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Ti liu hng dn s dng Ubuntu bng ting Vit

Dng live CD Desktop Ubuntu 9.04 Jaunty Jackalope

V Qunh (vdquynh@gmail.com)

H Ni Thng 05/2009
( sa 23/09/2009)

Dng live CD Desktop Ubuntu 9.04 Jaunty Jackalope


Ni dung
I. Ubuntu l g ?..............................................................................................................................................2 II. Live CD l g ?..........................................................................................................................................3 III. Lm sao nhn c mt Live CD Ubuntu ?.......................................................................................3 IV. Khi ng Live CD..................................................................................................................................3 A. Yu cu v phn cng..........................................................................................................................3 B. Setup BIOS khi ng Live CD......................................................................................................3 C. Chn ngn ng v bn phm.................................................................................................................3 V. Mi trng lm vic ha GNOME.......................................................................................................4 VI. Ci t h thng Ubuntu vo i cng....................................................................................................4 A. Bc 1 : Chn ngn ng......................................................................................................................5 B. Bc 2 : Chn mi gi a phng......................................................................................................5 C. Bc 3 : Chn bn phm.......................................................................................................................6 D. Bc 4 : Phn vng cng..................................................................................................................6 E. Bc 5 : xc nh tn ng nhp v mt m ca ngi dng...............................................................9 F. Bc 6 : Nhp vo s liu c nhn t cc phn vng Windows (nu c).............................................9 G. Bc 7 : Tm li tin trnh ci t v quyt nh thc hin...............................................................10 H. Tin hnh ci t Ubuntu....................................................................................................................10 VII. M t Mt bn Desktop GNOME.........................................................................................................11 A. Thc n ng dng (Applications)...................................................................................................12 B. Thc n Ni - Places (khng gian lm vic v phn cng).............................................................14 C. Thc n H thng (System) .............................................................................................................14 VIII. Giy php s dng ti liu ny............................................................................................................16

I. Ubuntu l g ?
Ubuntu l tn ca mt bn phn phi h iu hnh GNU/Linux thuc dng Debian v do Cng ty Canonical Ltd. (Nam Phi) sng to v pht hnh min ph. Phn mm Ubuntu c phn phi theo giy php s dng GNU/GPL. Bn phn phi Ubuntu hng v ngi dng my tnh trong vn phng hoc nh hon thnh nhng cng vic thng thng ca mt my tnh nh son vn bn, dng internet, v ha, nghe nhc, xem phim DVD, v.v. D tnh d s dng, cho nn trong nhng nm gn y, t khi phin bn u tien ra i vo cui nm 2004, Ubuntu tr thnh bn phn phi GNU/Linux c s dng rng ri v quan tm nhiu nht. Rt nhiu bn phn phi GNU/Linux cng c pht trin trn c s ca Ubuntu. Cc phin bn Ubuntu khc nhau ra i mi 6 thng v c nh s theo phng thc Y.XX, trong Y l s l ca nm pht hnh (v d nu nm pht hnh l nm 2009 th Y = 9) v XX l s ca thng ra phin bn Ubuntu, thng l thng 04 v thng 10 hng nm. Mi phin bn Ubuntu c Canonical h tr trong vng 18 thng cho phin bn My tnh bn (Desktop edition) v 36 thng cho phin bn My ch (Server edition). Theo nh k Canonical thng ra mi 2 nm mt phin bn Ubuntu c gn thm cc ch LTS (Long term support) c h tr lu di, 3 nm cho phin bn My tnh bn v 5 nm cho phin bn My ch. Phin bn Ubuntu LTS gn y nht l phin bn 8.04 LTS cn c gi Hardy Heron (con C vng bn). Vy trong ti liu ny chng ti cp n phin bn Ubuntu 9.04, cn mang tn l Jaunty Jackalope (y l tn ca mt con ng vt tng tng, lai gia con th v con hu), ra ngy 23 thng 04/2009. Phin bn Ubuntu sp ti s l phin bn 9.10, Karmy Koala (con Gu Koala), d kin s ra vo ngy 26 thng 10/2009..

II. Live CD l g ?
Mt Live CD l mt a CDROM cha ton b mt h iu hnh, cng cc phn mm ng dng c chn lc, c th dng khi ng mt my tnh. Trong qu trnh khi ng, h iu hnh my tnh s c np ln b nh (RAM) v s duy tr sut trong b nh RAM, khng nh hng n h iu hnh gc ca my tnh ci sn trong a cng. y c th coi nh l mt cch an ton v thun li khm ph mt h iu hnh mi m khng cn phi ci t phn mm vo a cng. Tuy nhin tc lm vic cc phn mm s chm hn do h iu hnh phi lin tc c v gii nn cc phn mm ng dng ghi trn a Live CD. Cc a live CD cng c dng gip gii quyt cc s c my tnh, c bit cp cu s liu trn cng.

III. Lm sao nhn c mt Live CD Ubuntu ?


Nu bn cha c Live CD Ubuntu, bn c th t min ph mt b CD ti http://shipit.ubuntu.com/. Tuy nhin thi gian nhn cc CD v cng phi mt hi lu, t 4-6 tun sau khi cc a CD c gi qua bu in. Ti Vit Nam, bn c th lin h vi mt trong cc ni nh sau mua mt bn CD sao chp :

Din n cng ng Ubuntu-Vn : http://www.ubuntu-vn.org/ Trung tm i hc k thut s (CNF) ca T chc hp tc i hc Php ng (AUF) ti H Ni (CNF H Ni), Ng 42 T Quang Bu, Q. Hai B Trng (T: 04-38.68.48.85 ; email: cai@vn.auf.org)

IV. Khi ng Live CD


A. Yu cu v phn cng

Mt b my tnh Pentium III vi 256 MB RAM tr ln, c gn mt c CD l s dng a Live CD Ubuntu. B nh RAM cng ln th cng tt do mi trng lm vic ha GNOME kh tn v b nh. My tnh khng cn thit phi gn mt a cng. Tuy nhin, nu sau ny mun ci h iu hnh Ubuntu vo a cng, th cn mt cng vi 5-10 GB trng. Mainboard ca my tnh phi h tr vic khi ng my tnh t c a CD, l trng hp ca hu nh tt c cc mainboard my tnh t nm 2000 tr li y. Mun my tnh khi ng Live CD c th bn s cn phi thay i nhng mc nh ca BIOS.

B.

Setup BIOS khi ng Live CD

Ty theo cc loi my tnh, sau khi bt my ln, bn c th thay th nhng mc nh ca BIOS bng cch n vo phm Del (my tnh bn Desktop) hoc phm F2 (my tnh xch tay). Ni chung cn quan st nhng thng bo hin ln trn mn hnh sau khi bt my v/hoc tham kho ti liu hng dn i km my tnh. Khi no vo phn Setup, tm thc n Boot (BIOS mi) hoc thc n Advanced (BIOS c) v xc nh Boot priority hoc First booting device l c CD-Rom (hoc DVD). Sau phi ghi li nhng thay i vo BIOS, nu cn, bng cch n phm F10. Trc khi click nt Yes khng nh nhng thay i mc nh ca BIOS, nn a a Live CD vo c CD trc khi khi ng li my tnh.

C.

Chn ngn ng v bn phm

Sau khi khi ng, nu khng c g trc trc, bn s nhn thy thc n khi ng Ubuntu Live CD. Lc bn c th la chn ngn ng (n F2), v d ting Php, ting Vit (ting Anh l ngn ng mc nh) v bn phm (n F3), v.v. Sau khi n phm Enter, qu trnh khi ng my tnh v np h iu hnh vo b nh RAM s c thc hin. Cc bn ch l nu chn ngn ng ting Vit l phi chn bn phm kiu USA (v y s l la chn mc nh nu bn chn ngn ng l ting Vit).

V. Mi trng lm vic ha GNOME


Nu vic nhn dng cc thit b phn cng, c bit card ha ca my tnh, c hon thnh tt, bn s nhn thy mn hnh sau y, l Mt bn o (Desktop) ca ngi ang dng trong mi trng ha GNOME. Chng ti s m t chi tit hn Mt bn o ny sau khi ci t Ubuntu vo my tnh.

VI. Ci t h thng Ubuntu vo i cng


Nu bn nhn thy h thng Ubuntu chy tt vi my tnh ca bn, bn c th mun ci t h thng Ubuntu vo cng. Mun lm vy ch cn n vo biu tng Install v theo di cc bc ch dn. Tuy nhin trc khi ci t Ubuntu vo cng my tnh, bn nn sao chp cc d liu quan trng nht v cn chun b cng bng cch gii phng mt khng gian trng ti thiu khong 4-5 GB, ty theo mc ch tip tc s dng Ubuntu ( tip tc khm ph hoc dng tht s). Sau khi ci Ubuntu trn cng, h thng s chy nhanh hn nhiu v bn c th dng c CD c s liu, xem phim, nghe nhc, v.v.

A.

Bc 1 : Chn ngn ng

Hp thoi th nht cho php bn chn c ngn ng giao din ha ca h thng. Nu bn chn ting Vit, sau khi ci xong, bn s vn chn c giao din ngi dng bng ting anh, nu bn thch.

B.

Bc 2 : Chn mi gi a phng

Nu bn chn ngn ng l ting Vit, tin trnh ci t s chn mi gi ca Vit Nam, i din l TP H Ch Minh. Nu bn thy gi ca h thng khng chnh xc, bn s c co hi i gi sau khi ci t xong. Nu bn khng ang sng Vit Nam, bn c th chn mi gi a phng thch hp trn bn .

C.

Bc 3 : Chn bn phm

i vi la chn ngn ng l ting Vit, la chn s bn phm theo kiu Hoa K (USA) l hp l bi v y l loi bn phm ph bin nht Vit Nam. Tuy nhin nu bn ang dng mt bn phm loi khc, bn c th chn bn phm bng cch nhn vo La chn ring ca bn v tm bn phm thch hp trong danh sch. Bn cng c th g vi phm vo vng thng tin cho h thng t ng xc nh loi bn phm m bn ang dng l loi bn phm g.

D.

Bc 4 : Phn vng cng

Bn phi ginh ti thiu 02 phn vng trng ci GNU/Linux : mt phn vng dnh cho h thng tp tin root / v mt phn vng to ra mt b nh m (swap) cho h thng trn a cng. Ty theo tnh trng s dng cng, trnh ci t s xut nhiu gii php phn vng a cng ci h thng GNU/ Linux. Trong v d y, chng ti s ci thm Ubuntu 9.04 trn mt cng 80 GB ci Ubuntu 8.04.2, cn phi gi. Hin nay h iu hnh Ubuntu 8.04.2 ang dng mt phn vng c gi l
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/dev/sda1, c kch thc 9,3 GB, v phn vng swap l /dev/sda2, kch thc 1,9 GB (my tnh ang c b nh RAM l 1 GB). Vy ci Ubuntu 9.04, trnh ci t xut mt gii php t ng phn vng bng cch xn bt 2,5 GB t phn vng ang cha Ubuntu 8.04.2 dng cho Ubuntu 9.04. Lc Ubuntu 8.04.2 s ch cn 6,8 GB.

La chn th 2 l dng ton b cng. Chn gii php ny s xa h iu hnh ang c, l Ubuntu 8.04.2, thay th hon ton bng h iu hnh Ubuntu 9.04. Bn ch chn phng n ny nu bn chc chn l mun b h iu hnh ang dng v lu li tt c nhng s liu c nhn cn thit.

La chn th 3 l s dng khng gian trng lin tc l ln nht. Trong v d y, chn bin php ny s dnh ton b khng gian cng cn trng (63,4 GB) ci Ubuntu 9.04. Bn cng c th ch l vng swap cng tng ln gp i. Cc bn ch l 02 gii php th nht v th ba s phi phn vng li thc t cng bi v phn vng gc dnh cho Ubuntu 8.04.2 u b Trnh ci t thu nh li. La chn cui cng l xc nh phn vng bng tay. Gii php ny l hu ch nht phn vng cng theo yu cu v chng ti s m t chi tit hn sau y :

Phn vng li cng bng tay, to mt phn vng ring cho /home
Khi to ra mt phn vng ring cho /home, l th mc cha cc s liu c nhn ca nhng ngi dng h iu hnh GNU/Linux, ta c th ci li hoc thay i bn phn phi GNU/Linux m khng nh hng n s liu c nhn ngi dng. Bn ch cn lu li 3 tp tin then cht l /etc/password, /etc/group v /etc/shadow trc khi ci li GNU/Linux, khi phc li ton b ngi dng v s liu c nhn sau khi ci h thng GNU/Linux mi. 1. To mt phn vng mi cho h thng tp tin / vi dung lng t 4 GB (ti thiu) n 10 GB ( dng thoi mi) 2. Bn chn vng dung lng cng cn trng (68023 MB). 3. Bn nhn vo nt To phn vng mi.
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4. Trong hp thoi s m ra, bn chn loi phn vng lun l (logical), h thng tp tin theo kiu ext3 v xc nh im lp l / trong thc n cun.

Sau bn lp li thao tc to phn vng mi trong khng gian trng cn li to ra phn vng /home, cng theo h thng tp tin ghi nht k theo kiu ext3, vi mt dung lng ty . Bn c th dung ht khng gian cng cn li nu khng c nh ci thm mt h iu hnh th 3. Trong v d ny chng ti ch dng 20 GB cho phn vng dnh cho s liu c nhn, li khong 39 GB trng. Cn v phn vng dng trao i (linux-swap), trong trng hp ny chng ti khng cn to ra bi v n c sn ri. H iu hnh Ubuntu 9.04 s tn dng vng swap chung vi h iu hnh c Ubuntu 8.04, y l sda2 vi kch thc 1,9 GB. Tuy nhin trong trng hp cha c vng swap, th phi to ra n vi mt dung lng thng bng hoc bng gp i dung lng b nh RAM c trn my.Ngoi ra vic h iu hnh GNU/Linux s khai thc phn vng swap mi khi b nh RAM b bo ha, vng swap s l ni ghi li tnh trng ca h thng khi ngi dng mun cho n vo tnh trng ng ng (hibernate), chng hn.

E.

Bc 5 : xc nh tn ng nhp v mt m ca ngi dng

Ngi dng c khai bo giai on ny s c quyn qun tr h thng my tnh thng qua ln sudo. Mt c im ca Ubuntu l khng xc nh mt m ca ngi siu dng root. Nu bn thy cn xc nh mt m ring cho ngi siu dng root, bn c th lm sau khi ci xong h thng Ubuntu.

Khi xc nh mt m ca ngi dng, h thng s nhc li nu mt m bn chn qu n gin hoc qu ngn. Tuy nhin, nu bn mun nh th, bn ch cn nhn vo nt Tip tuc b qua thng bo ca h thng. Bn c th t tn bt k cho my tnh ca mnh. Tn nay s xc minh cho my tnh ca bn trn mng. Cui cng, nu bn mun ng nhp t ng vo h thng, khng mun b hi mt m ng nhp, bn ch cn chn vo ng nhp t ng.

F.

Bc 6 : Nhp vo s liu c nhn t cc phn vng Windows (nu c).

Trong trng hp bn ang c mt phn vng Windows trn cng, trnh ci t s th nhp li cc s liu c nhn ca bn t trong Windows vo Ubuntu. Nu lm c, trnh ci t s thng bo trong mt bng v bn s c c hi chp nhn thc hin nu bn mong mun.
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G.

Bc 7 : Tm li tin trnh ci t v quyt nh thc hin

Giai on cui cng s xut hin mt bng tm tt li nhng thng tin v nhng thao tc phn vng m bn xc nh. Lc bn c th kim tra li mt ln cui cng trc khi thc hin ci t Ubuntu. Nu bn c thay i kin, hoc mun lm li mt bc bn c th li li tng bc mt hoc thot lun, lm li t u.

Nu bn nhn vo nt Nng cao..., bn phi di, mt hp thoi nh s xut hin thm. Nu mng ca bn c thit lp mt my proxy, bn s c c hi xc nh a ch mng ca my proxy bo m vic ti cc gi phn mm cn thit t internet. Nu thch, bn cng c th nh du vo vung tham gia cuc kho st v cc gi phn mm c nhng ngi dng a thch nht : mi ln bn ci mt phn mm, h thng s thng bo cho b phn thng k cc ng dng c ci t. Kt qu thng k s c th hin bng s lng du sao c cung cp cho phn mm trong bng lit k cc phn mm trong trnh Thm/G b... (Add/Remove...) phn mm.

H.

Tin hnh ci t Ubuntu

Nu bn sn sng khi ng qu trnh ci t Ubuntu trn my tnh, bn ch cn nhn vo nt Ci t ca hp thoi cui cng. Lc trnh ci t s bt u tht s phn vng li cng, nh dng li cc phn vng dnh chp cc tp tin t a live CD cng nh t internet, nu nh bn chp nhn ti gi phn mm (v d cc gi ngn ng khng c y trn live CD) t internet trong qu trnh ci t.

Thi gian cn thit ci t v cu hnh li h thng Ubuntu s ph thuc vo mt s yu t nh tc ca CPU my tnh, tc c ca CD, tc ti xung ca ng ni internet. Nu dng mt my tnh tng i hin ai (Dual Core 2,2 Ghz) ch mt khong 15-20 pht l cng. Trong khi ci t, bn vn c th dng internet, tra cu web hoc lm vic vi cc phn mm ca live CD.
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Khi ci t xong, bn s c c hi tip tc s dng live CD v, c bit nu bn cn lu li cng vic lm trong khi ang ci t Ubuntu, bn s phi ghi li cc s liu cn thit trn mt thit b lu ng trc khi tin hnh khi ng li my tnh dng h thng Ubuntu mi. Sau khi khi ng li my tnh, cc ng dng s chy nhanh hn v bn s c kh nng cu hnh li h thng v cc ng dng theo ty thch.

Dng lu tr USB ghi s liu trc khi khoi ng li my tnh


Khi bn cm mt USB vo my tnh, h thng s nhn ra thit b v s b sung mt biu tng mang tn ca USB trn nn Mt bn Desktop, ng thi s lit k ni dung ca USB trong mt ca s ca trnh duyt tp tin Nautilus. chp cc tp tin vo USB, bn ch cn chn cc tp tin v ko chng vo ca s hin ln ni dung ca USB. Khi no chp xong, bn nh nhn nt phi con chut vo biu tng USB v chn Tho gn kt (Eject) bo m cc tp tin c ghi y vo USB. Khi no biu tng USB bin mt t trn Mt bn Desktop, vic rt ra USB c th thc hin mt cch an ton.

VII. M t Mt bn Desktop GNOME


Desktop GNOME c chia thnh 3 vng : 2 bng iu khin phi trn v phi di ca mn hnh v vng mn hnh chnh gia hai bng iu khin, c gi l vng Desktop (bn lm vic o) ca ngi dng. Bng iu khin pha trn bao gm 3 thc n chnh :

Thc n ng dng (Applications) cho php la chn cc phn mm ng dng Thc n Ni (Places) ch dn n cc ni ca h thng, c bit trong th mc c nhn Thc n H thng (System) bao gm cc mc ty chn v qun tr h thng

Bng iu khin trn c thm cc biu tng ca mt s phn mm ng dng v thng tin v h thng nh : Trnh duyt web Mozilla Firefox

Trnh th in t Evolution Biu tng Tr gip (Help) truc tuyn v Ubuntu Biu tng bit v thng tin ni mng m thanh Ngy v gi ca h thng Biu tng dng ng xut, i ngi dng v tt h thng

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Bng iu khin phi di c biu tng Desktop bn tri, khi no n biu tng , Bn lm vic o (Desktop) ca ngi dng s hin ln. V phi bn phi ca bng iu khin di c th chn mt trong 2 Bn lm vic o ca GNOME. Nu nhn phi vo cc Bn lm vic o, bn c th tng ln s lng cc Bn lm vic o.

A.

Thc n ng dng (Applications)


Khi n vo thc n ng dng (Applications), bn c th la chn cc phn mm ng dng c sp xp theo cc loi ng dng ch yu (xp theo th t A B C) nh sau :

Phn mm ng dng m thanh v Phim nh (Accessories)


Loi phn mm ny c 4 ng dng chnh : B pht nhc Rhythmbox nghe a CD audio ; B pht phim Totem xem phim. Tuy nhin nh dng phim xem c l nhng nh dng m nh Ogg. Nu mun nghe mp3, xem phim mp4, avi, chng hn s phi ci thm mt s phn mm cho php c cc tp nh dng ng. Ubuntu cng c sn phn mm Brasero ghi s liu vo a CD hoc ghi cc tp tin nh iso..

Phn mm B tr (Accessories) :

Bn k t cho php xem v chn cc k t trong mt bng ty theo cc loi phng. Bn tnh (my tnh cm tay) c nhiu chc nng tnh ton, t yu cu n gin n yu cu khoa hc v ti chnh. B phn tch cch s dng a trnh by dung lng ca cc th mc, cho php xc nhn th mc no ang chim nhiu khng gian a. B son tho vn bn (Gedit) ghi li cc vn bn dng vn bn th, tng thch Unicode. B to a CD/DVD l trnh Brasero c trong thc n m thanh v Xem phim. Trnh chp mn hnh cho php chp ton b mn hnh, mt ca s hoc mt vng ca mn hnh. Thit b ca s dng lnh (Terminal) cho php nhp cc dng

lnh cho h thng.


Trnh ghi ch Tomboy l mt cng c to ra cc phiu ghi chp nhanh. Trnh Mt khu v kha m ha cho php qun l cc mt khu khc nhau ca bn. Trnh Qun l cng vic in cho php xem li tnh trng cc cng vic in dng li, thi hoc khi ng li.

Phn mm ho:
B Qan l nh chp F-Spot s t ng chy khi cc thit b gn vo, cc th nh, USB ang cha nh chp. Phn mm ho, GIMP khng thua km Photoshop s cho
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php x l nh. Trnh V Hnh (Draw) thuc b phn mm vn phng OpenOffice.org. Nu bn c mt my qut nh c h tr bi nhn Linux, trnh Xsane s nhn ra my qut hnh ngay lp tc.

Phn mm khai thc interrnet


B xem mn hnh t xa cho php truy cp vo mn hnh ca mt my tnh qua mng. in thoi Ekiga l phn mm tng ng Netmeeting ca Microsoft. duyt web, bn s dng Mozilla Firefox ging nh trong mi trng Windows tn dng kho khng lof cc phn mm m rng chc nng cho Firefox. Terminal Server Client l phn mm khch truy cp vo mt my ch cung cp dch v qua mng. Phn mm th in t Evolution c so snh vi phn mm Outlook Express ca Microsoft. Nu bn mun chat vi bn b, Pidgin l phn mm a giao thc, h tr cc giao thc khc nhau nh Yahoo, ICQ v MSN ngoi giao thc gc ca n l XMPP (Jabber). Cui cng, nu bn cn ti cc tp kch thc ln, bn c th dng trnh Transmission ti nhanh hn dng k thut torrent.

Phn mm Tr chi
Cc bn s khng thiu tr chi cc kiu gii tr :

Tuy nhin nu bn thch chi, bn c th ci thm nhiu tr chi thng qua Trnh "Thm/G b..." phn mm (Add / Remove...).

Phn mm ng dng cho vn phng


ng nhin bn s c dng b phn mm vn phng OpenOffice.org 3.0.1, tng ng b Microsoft Office, bao gm chng trnh Writer, Calc v Impress, u c th xut ti liu sang nhiu nh dng, trong c PDF.

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Trnh Thm/G b (Add/Remove...)


Trnh ny s m mt hp thoi cho php chn thm phn mm ng dng ci vo nhng phn mm ng dng ph bin nht. Nu bn khng tm c phn mm ng dng trong danh sch, bn c th dng Trnh Qun l gi phn mm Synaptic c chn vo ton b danh sch gi phn mm c trong tt c cc ngun kho phn mm khai bo.

B.

Thc n Ni - Places (khng gian lm vic v phn cng)


y l ni truy cp vo th mc chnh ca bn (Home Folder) vi phn mm trnh duyt tp tin Nautilus (tng ng ca File Explorer trong Windows). Mi ti khon ngi dng khi c h thng to ra u c mt s th mc sn v trng gn, ging trong h iu hnh Windows, nh "Ti liu" (Documents), "m nhc" (Music), v.v. Nu bn gn cc cc thit b lu tr bn ngoi nh USB, hoc a mt a CD/DVD vo c CD/DVD, bn c th truy cp ni cc h thng tp tin ngay t ca s Nautilus. Nu my tnh ca bn tham gia mt mng my tnh v nu ci trnh Samba, bn c th truy cp cc my tnh khc v chia s tp tin qua mng. Biu tng "My tnh" ging "My Computer" ca Windows s hin th cc thit b gn vo my tnh. c bit nu bn cn tra cu h thng tp tin GNU/Linux, bn c th chn mc ny. Trnh "Tm kim tp tin..." s cho php bn tm kim cc tp tin theo tn tp tin hoc theo mt ni dung nht nh trong tp tin. Cui cng, thc n Ti liu gn y (Recent Documents) cho php m nhanh cc tp tin v ti liu dng gn y.

C.

Thc n H thng (System)

Nu cn chnh li h thng ph hp vi ty thch ca bn, thc n H thng (System) s cho php thc hin cc mong mun ca bn thng qua thc n ph Ty thch (Preferences) hoc thc hin mt s nhim v qun tr h hng thng qua thc n ph Qun l (Administration). Thc n H thng cn bao gm cc phn tr gip v h tr s dng cc ng dng chnh trong Ubuntu v mi trng GNOME. Chn thc n ph Ty thch (Preferences) bn s c kh nng chn loi bn phm, nn hnh ca Bn lm vic Desktop, cc loi phng, v.v.

Thc n ph Qun l (Administration) cho php thc hin mt s nhim v qun tr h thng c bn,
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nh kim tra mng, xc nh cc thng s mng nh i ch IP (Networking), b sung my in, ngn ng, phn vng i cng, v.v.

Trong thc n ph Qun l (Administration) c my cng c qun tr h thng quan trng cn ch n :

Trnh Language Support (H tr Ngn ng), cho php dng trnh SCIM (Smart Common Input Machine) g cc ngn ng vi k t phc tp nh ting Trung, Hn, Nht v, ng nhin, ting Vit. Nu bn mun g ting Vit bn phi m bo ci y cc gi phn mm h tr cho ting Vit (kim tra khi nhn vo nt "Install/Remove languages..."

Bn cng c th b sung nhiu th ting khc nh ting Php, c, Nga, v.v.


Trnh Qun l gi Synaptic qun l cc gi phn mm ; Trnh Qun l cp nht (Update Manager) cp nht h thng vi cc bn p v nht khi mt phn mm b pht hin cc l hng an ton. Trnh Ngun phn mm (Software sources) cho php b sung hoc s i cc kho phn mm
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ci t v cp nht h thng.

Nu bn cn bn s c kh nng b sung thm ngi dng cho h thng nh trnh Ngi dng v Nhm, v xem cc thng bo h thng (System Log) ca nhn Linux thng qua B xem tp tin ghi lu. Cn nu bn gp trc trc g vi ng ni mng, bn s kim tra iu kin ni mng cc b, hoc mng internet thng qua trnh Cng c mng.

VIII. Giy php s dng ti liu ny


Ti liu ny c phn phi theo giy php GNU/FDL1, c nghi bn c th s dng, sao chp, phn phi li v sa li ni dung ca ti liu ny vi iu kin l bn phi cng nhn tc gi ca ti liu gc l ng V Qunh (vdquynh@gmail.com) v bn phi phn phi li ti liu ny v cc ti liu xut pht t ti liu ny theo giy php GNU/FDL.

CC LI T CHI (DISCLAIMER)
Chng ti tht s c gng bo m chnh xc cao ca cc thng tin c cung cp trong quyn sch ny. Tuy nhin chng ti khng th no bo m mt chnh xc tuyt i 100%. V vy, tc gi gc khng th no chi trch nhim nu nh ti liu ny cha mt s sai lm ngoi mun v nhng hu qu m chng c th gy ra. Chng ti c th cp n mt s phn mm v phn cng trong ti liu ny l nhng phn mm v phn cng c tn thng mi c ng k v c bn quyn. Nu ng nh th, chng ti khng c nh i li nhng tn . THIS DOCUMENTATION IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHORS "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.

1 GNU Free documentation licence (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) 16