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# EXPERIMENT Study of Pulse Width Modulation and Demodulation.

OBJECTIVE The objective of this experiment is to study the circuit action of Pulse Width Modulation and Demodulation over Fiber Optic Digital Link. THEORY : PULSE WIDTH MODULATION This technique of modulation controls the variation of duty cycle of the square wave ( with some fundamental frequency ) according to the input modulating signal. Here the amplitude variation of the modulating signal is reflected in to ON periodvariation of square wave. Hence, it is also called as technique of V to T conversion. The circuit is divided in to two stages. First one, is the circuit built around Op-Amp 741. This is unity gain non-inverting amplifier designed as level shifter. When there is no input signal, the output of the amplifier simply follows the voltage at inverting input terminal, with inverting polarity. This is necessary because PWM chip requires only positive polarity signal. Now the input signal fed to noninverting terminal overrides this shifted voltage. This signal is now fed to second part of the circuit. This is specialized for regulating pulse width modulation. This primarily consists of one fixed frequency oscillator whose frequency is decided by timing register Rt and capacitor Ct. The regulation is simply given by formula: F = 1.18 / (Rt x Ct) Where F is in Khz, R is in K Ohm and C is in micro F. Also an error amplifier, comparator and flipflop are important functioning parts internal to the IC. When no input signal is given to the error amplifier the output oscillates with the same frequency decide by the external R & C network. When input is given to the error amplifier, a linear charging of the Ct results in a linear voltage ramp, which is then fed to the comparator. This provides the linear control of the output pulse width. The amplifier output is compared with the linear charging voltage at Ct, resulting in the modulated phase at the output of high gain comparator. Thus we get the PWM. For more details refer to SG 3524 data sheets. PULSE WIDTH MODULATION The input signal is pulse width modulated, so the ON time of the signal is changing according to the modulating signal. In this demodulation technique during the ON time of PWM signal one counter is enabled. At the end of ON time counter outputs a particular count, which directly corresponds to the amplitude of i/p signal. Then this count is fed to a DAC. The o/p of DAC corresponds to the amplitude of i/p signal. Thus train of varying pulse widths gives varying count values and accordingly DAC gives o/ps which is directly proportional to amplitude of i/p signal. This is then filtered to get original signal. Thus at the output we get the original modulating signal extracted from PWM wave. EQUIPMENTS Kit Fiber link-A 20 MHz Dual Channel Oscilloscope 1 MHz Function Generator 1 Meter Fiber Cable PROCEDURE 1. Slightly unscrew the cap of SFH756V. Do not remove the cap from the connector. Once the cap is loosened, insert the fiber into the cap. Now tighten the cap by screwing it back. 2. Connect the power supply with proper polarity. While connecting this, ensure that the power supply is off. Keep port P8 at minimum position ( fully anti clockwise). 3. Make the jumper settings as shown in the jumper block diagram. 4. Connect the signal generator between the PWM I/P and GND Ports. 5. Keep the signal generator in sine wave mode & select the frequency 1-10 Hz with amplitude

of 1.5V P-P (Max) for proper observation of phenomena. 6. Switch on power supply & signal generator. Keep switch near power connector at lower position. 7. Observe PWM signal at PWM O/P Port. Variation in width of square wave is kept very low. If the frequency is high then due to persistence of vision, only blurt band in the waveform will be observed. If the signal generator is OFF, only square wave of fundamental frequency and fixed ON time will be observed and no width variations are present. 8. Short the following ports with the links provided: PWM O/P and BUF I/P, BUF O/P and TRANSMITTER I/P. 9. Connect the other end of fiber to detector SFH551V very carefully as per the instructions in step 1. 10. Observe the received signal over fiberat TTl O/P. It should be exactly similar to the sugnal available at PWM O/P port. 11. Short TTL O/P to DEMOD I/P (PWM) ports. 12. Vary the frequency of I/P signal (not more than 4 KHz) & observe the demodulated sine wave at DEMOD SIGNAL port. 13. Short DEMOD SIGNAL to FILTER I/P port and observe O/P at FILTER O/P port.

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