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Mathematics-I Problem Sheet Taylors and Maclaurins theorem, indeterminate forms, concavity and convexity of a curve, points of inexion,

asymptotes and curvature.

1. Verify Maclaurins innite series expansion of the following functions on the indicated intervals: (i) log(1 + 2x) = 2x (ii) tan1 x = x (iii) sin x = x
x3 3! x3 3 22 x2 2 x5 5

23 x3 3

1 ... for 2 < x 1 . 2

+
x5 5!

... for 1 x 1.

... for all x R.

2. Evaluate the following limits: sin x x0 x (ii) lim xx (i) lim


x0+ 1/x

(iii) lim

3x+1 3x x 3x + 1 3 2n (iv) lim 1 + n n 2 tan x 1/x (v) lim x0 x cosh x cos x (vi) lim x0 x sin x

3. Prove that: (i) lim a1 1 + n + a2 2 + n + a3 3 + n = 0 where a1 , a2 , a3 R and a1 + a2 + a3 = 0


n

(ii) lim x
x

(x a1 )(x a2 )...(x an ) =
1/x

1 (a1 + a2 + ... + an ) n

(iii) lim

a1

1/x

+ a2

+ ... + an n

1/x

= a1 a2 ...an a sin x sin 2x is nite. Find the limit. tan3 x aex + bex + 2 sin x = 2. x0 sin x + x cos x
x0

4. Find the value of a such that lim

x0

5. Find the values of a and b such that lim

6. Find the values of a and b such that lim

x(1 + a cos 2x) + b sin 2x = 1. x3

7. Find the values of a, b and c such that lim

x(a + b cos x) + c sin x 1 = . 5 x0 x 60

8. Show that the curve y = 3x5 40x3 + 3x 20 is concave upwards for 2 < x < 0 and 2 < x < , but convex upwards for < x < 2 and 0 < x < 2. Also show that x = 2, 0, 2 are its points of inexion. 9. Find the range of values of x for which the curve y = x4 6x3 + 12x2 + 5x + 7 is concave upwards and downwards. Find also point of inexion if any. 1

10. Find the points of inexion on the curve (2 1)r = a2 . 11. If 1 , 2 be the radii of curvature at the ends of two conjugate diameters of the ellipse prove that 1
2/3 x2 a2

+ y2 = 1, b

+ 2

2/3

(ab)2/3 = a2 + b2 .

12. Find the radius of curvature at the points indicated: (a) x2/3 + y 2/3 = a2/3 : (x, y) (b) x3 + y 3 = 3axy : ( 3a , 3a ) 2 2 13. Find the equation of the cube which has the same asymptotes as the curve x3 6x2 y + 11xy 2 6y 3 + x + y + 1 = 0 and which touches the axis of y at the origin and goes through the points (3, 2). 14. Find the asymptotes of the following curves: (a) 2x3 x2 y 2xy 2 + y 3 4x2 + 8xy 4x + 1 = 0. (b) x3 x2 y xy 2 + y 3 + 2x2 4y 2 + 2xy + x + y + 1 = 0. (c) x =
t2 +1 t2 1 ,

y=

t2 t1 .