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ABSTRACT over 8,000 MW. It meets a significant portion of the electrical power demand in several developing countries. Individual geothermal power plants can be as small as 100 kW or as large as 100 MW depending on the energy resource and power demand. Geothermal basically means earths heat , which is used to produce power. The Geothermal energy will avail a greater advantage of producing power from the non-conventional source. In this method there are more of advantages as compared to other nonconventional sources of energy generation. Geothermal energy will be dearer to the human race as it clean, reliable, flexible and economical form of energy used for industries, commercial users, greenhouses, aquaculture and many more applications. Use of this form of energy can greatly minimize the impact, resulting in environmental benefits for many states and local communities with growing energy needs, also the use of geothermal energy keeps our environment clean.

As the second-largest country of the world, undergoing explosive growth, India represents a unique and littletapped source of expertise on multifarious issues of economic and social development. Among many other problems of concern, the development of alternative sources of energy is crucial to the future wellbeing of India indeed, of the globe. The increasing demand of the energy has forced the mankind to find a way out which will be efficiently and abundantly available source of energy. This made the human race to think of the beneficiaries of non-conventional energy development in India. Today one of the latest trend of nonconventional energy development to be implemented in our country is GEOTHERMAL POWER GENERATING TECHNOLOGY. Geothermal energy is a proven resource for direct heat and power generation. In over 30 countries geothermal resources provide directly used heat capacity of 12,000 MW and electric power generation capacity of CONTENTS: 1. 2.

WHAT IS GEOTHERMAL TECHNOLOGY? GEOTHERMAL POWER GENERATION PLANTS 2.1 Dry Steam Power Plant 2.2 Flash Steam Power Plant 2.3 Binary Cycle Power Plant

3. 4.


4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 5.

Direct Use Of Geothermal Energy The Direct Use Resource Tapping The Resource Greenhouse And Aquaculture Facilities Industrial And Commercial Uses

APPLICATIONS OF GEOTHERMAL ENERGY TECHNOLOGY 5.1 Power Plants 5.2 Direct Use 5.3 Geothermal Heat Pumps

6. 7. 8.



The term geothermal comes from the Greek geo meaning earth and therine meaning heat thus geothermal energy is energy derived from the natural heat of the earth. The earth's temperature varies widely, and geothermal energy is usable

for a wide range of temperatures from room temperature to well over 300 F. For commercial use, a geothermal reservoir capable of providing hydrothermal (hot water and steam) resources is necessary. Geothermal

reservoirs are generally classified as being either low temperature (<150 C) or high temperature (>150 C). Generally speaking, the high temperature reservoirs are the ones suitable for, and sought out for commercial production of electricity. Geothermal reservoirs are found in "geothermal systems" which are regionally localized geologic settings where the earth's naturally occurring heat flow is near enough to the earths surface to bring steam or hot water to the surface. There are three types of geothermal power generation plants : DRY STEAM POWER PLANT FLASH STEAM POWER PLANT BINARY CYCLE POWER PLANT 2.GEOTHERMAL POWER GENERATION PLANTS:
There are three types of geothermal power generation plants : DRY STEAM POWER PLANT FLASH STEAM POWER PLANT BINARY CYCLE POWER PLANT

2.2 FLASH STEAM POWER PLANTS: Hydrothermal fluids above 360F (182C) can be used in flash plants to make electricity. Fluid is sprayed into a tank held at a much lower pressure than the fluid, causing some of the fluid to rapidly vaporize, or "flash." The vapor then drives a turbine, which drives a generator. If any liquid remains in the tank, it can be flashed again in a second tank to extract even more energy.

2.1 DRY STEAM POWER PLANT: Steam plants use hydrothermal fluids that are primarily steam. The steam goes directly to a turbine, which drives a generator that produces electricity. The steam eliminates the need to burn fossil fuels to run the turbine. (Also eliminating the need to transport and store fuels!) This is the oldest type of geothermal power plant. It was first used at Lardarello in Italy in 1904, and is still very effective. These plants emit only excess steam and very minor amounts of gases.

2.3 BINARY CYCLE POWER PLANTS: Most geothermal areas contain moderate-temperature water (below 400 degrees F). Energy is extracted from these fluids in binary-cycle power plants. Hot geothermal fluid and a secondary (hence, "binary") fluid with a much lower boiling point than water pass through a heat exchanger. Heat from the geothermal fluid causes the secondary fluid to flash to vapor, which then drives the turbines. Because this is a closedloop system, virtually nothing is emitted to the atmosphere. Moderatetemperature water is by far the more common geothermal resource, and most geothermal power plants in the future will be binary-cycle plants.

3.HOW DOES GEOTHERMAL HEAT GET UP TO EARTH'S SURFACE? The heat from the earth's core continuously flows outward. It transfers (conducts) to the surrounding layer of rock, the mantle. When temperatures and pressures become high enough, some mantle rock melts, becoming magma. Then, because it is lighter (less dense) than the surrounding rock, the magma rises (convects), moving slowly up toward the earth's crust, carrying the heat from below. Sometimes the hot magma reaches all the way to the surface, where we know it as lava. But most often the magma remains below earth's crust, heating nearby rock and water (rainwater that has seeped deep into the earth) sometimes as hot as 700 degrees F. Some of this hot geothermal water travels back up through faults and cracks and reaches the earth's surface as hot springs or geysers, but most of it stays deep underground, trapped in cracks and porous rock. This natural collection of hot water is called a geothermal reservoir.

geothermal electric plants can be subsequently used for direct use applications in so-called "cascaded" operation. Direct use of geothermal energy in homes and commercial operations is much less expensive than using traditional fuels. Savings can be as much as 80% over fossil fuels. Direct use is also very clean, producing only a small percentage (and in many cases none) of the air pollutants emitted by burning fossil fuels. THE FUTURE OF GEOTHERMAL ELECTRICITY: Steam and hot water reservoirs are just a small part of the geothermal resource. The Earth's magma and hot dry rock will provide cheap, clean, and almost unlimited energy as soon as we develop the technology to use them. In the meantime, because they're so abundant, moderate-temperature sites running binary-cycle power plants will be the most common electricity producers. 4.USE OF GEOTHERMAL ENERGY TECHNOLOGY AND RESOURCES: 4.1 Direct Use of Geothermal Energy Geothermal reservoirs of low-to moderate-temperature water 68F to 302F (20C to 150C) provide direct heat for residential, industrial, and commercial uses. This resource is widespread in the U.S., and is used to heat homes and offices, commercial greenhouses, fish farms, food processing facilities, gold mining operations, and a variety of other applications. Spent fluids from 4.2 The DirectUse Resource In India the Geothermal is also applicable and many surveys are being conducted to analyze the geothermal resources in many parts of northern India. According to survey conducted in U.S lowtemperature geothermal resources exist throughout the western U.S., and there is tremendous potential for new directuse applications. A recent survey of 10 western states identified more than 9000 thermal wells and springs, more than 900 low to moderatetemperature geothermal resource areas, and hundreds of directuse sites. The survey also identified 271 collocated sites cities within 5 miles (8 kilometers) of a resource hotter than 122 degrees F (50 degrees C) that have excellent potential for nearterm direct use. If these collocated resources were used only to heat buildings, the cities have the potential to displace 18 million barrels of oil per year! 4.3 Tapping the Resource Directuse systems typically include three components:

A production facility usually a well to bring the hot water to the surface; A mechanical system piping, heat exchanger, controls to deliver the heat to the space or process; and A disposal system injection well or storage pond to receive the cooled geothermal fluid. A disposal system injection well or storage pond to receive the cooled geothermal fluid. and Aquaculture

The three main Geothermal Energy



5.1PowerPlants Power plant technologies are being used to convert hydrothermal fluids to electricity. The type of conversion used depends on the state of the fluid (whether steam or water) and its temperature. 5.2DirectUse Geothermal reservoirs of low-to moderate-temperature water 68F to 302F (20C to 150C) provide direct heat for residential, industrial, and commercial uses. This resource is widespread in the U.S., and is used to heat homes and offices, commercial greenhouses, fish farms, food processing facilities, gold mining operations, and a variety of other applications. 5.3GeothermalHeatPumps The geothermal heat pump, also known as the ground source heat pump, is a highly efficient renewable energy technology that is gaining wide acceptance for both residential and commercial buildings. Geothermal heat pumps are used for space heating and cooling, as well as water heating. Its great advantage is that it works by concentrating naturally existing heat, rather than by producing heat through combustion of fossil fuels. 6. IMPACTS OF GEOTHERMAL TECHNOLOGY: All energy development and production impacts the environment to some degree. But the use of geothermal energy can greatly minimize these impacts, resulting in environmental benefits for many states and local communities with

4.4 Greenhouse Facilities

Greenhouses and aquaculture (fish farming) are the two primary uses of geothermal energy in the agribusiness industry. Most greenhouse operators estimate that using geothermal resources instead of traditional energy sources saves about 80% of fuel costs about 5% to 8% of total operating costs. The relatively rural location of most geothermal resources also offers advantages, including clean air, few disease problems, clean water, a stable workforce, and, often, low taxes. 4.5 Industrial and Commercial Uses Industrial applications include food dehydration, laundries, gold mining, milk pasteurizing, spas, and others. Dehydration, or the drying of vegetable and fruit products, is the most common industrial use of geothermal energy. The earliest commercial use of geothermal energy was for swimming pools


growing energy needs. The use of geothermal energy helps keep our air and water clean. The use of geothermal energy also greatly minimizes the amount of resulting solid waste and land required for energy production. When local communities use geothermal power plants, they can easily:
1. Meet clean air standards 2. Minimize solid waste and recover/recycle minerals 3. Meet water quality and conservation standards 4. Minimize land use and impact.

mine shafts, tunnels, open pits, waste heaps or oil spills. Reliable. Geothermal power plants are designed to run 24 hours a day, all year. A geothermal power plant sits right on top of its fuel source. It is resistant to interruptions of power generation due to weather, natural disasters or political rifts that can interrupt transportation of fuels. Flexible. Geothermal power plants can have modular designs, with additional units installed in increments when needed to fit growing demand for electricity. Helps Developing Countries Grow. Geothermal projects can offer all of the above benefits to help developing countries grow without pollution. And installations in remote locations can raise the standard of living and quality of life by bringing electricity to people far from "electrified" population centers.


Clean. Geothermal power plants, like wind and solar power plants, do not have to burn fuels to manufacture steam to turn the turbines. Generating electricity with geothermal energy helps to conserve nonrenewable fossil fuels, and by decreasing the use of these fuels, we reduce emissions that harm our atmosphere. There is no smoky air around geothermal power plants -- in fact some are built in the middle of farm crops and forests, and share land with cattle and local wildlife. Easy on the land. The land area required for geothermal power plants is smaller per megawatt than for almost every other type of power plant. Geothermal installations don't require damming of rivers or harvesting of forests -- and there are no

8. CONCLUSION: So from the above presented information it has been clear that GEOTHERMAL POWER GENERATING TECHNOLOGY is a latest & good form of non conventional energy which will be a substitute to the conventionally produced energy. In this modern technological sphere of life the geothermal energy would become the best and abundantly available form of energy.

By this method the energy is produced with very less amount of environmental pollution in a more efficient way. The energy produced here can be used for a numerous applications. It also provides employment to a huge number of people. So with the benefits of this geothermal technology this form of energy can provide power to a considerable amount of loads