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TRANSMISSION SYSTEM Electric-power transmission is the bulk transfer of electrical energy, from generating power plants to electrical substations

located near demand centers. This is distinct from the local wiring between highvoltage substations and customers, which is typically referred to as electric power distribution. Transmission lines, when interconnected with each other, become transmission networks.

Most transmission lines use high-voltage three-phase alternating current (AC), although single phase AC is sometimes used in railway electrification systems. High-voltage direct-current (HVDC) technology is used for greater efficiency in very long distances (typically hundreds of miles (kilometres), or in submarine power cables (typically longer than 30 miles (50 km). HVDC links are also used to stabilize against control problems in large power distribution networks where sudden new loads or blackouts in one part of a network can otherwise result in synchronization problems and cascading failures. Electricity is transmitted at high voltages (110 kV or above) to reduce the energy lost in longdistance transmission. Power is usually transmitted through overhead power lines. Underground power transmission has a significantly higher cost and greater operational limitations but is sometimes used in urban areas or sensitive locations.

Overhead transmission
Main article: Overhead power line High-voltage overhead conductors are not covered by insulation. The conductor material is nearly always an aluminium alloy, made into several strands and possibly reinforced with steel strands. Copper was sometimes used for overhead transmission but aluminium is lighter, yields only marginally reduced performance, and costs much less. Overhead conductors are a commodity supplied by several companies worldwide. Improved conductor material and shapes are regularly used to allow increased capacity and modernize transmission circuits. Conductor sizes range from 12 mm2 (#6 American wire gauge) to 750 mm2 (1,590,000 circular mils area), with varying resistance and current-carrying capacity. Thicker wires would lead to a relatively small increase in capacity due to the skin effect, that causes most of the current to flow close to the surface of the wire. Because of this current limitation, multiple parallel cables (called bundle conductors) are used when higher capacity is needed. Bundle conductors are also used at high vo Today, transmission-level voltages are usually considered to be 110 kV and above. Lower voltages such as 66 kV and 33 kV are usually considered subtransmission voltages but are occasionally used on long lines with light loads. Voltages less than 33 kV are usually used for distribution. Voltages above 230 kV are considered extra high voltage and require different designs compared to equipment used at lower voltages. Since overhead transmission wires depend on air for insulation, design of these lines requires minimum clearances to be observed to maintain safety. Adverse weather conditions of high wind and low temperatures can lead to power outages. Wind speeds as low as 23 knots (43 km/h) can permit conductors to encroach operating clearances, resulting in a flashover and loss of supply.[2]

Oscillatory motion of the physical line can be termed gallop or flutter depending on the frequency and amplitude of oscillation.

Underground transmission
Main article: Undergrounding Electric power can also be transmitted by underground power cables instead of overhead power lines. Underground cables take up less right-of-way than overhead lines, have lower visibility, and are less affected by bad weather. However, costs of insulated cable and excavation are much higher than overhead construction. Faults in buried transmission lines take longer to locate and repair. Underground lines are strictly limited by their thermal capacity, which permits less overload or re-rating than overhead lines. Long underground cables have significant capacitance, which may reduce their ability to provide useful power to loads.

The amount of power that can be sent over a transmission line is limited. The origins of the limits vary depending on the length of the line. For a short line, the heating of conductors due to line losses sets a thermal limit. If too much current is drawn, conductors may sag too close to the ground, or conductors and equipment may be damaged by overheating. For intermediate-length lines on the order of 100 km (62 mi), the limit is set by the voltage drop in the line. For longer AC lines, system stability sets the limit to the power that can be transferred. Approximately, the power flowing over an AC line is proportional to the sine of the phase angle of the voltage at the receiving and transmitting ends. Since this angle varies depending on system loading and generation, it is undesirable for the angle to approach 90 degrees. Very approximately, the allowable product of line length and maximum load is proportional to the square of the system voltage. Series capacitors or phase-shifting transformers are used on long lines to improve stability. High-voltage direct current lines are restricted only by thermal and voltage drop limits, since the phase angle is not material to their operation.

Up to now, it has been almost impossible to foresee the temperature distribution along the cable route, so that the maximum applicable current load was usually set as a compromise between understanding of operation conditions and risk minimization. The availability of industrial Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) systems that measure in real time temperatures all along the cable is a first step in monitoring the transmission system capacity. This monitoring solution is based on using passive optical fibers as temperature sensors, either integrated directly inside a high voltage cable or mounted externally on the cable insulation. A solution for overhead lines is also available. In this case the optical fiber is integrated into the core of a phase wire of overhead transmission lines (OPPC). The integrated Dynamic Cable Rating (DCR) or also called Real

Time Thermal Rating (RTTR) solution enables not only to continuously monitor the temperature of a high voltage cable circuit in real time, but to safely utilize the existing network capacity to its maximum. Furthermore it provides the ability to the operator to predict the behavior of the transmission system upon major changes made to its initial operating conditions.
DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM Issues: Open access Distribution losses Efficiency improvement Energy efficiency & demand side mgmt. Tariff rationalization

Problems with India's power sector

India's electricity sector faces many issues. Some are:

Government giveaways such as free electricity for farmers, partly to curry political favor, have depleted the cash reserves of state-run electricity-distribution system. This has financially crippled the distribution network, and its ability to pay for power to meet the demand. This situation has been worsened by government departments of India that do not pay their bills. Shortages of fuel: despite abundant reserves of coal, India is facing a severe shortage of coal. The country isn't producing enough to feed its power plants. Some plants do not have reserve coal supplies to last a day of operations. India's monopoly coal producer, state-controlled Coal India, is constrained by primitive mining techniques and is rife with theft and corruption; Coal India has consistently missed production targets and growth targets. Poor coal transport infrastructure has worsened these problems. To expand its coal production capacity, Coal India needs to mine new deposits. However, most of India's coal lies under protected forests or designated tribal lands. Any mining activity or land acquisition for infrastructure in these coalrich areas of India, has been rife with political demonstrations, social activism and public interest litigations. The giant new offshore natural gas field has delivered less fuel than projected. India faces a shortage of natural gas. Hydroelectric power projects in India's mountainous north and northeast regions have been slowed down by ecological, environmental and rehabilitation controversies, coupled with public interest litigations. India's nuclear power generation potential has been stymied by political activism since the Fukushima disaster in Japan. Average transmission, distribution and consumer-level losses exceeding 30%. Over 300 million people in India have no access to electricity. Of those who do, almost all find electricity supply intermittent and unreliable.

Lack of clean and reliable energy sources such as electricity is, in part, causing about 800 million people in India to continue using traditional biomass energy sources namely fuelwood, agricultural waste and livestock dung for cooking and other domestic needs.[13] Traditional fuel combustion is the primary source of indoor air pollution in India, causes between 300,000 to 400,000 deaths per year and other chronic health issues. Indias coal-fired, oil-fired and natural gas-fired thermal power plants are inefficient and offer significant potential for greenhouse gas (CO2) emission reduction through better technology. Compared to the average emissions from coal-fired, oil-fired and natural gas-fired thermal power plants in European Union (EU-27) countries, Indias thermal power plants emit 50 to 120 percent more CO2 per kWh produced.[68]


A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an electromagnet to operate a switching mechanism mechanically, but other operating principles are also used. Relays are used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a low-power signal (with complete electrical isolation between control and controlled circuits), or where several circuits must be controlled by one signal. The first relays were used in long distance telegraph circuits, repeating the signal coming in from one circuit and re-transmitting it to another. Relays were used extensively in telephone exchanges and early computers to perform logical operations. A type of relay that can handle the high power required to directly control an electric motor or other loads is called a contactor. Solid-state relays control power circuits with no moving parts, instead using a semiconductor device to perform switching. Relays with calibrated operating characteristics and sometimes multiple operating coils are used to protect electrical circuits from overload or faults. In modern electric power systems these functions are performed by digital instruments still called "protective relays".

Protective relays
Main article: protective relay

For protection of electrical apparatus and transmission lines, electromechanical relays with accurate operating characteristics were used to detect overload, short-circuits, and other faults. While many such relays remain in use, digital devices now provide equivalent protective functions.

Relays are used to and for:

Amplify a digital signal, switching a large amount of power with a small operating power. Some special cases are:

A telegraph relay, repeating a weak signal received at the end of a long wire Controlling a high-voltage circuit with a low-voltage signal, as in some types of modems or audio amplifiers, o Controlling a high-current circuit with a low-current signal, as in the starter solenoid of an automobile, Detect and isolate faults on transmission and distribution lines by opening and closing circuit breakers (protection relays),

o o

A DPDT AC coil relay with "ice cube" packaging

Isolate the controlling circuit from the controlled circuit when the two are at different potentials, for example when controlling a mains-powered device from a low-voltage switch. The latter is often applied to control office lighting as the low voltage wires are easily installed in partitions, which may be often moved as needs change. They may also be controlled by room occupancy detectors to conserve energy, Logic functions. For example, the boolean AND function is realised by connecting normally open relay contacts in series, the OR function by connecting normally open contacts in parallel. The change-over or Form C contacts perform the XOR (exclusive or) function. Similar functions for NAND and NOR are accomplished using normally closed contacts. The Ladder programming language is often used for designing relay logic networks. o The application of Boolean Algebra to relay circuit design was formalized by Claude Shannon in A Symbolic Analysis of Relay and Switching Circuits o Early computing. Before vacuum tubes and transistors, relays were used as logical elements in digital computers. See electro-mechanical computers such as ARRA (computer), Harvard Mark II, Zuse Z2, and Zuse Z3. o Safety-critical logic. Because relays are much more resistant than semiconductors to nuclear radiation, they are widely used in safety-critical logic, such as the control panels of radioactive waste-handling machinery. Time delay functions. Relays can be modified to delay opening or delay closing a set of contacts. A very short (a fraction of a second) delay would use a copper disk between the armature and moving blade assembly. Current flowing in the disk maintains magnetic field for a short time, lengthening release time. For a slightly longer (up to a minute) delay, a dashpot is used. A dashpot is a piston filled with fluid that is allowed to escape

slowly. The time period can be varied by increasing or decreasing the flow rate. For longer time periods, a mechanical clockwork timer is installed. Vehicle battery isolation. A 12v relay is often used to isolate any second battery in cars, 4WDs, RVs and boats. Switching to a standby power supply.

Over current Directional Distance

Rural distribution segment in India is characterized by wide dispersal of net work in large areas with long lines, high cost of supply, low paying capacity of the people, large number of subsidized customers, un-metered flat rate supply to farmers, non metering due to high cost and practical difficulties, low load and low rate of load growth. Consumer mix in rural areas is mainly agriculture and residential. Issues in the Electricity Distribution Sector in India The problems in Distribution sector have accumulated over the years mainly due to lack of investment, commercial orientation, excessive T&D losses, distorted tariff policies etc. Following are the key issues / key factors effecting overall performance of the distribution sector: 1. State Government related issues Uncertain commitment of State Governments is key impediment to the ongoing reform process. This includes delay in unbundling and restructuring of State Electricity Boards, minimal/no financial support to unbundled utilities during transition period, inadequate financial support for providing subsidised power to domestic and agricultural consumers, inadequate administrative support in curbing theft of power etc. Frequently changing policies of the State Governments in regard to subsidies/free power to farmers adversely affecting the revenue recovery and cost coverage of utilities. 2. Regulatory process related issues SERCs are inadequately staffed with poor infrastructure. Due to lack of competency and resources in Discoms, tariff filings are often delayed. In several cases, SERC asks Discoms to revise their filings on account of data gaps or improper information. There is no central repository of data in electronic form which leads to delay in filing petitions and responding to queries from the regulator. The distribution licensees have not been able to fully implement regulations and directives due to various reasons like lack of skilled human resources, resource constraints or inadequate training/awareness. 3. Corporate governance and institutional issues Most of the distribution companies formed as a result of unbundling of SEB are still not fully autonomous. In many cases, unbundling is limited to operational and technical segregation. Segregation of accounts, cash flow, human resources is not complete. Successor companies are highly dependent on their parent company (i.e. residual SEB or single buyer/trade co or Transco) for financials/cash flow, human resources, investment decisions and other administrative matters and therefore, the focus on efficiency improvement from respective entities is lacking. Due to in-adequate network expansion commensurate with load growth, many power transformers, distribution transformers, 33kV lines and 11kV feeders are overloaded. Reinforcement of existing network in the form of new transformers, new lines and augmentation of existing transformers and lines is poor. Most of the distribution networks in India are quite old which results in to reduced reliability,

increased R&M expenses and poor quality of supply. The system also suffers low HT/LT ratio. The consumer awareness about Demand Side Management (DSM) is limited which results in to higher consumption and increased losses. DSM initiatives such as local reactive power compensation, use of energy efficient devices, Time of Day tariff, use of renewable sources etc. are lacking. 4. Commercial issues Commercial losses are primarily due to improper energy accounting and billing processes, faulty metering, under-billing, theft and pilferage of energy and lack of accountability within the organization. Commercial losses are estimated at about Rs. 26,000 crore during 2000-01 and theft of electricity is estimated to cost the country at about Rs. 20,000 crore per year (Source: MoP). The chart shows overall T&D losses in India 5. Operational issues Due to inadequate metering and data collection system in place, utilities have not been able to conduct energy audit, which is crucial for any energy business. Discoms do not have proper load monitoring and control mechanisms (e.g. SCADA, Distribution Control Centre, telecommunications etc.), which results in to haphazard control of the demand and often leads to loss of revenue and inconvenience to the consumers. 6. Human resources and training issues In many of the state owned utilities, recruitment has been either stopped or restricted since last 15 years. Average age of employee in most SEBs is more than 50 years. Lack of fresh talent and domain expertise (e.g. in area of IT, communication, SCADA) impedes development of the sector and efficiency improvement. Induction of new technology in the field and office level also needs proper training for staff for efficient handling. Discoms need to undertake training need analysis and roll out training programmes for employees working in different areas. In a typical SEB, ratio of field staff to support/office staff is 54:46. However, customer facing staff is inadequate. Also, ratio of meter readers to consumers on the other hand ranges from 1:3000 to 1:7000. 7. Technological issues Many of the distribution utilities in India are still lacking most basic requirements consumer database and asset database which can be addressed through IT and communication solutions. Utilities do not have complete record of all consumers, which results in to direct revenue loss. Most utilities maintain manual records of consumers (in the form of register) especially in rural areas. Electromechanical meters, manual reading of meters, manual bill preparation and delivery and inadequate bill collection facilities result in to overall delay in revenue collection and revenue leakage. Conventional complaint handling process results in delayed redressal and increased dissatisfaction among customers.Regular monitoring and testing of critical assets such as 11kV feeders, 11/0.4kV distribution transformers and 415V feeders etc. are very important in ensuring reliable supply. Monitoring of consumer energy metering systems is critical to overall revenue. Asset database is crucial in efficient management of assets and claiming depreciation under annual revenue requirement. Almost all distribution companies do not have real-time monitoring system and typically use phone or radio communication for demand management. Most Discoms do not have distribution control centre which can manage load shedding and instructions from SLDC.

Discoms need to plan implementation of SCADA in long term keeping in view capital cost and benefits.