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1. Distinguish between Hearing and Listening? The primary cause of poor communication is a failure to listen other person.

Most of us do not know the difference between hearing and listening. Many sounds in our lives(street noise, small talk at a party) are assimilated through the process of hearing. This is primarily a physical phenomenon, with only a small mental element and virtually no emotional component. We take such hearing for granted, like breathing, and, in many situations this is appropriate. But when people try to communicate to us something they consider to be important hearing become inadequate. Instead we need to listen to what they have to say. Now the process requires three components-physical, mental and emotional-and becomes more complex. Unfortunately, we often fail to distinguish between hearing and listening. And we assume that with low effort, exactly what another person is saying or means to say. Similarly when we think people have misunderstood what we have just said. 2. Listening is the essence of communication. Elucidate? Listening is the essence of communication. Communication is taken place only if the receiver partially or wholly understands what the sender said. Hearing means only hearing what is saying. Listening include understanding in the right sense too. When people try to communicate to us something they consider to be important hearing become inadequate. Instead we need to listen to what they have to say. Now the process requires three components-physical, mental and emotional-and becomes more complex. Communication is the life blood of business, which means listening is also very important in business. Listening promotes awareness about the organization. It helps to make better policies. It pacifies the complaining employees. It is important for the success of open door policy. It also helps to spot sensitive areas. 3. What are the important points to be observed relating to: a. Inside address. b. Salutation. c. Complimentary clause. a. Inside address The inside address contains the name and address of the firm or the individual to whom the letter is written. This makes a record on the copy which serves to identify the letter for filing purposes. It also helps the outward clerk to write the same address on the cover. It should be written below the reference line, leaving some space. Also, it should start from the left margin and may be written either in the indented (step) form or in the block form. It should be noted that while the outside address (on the envelope) is to be written in full, the inside address may be written in brief: Outside address Inside address Shree Ram Mills Ltd Shree Ram Mills Ltd Ferguson Road Ferguson Road Lower Parel Mumbai-13 Mumbai-13(BC) However, it is advisable to have the inside address on the letterhead and the address on the cover both in full. For, if the inside address is full, if the inside address is full, the dispatch clerk will not commit mistakes. b. Salutation

The salutation is the complimentary greeting with which the writer opens his letter. It is the written equivalent of the conversational hello. It should be written below the inside address (or attention of.., if any),leaving some space and should start flush with the left-side margin. It may or may not end with a comma depending upon the style adopted. For ordinary business purposes, Dear sir or Dear madam is used for addressing one person and Dear sirs or dear madams for addressing one two or more persons,ie., A firm or an association. c. Complimentary close The complimentary close or subscription is merely a polite way of ending a letter. As the use of dear sir ..etc is conventional, so is the use of yours faithfully, yours truly and similar expressions. just as the salutation is the written equivalent of goodbye. Salutation and complimentary close should correspond to each other. The complimentary close is written below the last paragraph of the body of the letter, depending on the style of the letter.

4.Briefly explain the major forms of communication. Major forms of communication are : Interpersonal communication: It is the communication made between two or more people. It can happen in a group, family, community etc. It can take form of personal letters, personal telephone calls, conversations, e-mails etc. Intrapersonal communication: In this type of communication, the sender communicates to himself. Self evaluation, thinking are the examples for intra personal communication. Formal Communication: Towards ensuring communication on an on-going basis, organizations develop formal systems. Staff meetings, union-management meetings, branch managers conferences, periodical sales review meetings and customer meets are examples of formal communication. Formal communication generally follows a well-defined hierarchical pattern and periodicity. Memos, circulars, instructions, guidelines are some of the channels that facilitate the flow of formal communication in business organizations. Informal Communication: This type of communication takes place in an unstructured manner and outside the formal forums. There is an element of spontaneity in this communication. Informal communication works well in smaller, loosely knit organizations. It is used more often in situations where there are no rigid hierarchical tiers.

Upward communication: Upward communication is the communication done from higher level management to the lower level. This may be the instructions, advice, information etc. 5. Draft a memorandum to your technical director informing him the defect you noticed on the machinery your are in charge of J.K Chemicals Ltd. Patel Road, Hyderabad Date:07-11-06 To : Mr.Ashok Kumar, Technical Director From: Mr.Jatinder Mohan, Supervisor Sub : Defect on Machinery It came to my notice that one of the Machineries MNo.234 is not in proper working condition. It may harm the life of the employees who are working on it. Please take necessary arrangements for the same as early as possible. Yours truly, Jatinder Mohan, Supervisor.

6. How will you ensure courtesy and clarity in written communication? ` written communication includes written words charts,graphs, reports,etc.Communicating comes in variety of forms.it is a permenant records ,easier to understand,composing in advance, more accuracy. . Whether verbal, nonverbal or in print, our communications send an impression. Canada s etiquette ladies speak with humor and insight about communicating with clarity and polish, the role of grammar, the nuances of modern technological etiquette, listening skills, non-verbal messages and how to talk to anyone, anytime, anywhere High Impact Business WritingThis practical business writing session focuses on modern guidelines for professional writing. Today s reader expects clarity and conciseness. If you want to learn how to ensure your business letters, emails, memos and reports are read, you need to write for impact. Canada s etiquette experts show you how in this informative session. Anyone in a position that requires they write for

business or anyone with supervisory responsibilities who is required to manage the work of others through written communications would benefit from this session. . Resolving Conflict with Confidence and Courtesy One of the unfortunate facts of life is that occasionally people disagree. Whether a dispute happens over something absurd or something serious, a great many problems arise when things escalate into conflict. Resolution is not about being right Learn the 10 steps to conflict resolution by adapting sensible solutions to seemingly impossible challenges. Mutually encouraging results can be met and conflict resolved when goals are developed to find common ground everyone can be comfortable with. Join In Good Company and learn how to resolve conflicts with confidence and courtesy

8. Distinguish between Letters and Circulars Letters perform a major function in written communication.letters enable communication of ideas and information without personal contact and at the same time provide a permenanent record for future use.circulars are the most common form of inter departmental communication ,used to intimate ansd inform the group of employees.they are in fact letters or notices usually presented ,cyclosted and addressedto a numberc of persons in the organization. Letters provide record and reference,its a permenamnt record of dealing with customers ,suppliers .readybreference for users.evidence of contract .both are act as a valid document and evidence of the contracts between two parties Provides public relations

9. What are different informal channels of communication? What are the circumstances under which management will depend more on informal channels? Formal communication structured on the basis of hierarchy ,authority, and accountability. departmental meetings conference,circulars,company news, interviews etc.informal communication takes place outside the formally prescribed and planned network or channel.it is also called grape vine.the various types of informal communication are Single strand-each person tells the other in sequence . Gossip one individual tells all on non-selective basis Probability-the individual tells other individually randomly according to the law of probability Cluster-the individual the other selectively to persons whom Other channels are group communication, public communication, mass communication Method of understanding persons behavior by analyzing transactions between them. Parent adult child theory

10. What is meant Clich? Are all round about expressions clichs? Explain with examples of clichs and round about expressions
An expression so often used that its original power has been drained away, such as "dead as a doornail. Clich" applies also to almost any situation, subject, charatestic s, or object

in short, any act has become overly familiar or commonplace. Because the novelty or frequency of an expression's use varies across different times and places, whether or not it is a clich depends largely on who uses it, the context in which it is used, and who is making the judgment. The meaning of a particular clich may shift over time, often leading to confusion or misuse these are the few examples of clich

anti-clich Archetype Idiom Simile Snowclone

Stock character 1. The situation in which your message is delivered is the context. This may include the surrounding environment or broader culture (i.e. corporate culture, international cultures, etc.).The barriers that arise due to the context in which the message is delivered is known as context related barriers. The context related barriers could be noise, lack of clarity in the chosen medium and lack of expression clarity from the part of the speaker. Also the from the part of the listener lack of concentration can be considered as a context related barriers. All the barriers that hinders the effective communication related to the context are called context related barriers. 11. Effective communication with people of different cultures is especially challenging. Cultures provide people with ways of thinking--ways of seeing, hearing, and interpreting the world. Thus the same words can mean different things to people from different cultures, even when they talk the "same" language. When the languages are different, and translation has to be used to communicate, the potential for misunderstandings increases. Stella Ting-Toomey describes three ways in which culture interferes with effective cross-cultural understanding. First is what she calls "cognitive constraints." These are the frames of reference or world views that provide a backdrop that all new information is compared to or inserted into. Second are "behavior constraints." Each culture has its own rules about proper behavior which affect verbal and nonverbal communication. Whether one looks the other person in the eye-or not; whether one says what one means overtly or talks around the issue;

how close the people stand to each other when they are talking--all of these and many more are rules of politeness which differ from culture to culture. Ting-Toomey's third factor is "emotional constraints." Different cultures regulate the display of emotion differently. Some cultures get very emotional when they are debating an issue. They yell, they cry, they exhibit their anger, fear, frustration, and other feelings openly. Other cultures try to keep their emotions hidden, exhibiting or sharing only the "rational" or factual aspects of the situation. All of these differences tend to lead to communication problems. If the people involved are not aware of the potential for such problems, they are even more likely to fall victim to them, although it takes more than awareness to overcome these problems and communicate effectively across cultures.

21. There are six important steps in communication . They are source, encoding, channel, receiving, decoding and feedback. The first step in communication is of source. The source is the person who is conveying the message. The message has to be conveyed from the speaker in a very clear and concise manner, so as the listener can get a clear idea of what the speaker wants to convey. The second step is the process of selecting the channel. Proper channel has to be selected so as to make the transfer of message clear. The third step is the coding of the message. Then it is transmitted and the listener decodes the message after receiving it. After that the listener analyses it and gives feedback to the speaker. Thus one cycle of steps or process in communication is over. 31. What are the roles played by words, sentences, sounds and gestures in the Communication process? The role played by words, sentences, sounds and gestures in the Communication process is that of the roles played by our bones in our body. It gives structure to the communication process or to the message that has been conveyed. Words forms the basic structure of our message and sentences are a collection of words arranged in a meaningful sequential order. Gestures are used to add meaning to what one says. Gestures should be made in such a way that it supports what we say. It is used to capture the attention of the person or public to which one is addressing.

3. Letters are ambassadors of an organization. Elucidate? A business letter is a letter written in formal language (English), usually used when writing from one business organization to another, or for correspondence between such organizations and their customers, clients and other external parties. The overall style of letter will depend on the relationship between the parties concerned; however, there is a general consensus on style, for example, Business letters usually follow a left-blocked format.

Business letters are highly useful in introducing trade relations and promoting business transactions. They provide convenient and inexpensive means of communication without personal contacts furnish evidences of transactions and help in creating good impression and goodwill. Functions Record and reference-business letters function as a permanent record of dealing with customers, suppliers and govt. agencies etc. Evidence of contracts-Business letters act as a valid document and evidence of the contracts between the two parties. Public Relations-business letters serve as formal as well as informal business relations even without personal contacts. Business in Remote-Business letters serve the business in case of dealing with persons operating in remote areas, where means of transport and communication have not developed or the distance are too large to deal with economically. 5.What is a report?What are the essentials of a good short report? C.A.Brown defines report as A report is acommunication from someone who has some information to someone who wants to use that information. Characteristics of a good report: 1)precision:in a good report ,the writer is very clear about the exact purpose of writing it. precision gives a kind of unity and coherence to the report and makes it a valuable document. 2)accuracy of facts:the scientific accuracy of facts is very essential to a good report.since report invariably lead to decision-making ,inaccurate facts may lead to disastrous decisions. 3)relevance:the facts present in a report should be not only accurate but relevant also. irrelevant facts make a report confusing ;exclusion of relevant facts renders it incomplete and likely to mislead. 4)reader_orientation:while drafting a report it is necessary to keep in mind the persons who is going to read it. 5)objectivity of recommendations:if recommendations are made at the end of a report,they must be impartial and objective.they should come as a logical conclusion to investigation and analysis. 6)simple and unambiguous language:it is a kind of scientific document of practical utility;hence it should be free from forms of poetic embellishment like figures of speech

7)clarity:clarity depends on proper arrangement of facts.the report writer must proceed systematically.he should make his purpose clear,define his sources,state his findings and finally make necessary recommendations. 8)brevity:a report should be brief.Brvity should not be achieved at the cost of clarity.include everything significant and yet e brief. 9)grammatical accuracy:the grammatical accuracy of language though listed is of fundamental importance.it is one of the basic requisites of a good report as of any other piece of composition.

6. List out the major points of differences among letters, and Memos.

Memos Typically, you write memos to people within your place of work, and you write letters to people outside your place of work. One major difference between memos and letters is the title line found in memos. Because readers often decide whether to read the memo solely on the basis of this title line, the line is important. Another difference between letters and memos is that you sometimes write memos that serve as short reports. In such cases, the format for the memo changes somewhat. For instance, in a memo serving as a progress report for a project, you might include subheadings and sub-subheadings. Notice that people who are mentioned in a memo or are directly affected by the memo should receive a copy. Included here are a sample memo format and a sample memo. Also included is a sample memo report. Letters Formats for letters vary from company to company. For instance, some formats call for paragraph indents; others don't. Included in this section is a sample format or letters. Also included in this section is a sample job letter and a sample thank you letter written by someone after a job interview. In this letter, notice how the writer gets to the point in the first sentence of the first paragraph. Notice also the simple and straightforward salutation. As with a

memo, people who are mentioned or directly affected by the letter should receive a copy.

13. Distinguish between public speaking and Business presentations. Public speaking is the process of speaking to a group of people in a structured, deliberate manner intended to inform, influence, or entertain the listeners. In public speaking, as in any form of communication, there are five basic elements, often expressed as who is saying what to whom using what medium with what effects. The purpose of public speaking can range from simply transmitting information, to motivating people to act, to simply telling a story. Good orators should be able to change the emotions of their listeners, not just inform them. Business presentations Business executive have to make number of oral presentations on different occasions like training employees, introduction of new product, etc. Making effective presentation involves developing a strategy that fits the audience and purpose, having good content, and organizing material. Purpose of presentations 1. To inform 2. To persuade 3. To build goodwill 14. What are the stages in the presentation for public speaking? In any presentation, it is only the speaker who knows exact nature of the material the speaker are about to deliver. To ensure we deliver information across in the best manner we need to consider the following points 1. It is vitally important that we research and prepare the information 2. The information should be presented in a logical and sequential manner to ensure that the audience understands events are able to reach some solution to the problem.

3. It is necessary to give all the required information, as gap to tend to present the problem. 4. The opening and closing section of the presentation are as important as the middle part. When we have planned your presentation, examine the following OBJECTIVE: recheck that whether we have defined objective correctly. STRUCTURE: does presentation have clearly identifiable structure? CONTENT: is all said that needs saying? SEQUENCE: is it logical? Are all links and summaries appropriate? TIME: is sufficient time available for all we want to say? BALANCE: is each section weighted correctly? Check the priorities of your arguments and facts CONCLUSION: does it make people sit up and agree with speaker? Is it punchy? OBJECTIVES: do all the above work towards achieving objective?

15. Explain in two or more sentences each the different types of reports that a Medium size joint stock company has to prepare. We can classify business report in various ways: On the basis of legal formalities we can have 1)informal reports: an informal report is usually submitted in the form of a letter or a memorandum.It is usually in the form of a person to person communication 2)formal reports:a formal report is one which is prepared in a prescribed form and it is presented according to an established procedure to a prescribed authority. A formal report may be statutory or non-statutory. On the basis of legal frequency of issue, a report can be 1)periodic or routine reports: it is prepared and presented at regular,prescribed e tervals in the usual routine of business 2)special reports:it is related to a single occasion or situation.special reports deal with non-recurrent problems. On the basis of function,report may be

1)informative: if it presents facts pertinent to an issue or a situation. 2)interpretative:if it analyses the facts,draws conclusions and makes recommendations. On the basis of the nature of the subject dealt with 1)problem determining report:determine the causes underlying a problem or to ascertain whether or not the problemually exists. 2)technical report:we present data on a specialized subject,with or without comments. On the basis of number of persons entrusted with the drafting of reports 1)reports by individuals:reports submitted by the branch manager,personal manager,marketing manager,the company secretary,etc 2)reports by committees:re eded on subjects that concern more than one department .

16.How will you ensure courtesy and clarity in business letter? Ans) All letters must be clear and concise to avoid possible future misunderstandings and confusion. In general, a writer should take care of the following points. a) a writer must be clear about what is to be conveyed even before starting to write the letter. The idea is to give careful thoughts to the subject matter and understand it thoroughly so that the end product does not carry vague and wrong information. b) The lengths of sentences and paragraphs should be short and to the point. Verbose sentences and long paragraphs confuse rather than convey. c) It is always worth to use the exact word even if seeking it takes time. For e.g.: beautiful surroundings are not as effective as lovely surroundings.

d) A writer must avoid ambiguity at all costs. And also a writer must take care of punctuation, syntax and word meanings. e) The ideas must be expressed logically. The letter should flow from one point to the other in a logical progression. If the mind of the reader has to keep going backwards and forwards in order to understand what is written comprehension becomes difficult and it can result in confusion. f) Use of slang expression and words should be avoided in formal letters. Similarly too much technical jargons can pose problems. g) Use positive language to convey your positive feelings, expressions like cant or will not should be avoided 23. Describe the characteristics of good interpersonal feedback? One of the main causes of problems in Interpersonal Relations is the suspicion that the other person could be criticizing me behind my back. This leads to mistrust among people and limits ones spontaneity in relating to people. Proper training in giving and receiving Feedback will not only enable a person to communicate effectively, it will also ensure growth in relationship. The term Feedback refers to that part of our communication behaviors which pays attention to the effect of a message so we can know what to do next. 1) Feedback is the kind of information all of us need to check out whether the actual results of our communication are the same as our intended results. 2) Feedback is absolutely necessary for survival and for growth. 3) Feedback at best is a non-evaluating process of sharing data with another person while respecting that persons right and freedom to accept or reject it, to act on it or not acts on it. 4) Feedback is not the kind of gang bombardment pictured in some T.V. commercial stereotypes of groups. It is not sharp shooting, shipping or blasting.

24. Describe persuasion process. The Persuasion Process

Summary: Persuasion is a key process in our day-to-day lives. In particular, advertisers seek to persuade us to purchase their product, primarily through the peripheral route of communication. Many other forms of persuasion exist. But what is persuasion? How does it change our attitudes, and why do advertisers find it so useful? All people are different. Not just physically, but mentally too. We all have different morals, opinions and attitudes that we live our lives by. We may not always agree with others in the attitudes that we hold, and so we try to persuade them in this regard. Persuasion is also a key process in our day-to-day lives. People try to persuade people, advertisers seek to persuade us to change our attitude on their product. There are many other forms of persuasion out there. But what is persuasion? How does it change our attitude, and why do advertisers find it so useful? Attitudes are all around us. As individuals, once we form an attitude it is generally very hard to change. 33. What is meant by you attitude in business letters? In business communication, the sender should ensure that he or she is communicating with you-attitude. You attitude means conveying the message from readers point of view and emphasising on the contents that reader intends to know while showing him respect. You attitude is a style of writing that, a. Looks at things from the readers point of view b. Repasts the readers intelligence c. Protects the readers ego d. Emphasizes what the reader wants to know How to create you-attitude 1. Talk about the receiver, not about yourself The reader or sender is more interested in his or her benefits from the message. Therefore when you provide the information, talk in terms of benefits to the communicate.

2. Do not talk about feelings In most business situations, individuals feelings and emotions are irrelevant and should be avoided. The reader is

interested in his economic or other benefits. Therefore he cares little about the emotions. 3. Use You more than I and We when it includes the reader in positive situations Try to use the word you and we than I. Use of the word I suggests that you are concerned about your personal issues not the issues of the organisation. 4. Avoid you in negative situation To avoid blaming the reader, use an impersonal expression or passive verb so that the reader does not feel bad impression of the situation.

34.What are the important points to be observed while writing: a. the date b. the body and c. the signature of a letter?
a. The date: it is written five spaces below the head address, in the

right hand corner, except in the block form of a letter. The date should be always written with the name of month and not the number of the month.eg: 10th march 2007. b. The body: it is the most important part .it is usually broken up into three essentials parts (1) the opening or the introductory paragraph which is short, to the point and one which should immediately attract the attention of the reader (2)the main communication to be made which may be subdivided into many paragraphs and(3)the closing paragraph which is again short and something of a formality. A business letter should usually deal with the topic. Otherwise it becomes difficult to file the letter and also gives the impression that the writer of the letter in hurry. c. The signature: should be written in hand .it is usually initials and surname of the signatory .Mr. is not written before the signature .Usually the name of the signatory is typed below the space where the signature is put.

Legally the signature has great importance, for it is the mark of the sender of the letter who is identified and held responsible for whatever the letters agree to do

35. Describe the important graphevine chains and point out the occasions when each chain will be effective in an organization? In every organization an informal channel of communication exists,which is called the grapevine.there are four types of informal channel of communication: 1)single strand:the single strand chain involves the passing of information through a long line of persons to the ultimate recipient. 2)gossip chain:this chain is like a wheel where a person at the centre passes it on to yhe others on the rim. 3)probability chain: it is random process in which a person passes the information to others in accordance with the laws of probability 4)cluster chain:a person tells to selected persons who may in turn relay the information to other selected individuals. To use grapevine effectively,the manager should Keep an eye on rumuor-mongers Use it primarily for feedback Contradict rumours promptly Involve workers in the decision making process

36.Describe the communication?

importance

of

Eye

contact

in

oral

Eye contact and gaze are different: gaze is one person looking at another, where as eye contact is when two look at each other at the same time. This is also known as mutual gaze. Eye contact is used throughout interaction with another. When two people meet mutual gaze is used as a signal to convey willingness to interact and they will avert their eyes just before addressing each other. Without mutual gaze on first meeting it normally shows that one in the pair doesnt want to interact. Whilst in conversation gaze is used as a regulator; it helps it flow.

At the end of questions peoples eyes will widen, suggesting that they want feedback. Generally, we look at people more when we are listening, and look away while we are speaking. Just before they finish their conversation people will tend to briefly look away from the person they are speaking to. In this situation the eyes are used to signal the end of utterances. There are also differences between genders; men will not look as much as women whilst talking. Argyle states that if one gazes more when asking questions about the other, it will encourage the other to talk about them more. By looking at someone we show genuine interest in the topic. It is most likely that speakers gaze less as they do not want to be interrupted and only look up for feedback every so often. I found that it could effect it quite dramatically, people who are not looked at whilst they are speaking tend to take offence, and it also depended on the relationship between the people. Mutual gaze lasts a little longer than usual as an indicator that they have finished talking. There is obviously a link between interaction and eye contact, but if eye contact is taken out of the equation does it affect the way that people communicate. This could be because men find open discussion much harder than women. Gaze can be used as a regulator of conversation; an example of this is when someone is asking a question. It not only acts as a full stop but a signal to the other for feedback.

20. mark question 4. You are the marketing manager of a T.V sets manufacturing firm. Write a letter to your sole distributor expressing your displeasure in not achieving the budgeted sales. ABC.LTD MUMBAI 6th November 2007 Sole distributor ABC.Ltd

Chennai Dear Sir, We received your status statement we are all really disappointed with your performance. We like to know the reasons why status standard are gone below the standard, we are very displeased with your performance. Guess we should have an official meeting soon, send the conformation date for the meeting as soon as possible. I need proper reasons for this condition. Any data you may furnish me will be treat as confidential .we shall appreciate an early reply . Yours faithfully

Marketing manager ABC.ltd 6. Assuming that you are the marketing manager of a firm manufacturing toiletries, write a letter to your sole distributor, emphasizing the importance of increasing the sales of your company products and suggesting a few measures to ensure that? ( the letter should be on the full blocked form with all the essential parts). THE CHAP TOILETRIES CHENNAI TAMIL NADU

06TH November 2007. DEAR SIR,

We are forced to write this letter to inform you that there is need of increasing sales of our product in your outlet,we found that the sales really going down which is affecting our company reputation. You have to take some measure improve the same we are having some suggestion if you found it really effective try to implement that our suggestions are Have a good advertisement poster in front of your outlet Please appoint a specialized sales man for our products He should also report us directly about the status Please also give customer our broachers We will appreciate if you send your suggestions as early as possible,we are looking forward for your reply Thanking you Your sincerely Marketing manager The chap toiletries

2 marks questions 18) Memorandum is a note to help the memory or record of events, for future.
Memorandum cover events and developments in an organisation. Memos cover details of events or developments such as branch opening, shifting, etc., staff related matters such as transfers and promotions, market related developments and so on. Circulars and memos contain vital details of relevance on functional areas, and will have to be referred to frequently by the personnel working in the organization. Due to their crucial importance they are often carefully indexed, filed and preserved, facilitating ready sourcing and reference.

25)
AIDA is an effective formula for organising sales letters. AIDA stands for A-Attention I-Interest D-Desire A-Action

If we look at the structure of some effective advertisements in news papers or magazines, we will find the following steps are taken to construct them Catching the readers attention Arousing his desire to buy Convincing him by substanciating the claims Motivating him to act quickly.

5 marks questions 20) The growth of technology induced developments has brought new dimensions to
the range, speed, methods and modalities of personal and business communication. Internet, laptop, mobiles, modems and computer based massaging systems have started impacting every sphere of activity, including business communication. Given below are some of the developments in the communication process due to the growth of technology.

E-mail:
It stands for electronic mail. It is a computer based messaging system.in large organisation, e-mail connectivity is established across numerous location, such as branches, regional offices, controlling offices, service units and training centres. The advantages of using e-mail are It is instantaneous It is economical It is of large global reach and access Can send copies of the message to many others instantaneously

E-commerce:
This refers to business or shopping done through the internet. The transaction between the buyer and the seller is direct and there is no middleman involved.

E-business:
E_business happens when the broad reach of internet is combined with the vast resourses of traditional information technology systems. It includes e-commerce as well.

Internet:
Through internet it is possible to access any information for the purpose of elearning, e-business, e-commerce and even entertainment. Word processor: These relate to software that facilitate better organised and appealing business correspondence.

Teleconferencing:
It is the discussion that takes place through telephone. It is possible for more than one person to speak from one end and discuss with more than one person at the other.

Video conferencing:
Apart from audio messages, video pictures are also available

SMS:
Short Messaging Service is another message transmission medium. SMS messages are used by advertisers, financial service providers and others to communicate business messages.

10) Yes, communication through computer network is a threat to inter


personal relations. The new millennium person will be speaking more of the global language as the global village becomes a reality. Now the communication is increasingly electronic and dehumanised. We are already seeing the slow demise of the manuscript and the handwritten letters and memos, with e-mail messages and machine print outs taking their place. With more and more reliance on internet, websites, online connectivity, Automated Teller Machines, customer terminals, SMS, etc.., human intervention, which has been so much an essential part of the communication till today will decline. All this means a certain dehumanization and relatively greater mechanization of the approach to communication.

30) Brainstorming is a group creativity technique designed to generate a large number of ideas for the solution to a problem. Groups could double their creative output by using the method of brainstorming. There are four basic rules in brainstorming. These are intended to reduce the social inhibitions that occur in groups and therefore stimulate the generation of new ideas. The expected result is a dynamic synergy that will dramatically increase the creativity of the group. 1. Focus on quantity: This rule is a means of enhancing divergent production, aiming to facilitate problem solving through the maxim, quantity breeds quality. The assumption is that the greater the number of ideas generated, the greater the chance of producing a radical and effective solution. 2. No criticism: It is often emphasized that in group brainstorming, criticism should be put 'on hold'. Instead of immediately stating what might be wrong with an idea, the participants focus on extending or adding to it, reserving criticism for a later 'critical stage' of the process. By suspending judgment, one creates a supportive atmosphere where participants feel free to generate unusual ideas. 3. Unusual ideas are welcome: To get a good and long list of ideas, unusual ideas are welcomed. They may open new ways of thinking and provide better solutions than regular ideas. They can be generated by looking from another perspective or setting aside assumptions. 4. Combine and improve ideas: Good ideas can be combined to form a single very good idea, as suggested by the slogan "1+1=3". This approach is assumed to lead to better and more complete ideas than merely generating new ideas alone. It is believed to stimulate the building of ideas by a process of association.

Outline of the method


Set the problem
One of the most important things to do before a session is to define the problem. The problem must be clear, not too big.

Create a background memo

The background memo is the invitation and informational letter for the participants, containing the session name, problem, time, date, and place. The problem is described in the form of a question, and some example ideas are given. The ideas are solutions to the problem, and used when the session slows down or goes off-track. The memo is sent to the participants at least two days in advance, so that they can think about the problem beforehand.

Select participants
The chairman composes the brainstorming panel, consisting of the participants and an idea collector. Ten or fewer group members are generally more productive than larger groups.

Create a list of lead questions


During the brainstorm session the creativity may decrease. At this moment, the chairman should stimulate creativity by suggesting a lead question to answer, such as Can we combine these ideas? or How about a look from another perspective?. It is advised to prepare a list of such leads before the session begins.

Session conduct
The chairman leads the brainstorming session and ensures that the basic rules are followed.

BUSINESS COMMUNICATION Why is the sender of a message called Encoder? Sender develops the message to convey the idea. This process is called encoding. Encoding means converting the messages into a encrypted form .only the receiver can understand the format and the way to decode it. Sender is called the encoder why because they encodes the message What is feed back? Feedback is the reply or response of what the listener has understood about what has been conveyed to him by the sender of the message. The communication Process

Communication is an exchange of facts, ideas, opinions or emotions by two or more person. Thus communication is two way process and is completed when there is some response from the receiver of information. Communication process Sender - encoding message decoding - receiver | | Feed back Sender: is the person who conveys the message Encoding: the conversion of subject-matter into the symbols is known as encoding Message: subject matter of communication Channel: the medium used to transmit message Decoding: communicate converts the symbols received to the subject matter Receiver: to whom the message is meant. Cite an example for upward communication Upward communication is the flow of communication from the subordinates to the superior positions. A workman suggesting and communicating to his superior in his turn conveys to middle level and the middle level communicates to top level. Reports, suggestions, complaints and grievances are instance of this type of communication.

Top level management |

Middle level management | Supervisory level management | Workman Here communication process goes from workman to the top level management.

What is perception? Perception is the source of ones knowledge of the world. One wants to know the world and the surrounding environment. Knowledge is power. Without knowledge one cannot act effectively. Perception is the main source of such knowledge. Thus perception can be defined as the process of receiving, selecting, organising, interpreting, checking, and reacting to ones sensory stimuli or data. This definition contains several aspects or process involved in perception. Process of perception: Process of receiving stimuli: Here the process is the reception of the stimuli or ideas from various sources. Most data is received through the five sense organs. Seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, touching etc. Process of selecting stimuli: After receiving the stimuli or data only some are selected for our attention. Two sets of factors govern the selection of stimuli: internal and external.

External factors: a) Intensity b) Size c) Contrast d) Movement e) Familiarity Internal factors: a) Psychological needs b) Background c) Experience d) Personality e) Self acceptance

3) The organising process: After the data or stimuli have been received these are organised in some form. These are the 3 main dimensions to the organisation of stimuli. 1) Grouping: The various stimuli received are grouped together using several factors. Some of these are, a) Similarity b) Proximity c) Closure 2) Figure ground: It is the one of the most important and basic process in perception. In perceiving stimuli, the tendency is to keep certain stimuli in focus and other stimuli in the background. 3) Perceptual constancy: There is a tendency to stabilize perceptions so that contextual changes do not affect them. The perceptual world is thus ordered according to the principle of constancy. 4) Process of interpreting:

After organising the perceiver interprets the data in various ways such as follows. a) Perceptual set: Previously held beliefs pertinent to the perception can influence individual perception. These general opinions or attitudes a person has, constitute the perceptual set. b) Stereotyping: Here it means the forming opinions about a particular class of objects or persons and acting according to such opinions Process of checking: After interpreting the perceiver takes steps to check his interpretations are right or wrong. 6) The last step of perception process is that of acting upon what has been perceived. This is usually when people do something in reaction to their perceptions.
5)

Explain the difference if any between communication and business communication Communication is a process that allows organisms to exchange information by several methods. Communication requires that all parties understand a common language. that is exchanged. There are auditory means, such as speaking or singing, and non verbal, physical means, such as body language, sign language, paralanguage, touch, eye contact, or the use of writing. Communication happens at many levels (even for one single action), in many different ways, and for most beings, as well as certain machines. Several, if not all, fields of study dedicate a portion of attention to communication, so when speaking about communication it is very important to be sure about what aspects of communication one is speaking about. Definitions of communication range widely, some recognizing that animals can communicate with each other as well as human beings, and some are more narrow, only including human beings within the parameters of human symbolic interaction.

Nonetheless, communication is usually described along a few major dimensions: content(what type of things are communicated) Source (by whom) Form (in which form) Channel (through which medium) Destination/Receiver (to whom) Purpose/pragmetic aspect (with what kind of results) BUSINESS COMMUNICATION Business Communication is communication used to promote a product, service, or organization; relay information within the business; or deal with legal and similar issues. Business Communication encompasses a variety of topics, including marketing, branding, customer relations, consumer behaviour, advertising, media relations, corporate communication, etc. The Business Communication message is conveyed through various channels of communication, including the Internet, Print (Publications), Radio, Television, Ambient, Outdoor, and word of mouth. Business Communication is a common topic included in the curricula of the Masters of Business Administration (MBA) program of many universities. There are several methods of business communication, including: Web based communication - for better and improved communication, anytime anywhere ... E-mails, which provide an instantaneous medium of written communication worldwide; telephoned meetings, which allow for long distance oral communication; forum boards, which allow people to instantly post information at a centralized location; and

face to face meetings, which are personal and should be succeeded by a written follow up.

1. LIST OUT THE IMPORTANT COMPONENTS OF COMMUNICATION a..CONTEXT b...PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT cCLIMATE dCOMMUNICATER eMESSAGE f.CHANNEL gNOISE hBARRIER i.FEED BACK What are the important forms of communication? Different forms of communication are: 1) Personal communication and business communication 2) Internal communication and external communication 3) Upward communication and downward communication 4) Formal communication and informal communication 5) Mass communication 6) Lateral communication 7) Interactive communication 8) Grapevine Personal communication It concerns communication that takes place between two individuals, be it in a family, group, community or even in organisation. There is an element of privacy in all such communications. It can take the form of personal letters, personal telephone calls, conversations, email messages etc

business communication It takes place among business entities, in markets and market places, within organizations and between various groups of employees, buyers and sellers, service providers and customers, sales persons and prospects and also between people within the organisation and press persons. Internal communication It takes place within the organization or group among people within, among different groups of employees and between employers and employees. It could be oral or written, visual or audio-visual, formal or informal etc. it serves to inform, instruct, educate, develop, motivate, persuade, entertain, direct and caution people in the organisation. External communication External communication flows outward. It addresses people outside the organisation, like the prospective customers, competitors, public, press, media and the government. It can takes place through letters, notices, brochures, telephone calls etc. Upward communication Large organisations have different hierarchical levels or tiers. Upward communication is one which moves upward, i.e. from bottom to top levels in the hierarchy. That is from employees to supervisors, supervisors to managers etc. Downward communication Downward communication moves from top to the bottom, i.e. from the CEO downwards. It travels through senior executives to junior level functionaries.

Formal communication

Staff meetings, union-management meetings, branch managers conferences and examples of forums that facilitate formal communication. Informal communication It takes place in un-structured manner and outside the formal forums. Informal communication takes place through chats, conversations etc Mass communication It addresses a large mass of people. Public speaking, newspapers, magazines and journals, radio, television etc. Lateral communication It proceeds in a horizontal manner and takes place among equals and at peer level. Any communication that takes place from one branch head to the other, from one group head to the other, may be described as lateral communication. Interactive communication It is a two-way process. It takes place through meetings, conferences, teleconferencing, multimedia presentations etc. Grapevine Grapevine is a kind of informal communication that prevails in organisations and businesses. The source of such communication may not be clear. It spreads by way of gossip and rumours. It travels through informal networks and quite often travels faster than the formal messages. Explain gestures? Gestures refers to any significant movement of limb or body and a deliberate use of such movement as an expression of feeling. Gestures in human interfaces are many and varied. Nodding, shaking of hand, smiling, patting the back, touching, yawning, crossing of legs etc are gestures that are used to convey meanings and message.

GRAPEVINE COMMUNICATION Grape vine communication is a type of informal communication. It have no proper way or format but spread like grapevine. The uses of grapevine communication are the following; 1.INTEREST The field of grapevine communication is fascinating, because it is really the study of what we do most of the time. 2. SELF-KNOWLEDGE Understanding how we communicate each other help us to understand our self better. 3.HEALTH Those who are communicated with others freely, will be comparitatively more healthier than those who didnt communicate freely to others 4. ENJOYMENT Almost every one enjoys grapevine communication. 5. PERSONAL RELATIONSHIP Grapevine communication helps to develop personal relationship more satisfying. Explain the term non-verbal communication? Non verbal communication refers to the type of communication that does not use words. It relies on observation and interpretation. Gestures, postures signals and facial expressions are used in non verbal communication. In other words, non verbal communication takes place through the following objects, actions, and expressions: Body language facial expressions, eye contact, voice modulation Postures/gestures

Appearance Hand shake Timing Smile Behaviour etc. Why is a sender of a message called encoder? The process of communication starts with the existence of a message. The sender gives shape to the idea he wants to communicate. The next step, as is evident from the chart, is the encoding of the idea. Encoding ensures that the idea or the message assumes a communicable form. Encoding would involve choosing the right words, expressions, phrases, charts and pictures in order to facilitate complete and clear idea. In doing so the sender of the message should keep in mind the ability of the receiver to decode and comprehend the message. Explain gesture Gestures refer to any significant movement of limb or body and deliberate use of such movement as an expression of feeling. Gesture can also be understood as a step calculated to evoke response from another person or to convey intention. People read

and interpret gestures and hence these are extremely important in the organisational context. Example for Upward communication? A grievance or compliant given by the employees to the top management. it usually can be the report to the authority. for e.g.; workmen giving opinion about the new machine Conflict in communication Conflict between people is a fact of life and its not necessarily a bad thing. In fact, a relationship with frequent conflict may be healthier than one with no observable conflict. Conflicts occur at all levels of interaction at work, among friends, within families and between relationship partners. When conflict occurs, the relationship may be weakened or strengthened. Thus, conflict is a critical event in the course of a relationship. Conflict can cause resentment, hostility and perhaps the ending of the relationship. If it is handled well, however, conflict can be productive leading to deeper understanding, mutual respect and closeness. Whether a relationship is healthy or unhealthy depends not so much on the number of conflicts between participants, but on how the conflicts are resolved.

AIDA FORMUALA Marketers, copywriters and salespeople use the term AIDA which is an abbreviation for Attention, Interest, Desire and Action. Heres an explanation:

Attention - Grab the persons attention up front. Not by raising your shirt or dancing the Macarena, but by providing a concise benefit statement in advance. Marketers call these headlines. Interest - Sometimes your personal headline will arouse enough interest, sometimes youll have to deliver more information. Either way, you are winning. Desire - You want what you say and do to lead to an unquenchable want for what you have to offer. Make them see that you are the person that can deliver exactly what they want. Action - This is the most important step. You want the other person to take an action. Be it a second interview if you are on your first. If you are seeking a raise, you want the company to take the action of giving you a raise Gestures in communication It is estimated that less than ten percent of interpersonal communication involves words, the remainder being made up of voice tone, sounds and a variety of devices such as kinetics (movement), haptics (touch), oculesics (eye-contact), proxemics (space) and chronomics (time) as well as posture, sound symbols and silence, which either replace or accompany words. Letters memos and circulars A Memorandum is a short piece of writing generally used by the officers of an organization for communicating among themselves. The main purpose of memo is to record or covey information and decision or to make short request .A memo may also contain an analysis of data and opinion and recommendations. Letters Business communicator have identified a number of factors which one has to bear in mind in writing letter. Over the year these have crystallized into a set of principles which can enable a person to write successful letters Hearing and listening

All hearing is not listening .the former is merely a physiological process in which the sound waves emanating from animate or inanimate objects strike the eardrum .sometimes have to hear what we do not to hear. And certainly we do not try to interpret the meaning of that we hear. Listening, on the other hand, is a four-stage self generated activity. The first stage is the reception of the sound waves through the ears .the second is the interpretation of the sound received and the third, an evaluation of the interpreted meaning in the context of the needs and expectations of the listener .the fourth stage is the reaction to the message. Listening thus is purposeful hearing .in our day to day is life we hear so many things but we hear so many things but we do not listen all that we hear.

Written communication Its type of communication in which one persons thoughts and idea is been transferred to another person in the form of writing. in this the communicator cannot express his thoughts by using gestures and sound because of that the recipient cannot identify the exact emotions or feelings of the communicator Written communication is been also called as a formal communication The most advantage of the written communication is that, a communicator use much more appropriate vocabulary than one who do with oral or verbal communication Eye contact in communication The eye contact between communicators plays a vital role in communication which recepient can easily identify the intention of the communicator. The eye contact helps the communicator to get the full attention of the recipient which will help the communicator to share his thoughts effectively.
1. Briefly explain the major forms of communication.

Major forms of communication are : Interpersonal communication: It is the communication made between two or more people. It can happen in a group, family, community etc. It can take form of personal letters, personal telephone calls, conversations, e-mails etc. Intrapersonal communication: In this type of communication, the sender communicates to himself. Self evaluation, thinking are the examples for intra personal communication. Formal Communication: Towards ensuring communication on an on-going basis, organizations develop formal systems. Staff meetings, union-management meetings, branch managers conferences, periodical sales review meetings and customer meets are examples of formal communication. Formal communication generally follows a well-defined hierarchical pattern and periodicity. Memos, circulars, instructions, guidelines are some of the channels that facilitate the flow of formal communication in business organizations. Informal Communication: This type of communication takes place in an unstructured manner and outside the formal forums. There is an element of spontaneity in this communication. Informal communication works well in smaller, loosely knit organizations. It is used more often in situations where there are no rigid hierarchical tiers. Upward communication: Upward communication is the communication done from higher level management to the lower level. This may be the instructions, advice, information etc. 4. Draft a memorandum to your technical director informing him the defect you noticed on the machinery your are in charge of

J.K Chemicals Ltd. Patel Road, Hyderabad Date:07-11-06 To : Mr.Ashok Kumar, Technical Director From: Mr.Jatinder Mohan, Supervisor Sub : Defect on Machinery It came to my notice that one of the Machineries MNo.234 is not in proper working condition. It may harm the life of the employees who are working on it. Please take necessary arrangements for the same as early as possible. Yours truly, Jatinder Mohan, Supervisor.

7. How will you ensure courtesy and clarity in written communication? ` written communication includes written words charts,graphs, reports,etc.Communicating comes in variety of forms.it is a permenant records ,easier to understand,composing in advance, more accuracy. . Whether verbal, nonverbal or in print, our communications send an impression. Canada s etiquette ladies speak with humor and insight about communicating with clarity and polish, the role of grammar, the nuances of modern technological etiquette, listening skills, non-verbal messages and how to talk to anyone, anytime, anywhere High Impact Business WritingThis practical business writing session focuses on modern guidelines for professional writing. Today s reader expects clarity and conciseness. If you want to learn how to ensure your business letters, emails, memos and reports are read, you need to write for impact. Canada s etiquette experts show you how in this informative session. Anyone in a position that requires they write for business or anyone with supervisory responsibilities who is required to manage the work of others through written communications would benefit from this session. . Resolving Conflict with Confidence and Courtesy One of the unfortunate facts of life is that occasionally people disagree. Whether a dispute happens over something absurd or something serious, a great many problems arise when things escalate into conflict. Resolution is not about being right Learn the 10 steps to conflict resolution by adapting sensible solutions to seemingly impossible challenges. Mutually encouraging results

can be met and conflict resolved when goals are developed to find common ground everyone can be comfortable with. Join In Good Company and learn how to resolve conflicts with confidence and courtesy

. Distinguish between Letters and Circulars Letters perform a major function in written communication.letters enable communication of ideas and information without personal contact and at the same time provide a permenanent record for future use.circulars are the most common form of inter departmental communication ,used to intimate ansd inform the group of employees.they are in fact letters or notices usually presented ,cyclosted and addressedto a numberc of persons in the organization. Letters provide record and reference,its a permenamnt record of dealing with customers ,suppliers .readybreference for users.evidence of contract .both are act as a valid document and evidence of the contracts between two parties Provides public relations

27. What are different informal channels of communication? What are the circumstances under which management will depend more on informal channels? Formal communication structured on the basis of hierarchy ,authority, and accountability. departmental meetings conference,circulars,company news, interviews etc.informal communication takes place outside the formally prescribed and planned network or channel.it is also called grape vine.the various types of informal communication are Single strand-each person tells the other in sequence . Gossip one individual tells all on non-selective basis Probability-the individual tells other individually randomly according to the law of probability Cluster-the individual the other selectively to persons whom Other channels are group communication, public communication, mass communication Method of understanding persons behavior by analyzing transactions between them. Parent adult child theory

37. What is meant Clich? Are all round about expressions clichs? Explain with examples of clichs and round about expressions
An expression so often used that its original power has been drained away, such as "dead as a doornail. Clich" applies also to almost any situation, subject, charatestic s, or object

in short, any act has become overly familiar or commonplace.

Because the novelty or frequency of an expression's use varies across different times and places, whether or not it is a clich depends largely on who uses it, the context in which it is used, and who is making the judgment. The meaning of a particular clich may shift over time, often leading to confusion or misuse these are the few examples of clich

anti-clich Archetype Idiom Simile Snowclone

Stock character 2. The situation in which your message is delivered is the context. This may include the surrounding environment or broader culture (i.e. corporate culture, international cultures, etc.).The barriers that arise due to the context in which the message is delivered is known as context related barriers. The context related barriers could be noise, lack of clarity in the chosen medium and lack of expression clarity from the part of the speaker. Also the from the part of the listener lack of concentration can be considered as a context related barriers. All the barriers that hinders the effective communication related to the context are called context related barriers. 11. Effective communication with people of different cultures is especially challenging. Cultures provide people with ways of thinking--ways of seeing, hearing, and interpreting the world. Thus the same words can mean different things to people from different cultures, even when they talk the "same" language. When the languages are different, and translation has to be used to communicate, the potential for misunderstandings increases. Stella Ting-Toomey describes three ways in which culture interferes with effective cross-cultural understanding. First is what she calls "cognitive constraints." These are the frames of reference or world views that provide a backdrop that all new information is compared to or inserted into. Second are "behavior constraints." Each culture has its own rules about proper behavior which affect verbal and nonverbal communication. Whether one looks the other person in the eye-or not; whether one says what one means overtly or talks around the issue; how close the people stand to each other when they are talking--all of these and many more are rules of politeness which differ from culture to culture. Ting-Toomey's third factor is "emotional constraints." Different cultures regulate the display of emotion differently. Some cultures get very emotional when they are debating an issue. They yell, they cry, they exhibit their anger, fear, frustration, and other feelings openly. Other cultures try to keep their emotions hidden, exhibiting or sharing only the "rational" or factual aspects of the situation.

All of these differences tend to lead to communication problems. If the people involved are not aware of the potential for such problems, they are even more likely to fall victim to them, although it takes more than awareness to overcome these problems and communicate effectively across cultures.

21. There are six important steps in communication . They are source, encoding, channel, receiving, decoding and feedback. The first step in communication is of source. The source is the person who is conveying the message. The message has to be conveyed from the speaker in a very clear and concise manner, so as the listener can get a clear idea of what the speaker wants to convey. The second step is the process of selecting the channel. Proper channel has to be selected so as to make the transfer of message clear. The third step is the coding of the message. Then it is transmitted and the listener decodes the message after receiving it. After that the listener analyses it and gives feedback to the speaker. Thus one cycle of steps or process in communication is over. 31. What are the roles played by words, sentences, sounds and gestures in the Communication process? The role played by words, sentences, sounds and gestures in the Communication process is that of the roles played by our bones in our body. It gives structure to the communication process or to the message that has been conveyed. Words forms the basic structure of our message and sentences are a collection of words arranged in a meaningful sequential order. Gestures are used to add meaning to what one says. Gestures should be made in such a way that it supports what we say. It is used to capture the attention of the person or public to which one is addressing.

3. Letters are ambassadors of an organization. Elucidate? A business letter is a letter written in formal language (English), usually used when writing from one business organization to another, or for correspondence between such organizations and their customers, clients and other external parties. The overall style of letter will depend on the relationship between the parties concerned; however, there is a general consensus on style, for example, Business letters usually follow a left-blocked format. Business letters are highly useful in introducing trade relations and promoting business transactions. They provide convenient and inexpensive means of communication without personal contacts furnish evidences of transactions and help in creating good impression and goodwill. Functions Record and reference-business letters function as a permanent record of dealing with customers, suppliers and govt. agencies etc.

Evidence of contracts-Business letters act as a valid document and evidence of the contracts between the two parties. Public Relations-business letters serve as formal as well as informal business relations even without personal contacts. Business in Remote-Business letters serve the business in case of dealing with persons operating in remote areas, where means of transport and communication have not developed or the distance are too large to deal with economically. 5.What is a report?What are the essentials of a good short report? C.A.Brown defines report as A report is acommunication from someone who has some information to someone who wants to use that information. Characteristics of a good report: 1)precision:in a good report ,the writer is very clear about the exact purpose of writing it. precision gives a kind of unity and coherence to the report and makes it a valuable document. 2)accuracy of facts:the scientific accuracy of facts is very essential to a good report.since report invariably lead to decision-making ,inaccurate facts may lead to disastrous decisions. 3)relevance:the facts present in a report should be not only accurate but relevant also. irrelevant facts make a report confusing ;exclusion of relevant facts renders it incomplete and likely to mislead. 4)reader_orientation:while drafting a report it is necessary to keep in mind the persons who is going to read it. 5)objectivity of recommendations:if recommendations are made at the end of a report,they must be impartial and objective.they should come as a logical conclusion to investigation and analysis. 6)simple and unambiguous language:it is a kind of scientific document of practical utility;hence it should be free from forms of poetic embellishment like figures of speech 7)clarity:clarity depends on proper arrangement of facts.the report writer must proceed systematically.he should make his purpose clear,define his sources,state his findings and finally make necessary recommendations. 8)brevity:a report should be brief.Brvity should not be achieved at the cost of clarity.include everything significant and yet e brief. 9)grammatical accuracy:the grammatical accuracy of language though listed is of fundamental importance.it is one of the basic requisites of a good report as of any other piece of composition.

6. List out the major points of differences among letters, and Memos.

Memos Typically, you write memos to people within your place of work, and you write letters to people outside your place of work. One major difference between memos and letters is the title line found in memos. Because readers often decide whether to read the memo solely on the basis of this title line, the line is important. Another difference between letters and memos is that you sometimes write memos that serve as short reports. In such cases, the format for the memo changes somewhat. For instance, in a memo serving as a progress report for a project, you might include subheadings and sub-subheadings. Notice that people who are mentioned in a memo or are directly affected by the memo should receive a copy. Included here are a sample memo format and a sample memo. Also included is a sample memo report. Letters Formats for letters vary from company to company. For instance, some formats call for paragraph indents; others don't. Included in this section is a sample format or letters. Also included in this section is a sample job letter and a sample thank you letter written by someone after a job interview. In this letter, notice how the writer gets to the point in the first sentence of the first paragraph. Notice also the simple and straightforward salutation. As with a memo, people who are mentioned or directly affected by the letter should receive a copy.

13. Distinguish between public speaking and Business presentations. Public speaking is the process of speaking to a group of people in a structured, deliberate manner intended to inform, influence, or entertain the listeners.

In public speaking, as in any form of communication, there are five basic elements, often expressed as who is saying what to whom using what medium with what effects. The purpose of public speaking can range from simply transmitting information, to motivating people to act, to simply telling a story. Good orators should be able to change the emotions of their listeners, not just inform them. Business presentations Business executive have to make number of oral presentations on different occasions like training employees, introduction of new product, etc. Making effective presentation involves developing a strategy that fits the audience and purpose, having good content, and organizing material. Purpose of presentations 4. To inform 5. To persuade 6. To build goodwill 14. What are the stages in the presentation for public speaking? In any presentation, it is only the speaker who knows exact nature of the material the speaker are about to deliver. To ensure we deliver information across in the best manner we need to consider the following points 1. It is vitally important that we research and prepare the information 2. The information should be presented in a logical and sequential manner to ensure that the audience understands events are able to reach some solution to the problem. 3. It is necessary to give all the required information, as gap to tend to present the problem. 4. The opening and closing section of the presentation are as important as the middle part. When we have planned your presentation, examine the following OBJECTIVE: recheck that whether we have defined objective correctly. STRUCTURE: does presentation have clearly identifiable structure? CONTENT: is all said that needs saying? SEQUENCE: is it logical? Are all links and summaries appropriate? TIME: is sufficient time available for all we want to say?

BALANCE: is each section weighted correctly? Check the priorities of your arguments and facts CONCLUSION: does it make people sit up and agree with speaker? Is it punchy? OBJECTIVES: do all the above work towards achieving objective?

15. Explain in two or more sentences each the different types of reports that a Medium size joint stock company has to prepare. We can classify business report in various ways: On the basis of legal formalities we can have 1)informal reports: an informal report is usually submitted in the form of a letter or a memorandum.It is usually in the form of a person to person communication 2)formal reports:a formal report is one which is prepared in a prescribed form and it is presented according to an established procedure to a prescribed authority. A formal report may be statutory or non-statutory. On the basis of legal frequency of issue, a report can be 1)periodic or routine reports: it is prepared and presented at regular,prescribed e tervals in the usual routine of business 2)special reports:it is related to a single occasion or situation.special reports deal with non-recurrent problems. On the basis of function,report may be 1)informative: if it presents facts pertinent to an issue or a situation. 2)interpretative:if it analyses the facts,draws conclusions and makes recommendations. On the basis of the nature of the subject dealt with 1)problem determining report:determine the causes underlying a problem or to ascertain whether or not the problemually exists. 2)technical report:we present data on a specialized subject,with or without comments.

On the basis of number of persons entrusted with the drafting of reports 1)reports by individuals:reports submitted by the branch manager,personal manager,marketing manager,the company secretary,etc 2)reports by committees:re eded on subjects that concern more than one department .

16.How will you ensure courtesy and clarity in business letter? Ans) All letters must be clear and concise to avoid possible future misunderstandings and confusion. In general, a writer should take care of the following points. h) a writer must be clear about what is to be conveyed even before starting to write the letter. The idea is to give careful thoughts to the subject matter and understand it thoroughly so that the end product does not carry vague and wrong information. i) The lengths of sentences and paragraphs should be short and to the point. Verbose sentences and long paragraphs confuse rather than convey. j) It is always worth to use the exact word even if seeking it takes time. For e.g.: beautiful surroundings are not as effective as lovely surroundings. k) A writer must avoid ambiguity at all costs. And also a writer must take care of punctuation, syntax and word meanings. l) The ideas must be expressed logically. The letter should flow from one point to the other in a logical progression. If the mind of the reader has to keep going backwards and forwards in order to understand what is written comprehension becomes difficult and it can result in confusion. m) Use of slang expression and words should be avoided in formal letters. Similarly too much technical jargons can pose problems. n) Use positive language to convey your positive feelings, expressions like cant or will not should be avoided

23. Describe the characteristics of good interpersonal feedback? One of the main causes of problems in Interpersonal Relations is the suspicion that the other person could be criticizing me behind my back. This leads to mistrust among people and limits ones spontaneity in relating to people. Proper training in giving and receiving Feedback will not only enable a person to communicate effectively, it will also ensure growth in relationship. The term Feedback refers to that part of our communication behaviors which pays attention to the effect of a message so we can know what to do next. 1) Feedback is the kind of information all of us need to check out whether the actual results of our communication are the same as our intended results. 2) Feedback is absolutely necessary for survival and for growth. 3) Feedback at best is a non-evaluating process of sharing data with another person while respecting that persons right and freedom to accept or reject it, to act on it or not acts on it. 4) Feedback is not the kind of gang bombardment pictured in some T.V. commercial stereotypes of groups. It is not sharp shooting, shipping or blasting.

24. Describe persuasion process. The Persuasion Process Summary: Persuasion is a key process in our day-to-day lives. In particular, advertisers seek to persuade us to purchase their product, primarily through the peripheral route of communication. Many other forms of persuasion exist. But what is persuasion? How does it change our attitudes, and why do advertisers find it so useful? All people are different. Not just physically, but mentally too. We all have different morals, opinions and attitudes that we live our lives by. We may not always agree with others in the attitudes that we hold, and so we try to persuade them in this regard. Persuasion is also a key process in our day-to-day lives. People try to persuade people, advertisers seek to persuade us to change our attitude on their product. There are many other

forms of persuasion out there. But what is persuasion? How does it change our attitude, and why do advertisers find it so useful? Attitudes are all around us. As individuals, once we form an attitude it is generally very hard to change. 33. What is meant by you attitude in business letters? In business communication, the sender should ensure that he or she is communicating with you-attitude. You attitude means conveying the message from readers point of view and emphasising on the contents that reader intends to know while showing him respect. You attitude is a style of writing that, a. Looks at things from the readers point of view b. Repasts the readers intelligence c. Protects the readers ego d. Emphasizes what the reader wants to know How to create you-attitude 5. Talk about the receiver, not about yourself The reader or sender is more interested in his or her benefits from the message. Therefore when you provide the information, talk in terms of benefits to the communicate.

6. Do not talk about feelings In most business situations, individuals feelings and emotions are irrelevant and should be avoided. The reader is interested in his economic or other benefits. Therefore he cares little about the emotions. 7. Use You more than I and We when it includes the reader in positive situations Try to use the word you and we than I. Use of the word I suggests that you are concerned about your personal issues not the issues of the organisation. 8. Avoid you in negative situation

To avoid blaming the reader, use an impersonal expression or passive verb so that the reader does not feel bad impression of the situation.

34.What are the important points to be observed while writing: a. the date b. the body and c. the signature of a letter?
d. The date: it is written five spaces below the head address, in the

right hand corner, except in the block form of a letter. The date should be always written with the name of month and not the number of the month.eg: 10th march 2007. e. The body: it is the most important part .it is usually broken up into three essentials parts (1) the opening or the introductory paragraph which is short, to the point and one which should immediately attract the attention of the reader (2)the main communication to be made which may be subdivided into many paragraphs and(3)the closing paragraph which is again short and something of a formality. A business letter should usually deal with the topic. Otherwise it becomes difficult to file the letter and also gives the impression that the writer of the letter in hurry. f. The signature: should be written in hand .it is usually initials and surname of the signatory .Mr. is not written before the signature .Usually the name of the signatory is typed below the space where the signature is put. Legally the signature has great importance, for it is the mark of the sender of the letter who is identified and held responsible for whatever the letters agree to do

35. Describe the important graphevine chains and point out the occasions when each chain will be effective in an organization? In every organization an informal channel of communication exists,which is called the grapevine.there are four types of informal channel of communication: 1)single strand:the single strand chain involves the passing of information through a long line of persons to the ultimate recipient.

2)gossip chain:this chain is like a wheel where a person at the centre passes it on to yhe others on the rim. 3)probability chain: it is random process in which a person passes the information to others in accordance with the laws of probability 4)cluster chain:a person tells to selected persons who may in turn relay the information to other selected individuals. To use grapevine effectively,the manager should Keep an eye on rumuor-mongers Use it primarily for feedback Contradict rumours promptly Involve workers in the decision making process

36.Describe the communication?

importance

of

Eye

contact

in

oral

Eye contact and gaze are different: gaze is one person looking at another, where as eye contact is when two look at each other at the same time. This is also known as mutual gaze. Eye contact is used throughout interaction with another. When two people meet mutual gaze is used as a signal to convey willingness to interact and they will avert their eyes just before addressing each other. Without mutual gaze on first meeting it normally shows that one in the pair doesnt want to interact. Whilst in conversation gaze is used as a regulator; it helps it flow. At the end of questions peoples eyes will widen, suggesting that they want feedback. Generally, we look at people more when we are listening, and look away while we are speaking. Just before they finish their conversation people will tend to briefly look away from the person they are speaking to. In this situation the eyes are used to signal the end of utterances. There are also differences between genders; men will not look as much as women whilst talking. Argyle states that if one gazes more when asking questions about the other, it will encourage the other to talk about them more. By looking at someone we show genuine interest in the topic. It is most likely that speakers gaze less as they do not want to be interrupted and only look up for feedback every so often. I found that it could effect it quite dramatically, people who are not looked at whilst

they are speaking tend to take offence, and it also depended on the relationship between the people. Mutual gaze lasts a little longer than usual as an indicator that they have finished talking. There is obviously a link between interaction and eye contact, but if eye contact is taken out of the equation does it affect the way that people communicate. This could be because men find open discussion much harder than women. Gaze can be used as a regulator of conversation; an example of this is when someone is asking a question. It not only acts as a full stop but a signal to the other for feedback.

20. mark question 4. You are the marketing manager of a T.V sets manufacturing firm. Write a letter to your sole distributor expressing your displeasure in not achieving the budgeted sales. ABC.LTD MUMBAI 6th November 2007 Sole distributor ABC.Ltd Chennai Dear Sir, We received your status statement we are all really disappointed with your performance. We like to know the reasons why status standard are gone below the standard, we are very displeased with your performance. Guess we should have an official meeting soon, send the conformation date for the meeting as soon as possible. I need proper reasons for this condition.

Any data you may furnish me will be treat as confidential .we shall appreciate an early reply . Yours faithfully

Marketing manager ABC.ltd 6. Assuming that you are the marketing manager of a firm manufacturing toiletries, write a letter to your sole distributor, emphasizing the importance of increasing the sales of your company products and suggesting a few measures to ensure that? ( the letter should be on the full blocked form with all the essential parts). THE CHAP TOILETRIES CHENNAI TAMIL NADU

06TH November 2007. DEAR SIR, We are forced to write this letter to inform you that there is need of increasing sales of our product in your outlet,we found that the sales really going down which is affecting our company reputation. You have to take some measure improve the same we are having some suggestion if you found it really effective try to implement that our suggestions are Have a good advertisement poster in front of your outlet Please appoint a specialized sales man for our products

He should also report us directly about the status Please also give customer our broachers We will appreciate if you send your suggestions as early as possible,we are looking forward for your reply Thanking you Your sincerely Marketing manager The chap toiletries

2 marks questions 18) Memorandum is a note to help the memory or record of events, for future.
Memorandum cover events and developments in an organisation. Memos cover details of events or developments such as branch opening, shifting, etc., staff related matters such as transfers and promotions, market related developments and so on. Circulars and memos contain vital details of relevance on functional areas, and will have to be referred to frequently by the personnel working in the organization. Due to their crucial importance they are often carefully indexed, filed and preserved, facilitating ready sourcing and reference.

25)
AIDA is an effective formula for organising sales letters. AIDA stands for A-Attention I-Interest D-Desire A-Action If we look at the structure of some effective advertisements in news papers or magazines, we will find the following steps are taken to construct them Catching the readers attention Arousing his desire to buy Convincing him by substanciating the claims Motivating him to act quickly.

5 marks questions 20) The growth of technology induced developments has brought new dimensions to
the range, speed, methods and modalities of personal and business communication. Internet, laptop, mobiles, modems and computer based massaging systems have started impacting every sphere of activity, including business communication. Given below are some of the developments in the communication process due to the growth of technology.

E-mail:

It stands for electronic mail. It is a computer based messaging system.in large organisation, e-mail connectivity is established across numerous location, such as branches, regional offices, controlling offices, service units and training centres. The advantages of using e-mail are It is instantaneous It is economical It is of large global reach and access Can send copies of the message to many others instantaneously

E-commerce:
This refers to business or shopping done through the internet. The transaction between the buyer and the seller is direct and there is no middleman involved.

E-business:
E_business happens when the broad reach of internet is combined with the vast resourses of traditional information technology systems. It includes e-commerce as well.

Internet:
Through internet it is possible to access any information for the purpose of elearning, e-business, e-commerce and even entertainment. Word processor: These relate to software that facilitate better organised and appealing business correspondence.

Teleconferencing:
It is the discussion that takes place through telephone. It is possible for more than one person to speak from one end and discuss with more than one person at the other.

Video conferencing:
Apart from audio messages, video pictures are also available

SMS:
Short Messaging Service is another message transmission medium. SMS messages are used by advertisers, financial service providers and others to communicate business messages.

10) Yes, communication through computer network is a threat to inter


personal relations. The new millennium person will be speaking more of the global language as the global village becomes a reality. Now the communication is increasingly electronic and dehumanised. We are already seeing the slow demise of the manuscript and the handwritten letters and memos, with e-mail messages and machine print outs taking their place. With more and more reliance on internet, websites, online connectivity, Automated Teller Machines, customer terminals, SMS, etc.., human intervention, which has been so much an essential part of the communication till today will decline. All this means a certain dehumanization and relatively greater mechanization of the approach to communication.

30) Brainstorming is a group creativity technique designed to generate a large number of ideas for the solution to a problem. Groups could double their creative output by

using the method of brainstorming. There are four basic rules in brainstorming. These are intended to reduce the social inhibitions that occur in groups and therefore stimulate the generation of new ideas. The expected result is a dynamic synergy that will dramatically increase the creativity of the group. 5. Focus on quantity: This rule is a means of enhancing divergent production, aiming to facilitate problem solving through the maxim, quantity breeds quality. The assumption is that the greater the number of ideas generated, the greater the chance of producing a radical and effective solution. 6. No criticism: It is often emphasized that in group brainstorming, criticism should be put 'on hold'. Instead of immediately stating what might be wrong with an idea, the participants focus on extending or adding to it, reserving criticism for a later 'critical stage' of the process. By suspending judgment, one creates a supportive atmosphere where participants feel free to generate unusual ideas. 7. Unusual ideas are welcome: To get a good and long list of ideas, unusual ideas are welcomed. They may open new ways of thinking and provide better solutions than regular ideas. They can be generated by looking from another perspective or setting aside assumptions. 8. Combine and improve ideas: Good ideas can be combined to form a single very good idea, as suggested by the slogan "1+1=3". This approach is assumed to lead to better and more complete ideas than merely generating new ideas alone. It is believed to stimulate the building of ideas by a process of association.

Outline of the method


Set the problem
One of the most important things to do before a session is to define the problem. The problem must be clear, not too big.

Create a background memo


The background memo is the invitation and informational letter for the participants, containing the session name, problem, time, date, and place. The problem is described in the form of a question, and some example ideas are given. The ideas are solutions to the problem, and used when the session slows down or goes off-track. The memo is sent to the participants at least two days in advance, so that they can think about the problem beforehand.

Select participants
The chairman composes the brainstorming panel, consisting of the participants and an idea collector. Ten or fewer group members are generally more productive than larger groups.

Create a list of lead questions

During the brainstorm session the creativity may decrease. At this moment, the chairman should stimulate creativity by suggesting a lead question to answer, such as Can we combine these ideas? or How about a look from another perspective?. It is advised to prepare a list of such leads before the session begins.

Session conduct
The chairman leads the brainstorming session and ensures that the basic rules are followed.