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Boaidof EdttoN i


AddltionalResearchl RoBDRTJAwoRsrc L. ABAffo Photosi JoAN BoNDoc Desigu


Unit 405,Hodzotr Condominium MeralcoAYe.,PasigCity Metro Manila, Philippines Tel:.6335917 633943'7634r"1'73 | ; Fax: 6339437


aboul a ncwslaperreportcr THERE is ii story,frohably apoclyphal, worth neared. slill hirdnol lblrndanything who, as thc dailydcadLine thc adlgc ahoutwhirtnakes wriling about.Thcn hc rccalled iournaljstic hut lnanhites do,q, lhat's nowsr"Dog hites lnan, that'snol nows; $,hen

Thc dcsfcrato rufortor thenwcntoul andbit his dog-- andwfot0ahoul jt. Andtru0 his used st(ny, the cnou-gh, oditol kcuplhis stOry mind thonoxttinc th0yscrn in Nowspapcr read0rs should the li1)ntfagc and wondcrat thij suoninglycrraticlrndin0xplicahl0 in thc star)dafds cmploy{-d ch0osing (lay's"top" storjcs. influonce highlights lactofs lwo thatgreotly Tho "nranbitcsdog sl{Jry" whjch ol'lhodailydeadlirc, lhc wayiournalists work. Fifst,lhc lyfanny aocounts wcll lor the llectingqualilynot.iustof newsbul alsooJ as for covcragc.Thcn thore's tho prol'crcncc thg odcland hizatrc,thc fcar ol conplexityand quirky andwhinsical,and lhe almostinstinctjvc soriousncss. you organizaliofls, havc As nlell1bcrs ol'ficarsof non-govcrnmgnt and prohablytdcd t0 "scll" your pressrclcascs the media,only lo g0l lo liustratodat cvcry |ufl1. Why, yolr wondar,would a repofbr rcsolt to biting his dog whentherearu nany groupsout thercjust dylng to get and who do a lot of good,thatarc changing wdltcn about? Groups a shaping societyiind relations ong the classcs.Groupswho advocale and worthwhile causes, who tight for the opprcssed the needy. A[d


While nediaexist lhe laryely fotthepurcuit purveying af ptactitianers news, rcrely agree whal on nakes the news the af day.

groups, moreover, who rnaybe helpingto shapc Philippines thc of ton]orrowwhiLcthe nedia havetheir sightsllxed on fte politics and trivialitics today. of But wringilg your hands at this stale of aiJairscan only stall the pdodtiesof the appropriatc actjon. h fact,caryingaboutthe misplaccd media,or appealing jorunalisls'socialcomcience, only get your to can pross relations olTicer chased 0f thgngwsroom. out

In an ideal world, tlpre oughtto be somejoumalists who would consider the work of the NGOSin yarious fields worthy of coverage. But for this to happen,nelv kinds of jownalistic taining ard orieotatior haveto takeplace. the In the real world, NGOSand POs will have to utrdemtand way the to a.nd mediawork in orderto get their message the newsacross p.olicymakersa.nd the generalpublic. to ,l or The bestway to get the mgdiato useyour stories, to repot on NCO 'lo do this, yo\must is activitiesand issues, to make them want lo. understardhow the media and media peoplework, what intereststhem, a.[d how they make their choicesabout what things to cover, report on andpublish.

analyses from material journalism, whichreporb, of NEWSis thebasic are and ard commentades fashioned; on whichnewspapcrs built ard are day suvive,Irom oncprofitable to thenext, Yet oddlyenough, while the mediaexistlargelyfor the pusuil and practitioners purveying news, raxely agres the news,or on the on of on rclativevalueof thenews, ary givendayor moment.

Thebestway to get the mediato useyour staries, 0r t0 report0n ld60 fs activitiisandissr^res,fo maKetnem want to.
, .t

ggnerated two a in Obviously, peoplescanning "menu"of ncwsstodes onc day wiil comc up with two ssparatc line-upsof thc day's most nlost intarssting inlportant,most significant, storios. Tn makingthcir journalists a set of guidclinas, so-called judgmc0ts, "clemcnts" use the proximity, promincnca hunran of ncws: timclincss, significancc, and interest.While thesesews as benchma(ks determining news for the valueol a slory,oLhof lactorscomcinto play il1 ftc rankingo[ ncwsstolalcr ies, whichlaclofswjll bc discusscd in thispapcr. For now, hcrc's a listing of qualitiesof an "avcrage"newsstory as gleaned fiofi studics:

happsncd, so, it strcsses pres0nt and the Newsi$ ab0utwhathrLs.iust ratherthan inertia,and cvolltsralh0f than ruthcrlhan thc pasl,ohange prooesscs. l0ng-tcrnl

to or Newsis aboutwhat happons thc rcadcr, to lcoplc with whom thc readcrcan idcntify. This is why a traflic janl in Marila rcccivcs 0cwspapgrs nuch nmroproninontplay in Manila-bascd than,say,a ill 0aused the typhoonis far by typhoon Ccbu,cvcrlif the danrage grcatcr.And why Filipinoslccl morc cmpalhy for andconpassion thanfor thc thousands killed in, hundreds who died in lhc typhoon say,Rwanda.

Cnr Newsis aboutthc krlown,the lamous,the "newsmakcrs." wrecks b|t tate placehourly on Manila's eans|Ieets, a caf wreck becomes a if olTicid], top busincss fiont-pagclnatel-ial it iflvolvcsa govcfnnicnl cisis il the viclin is tigure,or a novie star. A caf wrcckis a national thePresidell|.

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Ncwsemphusizes dramatic sonsatiolral, essing tie and st concrete evcnts rathcrthanunderlying patterns notivation or beliet'. Which is why of protest whsn a strcet turnsviolgnt,Llro nedia aremoreinterested the in violenccitscll', and not on the protcsl-crs' rsasonsfor takiog to ths slxcets.

Ncws cmphasizes people,which cxplainswhy policy clashes olten arc depioted a hattlcof wills between individuals &s rhc who represent rhg opposing sides: pros and antis,liberalsand conscrvativcs, progrcssives and lundamentalists. is alsowhy socialproblcDts ollcn gxoirThis aro incd 0n thebasis th0irimpacton individuals. ol This is knownasputting a "iace"on anissuc.

Titillation and noveltv

News whali$ intercsting, is exciting, livclyandprovo0ativc. thisinAnd gossip, cludcs scandal innuendo. and

Nows,thoughsupposcdly aboutwhat is new.about"chango," alsoofis tcn aboutthe faniliar andgxpccted, status thc cluo. Thcrcis a greattendcncyanong iournalists inlcrpretcvents terntsof familiarsle.eol0 ir1 typesandscenaios. Paradoxically, newsis predictablc, asa commulbr "The events have adcnewsi1rthepast, nications scholaicxplains: that as in thc prcsent, actuiillythe expcctcd are on rhewholethc is accidcnts incidents ard that ths public is prepared for...rhe thingsthat onefearsandthatonchopss thatmakethe news." for

Reporters thdve on conflict.Polarizing many sidesof all issueis a fto reportorialinstinct.It comesfrom the story-tellingtladition of tewspapers. Conflictlies in fte hea-rt thc beststories, joulnalismas in of in

"$ is in the naturcot' things,of humancudosity, compassion. in torest sympathy. and It is also importafltto notc ftat news is a highly perishab]e commodity, tiving only when thc cventstlemselvesars cutreni and Ljr purd r n O s eo l r ( c n r d . l t i r r l : o u n s ) . l e mi c . a r e c O rO f d i \ C r e te v e n l s \ and sceningly ulrslated happenings. Journalists not fcal it their do busincss "explain"thsir reportagc, to rclatetheir motlcy oollecto nor tion of slorigsto ong another. The character a daily aocoultingof oI the evant"s lhe day dismisses historythat prcccdcd cvcnt or oi the the ol-currcnl the(rrnlcxt or exchangc tr:rnraction. t)o a "hsavy"newsday,whenmanycvcnts0l signillcanoc intorest and oolllpcte oovclago, stoly ol gcnuino tOr a national signifioancc land n]ay on thc insidepagcs. On a "slow" nowsday, it could vefy well nlcrit fiont-pagc trcatment, not a hoadline.So it makcssonsc a puhlic if lbr relations 0fficcrto targeta storylbr publicalion say,a Mondai,si]lcc on, nol muohis cxpcctcd happcn a weekcnd thercis a grcator to 0n posmd sibility therclcase sccprint. will Editors also scck to baiance thsir iiont-pagccontents with a variety of stories,njxing the significantwith thc humorous, with itcms jntcfest of.l0cal and on intcrnational aflairs. Thus,a ncwsrcport's Lrucvalucmay not he accurately reflgctcd its placanicnt the by in paper Bccause the growingqonplexityof issucs of related evcntsand to clcvclopnents, ongoingrc-evaluation thesecriieria n]ay lead to an oI sometransformation "re-inventio11" journalism. A nunber of oi ol' leadingjournalistsliom the Wcst as well as from dcvoloping,areas havebegunto question adoquacy the insfumentsof thg craft to thc ot' keepup with thc chillenge0f thetimes.


by But thc kind of dailyioumalismgovcined the lraditional standards It they lulfili a neoossjly. answers of newswill alwaysreJrainbucause question "Whathapponcd today'l" theinovjtablc


work lio of IT is a journalisticconccillhal membeLs the profsssioll if of For the high grouodof objcctivity. instancc, a men1bcr the nolitical refiortcf the attacks golcnnnentdepaflmcnt, conscicntjous a opposition on Opcraling the will try 10got thg sideof thg hcadof that dcpartment. out of principlcol lhc "zcro-su[]"ganc, thc statonlont onecanccls the /cro. othcr, flus onecquals orlc quotc both or a1l the It is thc.i0h ol'thc rcforter to pr0sgrlt fa01s, who supp0s0dly tho involvod, lay thcn downhcli)rc ftrtrlic, i$d f)iLftics ltt and orrivcl thL' know 0nough pick thfoughthc stofy'scontcnts l0 ()cs "truth" lhcll]sclv0s. News, thcrcl'0r0, nol "tcll" ths trulh,it only ths whichcstahljshcs "truth." UnlOttlrnatoly, plrrvidcs inlbrmation the or ol the prosontalion suchldctswitholl tho lnlerpreliition enolysis Lhc ay n01holpthc leldcr lo cstah]ish truth. Wilhoul anyfialrlowork hls of accounls cventswhiohonly thc iournalist lor inlorprctation. o] ollscrvcd often leavcsthe feadofwilh little Llndcrstandilg whal happcnod. aotuclly perccptions 'oonllict of o1' also tries lo crase Joumaljslic obiectivily bias could destroythcir crcdibiiity interest," fear thal any seeming Lor such sland-offishof as ohiectivepurvcyors ncws.Unforlunatsly, has alsoled to a deepenhusincss society oi ncssliom the gencral a to ing cynicisrr,a resistance belicvjngin anylhingof anybody, and suspiojon causes greatideas,and an instinctivedistruslof ins of tltu )ns.
I ',i11

News media saidto play a "walchdog" are function overgovgrnment andother institulions, iodependent of power a check $ocial an center and against abuse coruption. In democratic and societies, lunction the of the mcdiais soel]askeeping government the honesl, whichis why the "ideal"relationship between mediaandgovornmellt this set-up in is jolma.lists "[dve1sa a1." Onco become friendly too with or suppoltive of people p0wer, in theymay ceasc serve publicinterest, [o serving instead ioterests their friends. Cdticism,evencarping, thus the of has become standard the response governnent. td But asAmerican scholar James CareyobseNes, overweaning the jounalists,whichis reflected the tradition the cyrlicisnamong in of press, tumedeveuthe publicagainst media. muckraking has lhc The joumalists p[hlic, he wrotein a recent study, "increasjngly distrusrcd poliard viewed them&sa hindrarce rather to, thananavenue toward, ticsandreforn..,While press fte dismissed rising of criticism... thq tide theproblem wentdeeper, tte public's In eyes, media hadbecone the thcadversary all instituLions, of including public the itJelf."


BUT cvenas nedia people aspire ths idealoI objectivity, for 0l workingfor no otherconsideration that of feuetingout thc tuti than is andtelling peopleaboutit, theyarealsoaware objecUvity actuthat allya myth.

Ine very worKo[ c.ovgrmg, an event,or evenbetore wfiaf fftaf of cfroosfng:_ eyer?ffo coveq afready involvesa judgment.


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Playing nied6's ga e: NCAS shaul(l gtve nateriais ne(lta theythenselves nat ta would hesitate

Thc meljia a1lef illl is a hlrlnan instituti(rn, ancl subject l0 vcfy hflnla loiblcslik0 biascs d liiddcnnolivations.

'l'hcvefy wofk ol covering 0v0nl, evenbcl'orc lhat,ol'crhoosing an or what eventlo covcr.already involvcsa iudgncnt. No nowspapgr. in can rldio or TV ncwscirst, covcr clerythinglhal happens ir gilen of day. Reportufs, with the guidirncc thcir edjtols, nust choosction'l ano g the ally evcntstaking placc,lhs cny pcoplewho lvanl cryng oul lor Lhc lhcir facesseen, lnanyproblcms thcir viewsoiJcd, wcrc indcad lilnc on. If a ncwspaper the allcnlion, folv thry will spend ol but it obioctivc, d thorough. wouldbe noLhing a llsling,a cralalog thiDgs Laking lllace.

Having chosenwhal to cover, Lhereporter must then nakc several \ h i u d g n l c n r w h oI n i n r e r v i c w . a lq l r c \ t t o n o a s k . h i t n f * l . . m a n y :r: t5 w l gJrhercd lr) h( inclLtdcJ Lhrstnr) The vefyact,,t $riling derJil: arc in the story ilscll involvesan cxorcisein judgment: What is the nost impo.tant lact? Whatstatomont worth quoting?How to sequcncs is Lhe ohain evellls? of When the story goesto the newsdesk, rhclc is furthcr dilution ol thc '1)bjectivity" ol thc o ginal story. The vicws of one or nlore edil.ors oomeinto playr rearrangitgthc s1orydctcltiining the linal headlincs, dcciding where placcthe story. downthc linc,judgnents, to All oflen ad hoc andinhitive,arc cxoroised, publicopini0nis shapcd, and lor good rill. o

NA1s scan can the stonesthat relate totheh advocacy ol service.


its naturcalso inllugnces perfomance.SaysLuis Media'scommercial Teodoro, journalist and dgan oI the University of the Philippitres "What will sell is...atthg very hart Collegeof MassCommunication: and ol media operations, this has very delinite implicationson what news." getsairedor printed on whatconstitutes Privateownershipol media i1I thc Philippines,Teodoroadds,"bften conflicts with the public service, public interest role of mass people,or politiPhilippinemedia ownersare business media...Most cians, or both, first. They wont into mcdia to prolect and enhanco most why, despite which explains and their economic poljticalintercsts, theykeepbeingpublished. money, oI our broadsheets'losing radio station or Tv channelhas "This mcansthat every newspaper, cows, whippingboys, 0r its list - written or unwrittcn- of sacred both, The implicationsof this tact to lhe flow of newsare obvious s S o m o n e w s p a p c rw i l l n o t e v e np e r m i t m c n t i o no l t h e n a n c s Othersmentionsacred pet of their publisher's pccvepersonalities. cows solely to defendthcrn or make i[ a policy to attackthcir rivals Slill otherswon't even publish such orilicisms or competitors. cows,or praiscof their criticismoi their sacred Fron their standpoint, pct hatgs does not constitutenews.Thc conclusionis inescapablo: are intsrests the owners involved' of instances whenthe special in those r or reports, norieat all " thepublicis eithergivendistorted

so FIRSTa reviewof thepointsraised fm:
and o Newsis highly perishable fleeting, cunent and timely.

o Joumalists keepa lookoutfor the odd andunusual.

News must be fresh,about currenteventstaking

place at or near where the audiencelives, involves people of

prominence, relieson simplification, dramatization personalization and to ma-ke factsaccessible interesting a masseudicncc, ye1 the and to and must also conformto the public'sexpectations, their idea of whal to nowsis, andof whattheirown socicty likc. is

o Whilejoumalistsinsisttheywork undera regime of

judgments biases "objectivity," practice, in choices, and color
thepresentation news of everystepof theway.

o The commercial natureof media determines a to

largeextent just the contents alsothe trezrtment news not but of
IhJ JnLl ldlinrarcly. ihJpi g nf nuhlic .rJ.'inifn. Kccpingthesepoints in mind, how can non-governmcnt organizations,cspc0iallythosc involved in sooial development work, harness undiiiputcdpowor of thc modia to inlluenoothc policy tho environnlcnt'/ lsssorl would be to leall] to plfly nedia's gane, that is 10 Onc obvioLrs give them materialthey \ryould not hesitatclo use because they think it will help scll their paperor iack up thc latingsof thejr show. This means learningto think as a rgporteland an cditor would think, like: Is this new/cufienvtin]ely? to askqucstions Wili this grabreaders Will it sell'l As Teodoro by the throat? ls l.histhe talk on the streets? now and thc0, says: "...NGOs can't be abovesensationalizing to thoughnot in tcmrs of, say,appgaling prurient interest,but along of something the lines ol linding that one aspect the story - perhaps interosl cditorfor him to conan unusual new -- thatwill sulTiciently or 'ngwsworthy'." siderLhs event



It's a commonpracticcamongieporters, editorsand even(or perhaps espscially) colunnistsand commentators, scanthe papers to daily (or oruisealongthe radio talk lanes)to get a leel of what peopleare Lalking about,whatncwsis "hot," what'sheatingup, and what'sabout to fall by thc waysidc. NOOSoan do the same: Scanthe dailiesin search storicsthai of rclatcto yorll lioe of advo0aoy scrvioe, or and usethg "ncwspog" to, asit were,sneiki11to ncwsagenda. the

So there a "cholera" is scare thecountysido'/ NGo involvcdin in An prinary hcallhctlreandh0althissue$ couldisslloa statcnlcnt or stag0 protcst 0all atlontion tho doopof a to to signilloancc thc 0l

to can used be c0mnuntcate


cholsraepidemic: the abysmal lack of basicseNices,sspecially of potablewater and sanitation in the countrysidg; skewed the prio.ities not just of the governmeht alqo of the medical ostabbut lishmcnt; the concentation of health servicesh urban argas,etc. At the sametime, they could usethe occasion iofbrm the public to about thcir ownline of work andlie issues theycarry. This same NGO doesn'tevenneedto do the work itself. Theycaocall up thc newseditor and eoticehim ot her with a proposition: a story on thc "humanface" of cholera,with the NGO assisting linding a in family stuck downby the disease, auanging an interviovpictorial, for "background" aod providing malerial, As a concrete examplc, award-winning thg sericson DolzuraCortez, the first Filipino person-wi(h-AlDs allowhor st.ory betold andhfi to to picturcto bc taken,wasthe resul(ol a collaboration bcl.ween Inquirer staff writer Ccrcs Doyo and the REMEDIOSAIDS Ccnrcr,an educ a t i o n a la n d s u p p o r tg r o u p f o r p e o p l ol i v i n g w i r h H M A I D S patients, whichrunsanAIDS Hotline.


Which brings us to yct anothershortcomilg oI nost "devclopmsnt" stodcs: thc lack of a human face. Praiseworthy, lofty yisiolrs and far-reaching action plans are difl"icultto conveyto a massaudielrce. Rhetoic doesn'tsell. Bettcrto reduce issues ftc individudl-- to tlc to one personwhose life and circumstanccs embodiesthg issuesand sentiments the consensus of docunonl "Humanintgrest" bc usedto can communicate developmelt concern. But evenwhen it appliesall tl1otips and strategies this folio, an in NGO camot hope t0 sharpcn and increaseits public profilo if it the c0 istentlymisses boat. Timelincss 0f the essenca. is NGOSare


.".youwill c*r's'{y*mf ffts {wality that rz*{ a8# w*pffs* peperssharey#6e{ w6w6ww ffia {*r societv, * s*m* *ditors w,illertually tx* hostile you and'wha* to you standfor.
notorious for their almost slavish devotion to "process" and "consensus." Yet this makes it difficult for you to respond quickly, to strike while the iron is hot, to use a cliche, and maximize the opening created by a news event. Some mechanism must be devised to enable your group to respondimmediately and, as it were, "ride" on the issue while public interest is high.

ELSEWHEREin this folio, you will find tips on developing better pressrelations. But evenputting thesetips into practice, you will confront the reality that not all newspapers shareyour vision for society,that someeditorswill actuallybe hostile to you and what you standfor. Thoughthe media industry likes to think of itself as an "equalizer,"a the champion the underdog, truth is that in the Philippines, media of the are ownedby, and are usedto protectthe interests the political and of,
.'if ,s$s

.ff lflt

economic who elite. Rareis the publisher/owner will allow his or her mediaoutlet (which is probablysubsidized) be usedto undermine to privateandclassor sector interests.

But in evefy ncwspapcfof mcdia establishnent, evcn tho most oonservalive and suppodiveof lhc sl.atus quo, NGOScan find po lcntialaliios;iI ody theywouldtaketimc to soektheniout andcultivate theni. Mosl journaiists,afler all, arc crusaders heart.Many begin at thcir carecrs with a view to setting world on firc with their zealand the Thoughlhc llros aro soor dampened, couragc. suchcarly idcalismcan still bc tappcdand provoksdinto a llare or lcver withoul a journalisl realizing it. WritesTeodoro: ''(T)here practitiorlcfs arc who, while sharing the conviction thcy are in a pro{cssion exceptional lortanccin thal ol i socioty, thillk thal the 0roblcnsol' Philippine newslnediiiarc rcal enough. They seen']any hindrallces thc dischar!0 the primal t0 oi rcsponsibiljty gcttingand disscnrinating 0l iniomation.Thcy bclicvc th0t ncdia pr:octitionerii organizati0ns and havc hoon unfair too any tirr0s,and irrosponsihlc well as uncaring. as Thcy scc fledia and !00plc nisusingtho vastp0w0roI medir, usingit lor pcrsOral - l0r cnrichingthg['isclvos pcrhaps, l0r rcvengc, olhcr narrowcnds 0r r)l iustl0 pr0vcLhcmsclvcs sr.rpcrior others. 10 "(T)hey'fc also thc peoplcwho try to gct neaninglxl sloriesand who tly to get their l'actsright. Thoy havc a senscol nission as well as outrago.Thgy'rc thepeople who ars,right now andin varyingdegrees, lJJ to rIak.'a Jillcrcncf n.'qsrnel].-. in! in and "This is to say thal in nany ncwspapers magazines cven in and solncradiostationsandTV channels, is possible find sonconcin it to f]-ielldLy lnosllcgitimal0 a posiliol1 rcsponsibility ol to causes." How to identily thcsc"fcw goodlncn (of persons) Y()umay know of 1" in a fcpofieror editorwho was a classnate collgge, bctlcr yot, or is a iiiend or rclativc. Thcrc's no halm in cultivatingthe personal conlection,keepingin touch and plying hi]n or her with naterialsoewsletlers, updates statemeflts, on youl group'scurrentactivities.


sncounters:a phonecall from time to' Supplenontthis vr'ithpersonal or invjlalion to attendonc symposiu1n anothe. In a tin'rc,a personal cfunch,you can thell bs surs that you arc not calling and askingfor to hclp froln out of thc nrislypast, or of accusations "using"your acquaintance blood-relation. 'prep your lf you aren't so lucky, th9nyou must work evenhardcrto prssslc]ations involvcsan entiredcpart ncws.RemenbeL, cstablishing The NCOs can do the san]cwlth nent and budgotfot variousgroups. tilr soaled-down apparatus, so long asthcy arc l'amiliarwith thc rcquirc11,lonls ncws. 0f Who is oov0ing the "bcaf' to which Readthc by-lilrcsin o newspapcri an md rclatc'l Whosowrjling revcals ailinmostof yorLr issucs pl(rjccts in intorost your own ficld of intcr0sl'/who ity for causo$, a porsol1al or gatokeepcrs the new$who tcnlin 0l fie the iiub-oditos,thc $o-callcd colltcnts and but na$clcssand fac0less who lalgslydetorninoa paper's newspapcr? in thoirprcscnlati0n, a particular Having"spotted"youl notentialdlly, you can thcn initiatethc conlaot and Frionds, sympathizcrs nurturcthc rclationship. and,morcimportant, contacts, bg to in aLligs the mediashouldnot bc scenas "onc-shot" fbr Fal only whenthsir "seNiccs"arcnesded. moreprofilablg the tapped gfoupis to recruit,a't it werc,ths nedia pcrson NGO or causc-orientcd is in to to Lhg cause, build a long-term rclationship whichthejournalist belief, to givcl]the chiLnce glow into thcisslrg, imbibcit asa personal to it lo chanpir)n willoLrtneedof prodding. Such an ally in the madia then beconesa parlncr in thc continuing to slrugglcto make thc medianors rcsponsivc socicly and more for as rcal rellective soclety's dynamics wcll asits potential change of



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. 'tsuildtng a Positive Imag: Corporatc Communicationworkshop,,' Boftk oI the Philippifle Ltlan^, Septenfier29, 1993 r Caret JamesW. "TheMassMediaa d DenocracJ,,' Jaurtlalaf lfitemational (as A./fairu Publisbed Businessworld, 25-29,1994) in July . D l'leur, Melvin L, Bau-Rokach, Sandra.TrearierafMdssCommunication, Longman Inc., 1982 . cil, cenerosoJr. (ed.rThe AsianReparter:A Manualan Reporting Technit&er, Prcss Foundation Asja, 1983 for . Mccombs, M6x$ell D., Be.kc\ L\r lJ. Uti g Ma$ Cot mu\icatia j'theory, Prcnticc llall, 1979 . McQuail, Denfs. Mutr Cowmnications lheory:An lfind.uctiofi, SAEa I'ublications, I987 . . Maslog,Crispin C. /hiliptri e Cotunuflicathns: Introd cthn, p^CE, 1988 An "PublicRe|aliantI0I: Thr a d ldeut" CafiV\igns Advocacy pR., lnc., 1993 &

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Pbolostrom the filc of the Cittzenst Disaster ResponsCnter (CDRC) aftl the Katipunan ns may Kapansanan sa Pilipinas Inc. (IGMPI).