Structure
4.1 4.2
Introduction
Objectives
4.3 4.3
4.5
4.6
Principal Axes
4.6.1 Rodua of Inertia 4.6.2 Rotated Set of Axes 4.6.3 Principal Moment of Inertia
Mass Moment of Inertia 4.8 Summary 4.9 Key Words 4.10 Answers to SAQs
4.7
INTRODUCTION
This unit will help you in understanding the concepts of centre of gravity of wires, thin uniform plates of various shapes with or without openings and simple solids such as cone, sphere and cylinders. The concept of centroid of plane areas is similar to centre of gravity of thin uniform plates of same shape as the plane areas. Moment of Inertia of plane areas about a given axes are mathematically referred to as secondmoment of areas. The knowledge of em moment of inertia of plane areas are useful in the analysis of bending stresses of b a s under flexure. The moment of inertia of rods, discs, or spheres are useful in studying the problems in dynamics of rigidbodies.
Objectives
After studing this unit, you will be able to determine position of centre of gravity of uniformwires of various shapes, position of centre of gravity of masses of plates of various shapes with or without openings, the volume as well as surface areas of various simple solids and their location of centre of gravity by using two theorems given by Pappus and Guldinus, and compute moment of inertia of various areas & masses, about the given axes.
4.2
A body can be considered as an agglomeration of a large number of particles each of which is adhering to its adjacent particles. These particles may have different sizes, density or may have uniform size and density. Each of these particle is subjected to gravitational force directed towards the centre of the earth. The magnitude of the gravitational force will depend on its mass. For all earthly bodies whose sizes are very srnall as compared to its distance upto the centre of the earth, the forces of gravitational attraction on various particles of the body can be assumed to be parallel. Hence the total weight of the body is the summation of all these parallel forces acting vertically down towards the centre of the earth. The line of action of the resultant R of these forces can therefore be found. Consider a case of a triangular metal plate ABC placed in a vertical plane with its side AB vertical. If you divide the area of triangle in large number of imaginary vertical strip parallel to B for each of the strip the gravitational force can be computed and resultimt R of A all these forces will be along a vertical line (1G) as shown in Figure 4.1 (a), where G is a point in which entke weight of the plate is concentrated.When the plate is oriented at right angle to its previous position, line BC is placed vertically as shown in Figure 4.1 @). New vertical strips can be formed and resultant R, which is obviously of same magnitude R as in the case of first orientation (a), will be along vertical line (2G). The location of G will be the intersection of lines of action of resultants obtained in cases (a) and (b). The mass centre is a unique point G in the plate ABC through which resultant weight of all the stripmasses will always pass through irrespective of the orientation of the plate. Figure 4.1 (c) shows the third orientation of triangle ABC where one of the medians BGB ' in the triangle is kept vertical. It will be proved later on that the point of intersection of all the medians represent the masscentre of the triangular plate.
Centre of gravity or Masscentre is a point in the body where entire mass or weight is assumed to be concentrated and for convenience single resultant gravity load R can be used as a replacement for distributed gravity loads at various locations of its particles.
Figure 4.2
Figure 4.3
4.2.3 Centre of Gravity of a Uniform Rectangular Plate Let the dimensions of uniform rectangular plate ABCD be L x B, where AB = L and BC = B
as shown in Figure 4.4. It is already seen from the previous section that the centre of gravity or masscentre of any uniform strip of length L parallel to AB is at its midpoint G.Since the plate ABCD has auniform mass all over its area, the centre of gravity of the first strip from AB or DC is indicated by GI, while those of second strip, third strip and so on, can be indcated by G, ,G, etc. depending upon the number of even strips chosen for the rectangular plate. Further, if the width of the strips chosen are equal, the masses associated with G,, G,, C, etc. will he of same magnitude, say m.In fact, you can realise that all these
L  L4Figure 4.4
masses (m) are spread uniformly on line M, M, where M, and M2 are midpoints of AB and DC. Obviously the C.G. of all these masses will be at G which is the midpoint of M, M2.
Let G be the centre of gravity of the two masses at a distance Using the theorem of moments, we have,
from A.
Algebraic sum of moments of all the masses in the system about (A)
where R = (ml
+ mz) x
g = [Vm)]x g
Case I
+= m
Thus, midpoint of line AB is the location of C.G. for two equal masses.
M~tdIne*
This implies that distances of the C.G. from the two particle masses are inversely proportional to their masses.
Moment of mass m, about G just balanws the moment of mass m, about G. 'Ihus G, the centre of gravity of two masses, happens to be fulcrum of an imaginary level AB of negligible weight having two masses (m,) and (mJ placed at El and % from the fulcrum F as shown in Figure 4.6.
The resultant mass (ml + m,) is concentrated at location G so that total resultant weight R = (m, + mJ g acts downward at G and if a fulcrum or support F is provided to the lever at G, the vertical reaction V offered by this support will balance the resultant weight R to keep the system of masses in equilibrium.
Since the resultant force R of all these weights must also act along the line AD, the centre of gravity of the collinear pusses is always on the line joining their centres. This logical thinking is even otherwise appealing to our commonsense. The same can be applied to determine the location of centre of gravity of a triangular plate of uniform mass per unit area.
Figure 4.8
Let M , and M, be the midpoints of sides BC and AB of the triangle. Consider a typical small strip B,C, parallel to side BC. The midpoint M,' of this strip lies on the median AM,. Since the strip has uniform mass per unit of length, mass centre of this strip is at MI'. This result is based on again the,old logic that for every elemental mass 6m at B', there is an equal mass 6m at c,' which are equidistant from M,' . Similarly masscentre of any other strip parallel to BC will lie on this median AM, . Further, since the masscentre for all such strips (parallel to BC) in the triangle lie on the median AM,, it can be concluded that the masscentre of all these masses must lie on the median AM,. Similarly, considering the strips, like A, B, parallel to AB, it can be proved that masscentre of Ihe trirngdirr plMe shmld lie on the median CM,. Hence, masscentre of the triangular pl* &be attibe iatmwYonof(he medkm.
For simplicity of understanding, assume #at all the particles lie in a horizontal plane XOY and weighty w, ,w, ,w, of these particles A, ,A, ,A, are vertically downward along Z direction. Let the resultant W of all these weights act at G whose coordinates are (,i, ). y 'Ihen,
W = (w, +
W,
+ w, +
...) =
C wi
Hence, applying the Varignon's theorem which states that "moment of the resultant face at G is equal to the algebraic sum of the moment of all the individual forces at A, ,A, ,A, etc. about the horizontal axis OY ".
wy = w, y, + w,
WiY, .'.  = y C w;
1
1
y,
+ w,
y,
+ ...
P I
I
where C implies the sum of d l terms where i varies from 1 onwards for all masses. The concept of centre of gravity or masscentre of thin plates can be extended to that of centroid of plane areas. Thus replacing the masses by corresponding areas, we have centroid of a rectangular area ABCD at its geometric centre or the point of intersection of diagonals. The centroid of a triangular area is at it? point of intersection of the medians. Note that centroid of a plane area of a given shape and centre of gravity of thin plate of the same shape are at the same location provided plate has uniformmass per unit area.
Figure 4.10
Considering centroid of the area at C ( 3, ) the principle of moments can be apphed on the 5 same lines as that of centre of gravity of weights of various elemental masses 6m, .
: .
or
A 35 = X (A, x,)
I
=  x A, XI x
I
X Ai
I
Similarly
= y
z. Ai
1
I I
XA, Yi
co&dering thin plate of uniform mass m per unit area i.e., S mi = 6 A, x m Total mass
M = Xm, = m X 6A, = mA.
: .
ZA,x, EAl
'"1
Hence, numerically the position of centroid of a given area is the same as centre of gravity of thin uniform plate of the same area.
The trapezium area is divided into two simple areas, (i) Al = Rectangle OLDC with centroid at G1 (1.5,3) (ii) 2
The computation of coordinates ( ?, j ) for G and other aspects are given id following Table :
nen,
x =
63  = 2.33 m 27
j =
72   2.67m nj = 2.67 m.
x = 2.33 m and
Example 4.2 Determine the centroid of an area shown in Figure 4.12 (a).
Let G be the centroid of area A as shown in Figure 4112 (a) with @ , ;J) coordinates.
statics
It is to be noted from above referred Table that whichever way, we consider the division of regular area, either all positive or some of them negative, we should f a y get a unique value of ml (i) X A , (ii) C A, xi and (iii) C Ai yi For a given area A , the coordinates, Y and 7 will be a unique value. Note : If the problem of C,G. (Centre of gravity) of a uniform plate is considered where out of a square plate OACB a triangular part M I C M2 is cut out, Cle position of centre of gravity of such a plate is the same as position of centroid of area in Figure 4.12 (a).
Example 4 3 A square plate of uniform thickness and density is bent along M IM 2till comer C coincides with centre C' as shown in Figures 4.13 (a) & (b). Determine its centre of gravity.
Solution
Let w be the uniform weight of the plate per unit area. The entire plate after it is bent can be considered to be made up of three parts. (1)
(2)
(3)
: .
x =  2.88 m and 36
= 2.88 m.
This example can also be solved with other alternative way by considering total plate as follows : (1) WIf= weight of rectangular plate (BM2 M30) 18 w with its masscentre at (1.5.3)
(2) (3)
W3' = weight of two triangular plates (MI M2 C) 9 w with its masscentre at (4,4) Note that resultant weight W = I; w, = (18 + 9 + 9) w = 36 w as before.
Example 4.4
Solution
= The area of full circle of radius r (A,)  The area of cut out circle of radius I: (Az) 2
Area A2 is to be regarded as negative area. Consider moment of areas a b u t G; ZAi xi = 0 since the lever  arm of the Resultant areaA about G is zero,
A1x,
(Az)+=A
x (0) = 0
Positive sign of indicates that with respect to the origin 0 of reference axes x and y, = OG is along positive direction of x axis. Since the centres 0 a d A of the two area (Al) and ( AZ)are taken along x axis; G lies on AO.
Example 4.5
Consider the semicircle with centre C and its straight boundary ECD along y axis. I h e axis CX is therefore the axis of symmetry ofthe area. This means that portion of quadrant CFE is the mirrorimage of quadrant CFD. Consider element of an area as a strip AB at distance x from C with width dx tending to zem. If a is the radius of semicircle. AB = 2 a s i n 0 Elemental Area where
d4 = 2 a s i n 0 x dx
x = acos0
Since
X:
: .
M2 A = is already a known value of a semicircle since m'a of full circle is (?r 2). 2
C a t r e of Gravity rmd
Moment d Inertia
Example 4.6 Determine the centroid of the shaded area shown in Figure 4.16 (a).
Solution The shaded area A can be considered as algebraic sum of three areas A, ,A2 and as shown in Figure 4.16 (b).
' 2'Oo2 = 15,700mm2 with centroid at (242.4.100). and A3 = [' 602) = 5655 mm2 with centroid at (100,25.44)
;
Sr. No.
&ea Ai
(d)
Xi
Ai xi (mm3)
Yi (mm)
Ai
(mm3)
400 x 104 157 x 104  14 x lo4
1.
A, = 40,000 A2 = 15,700 A, =
400 x lo4
380 x 104
2.
3.
 5655
 56 x 104
If wire of total length L is formed of L, = AB, 4 = BC and so on with their masscentres (or C.G.) located at their midpoints G, .G, e k , then L = L, apply the Varignon's theorem again as Ibllows Consider that plane XOY is horizontal s o that axes OX and OY are horizontal. Assuming the weight of wire as w newtons/metre length. We have, weight of portion AB = wL, = W, weight of portion BC = Total Weight,
+ L,+ ., . =
x
I
L .You can ,
w k = W2and
W = Wl + W, + ... =
C
1
W j=
WCL~
i
Considering first moment of all these weights about axis OY,if P, y are coordinates of masscentre,
Note : Similar to C.G. of a thin uniform wire, the concept of centroid of a length can be defined. Thus, the above referred point ( Z, 9 can be said to be a centroid of length
ABCDE.
Example 4.7
Determine the C.G. of the thin uniform wire bent into shape ABC as shown in Figure 4.18.
Solution
Centre of Gravity d
Moment dlnertia
t
I
Example 4.8
L 7 = 5 x 2.5
+5x
Determine the C.G. of a wire of uniform crosssection bent into shape of a semicircle as shown in Figure 4.19.
Solution Refer Figure 4.19 showing length of wire nu where a = radius of semicircle with centre at 0.
= a2
"i'
~c
cos 0 dB =
[sin el
,, ,
(+ f l )
2a2 2 a : Z =  =  = 0.637~ .
Ica
SAQ 1 Determine the centmid of a plate with uniform mass pet unit area having a shape given in Figure 4.20.
SAQ 2
Determine the centtoid of the area as shown in Figure 4.21 where D is the contact point of the circle to the edge GF.
SAQ 3
A thin uniform triangular plate OAB where L AOB = 9' is bent along M IM2 0 where M Iand M2are midpoints of AB and A 0 respectively till apex A is made to coincide on point 0 . Here OA = 12 cm and OB = 6 cm.
Determine the location of C.G. of such a plate with respect to axes OA (x axis) and OB ( y axis).
SAQ 4
Determine the position of centroid of a quadrant OAB of a circle, where arc AB subtends an angle of 9' at the centre 0 and radius OA = a. 0
SAQ 5
Determine the centroid of the area shown in Figure 4.22 where portion BCE is a quadrant of circle of radius = 10 c m
SAQ 6
Determine the C.G. the plate area shown in Figure 4.22, if the area of a circle of of radius 4 cm with its centre at ($5) is cut out from this plate.
SAQ 7
Determine the C.G. the chairframe made of rod bent along ABCDE as shown in of Figure 4.17. Here AB = 40 cm, BC = 40 cm and CD = 30 cm (DE = 26 cm with its horizontal projection = 10 cm and vertical projection 24 cm).
SAQ 8
Determine the centroid of length in form of a channel ABCD as shown in Figure 4.23.
SAQ 9
Determine the centroid of the semicircular c w e of radius a = 10 cm as shown in Figure 4.24.
statics
4.4.1 Theorem I
The area of surface generated by revolving a plane curve about a nonintersecting axis in the plane of the curve is equal to the product of (i) the length of the curve and (ii) the distance travelled by the centroid G of the curve during the revolution.
4.4.2 Theorem I1
The volume of the solid generated byrevolving a plane area APBA in Figure 4.26 about a nonintersecting axis in its plane is equal to the product of (i) the area APBA and (ii) the length of the path travelled by the centroid G of the area during the rotation about the axis. Proof (Theorem I) Let AB be a curve in a vertical plane ppsing through the vertical axis z as shown in Figure 4.25. The x and y axes are in the horizontal plane. Rotate the curve about z axis till it is in W X plane. Let L be the length of the curve AB. Consider a small elemental length PQ = (6L) on this curve as shown in the Figure 4.25. If the curve AB is rotated about z axis through an angle 8, the surface S generated by it is shown as AA'B'B. Element PQ will generate a surface PPQ'Q given by
: .
~ o t asurface l
s = / ~ s =1 6 L X x x e
= Product of (i) Land (ii) the distance (Z 8) travelled by the centroid G during the rotation through L8 about the axis of rotation.
Proof (Theorem 11) Let A be the area of the plane curve APB in W X plane as shown in Figure 4.26. Consider a small elemental area dA at distance x from the z axis, which is considered as the axis of rotation for the area A. During the rotation 8 about z axis, elemental area dA moves through distance x 8. Hence, the solid volume 6V generated by this small area is given by
where 0 is the common rotation for all such elernelltal area d4. : V = 0 [Ai ] .
where Z 0 is the distance travelled by the centroid G of the areaA during the rotation L 0 about the given axis z . The sirnple solids considered in Engineering Mechanics can be cylinder, cone, sphere, hemisphere etc. The surface areas as well as the volunies of some of these solids are computed below.
4.4.3 Cylinder Let a be the radius of a cylinder and H be its height. Assume the axis of cylinder along z axis as shown in Figure 4.27.
ZA
In this case, we can consider generator as straight line AB of length H, which when rotates about z axis forms a cylinder as shown in the above figure.
In this case, the centroid G of length AB is at midpoint of AB.
EatG=a From the First Theorem of Pappus and Guldinus, Surface of cylindcr = L x ( Z 0)
: .
S=Lxnt)
(11) To determine the volume of cylinder consider the plane area OBAC shown shaded where 0 and C are the centres of circles traced by points B and A. The volume of cylinder is generated when this area rotates about z axis (i.e. OC ).
Volume of Cylinder = A x ( Z 0 )
GI
.Using theorem I1
4.4.4 Cone
( I ) A cone is generated when an inclined length AB = L revolves about z axis which is taken along OA, the axis of the cone.
a The centroid GLof the Length L is at the mid height where ZL =  as observed in 2 Figure 4.28.
FA = 3'
8
4.4.5 Sphere
A spherical surface is generated when a semicircular arc ACB of diameter AB = 2 a revolves about the axis AB.
(I)
C P L I ~f GIPV~Q o~ C pnd
where 2 =
Moment of Inertia
Figure 4.29
in one revolution 2a = n u x  x 2t 7
7t
(11)
Pt1.m
\
4.4.6 Hemisphere
The curved surface of hemisphere =
1  (volume of 2
sphere)
Example 4.9 Determine the centre of gravity of a right circular cone of height H and the base radius a.
Solution
Refer Figure 4.30, where radius of the base circle is shown as a and semivertical angle of the cone is a
: .
a = Htana
z tan a.
about 0 Applying the theorem of moments about 0, G is the centre of gravity of cone if where OG =
H
V x iT=j(dV)xz
0
 3 z =  H from apex 0
4
: .
H ' 4
Solution Figure 4.31 shows the crosssection of the hemisphere where DE = 2 2 the diameter 4, of the hemisphere. Consider a thin slice AB of volume dV taken at a distance x fiom centre 0 of the hemisphere. Radius of slice = a sin 0 If dx is the small thickness of the slice,
d~ = x(asin0IL dx
x = acos0
dx =  a sin0de
Example 4.11 Locate the position of C.G. of the fiustnun of a cone witb height H = 12 cm and having diameter 8 cm and 12 61 at top and bottom of tbe frusbnun of the cone x1 respectively as shown in Figure 4.32 (a).
Solution Generators BITl and B2T2are extended to meet at A.
'Ihe volume V of tbe frustrum TI T2 B2 BLof a cone can be considered as (Vl  V2), where V,= volume of cone B1 B2 A and V2 = voiume of cone T , T A as shown in figure 4.32 @). Considering similar trianglesATT, and ABB2
: .
Similarly,
1 V2 =  x 42 x 24 = 128 x cm3
3
: .
304n x
F = 432x
(T)
128n ( b + 12)
: 5= 5.21 cm. .
Example 4.12 Determine the C.G. of a body formed of solid sphere over the solid cylinder of same radius a as shown in Figure 4.33, where a = 20 cm.
Solution Consider y ,axis to be vertically along the axis of cylinder with centre O of its base as origin.
Vl = Volume of cylinder = x a2 x 22 4

M' .
SAQ 10
Determine the C.G. of a body formed of solid volumes as shown in the Figure 4.34.
Hemisphere
I
SAQ 11
Determine the volume of glass of water whose inner dimensions of crosssection through central axis of revolution is shown in Figure 4.35.
Axis of tovolut~ on
SAQ 12
Determine volume of water in a conical shaped water tank as shown in Figure 4.36 where central shaft of 4 metre diameter is provided for locating circular stairs to have access to the roof of the tank the water portion is shown shaded.
axis
axis
Referring Figure 4.37, Area Moment of Inertia of elemental area dA about x axis, in its the plane is defined as
Since, the axis x lies in the plane of element, these are also called as axial moment of inertia of the element dA.
Figure 437
Moment of Inertia (M.I.) of full areaA about centtoidal axis CX,where C is the centroid of the areaA is given by surface integral as follows:
I,,,
Jd
~ 2. x
4.5.2 Perpendicular Axis Theorem Polar Moment of Ineda ofA about z axis passing through C.Refening Figure 4.37, where axis ZC is perpendicular to the plane of area A, we have
Moment of ~nerti'a the area A about any axis XlXl of shown in Figure 4.37 is given by
Zqx,,
=
and where y, is the perpendicular distance between XlXI CX.Thus for a given axis X,X,, y, is amstant.
Similarly,
4.53 Parallel Axis Theorem With reference to Figure 4.37 it is noted that fust moment of elemental area dA about centroidal axis is given by (dA x y). By the defmition of centroid C of the area, it is further noted that
This means that horizontal plate of areaA gets balanced about a;xis CX.When Moment of Inertia of areas are computed about any random axis XIXI, then
Similarly,
Zs = x2
L +A( ~ 3 ' .
'Ibis eqwtion is tenned as parallel axis theorem whereby it is observed that outaf all axes parallel to centroidal axis, CX, the Moment of Inertia about the centroidal iuis is minimum, for a given direction of the axis. Similarly. Referring Figure 4.37,
where the perpendicular distance between axes z,z, passing through point K ( q , yl) CZ and
i s
Example 4.13 Determiae the axial moment of inertia of a rectangular area of base b and height d about centroidd axis GX &.the tase Bl 4. Referring Figure 4.38, where centroidal axis GX divides the area at middepth i.e. d/2.
For a thin strip shown shaded, of width b and thickness (very small) dy, all points on it are at a constant distance y from axis GX,
Considering y as positively upward from centtoidal axis GX, for elements below GX, y will be treated as negative.
JMY = 0
Moment of inertia a h t base B1& can be computed either directly or by using parallel axis theorem. Direct approach is as follow.Referring Figure 4.39,
Example 4.14 Determine the Moment of Inertia of a triangular area ABC having base b and height d about its base BC. Hence or otherwise determine the Moment of Inertia about centroidal axis parallel to the base.
Solution
Consider a thin strip LM of thickness dy and at distance y from the base BC. Considering similar triangles, ALM and ABC,
: .
dy
Moment of InertiP
Example 4.15 Determine Moment of Inertia of an I shaped area about its centroidal axis as shown below in Figure 4.41 (a).
Solution
(A) The area of I section can be divided into three parts namely A,, A, and A3.
A = Al+A2+A3 = ( 4 0 0 ~ 1 5 0 ~ 2 + 3 0 0 ~ ~ ) = 1 8 ~ l d l 1 1 ~ 1 1 ~
The centroid G is at middepth as shown in Figure 4.41 (a).
where,
IA3(x) 
12
subtracting the M.I. of area [2 x (A'2)] from the M.I. of area (A'1) as shown in Figure 4.41 (b). Here, A;= 400x600 mm2 and A ; = 100x300 mm2
: .
Then
A=A;~A;
=24~10~(~~1~=18~10~mm~
l ~ ( x )= Z(A;) [QX
21
Example 4.16 Determine Moment of Inertia of circular area of radius a = 10 cm about its centroidal axis OX as shown in Figure 4.42.
: .
+ 90'.
Note that
: .
2 cos20 = 1 + cos 20
.'.
We know
Ix =
d 2
(7
M)
(2sin0c0~0)~ d0
(
: .
lro4 
64
It is to be noted that circular crosssection is axissymmetrici.e. it is symmetric about both x aqd y axes or any other radial direction and also has same nature of shape about all centroidal axes.
Example 4.17 Determine the M I of an annular area between two circles where difference of radius .. ' is quite small, about any centroidal axis. Solution The centroid6 of such a thin circular strip of small thickness t is at its geometrical centre as shown in Figure 4.43.
We have, li4 = d r x t where ds = arc length = a x d0 Considering plane of area in XOY plane,
statics
Figure 4.43
= 2natxa2
= (Area of annular strip) x a2
= A'a2
= I,, ,
Example 4.18 Determine the M.1 of a semicircleABM about its periphery AB and about centrojdal axes x and y as shown in Figure 4.44.
Figare 4.44
,,
GY
for semicircle 
3
m4
for full circle
+A
2 1 ( x ) = I(AB)for semicircle =  I 2
Ceatre of Gravity md
Moment of Inertia
SAQ 13
Determine the area mornent of inertia of a Tsection about its centroidal axis as shown in Figure 4.45. Determine also the radius of gyration about its centroidal axis
ex.
SAQ 14
Determine the moment of inertia of the semicircle about axis AT4vhich is tangential to the circle as shown in Figure 4.46.
Figure 4.46
SAQ 15
Compute the M.I. of a hollow section shown in Figure 4.47 about its centroidal axis
ox.
We frnd that for symmetrical section shown in Figure 4.48 for any element P of area dA and m d i n a t e s (x ,y), there is an element P' of saqoe area dA with coordinates (x , y).
I
Hence, products of inertia for these two elements are equal and opposite .
The product of inertia of areas which do not have any axis of symmetry are nonzero. Also product of inertia for the symmetrical channel section exists with respect to any other rotated axes X' Y' as shown in Figure 4.48. This aspect is explained in next section.
I
!
I i
t
L
Consider an u.s);mmetricalareaA shown in Figure 4.49 where CX and CY are the centroidal axes and KX,and KY,are axes parallel to centroidal axes through a point K with coordinate (x,, yl). It can be proved that product of inertia Zxl ylwithrespect to axes KX,and KY,is always higher than I,, with respect to axes CX and CY and is computed as given under :
1
i
'Ihis equation is similar to parallel axes theorem for moment of inertia of an area and you can note that the product of inertia is therefore minimum about centroidal axes for given directions X and Y.
 2zxy zx  zy
The last result indicates that product of inertia of an area with respect to principal axes is zero. Example 4.19 Determine product of inertia of a rectangular area b x d with respect to its sides as shown in Figure 4.51.
Solution
Let sides OA and OB be 'the reference axes of area for product of inertia.
Z,(,
= IdAXY
where obviously
xc =
(B)
= Z*G) + A 1; Y; ; ;
4.7
Concept of mass moment of inertia is very useful in solving problems in kinetics of bodies, Inertia force which is indeed due to rotational acceleration of the body is proportional to "mass moment of inertia" of the body about the axis of rotation. The concept of mass moment of inertia about a given axis KK, for a thin plate of uniform mass m per unit area is defmed similar to area moment of inertia of similar area. Aasmall element of mass dm replaces the small elements area a!!. men, if M is the total mass of a plate area shown in Figure 4.52.
where r and r,, are defrned as the radii of gyration about x and y axes respectively.
= M( iY)l M (x1)z +
= M(,:
+x3
zucn
= M( rm)L
For rectangular area b x d, if rGxis the radius of gyration about centroidal axis GX then
where
Moment d Ine&
Also
SAQ 16
Determine the product of inertia of the equal angle section 150 x 150 x 10 mm about centroidal axes parallel to the two sides.
SAQ 17
Detennine the principal moment of inertia of the angle section 150 x 150 x 10 mm and locate theii orientation.
SAQ 18
Detennine radius of gyration of a circular area of radius a about a tangent line at peripheral point of the circle in its own plane and also about axis passing through this point and perpendicular to its plane.
SAQ 19
Determine mass moment of inertia of the circular thin plate (Disc) of radius a and m s M about a centroidid axis. Mass is uniformly distributed all over the area . as
Statics
SAQ 20
Determine the mass moment of inertia of ring of radius a about an axis (a) (b) passing through center in the plane of the ring, and passing through centre in a direction perpendicular to the plane of the ring.
4.8
SUMMARY
Centroid C of an area A is a point in the plane of the area where entire area can be assumed to be concentrated. Centre of gravity G of a thin plate of same surface area A referred above is a point where the entire mass or weight of the plate isassumed to be concentrated. In fact, it is possible to support this plate in a horizontal plane by a tip of the vertically placed single pin at point G. The geometric centre of a rectangular area or a circular area also represents its centroid. Centroid lies on an axis of symmetry of the area. When there are two axes of symmetry, the centroid is the point of intersection of the two axes. For the triangular areaA (or triangular plate of same area A with mass M and of small uniform thickness), the centroid of A (or centre of gravity of the plate of mass M ) is at the point of intersection of the medians of the triangle. Generally, any given area can be divided into parts A, to An for each of area A, can,be computed along with the location of its centroid (xi , y,) then the position @, 3 of centroid can be computed as
A i=
Ai xi and
For a uniform plate of mass M ,the entire mass can be divided into individual masses Mi for which centre of gravity is known as (xi, yi ), the values of n , 5 for centre of gravity is given by
M Z=
x
n
Mi xi and
i=l
42
7n
Distance of centre of gravity of a uniform wire bent into a shape of semicircular arc of radius a from its centre is .
2a
R
meorem I of Pappus and Guldinus : The area of the surface generated by revolving a plane curve about a nonintersecting axis in the plane of the curve is equal to the product of (i) length of the curve and (ii) the distance travelled by the centroid G of the c w e during the revolution Theorem 11 of Pappus and Guldinus : The volume of solid generated by revolving a plane area A about a nonintersecting axis in its plane is equal to the product of (i) Area A ,and (ii) the length of the path travelled by the centroid G of the area during the revolution about the axis. Specific parameters of some solids :
Im(A)
I,(,
Parallel Axis Theorem :Area moment of inertia about X,X,axis at distance y, from XX = I,+ A ( Y , ) ~ . Perpendicular Axis Theorem :If z axis is perpendicular to the plane of area A, then
Iz,=Ixx+~yy
'
Mass moment of inertia of plate of uniform thjclcness abouCX axis For Circular area of radius a,
M
Product of Inertia of an area is zero if it has at least one axis of symmetry. Principal Moment of inertia with respect to rotated axes Z and
y at < 8
and
L=O
XY
4.9
KEY WORDS
The Centre of Gravity is a point in the body where entire mass or weight is assumed to be concentrated and for convenience single resultant gravity load R can be used as a replacement for distributed gravity loads at various locations of its particles. The Centre of Mass, for a system of particles, is defined as the point where the entire mass of the system is assumed to be concentrated for consideration of its translational motion. In a uniform gravitational field, the centre of mass and the centre of gravity of a system are coincident. Bodies of a ftnite size can be regarded as ma& up of a collection of a large number of point masses, constituting a body, does not change under external forces, the body is said to be a rigid body. No object is a perfectly rigid body. Generally, solids can be regarded as rigid bodies. The area of surface generated by revolving a plane curve about a nonintersecting axis in the plane of the curve is equal to the product of (i) the length of the curve and (ii) the distahce travelled by the centroid G of the curve during the revolution. The volume of the solid generated by revolving a plane area about a nonintersecting axis in its plane is equal to the product of (i) the area and (ii) the length ~f the path travelled by the centroid G of the area during the rotation about the axis. The moment of inertia of an element of the area with respect to any axis is defined as the product of the area of the element and the square of the distance from the axis to the element. It is also called second moment of area. The radius of gyration of an area with respect to an axis is defrned as the length whicb, when squared and multiplied by the area, will give the moment of inertia of the area with respect of the given axis. Two perpendicular axes passing through the wntroid about which the moment of inertia is maximum and
Centre of Gravity
Centre of Mass
Rigid Bodies
Pappus Theorem I
Pappus Theorem 1 1
Moment d Inertia
Radius of Gyration
PrincipalAxes
minimum.
4.10 SAQ 1
ANSWER3 TO SAQs
/
Ccobe dCm*
.ad
Molnetdloeliia
Total area is divided into three parts Al, A2 and Ag as shown in Figure below.
and
SAQ 2
Referring to Figure for Answer to SAQ 2, total m is divided into tbree parts Al, A2 a and A,.
Area mark
A, A2
Area cm
20 20 50.26 90.26
xi
cm
5 1 6
Y; cm
1 7
cm3
100 20 301.59 421.59 20 140 402.12 562.12
Total
SAQ3
Refer Figure for Answer to SAQ 3. Since portion A M2 M1 takes up a new position A' M, M I , weight of plate A M2 M1 add to weight of plate OM2 M 1 , then portion ' OM2 M I B is considered as areas A , and 2.4,
Total
36
108
72
: x= 3 and y = 2 .
SAQ 4
We have already determined position of centroid of semicircular area A in Example 4.5 which is as under,
Let TI be distance of centroid of upper quarter of circle of area A! shown shaded in Figure for Answer to SAQ 4 (b).
(a)
By observation,
SAQ 5
Dividing the area into two parts (1) Square of area A, = 10 x 10 cm2 and (2) Quadrant of circle of A2 =
1Fa2
= 2% = 78.54 cm2
Area Mark A,
A2
Xi
Yi
Aiyi
5 14.24
5 4.24
500 333.3
. :
Z = 9.06 crn
and y=4.67cm
SAQ 6
SAQ 7
y  =  3352 
136
24.44 crn
SAQ 8
If C is the centroid of the channelshaped length, it is noted that this channelshaped length is symmetrical about axis CX which is parallel to flanges AB and CD. It is also to be noted that this length is not symmetrical about other centroidal axis CY which is parallel to the web BC as seen in the Figure for Answer to SAQ 8,
, + L
= 40 cm
LX~=CZ~X~
'Ibe position of centriod G of a semicircleAMD with centre C is already determined in ~ x a r n ~ l e Now referring the figure shown below. 4.8.
= 0.363 a
The entire body of solid volume can be divided into three parts. Volume
V, = Volume of cone 1 = xBase areax 3a = 3
Xi
vixi
0.75 n d
3a
xd
V2 = Volume of cylinder = d x 2a = 2 x a3
4 V3 = Volume of hemisphere =  m3 6
d'
SAQ 11
Referring the Figure shown below, volume of the lower conical portion L'M'ML of cone can be computed as (V,  V2 ), where V, = (Volume of full cone ILM)  (shaded volume IL'M' ) Let z be the vertical axis of symmetry of the glass. Let H be the height of shaded portion of cone IL'M. From similar triangles IL'M' and ILM, we have
= (269 x ld  98 x
ld)mm3
m f o r A n r r r r b SAQ 11
Considering origin at I ,
3 630 for volume Vl ; z1 =  (60 + 150) = mm = 157.5 mm 4 4 450 for volume V2 ; z =  (150) = = 112.5 m m 2 3 4 4
Portion
v i
Voluny (mm
z i
Vi Zi 42.36 x lo6
vt
v 2
269 x lo3
157.5 112.5
240
 98 x lo3
231 x lo3 402 x lo3
 11.02 x lo6
55.41 x lo6 86.75 x lo6
v 3
SAQ 12
where
Vl = Volume of cone OUV
; .
Considering origid at 0
: .
Note :The volume can also be computed using theorem of Pappus and Guldinus
SAQ 13
l200cmC
Figure for Amwrr to SAQ 13
Zabout CX = 5o
203 12
1000 x (13.3)~ 2o +
ZAT = Zox
+ A x a2... where
xuL A =2
SAQ 16
Centroid C and centroidal axes are shown in the Figure for Answer to SAQ 16. Coordinates of centre of areas A, andA2 with respect to C are given below to further , compute I .
Ai xi Yi
Yic
 3.62
'
 183.53  196.64
2 =  380.17
8  4.12 = 3.88
SAQ 17
~ e f e m n g Section 4.5.4. the angle 8 of principal axis C%with respect to CX is the given by
tan (28) =
21
1  zy ,
and
1 = Zy = 637.24 ,
tan (28)
rn
SAQ 18 Radius of gyration of a circular area of radius a about axis OX as shown in figure is given by
nu4
d(rord)2 =
,
5
(4
r 0 ,= ( 4 1 . 2 5 ) ~
Considering O% as axis perpendicular to the plane of area,
SAQ 19
Mass moment of inertia of circular disc of radius a about centroidal axis is similar to corresponding area moment of inertia. If m is mass b r unit area, total mass M is given by
. :
a2
=~ ( r c x ) ~
whereby
SAQ 20
Considering a ring of radius a and mass M where dM is an elemental mass of its peripheral element of length a dB as shown in Figure for Answer to SAQ 20. Consider initialy the mass moment of inertia about Z axis which is perpendicular to the plane of the ring. If m is mass per unit length,
Then,
ZGz =
J(
d ) a2 ~
a dB = 2za]
= ma2 [ 2m]
=~
( 2since )
2xaxm=M
FU~THER READING
1. 2.
1 t
3.
4.
5.
Timoshenko, S. P. and Young, D. H., Engineering Mechanics, McGraw Hill, New York. Beer, F. P. and Johnston, E. P. ,Vector Mechanicsfor Engineers, McGraw Hill. New York. Shames, I., EngineeringMechanics, Prentice Hall, New Jersey. Thadani, B. N., EngineeringMechanics (Revised by J.P. Desai), Weinall Book Corporation, Bombay, India. Mclean and Nelson (Schaum's outline Series), Engineering Mechanics (3rd Edition).