalitions to pool their power and resources to obtain better outcomes than they might by going it alone. The formation of the UN Conference on Trade and Development in 1964 led to the coalition of Latin American, African, and Asian states under the umbrella of the Group of 77, marking the divide between North and South, developed versus developing states. They can convene major conferences in other venues or even establish their own organizations in support of specific causes.

The commonwealth
The commonwealth has many personalities: international organizations, global networks, and diplomatic clubs, amongst others. Current issues on the Commonwealths agenda range from fostering democracy and promoting gender equality to the impacts of globalization, human development, and concerns of small states.

The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM)

Those who opposed the formation of Israel and supported a Palestinian homeland were joined by several states that were not allied with either the Soviet Union or the United States. The NonAligned Movement was born at the Bandung Conference in 1955.

Contact Groups and friends

Groups and coalitions, then, provide order and give coherence to a world of 191 states with an already crowded international agenda. They put issues on the table, establish negotiating positions, and engage in bargaining.

The Challenges of Multilateral Diplomacy: Negotiation Across Cultures

Differing national interests, variations in negotiating styles, language, and cultural differences can all play a role in making it difficult for states to reach agreement. Cross cultural and language differences became potentially important variable in negotiation. The potential for cultural misunderstanding getting in the way of negotiators efforts to reach a common solution is considerable. The problem of cross-cultural meanings of words can be a major problem in any negotiation, but particularly so in the multiparty, multilingual settings of most multilateral diplomacy.

Negotiating Styles
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Different countries also have different negotiating styles, largely based on the value of social relationships, status, and face. Language is a device for preserving and promoting social interests as much as a means for transmitting information.

Getting Agreement
States have adopted several techniques to facilitate agreement and cooperation. One approach has been use of consensus decision-making discussed. Consensus procedures, however, can obscure divisions and, hence, make implementation of measures problematic. They can also contribute to inertia if there is no agreement, as demonstrated in the breakdown of WTO talks in Cancun in 2003. A second technique for facilitating agreement is power steering, which involves getting agreement first among a small group of key states, then getting other states to accept their recommendation. It has been used by the five permanent members of the Security Council and by the major contributors who now power-steer the budgetary and programmatic agenda through what is known as the Geneva process. Third, leadership makes a significant difference in facilitation multilateral negotiation. Leadership may determine whether the major issues of the day in peace and security, economic wellbeing, human rights, and the environment are effectively addressed.

Chapter 8 What makes the Somalia case different from other case? In 1992 the social order in Somalia collapsed and the country are spawn by the civil wars as the country was controlled by various warring clans. The civil war and famines led to the starvation and caused thousands of Somalia people died every day. In 1992 UN impose an operation called UNISOMI to protect UN relief workers In December 3, UNITAF was imposed with the main attempt to assist humanitarian intervention 1n 1993 UNITAF was replaced by UNISOM II with the objective to disarm the operation yet after the 23 Pakistani was killed, UN was no longer partial and target General Mohammad Farah Adid for elimination. After 18 US troops were killed US decided to withdraw its whole troops and Somalia. UN peacekeeping operation cease in 1995 and could only achieved ending famine yet cannot ending the civil war in Somalia. Somalia become the symbol of the worst UN peacekeeping mission in the post cold war and is considered as the lesson for the
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next generation peacekeeping In situation of state failure, civil war and complicated humanitarian intervention. The nature of war has change. How it changed ? War is one of the motivations of creating IGOS such as the concert of European union, league of nations, UN. International law also help create order in state relation through provided rules , arbitration procedure and other peaceful settlement to settle the conflict between states peacefully. In the 20th century was seen as the building pieces of global governance for creating peace, yet the nature of conflict and the concept of security has changed. The number of conflict among states decrease while the intrastate conflict arises dramatically. Such as Somalia, Cambodia, Rwanda, Bosnia. State security to human security result from intrastate conflict such as genocide, ethnic

cleaning and famine which intervention must be given legitimacy to secure human safety ( challenge with state sovereignty )

What are the dominant norm regarding the use of force in international Politics? The use of force to resort to war against a territorial integrity and political independence entity are condemned which all states are encouraged to resolve the war peacefully The use of force for territorial annexation are also fully condemned for example the Iraq s invasion on Kuwait in 1991 The use of force for self-protection is accepted but the response must be proportional to the attack. The use of force to promote self-determination, to replace illegitimate government yet it is also condemned in some cases such as US invasion Iraq in 2003 The use of force to protect human security from ethnic cleaning, massacre and genocide are also the dominant use force in International politics, yet there is still debates on this issues as the controversial case over state sovereignty . however the use of force of humanitarian
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intervention is often authorized by international community as the Kofi Ann give a speech on the debate on sovereignty and intervention : the UN charter make itself clear that state sovereignty cannot stand in the way of aggression or threat to peace or stats obligation to meet their committment under charter. What are the most common mechanisms for settlement of disputes? There are various norms and mechanism in preventing, ending and resolving the dispute according to the situation itself. The following are the norm of dispute settlement : Preventive diplomacy Is actions to prevent dispute from arising between parties, to prevent existing disputes for escalating into conflicts and to limit the spread of the latter when they occur. Mediation is a mode of negotiation in which a third party helps the parties to find a solution which they cannot find by themselves. It is very much a political process that may involve persuading the parties to accept the mediation in the first place or include the multiple mediators over times. Adjudication and arbitration Involve referring a dispute to an impartial third-party tribunal for binding decision. These methods emphasize finding the resolution based in international law rather than political/diplomatic formula, but can only be used when the state give their consent to submit the dispute and to be bound by the outcome. Even state are reluctant to submit the dispute and give up such control to third-party yet state find it important to solve the conflict through certain types of disputes . Collective security, enforcement, and Sanction Collective security : is based on the conviction that peace is indivisible and all state have a collective security interest in countering aggression whenever or wherever it may appear. Aggressor will be deterred by the collection force mobilized through the international organization. In examining the collective security and enforcement, one should look briefly in UN experience in Korea in the 1950s and Gulf war in 1991.
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When North korea invaded south korea in 1950, UN authorization for US to led troops to defend South Korea and 15 states had contributed their forces. Iraqs invasion of Kuwait triggered the unprecedented effort of UN to led united forces under the commander of US against Iraq. Enforcement and Sanction Sanction has been a very favorite tool in states effort to get other states to do what they want. Sanction is also a cheaper and easier than arm force yet the not so effective one as the sanction cannot close off the alternative sources of market and sources of supply of the target states. Sanctions are believed to have political effect on the offending state and its people by imposing the economic cost and other punishment such as diplomatic isolation. However many sanctions so far has been cancelled since it provide potential impacts such as humanitarian crisis on the people not the government. Then in sanctions mostly put directly toward the official government rather the civilian (smart sanction). 3 main challenges to sanction Large-scale negative on humanitarian effect generally on the imposed trade sanction such as on Iraq, Yugoslavia, and Haiti Targeting the economic sanction on a country does not necessarily give economic pain on government leader and the prospect for compliance is low unless it does directly effect to government leaders In intrastate conflict and failed states, generalized sanctions were largely ineffective against the leaders of armed fractions . Why sanctions To counter aggression ( Iraq) To restore democratically elected government ( Haiti) To end war( Angola) To response to human right violation ( Burma ) To bring suspected terrorist to justice ( Afghanistan )
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Peace keeping Defined by UN as the operation involving military personnel but without enforcement power undertaken by UN to help restore or maintain peace in the area of conflict. Firs peacekeeping generation: traditional and need consent from the conflict parties in order to intervene Second generation: complex peacekeeping and peace building operations designed to implement a peace agreement and build condition for stable, long term peace ( Cambodia ) . Third generation: bluer the line between with enforcement Absence of consent from all party Need greater use of force to protect civilian and cease fire to make peace Take side with one party and against another parties ( can be pro government or prorebellion ) Cost more and have much risk for peacekeepers as they need muscle and military power How to evaluate a success or failure in Peacekeeping? What define success? End to fighting ? Political solution or form of peace? Period of year without renewed of war? Various types of operations should be evaluated based on different criteria 1st generation: might be assessed in terms of their ability to stop the fighting 2nd generation: ___________________________________ on arm control verification and election supervision Be sure that its success will be mainly defined by its objective Arms control and Disarmament The concept of disarmament, which includes, controlling and reducing the weapons for waging war, has been long a prominent place in the proposal to promote peace. So far since 1960s there have been a number on achievement on arm control especially on unconventional

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weapons such as Atomic bombs, chemical and biological booms, nuclear weapons and weapon of mass destruction There are many effort to create international rules and agreement limiting armaments especially the Hague conference in 1899 with vague resolution to urge state to reduce military budget .None state actor such as, NGOS, individual, transnational movement also strife to push for arm control and reducing weapons.

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