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LECTURE OBJECTIVES Differentiate acids and bases, strong and weak, based on their properties and based on theories of Arrhenius and Bronsted-Lowry. (CO1) Write and balance acid-base neutralization reactions. (CO1)

+ REACTIONS IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS


Chapter 4

+
Have a Cause

ACIDS sour taste

BASES
Have bitter Cause

taste

color changes in plant dyes with certain metals to produce H2 with carbonates and bicarbonates to produce CO2 acid solutions conduct electricity

color changes in plant dyes slippery

React

Feel

Many

React

soaps contain based base solutions conduct electricity

Aqueous

SOLUTIONS: ACID-BASE REACTIONS

Aqueous

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ACIDS

BASES

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Nonelectrolyte does not conduct electricity. No cations (+) and anions (-) in solution C6H12O6 (s) H2O C6H12O6 (aq)

Non-electrolyte

Weak electrolyte

Strong electrolyte

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4.1

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STRONG ACIDS AND BASES


STRONG ACID 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. STRONG 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

How does electrolytes conduct electricity in solution? Cations (+) and Anions (-)
BASE Strong Electrolyte 100% dissociation/ionization H2O NaCl (s) Na+ (aq) + Cl- (aq) Weak Electrolyte not completely dissociated/ionized CH3COOH CH3COO- (aq) + H+ (aq)

HCl HBr HI HNO3 H2SO4 HClO4

LiOH NaOH KOH RbOH CsOH Ba(OH)2

A reversible reaction. The reaction can occur in both directions.

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4.1

Strong Acid

Weak Acid
Hydration is the process in which an ion is surrounded by water molecules arranged in a specific manner.

d-

d+ H2O
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15.4

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4.1

ACID-BASE DEFINITIONS
Svante Arrhenius, 1859-1927 (J.N. Bronsted and T.M. Lowry, 1923)

Hydronium ion, hydrated proton, H3O+

Arrhenius
ACIDS

Bronsted-Lowry

produce hydronium ion, H3O+ or hydrogen ion, H+ in aqueous solutions produce OH- in aqueous solutions

ACIDS are proton, H+ donors are proton acceptors

BASES

BASES

IONIZATION/DISSOCIATION REACTIONS
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4.3

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DISSOCIATION REACTIONS

A Brnsted acid is a proton donor A Brnsted base is a proton acceptor

base

acid

acid

base

A Brnsted acid must contain at least one ionizable proton!

4.3
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4.3

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+ Conjugate base product formed when an acid


loses a proton
Conjugate

H2O(l) + NH3(aq) Acid Base

NH4+(aq)

OH-(aq) Conjugate base

Conjugate acid

acid- product formed when a base accepts a proton

Conjugate acid-base pairs: H2O-OH-; NH3-NH4+ H2O(l) + HF(aq) H3O+(aq) + F-(aq)

Base Acid Conjugate acid Conjugate base Conjugate acid-base pairs: H2O-H3O+; HF-F-

base

acid

Conjugate acid Conjugate base

H2O is AMPHIPROTIC/AMPHOTERIC Substance that can act either as a proton donor or proton acceptor

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Lewis Definition
Gilbert Newton Lewis (1875-1946)

Acid-Base Definition
Acids yields H3O+ in solution Bases yields OH- in solution proton (H+) acceptor electron pair donor

Definitions Arrhenius

Acids accept electron pair (2 dots)

Brnsted-Lowry proton (H+) donor Lewis electron pair acceptor

Bases donate an electron pair


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Dissociation/Ionization reactions
Acids
Strong

Bases
Strong

or weak or

or weak or polybasic

Monoprotic

Monobasic Arrhenius

polyprotic
Arrhenius

or Bronsted-

or Bronsted-

Lowry

Lowry

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15.4

Neutralization/Acid-Base Reaction
During neutralization, an acid reacts with a base, forming water and a salt.

Neutralization/Acid-Base Reaction
The amount of acid (or base) in a solution is determined by careful neutralization.

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ACID-BASE/NEUTRALIZATION REACTION
acid + base HCl (aq) + NaOH (aq) H+ + Cl+ Na+ + OHsalt + water NaCl (aq) + H2O Na+ + Cl- + H2O H2O

H+ + OH-

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