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EdexcelPhysicsUnit1PhysicsonTheGo

Tutorial 1 Rectilinear Motion & Newtons Laws of Motion


1.

The owner of the case wheels it onto an electric railcar that is powered from a 750 V d.c. supply
rail. The railcar makes a short journey from one terminal of an airport to another.
(i)

The graph shows the acceleration of the railcar during this journey.

a / m s 2

4
2
0
10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90
t/s

Use the graph to determine the steady speed of the railcar during the middle section of
the journey.
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(ii)

Show that the railcar comes to rest at the end of the journey.
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(4)

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(iii)

When moving at the steady speed the railcar draws 96 A from the power rail in order to
overcome resistive forces that total 3000 N.
Use this data to determine a second value for .
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(3)
(Total 7 marks)

2.

A hot-air balloon is rising vertically at a speed of 10 m s1. An object is released from the
balloon. The graph shows how the velocity of the object varies with time from when it leaves
the balloon to when it reaches the ground four seconds later. It is assumed that the air resistance
is negligible.

velocity
/m s 1

15
10
5
0
0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

4.5

time/s

5
10
15
20
25
30
35
(a)

Use the graph to


(i)

show that the object continues to rise for a further 5 m after it is released.
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(1)

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(ii)

determine the total distance travelled by the object from when it is released from
the balloon to when it reaches the ground.
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Total distance = .......................................
(2)

(b)

Hence determine the objects final displacement from its point of release from the
balloon. ..................................................................................................................................
....
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Displacement = .........................................................................
(2)

(c)

Using the axes below, sketch a graph showing how the acceleration of the object changes
during the time from when it leaves the balloon to when it hits the ground.
Mark any significant values on the axes.

acceleration
/ m s 1

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

4.5

time /s

(3)
(Total 8 marks)

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3.

A flea jumps vertically from a surface. It does this by rapidly extending its legs so that it
experiences an upward force. Figure 1 shows the flea before it begins its jump. Figure 2 shows
the flea the moment its legs are fully extended and about to leave the surface.

0.44 mm

(a)

Explain how Newtons third law accounts for the upward force produced.
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(2)

(b)

(i)

At the moment the fleas legs leave the surface its body is raised 0.44 mm and it is
moving at a speed of 0.95 m s1. Show that the average acceleration of the flea
during take-off is about 1000 m s2.
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(3)

(ii)

The mass of the flea is 4.0 107 kg. Calculate the resultant vertical force acting
on the flea.
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Resultant vertical force = ..................................
(1)

(c)

(i)

What constant force opposes the upward motion of the flea?


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(1)

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(ii)

Air resistance also opposes the motion of the flea. At the instant the fleas legs
leave the surface it is travelling at 0.95 m s1. It takes a further 9.3 102 s to reach
its maximum height. Calculate the change in height it achieves during this time.
Assume its deceleration is constant.
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Change in height = ............................................
(3)
(Total 10 marks)

4.

A washing line has a negligible mass and is initially horizontal. A student investigates the effect
of hanging masses from the midpoint of the washing line.

(a)

Add to the diagram to show the forces acting at the midpoint of the line when a mass is
hung from its midpoint.

(2)

(b)

A mass of 1.10 kg is hung from the midpoint of the line.


(i)

Show that the downward vertical force on the line is about 11 N.


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(1)

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(ii)

This force pulls the midpoint down a distance of 48.5 cm.


Show that the line is at an angle of about 84 to the vertical.
length of washing line when horizontal = 9.600 m
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(2)

(iii)

Show that the tension in the line is less than 60 N.


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(2)

(iv)

The washing line stretches so that the total length of the line is now 9.847 m.
Calculate the strain for the line.
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Strain = ..............................
(2)

(c)

Calculate the value of the Young modulus for the line material.
cross-sectional area of the line = 6.6 106 m2
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Young modulus = ............................
(3)
(Total 12 marks)

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5.

A man is pushing a shopping trolley at a speed of 1.10 m s1 along a horizontal surface. There is
a constant frictional force opposing the motion. The man stops suddenly, letting go of the trolley,
which rolls on for a distance of 1.96 m before coming to rest. Show that the deceleration of the
trolley is approximately 0.3 m s2.
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(3)

The total mass of the trolley and its contents is 28.0 kg. Calculate the frictional force opposing
its motion.
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Frictional force = ..........................................
(2)

Calculate the power needed to push the trolley at a steady speed of 1.10 m s1.
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Power = .
(2)

The man catches up with the trolley. Calculate the steady force he must now apply to it to
accelerate it from rest to 1.10 m s1 in 0.900 s.
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Force = ..
(3)
(Total 10 marks)

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6.

A student is asked to provide an explanation of why a bottle on a table remains stationary.

(a)

Complete a free-body force diagram for the bottle.

(2)

(b)

The student writes the following incorrect explanation.

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The students explanation contains errors.
Rewrite the students explanation correctly.
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(3)
(Total 5 marks)

7.

(a)

The diagram below shows a drop-down table attached to a wall. The table is supported
horizontally by two side arms attached to the mid-points of the sides of the table.

Side arm

Side arm

Wall

37

37

Hinge

Table
NOT TO SCALE
1.8 cm
50 cm
80 cm

The table surface is 80 cm long, 50 cm deep and 1.8 cm thick. It is made from wood of
density 0.70 g cm3. Show that its weight is about 50 N.
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(3)
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(b)

The free-body force diagram below shows two of the three forces acting on the table top.

Total pull of side arms


83 N

37

Weight = 50 N
(i)

Calculate the horizontal and vertical components of the 83 N force.


Horizontal component: ....................................................................................
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Vertical component: .........................................................................................
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(2)

(ii)

Add appropriately labelled arrows to the free-body force diagram to show these
components.
(1)

(iii)

Hence find the magnitude of the horizontal force that the hinge applies to the table
top and state its direction.
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(1)
(Total 7 marks)

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EdexcelPhysicsUnit1PhysicsonTheGo
8.

The photograph shows a climber abseiling down a rock face. At the instant shown the climber is
in equilibrium.

Crown Copyright 2004 Reproduced under the terms of the click-use licence C2006010031

(a)

Explain what is meant by equilibrium in this context.


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(1)

(b)

The climbers mass is 65 kg. Calculate his weight.

Weight = ..................................................
(2)

(c)

(i)

Below is an incomplete free-body force diagram for the climber.


direction of rope

One of the forces, which is assumed to be acting perpendicular to the rope is


already shown. Label this force, and add labelled arrows to the diagram to
represent the other two forces acting on the climber. Assume that the rope hanging
down from the climber exerts a negligible force on him.
(3)

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EdexcelPhysicsUnit1PhysicsonTheGo
(ii)

The rope is at an angle of 40 to the horizontal. Calculate the tension in the rope.

Tension in rope = .....................................


(2)

(d)

The climber is wearing protective headgear in case of an accident. Describe the properties
of a material suitable for the headgear, and explain why these properties are desirable.
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(4)
(Total 12 marks)

9.

Complete the table below by giving one example of each type of force.
Type of force

Example

Gravitational
Electromagnetic
Nuclear
(3)

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The diagram shows forces acting on the Sun and the Earth. These forces form a Newtons third
law pair.

Earth

Sun

State three properties of these forces which are necessary for them to be a Newtons third law
pair.
1 ............................................................................................................................................
2 ............................................................................................................................................
3 ............................................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 6 marks)

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