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AJAY KUMAR GARG ENGG. COLLEGE, GHAZIABAD DEPARTMENT SEMESTER SUB.

NAME MCA :5TH :MOBILE COMPUTING COURSE MCA SECTION (A+B) SUB CODE MCA-505(4)

25 Questions with Solutions (unit wise) UNIT 1 Ques 1. Write short note on : 1) GSM 2) AMPS 3) Mobile transparent vs. mobile aware computing Ans.1 Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) GSM is a digital cellular system developed by Groups Special Mobile of Conference Europeans des Postes et Telecommunications (CEPT and its successor European Telecommunications Standard Institute (ETSI). GSM combines time division multiple access (TDMA and FDMA. With TDMA, the radio hardware in the base station can be shared among multiple users. In GSM the frequency carrier is divided into eight timeslots where the speech coding rate is 13 Kbps. In a GSM base station, every pair of radio transceiver-receiver supports eight voice channels, whereas an AMPS base station needs one such pair for every voice channel. The GSM MSs control their has been evolved into Enhanced Data Rate for GSM Evolution (EDGE with variable data rate link adaptation. EDGE utilizes highly spectrum- efficient modulation for bit rates higher than existing GSM technology. The GSM development process was similar to that of AMPS, except that no large scale trial was conducted. GSM Architecture: In this architecture, mobile station (MS) Communicates with a base station system (BSS) through the radio interface. The BSS is connected to the network and switching subsystem (NSS) by communicating with a mobile switching center using the A interface. The MS consists of two parts the subscriber identity module (SIM) and the mobile equipment (ME). In a broader definition, the MS also includes a connected to the ME. The SIM is protected by a personal identity number (PIN) between four to eight digits in length, The PIN is initially loaded by the network operator at the subscription time. This PIN can be deactivated or changed by the user. 2)Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS) The analog wireless transmission standard (technology) deployed in the 1980s in the United States and Canada. AMPS operate at 80MHz. AMPS were the first cellular system, which was developed during the 1970s by Bell Lab. From 1974 to 1978, a large scale AMPS trial was conducted in Chicago. Commercial AMPS service has been available since 1983. It is based on frequency division multiple access (FDMA), AMPS was designed as the 824-894 MHz bands is allocated for AMPS. This frequency, that is, 832 downlinks and 832 uplinks. In AMPS, the typical frequency reuse plan employs either a 12-group frequency cluster using omni directional antennas or a 7-group cluster using three sectors per base

stations. Thus, there are about 5channels per cell. 3) Mobile Transparent Vs Mobile-Aware Computing The attributes of the typical stationary environment have guided the development of classical distributed computing techniques for building clientserver applications. These applications are usually unaware of the actual state of the environment; therefore, they make certain implicit assumptions about the location and availability of resources. Such mobile-transparent applications can be used unmodified in mobile environments by having the system shield or hide the differences between the stationary and mobile environments from applications. Coda and Little Work use this approach in providing a file system interface to applications. These systems consist of a local proxy forsome service (the file system) running on the mobile host and providing the standard service interface to the application, while attempting to mitigate any adverse effects of the mobile environment. The proxy on the mobile host cooperates with a remote server running on a well-connected, stationary host. This mobile-transparent approach simplifies mobile applications, but sacrifices functionality and performance. Although the system hides mobility issues from the application, it usually requires manual intervention by the user. The alternative to hiding environmental information from applications is to expose information and involve applications and users in decision making. This alternative yields the class of mobile-aware applications. In the above case, a mobile-aware application can store not only the value of a write, but also the operation associated with the write. That operation can include any relevant context. Storing the operation allows the application to use application specific semantic and contextual information; for example, it allows for on-the-fly dynamic construction of conflict avoidance and conflict resolution procedures. The mobileaware argument can be viewed as applying the end-to-end argument (Communication functionality can be implemented only with the knowledge and help of the application standing at the endpoints of the communications system.) to mobile applications. The mobile-aware argument does not require that every application uses its own, ad hoc approach to mobile computing. The mobile-aware applications share common design goals, they can share design features and techniques. The Rover toolkit provides such a mobile-aware application programming interface. Ques 2. What is Bluetooth? Where it is used? Also describe the general format of packets packet header in Bluetooth technology? Ans Bluetooth is a wireless protocol utilizing short-range communications technology facilitating data transmission over short distances from fixed and/or mobile devices, creating wireless personal area networks (PANs). The intent behind the development of Bluetooth was the creation of a single digital wireless protocol, capable of connecting multiple devices and overcoming issues arising from synchronization of these devices. Bluetooth uses a very robust radio technology called frequency hopping spread spectrum. It chops up the data being sent and transmits chunks of it on up to 75 different frequencies. In its basic mode, the modulation is Gaussian frequency shift keying (GFSK). It can achieve a gross data rate of 1 Mb/s. Bluetooth provides a way to connect and exchange information between devices such as mobile phones, telephones, laptops, personal computers, printers, GPS receivers, digital cameras, and video

game consoles over a secure, globally unlicensed Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) 2.4 GHz short-range radio frequency bandwidth. The Bluetooth specifications are developed and licensed by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG). The Bluetooth SIG consists of companies in the areas of telecommunication, computing, networking, and consumer electronics. Uses Bluetooth is a standard and communications protocol primarily designed for low power consumption, with a short range (power-class-dependent1 meter, 1meters, 10meters) based on low-cost transceiver microchips in each device.[2] Bluetooth enables these devices to communicate with each other when they are in range. The devices use a radio communications system, so they do not have to be in line of sight of each other, and can even be in other rooms, as long as the received transmission is powerful enough. Bluetooth device class indicates the type of device and the supported services of which the information is transmitted during the discovery process. Class Maximum Permitted PowermW(dBm) Range(approximate) Class 1 100-mW (20-dBm) ~10meters Class 2 2.5-mW (4-dBm) ~1meters Class 3 1-mW (0-dBm) ~1 meter In most cases the effective range of class 2 devices is extended if they connect to a class 1 transceiver, compared to pure class 2 network. This is accomplished by the higher sensitivity and transmission power of Class 1 devices. Version Data Rate Version 1.2 1 Mbit/s Version 2.+ EDR 3 Mbit/s WiMedia Alliance(proposed) 53 - 48Mbit/s Bluetooth profiles Main articleBluetooth profile In order to use Bluetooth, a device must be compatible with certain Bluetooth profiles. These define the possible applications and uses of the technology. List of applications A typical Bluetooth mobile phone headset Nokia BH-208 headset internals More prevalent applications of Bluetooth include: Wireless control of and communication between a mobile phone and a handsfree headset. This was one of the earliest applications to become popular. Wireless networking between PCs in a confined space and where little bandwidth is required. Wireless communications with PC input and output devices, the most common being the mouse, keyboard and printer. Transfer of files between devices with OBEX. Transfer of contact details, calendar appointments, and reminders between devices with OBEX. Replacement of traditional wired serial communications in test equipment, GPS receivers, medical equipment, bar code scanners, and traffic control devices. For controls where infrared was traditionally used. Sending small advertisements from Bluetooth enabled advertising hoardings to other, discoverable, Bluetooth devices. Two seventh-generation game consoles, Nintendo's Wii[3] and Sony's PlayStation 3 use Bluetooth for their respective wireless controllers. Dial-up internet access on personal computer or PDA using a data-capable

mobile phone as a modem. Ques 3 What are the main reasons for using Cellular System? Describe the Dynamic channel allocation in cellular system also. Ans:-A cellular system is a radio network system ,which is made up of a numberof Radio Cells(or just Cells) each served by fixed transmitter ,known as base Station. There are reasons for using a Cellular system, but some of them are given below1-Increased capacity 2-Reduced Power usage 3-Better Coverage 4-Better Bandwidth utilization 5-Frequency reusability 6-Better performance 7-Paging Scheme 8- Handover facility Increased capacity:- In cellular system , a network area is divide into cells and division of a network area into smaller size i.e. cell based on physical location can be easily done. And each cell will have a base station and more cells means more base stations and each B.S. having more Mobile units ,resulting in increased capacity. Reduced Power usages:-Each cell is not so much large in geographical area , so less power is required for signal transmission. Better Coverage:- A small network area with highly capable base station will provide better coverage to mobile units. Frequency Reusability:- The increased capacity in cellular n/w ,comes from the fact that the same frequency can be revised in different area for a completely different transmission. This feature will increase bandwidth utilization and will increase the performance of cellular system. Paging Scheme :- In cellular system the most important use of broadcast information is to set up channels for one to one communication between mobile transceiver and base station. Handover facility- This facility allows to keep tacking of distributed transceiver during while that is mobile. Dynamic Channel Allocation :- An important problem in the operation of a cellular telephone system is how to efficiently use the available bandwidth to provide good service to as many customers as possible. This problem is becoming critical with the rapid growth in the use of cellular telephones. Ques 4 Why Wireless LANs are used? Describe the merits and demerits of it. Ans. Wireless Local Area Network (LAN) is a local area data network without wires. Mobile users can access information and Network resources through Wireless LANs as they attend meetings, collaborate with other users or move to other locations in the premises. Wireless LAN is not a replacement of wired Infrastructure. It is implemented as an extension to a Wired LAN within a building or Campus. TYPES OF WIRELESS LANS 802.11

In June 1997, the IEEE finalized the initial specification for Wireless LANs, IEEE 802.11. It specifies a 2.4 GHz frequency band with data rate of 1Mbps and 2Mbps. 2. Hyper LAN The current version Hyper LAN/1 works at the 5 GHz band and offers up to 24Mbps bandwidth. The next version Hyper LAN/2 will support a bandwidth of 54 Mbps with QoS support. Home RF This standard will offer interoperability between PC and Consumer Electronic devices within the home. The Shared Wireless Access Protocol (SWAP) uses frequency hopping spread spectrum modulation and offers 1Mbps and 2Mbps at 2.4 GHz frequency band. Bluetooth Bluetooth was promoted by big Industry leaders like IBM, Intel, Erickson, etc.Bluetooth is more of a Wireless Personal Area Network (PAN) operating at 2.4 GHz band and offers 1Mbps data rate. It has relatively low power and smaller range. ADVANTAGES OF WIRELESS LANs Mobility :Wireless LANs offer wireless free access to Information within the operating range of WLAN. It increases the productivity when people have access to data and Information from any location. Low Implementation cost : WLANs are easy to set up, relocate, change and manage. It benefits the ease of implementation. Installing Speed and Simplicity : Installing a Wireless LAN system can be fast and easy and can eliminate the need to install cable through walls and ceilings. Reliability : One of the common causes of failure in wired Network is downtime due to cable fault. WLAN is resistant to different types of Cable Failures. Scalability : WLAN can be configured in a variety of topologies to meet the needs of specific applications and installations. Configurations are easily changed and range from peer to peer networks for a small number of users to full infrastructure Networks of thousands of users. DISADVANTAGES OF WLAN Variable Frequency :The frequency of the network may vary from place to place. Smaller Range : The WLAN operate on a smaller range as compared to the Wired LAN. Hazardous to Human Beings :The WLAN operates on various dangerous waves that may adversely affect the users. Ques 5 Explain various layers in Bluetooth Protocol Stack? How many types of links are there between master and slave supported by Bluetooth? Ans. Bluetooth protocol stack Bluetooth is defined as a layer protocol architecture consisting of core protocols, cable replacement protocols, telephony control protocols, and adopted protocols. 1. Core protocols Bluetooth's core protocols form a five-layer stack, consisting of the following: Bluetooth Radio specifics details of the air interface, including frequency, frequency hopping, modulation scheme, and transmission power. Baseband concerned with connection establishment within a piconet, addressing, packet

format, timing, and power control. Link Manager Protocol (LMP) establishes the link setup between Bluetooth devices and manages ongoing links, including security aspects (e.g. authentication and encryption), and control and negotiation of baseband packet size Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol (L2CAP) adapts the upper-layer protocols to the baseband layer, providing both connectionless and connection-oriented services. Service Discovery Protocol (SDP) handles device information, services, and queries for service characteristics between two or more Bluetooth devices. 2. Cable replacement protocol Radio frequency communications (RFCOMM) is the cable replacement protocol used to create a virtual serial port used to make replacement of cable technologies transparent through minimal modification of existing devices. RFCOMM provides for binary data transport and emulates EIA-232 (formerly RS232) control signals over the Bluetooth baseband layer. 3. Telephony control protocol Telephony control protocol-binary (TCS BIN) is the bit-oriented protocol that defines the call control signaling for the establishment of voice and data calls between Bluetooth devices. Additionally, TCS BIN defines mobility management procedures for handling groups of Bluetooth TCS devices 4. Adopted protocols Adapted protocols are defined by other standards-making organizations and incorporated into Bluetooth's protocol stack., allowing Bluetooth to create protocols only when necessary. The adopted protocols include: Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) Internet standard protocol for transporting IP datagrams over a point-to-point link TCP/IP/UDP Foundation Protocols for TCP/IP protocol suite Object Exchange Protocol (OBEX) Session-layer protocol for the exchange of objects, providing a model for object and operation representation Wireless Application Environment / Wireless Application Protocol (WAE/WAP) WAE specifies an application framework for wireless devices and WAP is an open standard to provide mobile users access to telephony and information services.[15] Link Manager (Physical links) : Each frame is transmitted over a logical channel called a link between master and slaves. There are two types of links between master and slave supported by Bluetooth: 1. ACL (Asynchronous Connectionless Link) : The master uses a polling scheme. A slave may only answer if it has been addressed in the preceding slot. Only one ACH link can exist between a master and a slave. ACH is used for packet switched data available at regular intervals. These data come from the L2CAP layer, on the sending side and are delivered to the L@CAP layer on the receiving side.

2. SCO (Synchronous Connection Oriented Link) : SCO is used for real time data such as telephone connections. For this type of link, the master reserves 2 consecutive slots at fixed intervals. A master can support upto 3 simultaneous SCO links to the same or different slaves. A slave supports upto 2 links from different masters or upto 3 links from the same master. UNIT 2 Ques 1. How clustering is done in Wireless Transmission? Give any suitable example. Ans. Clustering has been well received as one of the effective solutions to enhance energy efficiency and scalability of large-scale wireless sensor networks. The goal of clustering is to identify a subset of nodes in a wireless sensor network, then all the other nodes communicate with the network sink via these selected nodes. However, many current clustering algorithms are tightly coupled with exact sensor locations derived through either triangulation methods or extra hardware such as GPS equipment. However, in practice, it is very difficult to know sensor location coordinates accurately due to various factors such as random deployment and low-power, low-cost sensing devices. Therefore, how to develop an adaptive clustering algorithm without relying on exact sensor location information is a very important yet challenging problem. Randomized Leader Election (RLE) At the beginning of time each mobile node is assigned a random UID. Each node nominates as a leader the node of highest UID visible to it (this could be the node itself). These leaders become the cluster centers. A cluster is defined by a leader and all its nominators. SHAPE* MERGEFORMAT 1-Dimensional RLE Analysis Among mutually visible points only one can be nominated by the others. 2-Dimensional RLE Analysis 2-D RLE produces an (n) approximation clustering. Furthermore, the probability that there are more than nlogn k centers is O(1/nlogn1), where k is the optimal number of centers. Hierarchical Clustering The hierarchical clustering algorithm (HRLE) proceeds in a number of rounds. At each round we apply the RLE algorithm to the centers produced by the previous round, but using a larger and larger covering ball. Kinetic HRLE Analysis For any bounded degree algebraic motions, the number of events processed by the kinetic HRLE is at most O(n2 log log n), and hence the HRLE is efficient in the KDS sense.

The kinetic HRLE algorithm can be implemented in a fully distributed manner. Each node only needs to be informed when a neighboring node enters or leaves one of its log ranges. Thus the actual positions of the nodes need not be known, obviating the need for expensive equipment, such as GPS Ques2 Compare the three generations of wireless telephony systems on the basis of features, technology used and applications. Ans 2. Technology 1G 2G 2.5G 3G 4G Design Began Implementation Service 1970 1984 Analog Voice 1980 1991 Digital Voice,SMS 1985 1999 1990 2002 2000 Higher Capacity, Completely IP

Higher Capacity, Higher Packetized Data, Capacity, MMS Broadband Data GPRS 384 kbps TDMA,CDMA PSTN , Network CDMA2000 2 Mbps CDMA

Standard Data Bandwidth Multiplexing Core Network

AMPS 1.9 kbps FDMA PSTN

GSM ,CDMA 14.4 kbps TDMA,CDMA PSTN

Single Standard 200 Mbps CDMA? Internet

Packet Packet Network

The Description of all three type of technologies are:-The First Generation of mobile computing(1G) 1G mobile phones were based on the analogue system. The introduction of cellular systems in the late 1970s was a quantum leap in mobile communication, especially in terms of capacity and mobility. Semiconductor technology and microprocessors made smaller, lighter, and more sophisticated mobile systems a reality. However, these 1G cellular systems still transmitted only analogue voice information. The prominent ones among 1G systems were advanced mobile phone system (AMPS), Nordic mobile telephone (NMT), and total access communication system (TACS). With the introduction of 1G phones, the mobile market showed annual growth rate of 30 to 50 per cent, rising to nearly 20 million subscribers by 1990. The Second Generation of mobile computing(2G) 2G phones using global system for mobile communications (GSM) were first used in the early 1990s in Europe. GSM provides voice and limited data services, and uses digital modulation for improved audio quality Multiple digital systems. The development of 2G cellular systems was driven by the need to improve transmission quality, system capacity, and coverage. Further advances in semiconductor technology and microwave devices brought digital transmission to mobile communications. Speech transmission still dominates the airways, but the demand for fax, short message, and data transmission is growing rapidly. Supplementary services such as fraud prevention and encryption of user data have become standard features, comparable to those in fixed networks.

2G cellular systems include GSM, digi tal AMPS (D-AMPS), code-division multiple access (CDMA), and personal digitalcommunication (PDC). Today, multiple IG and 2G standards used in worldwide mobile communications. Different standards serve different applications (paging, cordless telephony, wireless local loop, private mobile radio, cellular telephony, and mobile satellite communication) with different levelsof mobility, capability, and service area. Many standards are used only in one country or region, and are incompatible. GSM is the most successful family of cellular standards. It includes GSM900, GSM-railway (GSM-R), GSM1800, GSM1900, and GSM400. GSM supports around 250 million of the worlds 450 million cellular subscribers, with international roaming in approximately 140 countries and 400 networks. The Third Generation of mobile computing(3G) The 3G technology adds multimedia facilities to 2G phones by allowing video, audio, and graphics applications. Over 3G phones, you can watch streaming video or have video telephony. The idea behind 3G is to have a single network standard instead of the different types adopted in the US, Europe, and Asia. These phones will have the highest speed of up to 2 Mbps, but only indoors and in stationary mode. With high mobility, the speed will drop to 144 kbps, which is only about three times the speed of todays fixed telecom modems. 3G cellular services, known as Universal Mobile Tele communications System (UMTS) or IMT-2000. The main characteristics of IMT-2000 3G systems are: 1. A single family of compatible standards that can be used worldwide for all mobile applications. 2. Support for both packet-switched and circuit-switched data transmission. 3. Data rates up to 2 Mbps (depending on mobility). 4. High spectrum efficiency. Ques3 -How data management is done in mobile computing ?Explain with suitable example. Ans- In a mobile computing environment (see Figure), the network consists of Fixed Hosts (FH), Mobile Units (MU) and Base Stations (BS) or Mobile Support Stations (MSS). MUs are connected to the wired network components only through BS via wireless channels. MUs are battery powered portable computers, which move around freely in a restricted area, which we refer to as the "geographical region" (G). For example in Figure, G is the total area covered by all BS. This cell size restriction is mainly due to the limited bandwidth of wireless communication channels. To support the mobility of MUs and to exploit frequency reuse, the entire G is divided into smaller areas called cells. Each cell is managed by a particular BS. Each BS will store information such as user profile, log-in files, access rights together with users private files. At any given instant, a MU communicates only with the BS responsible for its cell. The mobile discipline requires that a MU must have unrestricted movement within G (inter-cell movement) and must be able to access desired data from any cell. A mobile unit (MU) changes its location and network connections while computations are being processed. While in motion, a mobile host retains its network connections through the support of base stations (BS) with wireless connections. The BSs and FHs (fixed hosts) perform the transaction and data management functions with the help of a database server (DBS) component to incorporate database processing capability without affecting any aspect of the generic mobile network. DBSs can either be installed at BSs or can be a part of FHs or can be independent of BS or FH. When a MU leaves a cell serviced by a BS, a hand-off protocol is used to transfer the responsibility for mobile transaction and data support to the BS of the new cell. This hand-

Server Copy of X Copy may off involves establishing a new communication link. It of X also involve migration of in progress transactions and database states from one BS to another. The entire process of handoff is transparent to a MU and is responsible for maintaining end-to-end data movement connectivity.

Copy of X Client

Copy of X

Ques 4 Why is the data replication is needed in mobile environment? Discuss different replication schemes used for this purpose. Ans. Mobility has an important impact on replication when we consider replicating onto a mobile platform. Further, we will assume that the server has a copy of data. The possible places for a copy of the data to resides are : * at the server, the client or at the location servers for the client or servers as shown in figures. * It is also possible to have a cached copy of the data. In such a case, the server sends only invalidation messages to the copy. 0100090000037800000002001c0000000000040000000301080005000000 0b0200000000050000000c0272008701040000002e0118001c000000fb0210000700000000 00bc02000000000102022253797374656d000087010000770f0000985c110004ee8339a070 f3040c020000040000002d01000004000000020101001c000000fb02ceff000000000000900 1000000000440001254696d6573204e657720526f6d616e000000000000000000000000000 0000000040000002d010100050000000902000000020d000000320a2d0000000100040000 0000008701710020791600040000002d010000030000000000 0100090000037800000002001c00000000000400000003010800050000000b02000000000 50000000c0272008701040000002e0118001c000000fb021000070000000000bc020000000 00102022253797374656d000087010000770f0000985c110004ee8339a070f3040c0200000 40000002d01000004000000020101001c000000fb02ceff000000000000900100000000044 0001254696d6573204e657720526f6d616e000000000000000000000000000000000004000 0002d010100050000000902000000020d000000320a2d0000000100040000000000870171 0020791600040000002d010000030000000000 Possible places for a replicated copy *The client, on accessing a invalid copy, then reads the actual copy from the server. * When the copy resides on mobile platforms, the performance of a replication scheme will depend upon mobility, the addressing scheme used and the read/write activity. * Sometimes, the client has to search for the server, or the server must search for the client. * When the copy resides on the static server, no search is involved in general, since the position of the static server does not change. * Thus, when copies are placed on mobile users, replication schemes need to take into consideration this asymmetry in communication cost.

There are six different scenarios for placing copies of data. In the first three schemes, no caching technique is used. A copy of the server data is either at any of the location servers or on the mobile client. In the latter three schemes, a copy of the data is cached at various places and update messages to the copy is deferred until an access of a previously invalidated data occurs. The following are the choices : 1. The server replicates the copy of the data at the mobile client. On each write, the server needs to write to the copy on the mobile client. Writing requires locating the mobile client. Reading is from a local copy on the mobile client. 2. The replicated copy resides at the location server of client. Thus, the client reads from its own location server. Here, reads and writes are no static copies. However, the copy is closer to the reader than writer. 3. The server S has a copy of the data at its home location server LS. The client reads from LS. Thus, reading and writing is on static remote copies. 4. The server S has a cached copy at its home location server. Location server copy is invalidated upon the write since the last read request from the client. Reading an invalid cache will require locating the mobile server. However, if the cache is invalid then the reads takes place from the copy at the location server LS. 5. A cache of the servers copy exits at the clients location server. Location server copy is invalidated upon the first write since the last read request from the client. Reading an invalid cache will require locating the mobile server. However, if the cache is valid then the read takes place from the copy at the location server LC. 6. The cache is maintained at the mobile client. If there was a read since the last update, the server upon each write sends invalidation message mobile client. If client wants to read and the cache is invalidated, then the mobile server is contacted to complete the read. Ques 5 In context of cellular network discuss the following: Ans a) Cluster: A computer cluster is a group of linked computers, working together closely so that in many respects they form a single computer. The components of a cluster are commonly, but not always, connected to each other through fast local area networks. Clusters are usually deployed to improve performance and/or availability over that provided by a single computer, while typically being much more cost-effective than single computers of comparable speed or availability 2)Near far problem: The near-far problem or hearability problem is a situation that is common in wireless communication systems, in particular, CDMA. In some signal jamming techniques, the near-far problem is exploited to disrupt communications. Consider a receiver and two transmitters, one close to the receiver, the other far away. If both transmitters transmit simultaneously and at equal powers, then due to the inverse square law the receiver will receive more power from the nearer transmitter. Since one transmission's signal is the other's noise the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for the farther transmitter is much lower. This makes the farther transmitter more difficult, if not impossible, to understand. If the nearer transmitter transmits a signal that is orders of magnitude higher than the farther transmitter then the SNR for the farther transmitter may be below detectability and the farther transmitter may just as well not transmit. This effectively jams the communication channel. In short, the near-far problem is one of detecting or filtering out a weaker signal amongst stronger signals. UNIT 3 Ques 1. Explain automatically locating mobile user. Ans Automatically locating mobile users

A communication system for an organization having multiple sites uses a dualmode device capable of both cell phone communication and telephone communication on a local area network (LAN). IP LANS are established at organization sites such that a temporary IP address is assigned to a dual-mode device that logs onto an organization LAN, and the IP address is associated at a PSTN-connected server on the LAN with the cell phone number of the communication device. The IP server notifies a PSTN-connected routing server when a device logs on to a LAN, and also provides a destination number for the IP server. Cell calls directed to the device are then redirected to the IP server and directed to the device connected to the LAN. Location-awareness for mobile applications is incomplete without specialized services, such as geocoding, reverse geocoding, driving directions (routing), yellow pages (proximity search), maps, weather forecasts, traffic reports, and demographic information. The technology for all these services is available and mature. By deploying on a common open LBS platform, location service providers can maintain the flexibility of choosing from multiple tools and online service providers. Integration of internal and external services Any existing in-house proximity solution (such as a yellow pages database) can be easily integrated with suitable external services. For example, Oracle9iAS Wireless can be configured to only access an external yellow pages provider if the internal yellow pages database is unavailable or overloaded. 1 Business flexibility and risk abatement Relying solely on one external provider for a service amounts to a commitment that can become expensive and risky for companies and government agencies. 2 Global deployment Large wireless carriers and portal sites will need to aggregate multiple LBS tools and content providers from different geographies in delivering a seamless global service for roaming customers. 3 Code simplicity Without the multiplexing provided by Oracle9iAS Wireless, more code (and more complexity) would be required to handle directly a portfolio of several external providers. 4Cross-application communication Information exchange between services, such as between yellow pages and driving directions, is simplified. .The mobile positioning component provided by Oracle9iAS Wireless enables the developers to access a mobile target's real time positioning through a unified programming interface. The position information is critical to many location based application scenarios such as: Identifying relevant location-dependent services. Mobile positioning is required to automatically determine which location-dependent services are relevant. Dynamic routing: routing from a user's current location to a destination. Business query: looking for businesses that are close to a user's current location. Ques2. Define Location Based Services. Describe various types of Location Based Services in detail. Ans Location Based Services (LBSs) provide the ability to deliver high-value content to an end user, based on knowledge of the end users location. Various location based services include : 1) Geocoding Geocoding determines the longitude and latitude coordinates of an address. Geocoding is the most fundamental of location services, because it is used directly or indirectly by the other services. The technical requirements of a geocoding service can range from trivial to

demanding. A trivial approach is to disregard any address fields except the postal code and return the coordinates of the center point (centroid) of the postal code area. Most geocoders provide more than the simple postal code centroid. Where the data is available, geocoders can locate the approximate location of the address along a street network. In addition, consideration regarding which side of the street the address is located must be taken into account. For example, providers of driving directions sometimes use the side of the street to determine whether the user should turn left or right out of the driveway. If the geocoder cannot reliably determine the side of the street for a location, the initial turn in the routine instructions may send the driver in the wrong direction. A wide assortment of online partner geocoding services (Mapblast, Webraska, Whereonearth, among others) have been integrated into Oracle9iAS Wireless to enable developers to quickly launch geocoding services. In addition, partner technologies like MapInfos MapMarker and Xmarc WIISE platform provide geocoding tools that can be directly integrated with Oracle Spatial database to provide local batch and single record geocoding.

2) Mapping Mapping enables users with capable devices to visualize location-related data. Technically, mapping usually involves spatial database queries and advanced visualization algorithms. These operations are computationally demanding and require large geographic databases. Existing mapping tool vendors differ in the scalability of their approach, the level of map detail, and the visual appeal of their maps. Conceptually, however, mapping is well understood. Partners that incorporate mapping services into Oracle9iAS Wireless include Airflash, Mapblast, Webraska, and Xmarc. In addition, Oracle has the benefit of having the largest assortment of partner mapping technologies that are pre-integrated with Oracle Spatial and Oracle9iAS Wireless. These mapping tool partners include Autodesk, Caris, ESRI, Ionic, Intergraph, MapInfo, ObjectFX and Star. 3) Routing Routing is more commonly known as driving directions. Technically, routing is equivalent to graph search, which is actively investigated in artificial intelligence and other fields. In addition to turn-by-turn instructions, routers might also provide maps of each turn and of the complete route. The router might also supply a list of point coordinates along the route, to enable the requesting user to perform some spatial analysis (for example, to identify which customers can be visited along the route). Route maps generally offer fewer options than general maps: for example, users typically cannot adjust the map scale. Routing maps are automatically centered on a route or a single maneuver (turn); however, the area of interest might represent only a small percentage of the delivered map. Interfaces to the leading wireless and Internet routing services have been integrated into Oracle9iAS Wireless, including Airflash, Mapblast, MapInfo, and Webraska. In addition, a number of partners such as Xmarc and TransDecisions can provide local routing services directly inside the Oracle9i Spatial database. 4) Proximity Queries Proximity services can determine a list of businesses matching a specified region and either a business name or a category. The technical aspects of a proximity query are well understood: it involves common database queries, and the speed and complexity of the solution depend on the level of database optimization. However, the semantic aspects pose more challenges. Semantic categorization of yellow pages data has not yet attained maturity or

standardization. Different content providers use different approaches. For example, they use different business categories with differing semantics and names, each in an effort to add value and provide brand recognition. Moreover, the organization of categories in hierarchies varies widely, between flat lists and deep hierarchies, between balanced and unbalanced trees, and with fan-out ratios of 5 to 100. Even non-tree graphs can be used. Keyword searches of categories can be semantic-based, substring-based, or non-existent. For example, a semantic based search for restaurant would return categories containing restaurant (such as restaurant equipment) but also others, such as Chinese cuisine. A substring-based search, on the other hand, would return only categories containing the search term. Ques 3:-Describe the packet Delivery to and from the mobile node when the mobile node reside in Foreign network.? Ans:- In this process following steps are performed Step -1 If any node (cn) wants to deliver to and from the mobile node(mn). Then once requirement of mobile IP for supporting mobility of mn. Step -2 In this step cn send packet with mn as a destination address and cn as a source address . internet , not having information of current location , then router route packet to home location .Then Home n/w (ha)intercept the packet and knowing that where mn currently present. If mn is present in foreign n/w, then new header is put in front of the old IP header showing the CoAas new destination and HA as source of encapsulated packet. Step -3 The foreign agent now decapsulated the packet . that is remove the additional header, and Forwards the original packet with CN as source and MN as a destination to MN. Step -4 Sending packets from the MN to the CN is much simpler . the MN sends the packet as usual with its own fixed IP address as source and CNs address as destination .

Ques 4 Explain the term Ans 1 Foreign Agent COA The Care of address could be located at the Foreign

Agent, i.e. the CoAis an IP address of the Foreign Agent. The Foreign Agentis the tunnel end-point and forwards Packets to the Mobile Nodes. Many Mobile Nodes using the Foreign Agent can share this CoA as common CoA. IP address being assigned to themobile nodewhen the mobilenode isin a foreign link. A mobile node can have multiple care-of addresses; the one being registered with the home agent is the primary care-of addresses. If Mobile Node does not want to wait for Agent advertisement it might send solicitation message to Foreign Agent and Foreign Agent will reply to it. 2 .Co-Located CoA The CoA is co-located if the Mobile Nodes temporarily acquired an additional IP address which acts CoA. This address is now topologically connect, and the tunnel end point is at the Mobile Node. Co-located addresses can be acquires using services such as DHCP. One problem associated with this approach is the need for additional address of Mobile Nodes requests a CoA. This is not always a good idea considering the scarcity of IPV4(Internet Protocol Version Four) addresses.

Ques 5.What is Mobile IP? List out the advantages and disadvantages of Mobile IP Ans Mobile IP- Mobile IP, a standard proposed by a working group within the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). A standard that allows users with mobile devices whose IP addresses are associated with one network to stay connected when moving to a network with a different IP address. When a user leaves the network with which his device is associated (home network) and enters the domain of a foreign network, the foreign network uses the Mobile IP protocol to inform the home network of a care-of address to which all packets for the user's device should be sent. Advantages of Mobile IP1. It allows fast, continuous low-cost access to corporate networks in remote areas where there is no public telephone system or cellular coverage. 2. It supports a wide range of applications from Internet access and e-mail to e-commerce. 3. Users can be permanently connected to their Internet provider and charged only for the data packets that are sent and received. 4. Lower equipment and utilization costs for those requiring reliable high-speed data connections in remote locations worldwide. 5. A user can take a palmtop or laptop computer anywhere without losing the connection to the home network. 6. Mobile IP finds local IP routers and connects automatically. It is phone-jack and wire-free. 7. Other than mobile nodes/routers, the remaining routers and hosts will still use current IP. Mobile IP leaves transport and higher protocols unaffected. 8. Authentication is performed to ensure that rights are being protected. 9. Mobile IP can move from one type of medium to another

without losing connectivity. It is unique in its ability to accommodate heterogeneous mobility in addition to homogeneous mobility. Disadvantages of Mobile IP1. There is a routing inefficiency problem caused by the triangle routing formed by the home agent, correspondent host, and the foreign agent. 2. Security risks are the most important problem facing Mobile IP. Besides the traditional security risks with IP, one has to worry about faked care-of-addresses. By obtaining a mobile hosts care-of-address and rerouting the data to itself, an attacker can obtain unauthorized information. UNIT 4 Ques1 Define Mobile Transaction. What are the main characteristics of Mobile Transactions? Give an example. Ans.Mobile Transaction: It is a transaction of non-deterministic life time submitted from a mobile capable node in a mobile environment. It can be considered to consists of two components a MU & a fixed network. The fixed n/w component of the mobile transaction may have to be partially or completely relocated as the MU moves. Characteristics: 1) Non-deterministic lifetime: MUs are attached to fixed inter-network through a low bandwidth wireless link. Mobile system are prone to failure such as battery power loss and wireless link loss. These factors make the duration of a mobile transaction non-deterministic. 2) Relocation: To minimize the response time & efficiently use the limited bandwidth available, it is necessary to have the component of the mobile transaction executing on the fixed network to be as close to the MU as possible. Thus it is also necessary to relocate the fixed network component of the mobile transaction as the mobile node moves. Eg. Consider a mobile user ordering takeaway food from a fast food restaurant chain. The transaction is initiated by contacting the nearest restaurant in the chain address of which is obtained from a yellow pages service. As the order is being processed, user moves to area of second franchise. The execution of the transaction may have to be relocated. Finally, system may direct user to particular franchise. Ques 2. Write short note on Cache consistency used in mobile environment. Ans. Cache Consistency Caching of frequently accessed data plays an important role in mobile computing because of its ability to alleviate the performance and availability limitations during weak-connections and disconnections. Caching is useful during frequent relocation and connection to different database servers. In wireless computing, caching of frequently accessed data items is an important technique that will reduce contention on the small bandwidth wireless network. This will improve query response time, and to support disconnected or weakly connected operations. If a mobile user has cached a portion of the shared data, he may

request different levels of cache consistency. In a strongly connected mode, the user may want the current values of the database items belonging to his cache. During weak connections, the user may require weak consistency when the cached copy is a quasi copy of the database items. Each type of connection may have a different degree of cache consistency associated with it. That is, a weak connection corresponds to a weaker level of consistency. Cache consistency is severely hampered by both the disconnection and mobility of clients since a server may be unaware of the current locations and connection status of clients. This problem can be solved by the server by periodically broadcasting either the actual data, invalidation report (reports the data items which have been changed), or even control information such as lock tables or logs. This approach is attractive in mobile environments since the server need not know the location and connection status of its clients and clients need not establish an up link connection to a server to invalidate their caches. There are two advantages of broadcasting. First, the mobile host saves energy since they need not transmit data requests and second, broadcast data can be received by many mobile hosts at once with no extra cost. Depending upon what is broadcasted, the appropriate schemes can be developed for maintaining consistency of data of a distributed system with a mobile client. Given the rate of updates, the trade-off is between the periodicity of broadcast and divergence of the cached copies that can be tolerated. The more the inconsistency is tolerated the less often the updates need to be broadcasted. Given a query, the mobile host may optimize energy costs by determining whether it can process the query using cached data or transmit a request for data. Another choice could be to wait for the relevant broadcast. Ques 3. Explain various mobile database research directions in detail. Ans. Following are upcoming mobile database research directions: Location-dependent Query Processing Location can be a subject of more complex aggregate queries, such as finding the number of hotels in the area you are passing or looking for a mobile doctor closest to your present location. Hence, the location information is a frequently changing piece of data. The objective is to get the right data at different locations for processing a given query. The results returned in response to such queries should satisfy the location constraints with respect to the point of query origin, where the results are received, etc. Data may represent SSN (Social Security Number) of a person, or maiden name, or sales tax of a city. In one representation, the mapping of the data value and the object it represents is not subjected to any location constraints. For example, the value of the SSN of a person remains the same no matter from which location it is accessed. This is not true in the case of sales tax data. The value of the sales tax depends on the place where a sales query is executed. For example, the sales tax value of West Lafayette is governed by a different set of criteria than the sales tax of Boston. Therefore, identify the type of data whose value depends on the set of criteria established by the location and another type of data, which is not subject to the constraints of a location. There is a third type of data that is sensitive to the point of query. View Maintenance in Mobile Computing Accessing on-line database from a mobile computer may be expensive due to limited uplink bandwidth, and also due to the fact that sending messages consumes considerable energy which is limited in the portable battery. These two problems can be solved by maintaining a materialized view i.e., storing the tuples

of the view in the database at the mobile computer. This view will be updated as the on-line database changes using wireless data messages. This will also localize access, thus improving access time. Therefore, to better deal with the problem of disconnection, reliability, and to improve response time, the view should be materialised at the mobile computer. The view maintenance will involve location-dependent data, time dependent data, and dynamic allocation of a materialised view in the fixed and mobile network. Workflows in Mobile Environment Workflow management systems are growing due to their ability to improve the efficiency of an organization by streamlining and automating business processes. Workflow systems have to be integrated with the mobile computing environment in order to co-ordinate a disconnected computer to enhance the systems resilience to failures. Specific issues that arise here include how the workflow models can co-ordinate tasks that are performed when mobile users work in disconnected mode and when they cross wireless boundaries. Also location sensitive activities might have to be scheduled to use an organizations resources effectively. Current workflow systems do not seem to have any provision to handle these requirements. Mobile Web and E-commerce There is a need to bring the web onto a mobile platform. Imagine a taxi that is equipped with a mobile computer and a passenger would like to browse web pages while waiting to reach their destinations. The limited bandwidth will be a bottleneck in such a scenario. Another interesting application may be ecommerce on the mobile web. All these applications are viable for the disconnected, highly unreliable, limited bandwidth and unsecured platform, but where the application demands reliability and security. Mobile Data Security Security is a prime concern in mobile databases due to nature of the communication medium. New risks caused by mobility of users and portability of computers can compromise confidentiality, integrity and availability-including accountability. The higher frequency of disconnection also requires a more powerful recovery model. Such situations offer attackers the possibility of masquerade as either a mobile host or MSS. This needs a more robust authentication service. Another issue is to maintain the privacy of location data of mobile hosts. Ideally, only mobile user and home agent should have knowledge about a mobile hosts current position and location data. All user identification information, including message origin and destination, has to be protected. In order to achieve anonymous communication, aliases can be used or communication can be channeled through a trusted third party. Furthermore, the identity of users may also need to be kept secret from other MSSs. Accessbased control policies can be adapted to provide data security on a mobile platform Ques 4.How data dissemination takes place in mobile environment. Ans. Mobile Peer-to-Peer (MP2P) data dissemination is a paradigm in which a set of mobile devices (PDAs, vehicles, sensors) communicate with each other via unregulated, short-range wireless technologies such as IEEE 802.11 or Bluetooth. Each mobile device may produce data items and it may also be interested in receiving certain reports. Since the ranges of 802.11 or Bluetooth are not sufficient to reach all interested mobile devices, the dissemination is done by transitive multi-hop transmission. For transitive dissemination the intermediate devices (also called brokers) need to save reports and later, as new neighbors

are discovered, transfer these reports. Thus each mobile device in the network is a broker, and additionally it may be a consumer or a producer of reports, or both. Observe that MP2P encompasses both MANETs (where the network is mobile but generally connected) and DTNs (where the network is mobile and subject to connectivity disruptions). The Opportunistic Report Dissemination (ORD) Algorithm We assume that each peer is capable of communicating with the neighboring peers within a maximum of a few hundred meters. One example is an 802.11 hotspot or a PDA with Bluetooth support. The underlying communication module provides a mechanism to resolve interference and collisions. Each peer is also capable of discovering peers that enter into or leave out of its transmission range. Recall that each moving object keeps a database of size M for each resource type. When two moving objects A and B encounter each other (i.e. they come within transmission range)1, for each resource type T, A and B exchange their local databases, i.e. DBA(T) and DBB(T), and each one keeps the M most relevant reports. When A encounters a hotspot C, C transmits to A the reports it produces. Again A keeps the M most relevance reports. Ques 5. Write short note on Security Fault Tolerance for Mobile Network. Ans. A Distributed Transaction Processing based enhancement of existing Systems for host security and agent security which also allows agent Management and Control is used for security fault tolerance for mobile network which is described below Trust between host and agent: It is not possible to achieve full security with complete functionality for the agents without each other. By the aid of third party, which has information about all instances of the closed system, a kind of trusted situation or a contract can be achieved. It is the core of the architecture for agent security and fault tolerance. In case of breach of trust, the originator can be ascertained and called for account. Protocol Steps: The protocol for agent migration is a combination of data logging, encryption mechanism and DTP. Hosts as well as users of the agent system are registered at the Trust Service. In conjunction with the registration, a user announces to the bank that he will participate in the Electronic cash System and transmits via a secure channel his bank account number and his credit card number. The Electronic Cash system establishes a virtual account and notifies the user about the virtual account number. The different Protocol steps of an agent transfer are: The originator host (Ho) demarcates the beginning of the distributed transaction in which the trust service and the target host (Ht) will be involved. The originator requests for the session key (S) for the secure transfer of the agent to the target host. The trust service generates the Session Key and propagates it to the originator and the target host by using Public Key Protocol (PP). The originator host transfers a copy of the agent, encrypted with session key, to the target host. After decrypting, the target host initializes the copy of the agent and acknowledgement of the receipt. The originator host initiates the 2 PC protocol to conclude the transaction. A

successful conclusion of the transaction implies that the results are permanently visible. With the end of transaction, the Session key is invalidated. Benefits of the Architecture Security of the host. Security of the Agent. Fault Tolerance and Reliable Agent Transfer is possible. Electronic Commerce enhancement for Mobile Agents. Agent Control and Management.

UNIT 5 Ques 1. Explain routing scheme based on signal strength? Ans Routing scheme based on signal strength- We employ an Advance Warning Mechanism (AWM) to offer an early warning service for message exchanges between wireless mobile units. This mechanism monitors each route link situation and responds to any possible route fluctuations before the actual link failure due to the unstable signals over free space. The design of a routing algorithm with a local adaptation capability by combining signal strength monitoring with an advance warning mechanism to offer and maintain a stable communication service is a new attempt for message routing in a wireless Ad-hoc mobile network. The AWM acknowledges possible route fluctuations by monitoring the signal strength from its neighborhood, including the previous hop and the next hop along a route. If the signal strength of a received message reaches a strength level called the warning point, the AWM will result in a warning message, which will be sent to the previous hops of the incoming link. The previous hops will try to adapt a substitute route locally. If this local adaptation fails, it will go into the phase of global adaptation. This should give the source unit enough time to make optimal decisions, whether it should still utilize the initial route or launch a route request procedure to find a new one, based on the information status before the route failure actually occurs. We assume that each unit along a route has an AWM and the capability to listen to its neighborhood, so that the reliability of the message routing and the network throughput can be ensured. This scheme could respond more quickly to a route fluctuation. Signal strength determination- The wireless networks transmit signal over free space, and the average energy of a message signal (Sav) decreases by the inverse square of the signal transmission range (Sav = watts/meter2 ). In the figure, the horizontal axis is the separation between two mobile units. Distance d2 is the maximum range for effective message

communication. Beyond this point, the link will be highly unstable that might lead to communication interruption. Distance d1 is the experimentally decided warning point. The difference between d1 and d2 is the warning range. Average Signal Strength

Warning Warning zone Minimum effective Strength level Distance d1 communication Signal strength waveform

Level

d2 Maximum range for Effective

Ques 2 What are the problems in message routing in adhoc wireless n/w? Ans-There are many problems in message routing in Adhoc Wireless N/W which are as follows : 1)ASYMMETRIC LINKS- Most of the wires n/w rely on the symmetric links which are always fixed.But this is not a case with adhoc n/w as the nodes are mobiles constantly changing their position within n/w.For example consider a MANET(Mobile Adhoc Network) to have node B sends a signal to a node A but this does not tell anything about the quality of the connection in the reverse direction. 2)ROUTING OVERHEAD-In wireless adhoc n/w,nodes often change their location within n/w.So some stable routes are generated in the routing table which leads to unnecessary routing overhead. 3)INTERFERENCE-This is the major problem with mobile adhoc n/ws as links come and go depending on the transmission characteristics,one transmission might interference with another one and node might over near transmission of other nodes and can corrupt the total transmission. 4)DYNAMIC TOPOLOGY-This is also the major problem with adhoc routing since the topology is not constant.The mobile node might more or medium characteristic might be change.In adhoc networks,routing table must some how reflect these changes in topology and routing algorithms have to be adapted.For example in a fixed network routing table updating takes place for every 3sec. This updating frequency might be very low for adhoc network. Ques 3. Differentiate between:

a) Proactive routing and Reactive routing b) DSR ad-hoc routing algorithm and FSR ad-hoc routing algorithm Ans. a) Proactive Routing Protocols Proactive routing protocols maintain routes to all destinations, regardless of whether or not these routes are needed. In order to maintain correct route information, a node must periodically send control messages. Therefore, proactive routing protocols may waste bandwidth since control messages are sent out unnecessarily when there is no data traffic. The main advantage of this category of protocols is that hosts can quickly obtain route information and quickly establish a session. For example, GSR introduced below is a proactive routing protocol. Reactive Routing Protocols Reactive routing protocols can dramatically reduce routing overhead because they do not need to search for and maintain the routes on which there is no data traffic. This property is very appealing in the resource-limited environment. b) DSR ad-hoc routing algorithm 1. It is a reactive adhoc routing algorithm. 2. Route discovery & route maintenance process takes place. 3. Transmission delay is more. 4. It contains updated information. 5. More bandwidth is wasted. FSR ad-hoc routing algorithm 1. It is proactive adhoc routing algorithm. 2. No route discovery & route maintenance takes place. 3. Transmission delay is less. 4. It contains cached information. 5. Bandwidth is efficiently utilized.

Ques 4. Explain MANET(mobile ad-hoc network). Ans. Ad-hoc network is not the permanent n/w. It is generated as per demand. They do not rely on pre-existing infrastructure. These n/ws allow a more flexible model of communication than traditional n/ws. In order to communicate within the n/w, a routing protocol is used to discover routes between nodes. Their primary goal is to provide correct and efficient route establishment b/w a pair of nodes.

In this, if A wish to interact with C, they may procure the services of host B to forward packets for them, since B lies within the transmission range of both A & C. Ques 5. Write short note on Ad-hoc on Demand Distance Vector. Ans. The Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing algorithm is a routing protocol designed for ad hoc mobile networks. AODV is capable of both unicast and multicast routing. It is an on demand

algorithm, meaning that it builds routes between nodes only as desired by source nodes. It maintains these routes as long as they are needed by the sources. Additionally, AODV forms trees which connect multicast group members. The trees are composed of the group members and the nodes needed to connect the members. AODV uses sequence numbers to ensure the freshness of routes. It is loop-free, self-starting, and scales to large numbers of mobile nodes. AODV builds routes using a route request / route reply query cycle. When a source node desires a route to a destination for which it does not already have a route, it broadcasts a route request (RREQ) packet across the network. Nodes receiving this packet update their information for the source node and set up backwards pointers to the source node in the route tables. In addition to the source node's IP address, current sequence number, and broadcast ID, the RREQ also contains the most recent sequence number for the destination of which the source node is aware. A node receiving the RREQ may send a route reply (RREP) if it is either the destination or if it has a route to the destination with corresponding sequence number greater than or equal to that contained in the RREQ. If this is the case, it unicasts a RREP back to the source. Otherwise, it rebroadcasts the RREQ. Nodes keep track of the RREQ's source IP address and broadcast ID. If they receive a RREQ which they have already processed, they discard the RREQ and do not forward it. As the RREP propagates back to the source, nodes set up forward pointers to the destination. Once the source node receives the RREP, it may begin to forward data packets to the destination. If the source later receives a RREP containing a greater sequence number or contains the same sequence number with a smaller hop count, it may update its routing information for that destination and begin using the better route. As long as the route remains active, it will continue to be maintained. A route is considered active as long as there are data packets periodically traveling from the source to the destination along that path. Once the source stops sending data packets, the links will time out and eventually be deleted from the intermediate node routing tables. If a link break occurs while the route is active, the node upstream of the break propagates a route error (RERR) message to the source node to inform it of the now unreachable destination(s). After receiving the RERR, if the source node still desires the route, it can reinitiate route discovery.