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IATA (International Air Transport Association)

The International Air Transport Association (IATA) is an international industry trade group of airlines headquartered in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, where the International Civil Aviation Organization is also headquartered. IATA's mission is to represent, lead, and serve the airline industry. IATA represents some 230 airlines comprising 93% of scheduled international air traffic. The Director General and Chief Executive Officer is Giovanni Bisignani. Currently, IATA is present in over 150 countries covered through 101 offices around the globe. The IATA Head Office are located at 800 Place Victoria (Montreal Stock Exchange Tower) in Montreal since 1977 (having been located at Central Station (Montreal) since its founding) and the executive offices are at the Geneva Airport in Switzerland.

Day
1 M 2 T 3 W 4 T 5 F 6 S 7 S

Date
01JAN 01JUL 01FEB 01AUG 01MAR 01SEP 01APR 01OCT 01MAY 01NOV 01JUN 01DEC

Time
(AM) 0100 0200 0300 0400 0500 0600 0700 0800 0900 1000 1100 1200 (PM) 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 0000

IATA Airlines Codes


QR EK PK GF EY BA UA VS CO DL Qatar Airways Emirates Airlines Pakistan International Airlines Gulf Air Etihad Airways British Airways United Airlines Virgin Atlantic Continental Air Delta Airlines MH AC CA KU KQ SK SA LH TG MALYSIAN AIRLINES Air Canada Air China Kuwait Airways Kenya Airways Scandinavian Airlines South African Airlines Lufthansa Airlines THAI AIRWAYS

IATA Airport Codes with City and Country.


Airport Code City Country Airport Code City Country

BKK BOM CAI CAN CMH CPT DAC DAR DFW DMM DOH DXB EWR FCO IAD IAH IKA ISB JED JFK JNB KHI KRT KTM KUL LHE LOS MLE MXP NBO PEW PVG RUH SEA SFO SGN SIN TIP VIE

Bangkok Mumbai Cairo Guangzhou Columbus Cape Town Dhaka Dares Salam Dallas Dammam Doha Dubai New Jersey Rome Washington DC Houston Tehran Islamabad Jeddah New York Johannesburg Karachi Khartoum Katmandu Kuala Lumpur Lahore Lagos Male Milan Nairobi Peshawar Shanghai Riyadh Seattle San Francisco Ho chi minh City Singapore Tripoli Vienna

Thailand India Egypt China USA South Africa Bangladesh Tanzania USA Saudi Arabia Qatar UAE USA Italy USA USA Iran Pakistan Saudi Arabia USA South Africa Pakistan Sudan Nepal Malaysia Pakistan Nigeria Maldives Italy Kenya Pakistan China Saudi Arabia USA USA Vietnam Singapore Libya Austria

MEL YTO LHR BJS MAA GVA ICN MUC YVR ARN DAM AMM GRU MNL YYC YUL MAN ATH DME YOW ZRH BEY LGW TXL AUH IST BCN KWI KIX FRA MAD DEL CPH HKG YEG SYD BAH CMB MCT

Melbourne Toronto London Heathrow Peking Chennae Geneva Seoul Munich Vancouver Stockholm Damascus Amman Sao Paulo Manila Calgary Montreal Manchester Athens Moscow Ottawa Zurich Beirut London Gatwick Berlin Abu Dhabi Istanbul Barcelona Kuwait Osaka Frankfurt Madrid Delhi Copenhagen Hong Kong Edmonton Sydney Bahrain Colombo Muscat

Australia Canada UK China India Switzerland Korea Germany Canada Sweden Syria Jordan Brazil Philippine Canada Canada UK Greece Russia Canada Switzerland Lebanon UK Germany UAE Turkey Spain Kuwait Japan Germany Spain India Denmark Hong Kong Canada Australia Bahrain Sri Lanka Oman

Cabins and Classes


First Class Business Class : : F (Sub Classes) J / A / C / D

Economy Class Carriers)

(Sub Classes) Y/B/L/M/Q/K/H/V/W/X/N (Economy classes are different in different

Fares
7. Normal Fares 8. Special Fares

9. Normal Fares Normal Fares are those fares which are published by the respective Airlines through GDS (Global Distribution System). Usually these fares are used for online sector ticketing. For Example if a passenger traveling as PEW-DOH-LHR the basic normal fare will be displayed as below
YHOWPK DRTPK BHOWPK YHRTPK LHOWPK MHOWPK BHRTPK QHOWPK 83850 148200 65650 129000 57850 51350 101000 44850 Y + S01JUL 31AUG+ - - - R D + - + - - 12M R

B + S01JUL 31AUG+ - - - R Y + S01JUL 31AUG+ - - 12M R L + S01JUL 31AUG+ - - - R M + S01JUL 31AUG+ - - - R B + S01JUL 31AUG+ - - 12M R Q + S01JUL 31AUG+ - - - R

LHRTPK KHOWPK MHRTPK QHRTPK HHOWPK KHRTPK HHRTPK

89000 39650 79000 69000 33150 61000 51000

L + S01JUL 31AUG+ - - 12M R K + S01JUL 31AUG+ - - - R M + S01JUL 31AUG+ - - 12M R Q + S01JUL 31AUG+ - - 12M R H + S01JUL 31AUG+ - - - R K + S01JUL 31AUG+ - - 12M R H + S01JUL 31AUG+ - - 12M R

These fares are published fares without taxes. At the time of ticketing all applicable taxes has to be charged in addition.

10. Special Fares Special fares can be offered by the Airlines time by time due load factor. Some time different carriers may introduce a discounted fare for a specific routing and for a specific duration. Below are some examples and type of Special Fares.

11. Advance Purchase Fare These are most restrictive and discounted fares in which some time tickets are not changeable or non refundable. This type of fare is always restricted in the validity of sales and traveling. Most of time advance purchase should be done within 72 Hours of Departure.

12. Group Fares This type of fare is usually used for the groups traveling to specific destination. Minimum number of passenger in a group should not less than 10. Group fares can be offered by airline on querying about availability of seats and number of passengers. Somehow these fares are also non refundable but can be rebooked with a difference of published fare.

Passenger Fare Discount For the passengers who are adult would be charged full published fare as normal but there is a discount for the child less than 12years and Infant less than 02years. These discounts are as under. Child (Should be less than 12Year)Discount Infant (Should be less than 02Year) 25% of the adult fare 80% of the adult fare

Discount

at the time of booking kindly keep in mind that infant hold NO SEAT, so dont book separate seat for the infants.

Availibility of Seats in Respective classes

** QATAR AIRWAYS - AN ** LHR HEATHROW.GB 1 QR 347 CL JL DL IL Y9 B5 L1 /PEW DOH ML QL KL NL XL QR 011 FL PL AL OL CL JL DL /DOH LHR 3 0750 IL Y9 B5 L1 ML QL KL NL XL 0430

4 SA 10JUL 0000 0605 E0/333

1315 E0/346

12:45

** QATAR AIRWAYS - AN ** PEW PESHAWAR.PK 1 QR 018 FL PL AL OL CL JL DL /LHR 3 DOH IL Y9 B9 L9 M9 Q9 K9 H9 NL XL QR 346 CL JL DL IL Y9 B9 L9 /DOH PEW M9 Q9 K9 H9 NL XL 2120 0755

29 WE 04AUG 0000 1640 E0/333

0250+1E0/333

14:55

Basic Fare
06JUL10**06JUL10/QR PEWLON/NSP;EH/TPM 3685/MPM 5043 LN FARE BASIS OW PKR RT B PEN DATES/DAYS AP MIN MAX R

01 FOWPK 02 POWPK 03 FRTPK 04 AOWPK 05 COWPK 06 PRTPK 07 JOWPK 08 ARTPK 09 CRTPK 10 DOWPK

201310 167180 309700 143130 143130 257200 115830 220200 220200 96330

F + P + F + A + C + P + J + A + C + D +

- +- - - R - +- - - R - + - - 12M R - +- - - R - +- - - R - + - - 12M R - +- - - R - + - - 12M R - + - - 12M R - +- - - R

11 JRTPK 12 YHOWPK 13 DRTPK 14 BHOWPK 15 YHRTPK 16 LHOWPK 17 MHOWPK 18 BHRTPK 19 QHOWPK 20 LHRTPK 21 KHOWPK 22 MHRTPK 23 QHRTPK 24 HHOWPK 25 KHRTPK 26 HHRTPK

178200 83850 148200 65650 129000 57850 51350 101000 44850 89000 39650 79000 69000 33150 61000 51000

J +

- + - - 12M R

Y + S01JUL 31AUG+ - - - R D + - + - - 12M R

B + S01JUL 31AUG+ - - - R Y + S01JUL 31AUG+ - - 12M R L + S01JUL 31AUG+ - - - R M + S01JUL 31AUG+ - - - R B + S01JUL 31AUG+ - - 12M R Q + S01JUL 31AUG+ - - - R L + S01JUL 31AUG+ - - 12M R K + S01JUL 31AUG+ - - - R M + S01JUL 31AUG+ - - 12M R Q + S01JUL 31AUG+ - - 12M R H + S01JUL 31AUG+ - - - R K + S01JUL 31AUG+ - - 12M R H + S01JUL 31AUG+ - - 12M R

** RULES DISPLAY **
01 HHRTPK FCL: HHRTPK

TAX MAY APPLY

51000 H + S01JUL 31AUG+ - - 12M R TRF: 4 RULE: QR26 BK: H

PE.PENALTIES

CANCELLATIONS
BEFORE DEPARTURE CHARGE PKR 3000.

AFTER DEPARTURE CANCELLATIONS PERMITTED.

CANCELLATION PERMITTED BUT DEDUCT OW FARE PLUS PKR 1500 FOR SAME RBD

CHARGE PKR 2000 FOR NO-SHOW. NO SHOW PERMITTED AT A CHARGE OF PKR 2000 PLUS DATE CHANGE FEE PLUS FARE DIFFERENCE WILL APPLY. --------------------------------------------------

CHANGES ANY TIME CHANGES PERMITTED. FIRST CHANGE FREE OF COST PLUS FARE DIFFERENCE. SUBSEQUENT CHANGES PERMITTED AT A CHARGE OF PKR 2000 PER CHANGE PLUS FARE DIFFERENCE. NAME CHANGE NOT PERMITTED.

Transit and Stopover


1.Transit : Waiting time between two flights is called transit time and the area where a passenger has to wait is called transit area. Transit time should not be exceeded from 24 hours and passenger must not leave airport without valid and authorized document with a prior authority of immigration. In case of very long transit but within 24Hrs some airlines offers (STPC). In that case passenger can leave transit area even can leave airport without transit visa and will report again at Airport 03Hrs before departure of onward flight. Baggage would not be handed over to the passenger during transit. When a passenger want to stay between Origin and Destination for more than 24Hrs is called stopover. For example if a passenger is traveling like PeshawarDoha-London and want to take a stay at Doha for a couple of days will take stopover at doha. In that case passenger has prove valid travel documents and visa for Qatar. Some airlines are usually offer stopover programs from their end as well on prior information and necessary requirements.

2. Stopover :

Suppose you were flying from New York to Los Angeles, and you wanted to stop and visit your aunt in Indianapolis on the way. Such a visit would constitute a stopover in Indianapolis. Some fares allow free stopovers, others allow stopovers for an additional fee, and many fares do not allow stopovers at all. Now, your flight might be routed through Indianapolis anyway, and you might even have to change aircraft there. You might think you could "beat the system" by booking a connecting flight for the next day. You usually cannot do so, since if you do not depart your intermediate point (Indianapolis) within 4 hours of your arrival there, it would normally be considered a stopover. Therefore, such an arrangement would not be allowed if the fare did not permit stopovers.

STPC (Stopover for the Purpose of Connectivity)

Term of STPC used for the passenger having long transit for more than 08Hrs and less than 24Hrs as a transit to get boarded to their onward connecting flight. This stay should not be exceeded from 24Hrs else a transit visa would be required for the passenger even not leaving transit area of that airport. STPC can be availed by prior booking from concerned airline on charges if not included in basic fare. Most of airlines issue a STPC voucher for passenger convenience as a pre-booking for hotel. An agent should check fare notes before issuing an e-ticket that STPC will be provided or not to inform their passengers well in time to avoid any discrepancy at the airport. Below is an example of Fare notes that how to check about STPC entitlement.

** QATAR AIRWAYS - AN ** PVG PUDONG INTL.CN 1 QR 347 C4 J3 D1 IL Y9 B9 L9 /PEW DOH M9 Q9 K9 H8 NL XL QR 888 0430

4 SA 10JUL 0000 0605 E0/333

C4 J3 D1 IL Y9 B9 L9 /DOH PVG 2 0105+1 1440+1E0/77W M9 Q9 K9 H8 NL XL

31:10

2 STOPOVERS PERMITTED ON THE PRICING UNIT LIMITED TO 1 FREE AND 1 AT PKR 6000. 1 FREE INBOUND 1 OUTBOUND AT PKR 6000. NOTE STPC PERMITTED ON BOTHWAYS. ------------------------------

Ticketing
13. Types of Airline Tickets 14. Ticket Validity 15. Baggage Allowance 16. Form of Payment 17. Tour Code 18. Fare construction 19. Ticket Endorsement.

20.Types of Airline Tickets

21. Paper Ticket (Manual Ticket)


Paper tickets were initially used by various airlines. In these type of tickets travel agent had to fill all the required columns by hand, needed to calculate fare manually which caused problems to perform a successful audit even if passenger had lost his ticket than stolen or misplaced ticket need to be black listed first from the concern airline and than a new ticket was being issued by the same carrier for further transportation. Paper tickets are almost over now.

22. Automated Ticket with Boarding Pass (ATB)


Automated Tickets with Boarding Pass were introduced to replace a paper ticket and it was quite better and presentable to the customer. In these type of tickets passenger need to collect ticket coupons from the airline on must basis. The cost of ATB was a much higher than the paper ticket. Still there was a problem exist which caused ATB ticket to be changed with a latest technology and this problem was misplaced or stolen ticket.

23. Electronic Ticket


Electronic Tickets are also known as E-Ticket. These tickets are the latest form ticketing which has changed the scenario of the travel trade. Passenger get their ticket not only from the Airlines

and travel agents also they can purchase these ticket online through credit card. Electronic ticket is like a simple peace of paper on which passenger name, itenery and ticket number has been mentioned. Incase of lost ticket these tickets can again be printed at home with no cost or penalty and stolen or misplaced ticket does not need to send any report to blacklist the same.

24.Ticket Validity
All airlines have some restrictions on their issued ticket. One of them is the ticket validity. Ticket which was issued for 04 Months has to be used within four months. If a passenger extend his stay has to extend the validity of his ticket by paying difference of fare for ticket extension for the required period. Ticket validity cant be extended beyond 01 year.

Any published or market fare valid for 04months or above which are combine able with any other fare of 06 month or 01 year but the ticket validity will be 04months only. It means lower fare base turns all the ticket validity to minimum travel validity.

For example :

1 ODOH QR 31OCT 20K 2 OPEW QR 05JUL31OCT 20K

346 347

H V

30JUN 10JUL

2120 0430

OK OK

HLRRSTN2 VLRRSUP1

F O

Ticket was issued in combination of H/Class and V/Class. H Class is valid for 09Months while V/Class is valid for 04 Months. If you observe the not valid after dates ticket is not valid after four months.

25.Baggage Allowance

Most of the airlines offering their customers baggage allowance to be taken on board through checked baggage as well as hand carry. These allowances can be different for all the carriers. For Gulf, UAE, UK, Fare East, Africa and South West Pacific is minimum 20Kg per Adult and per Child also 10Kg allowed for Infants, but for USA and Canada there is a concept of Pieces. 02 pieces of checked baggage allowed for the passenger traveling to USA and Canada. Each piece should not exceed from 23Kg for Economy

Class. For business and first class these baggage can be accepted till 32kg per piece.

01 Piece allowed as hand carry which should not exceed from 07Kg for Economy Class. 02 Piece allowed as hand carry which can be weight up to 15Kg for Business Class.

Most of the airlines also entertain excess baggage allowance for some of their top travel agents for long haul sectors as a favor to make repeat customer.

26.Form of Payment.
Most of the travel agents around the world prefer cash payment at the time of ticketing but some time passenger has not enough cash at the time of ticketing so they want to charge the ticketing amount through debit or credit card. If the facility is available to charge such cards than form of payment on ticket should be written as CC or Debit Card. Usually in case of cash payment form of payment should be CASH. IATA agents have some of their sub-agents which are non-IATA requests IATA agents to issue ticket on behalf of their invoice to collect money on decided date or at the end of fortnight. In these cases form of payment should be mentioned as INVOICE.

27.Tour Code

All the Airlines offer their local markets some special discounts or promotional fares for different spans and seasons to grab most of their share from the market for a specific destination and time. These tour codes are always different for different offers for example

PEWP059

a discounted fare between PEW and RUH only Valid for sale only within 72 Hours of Departure.

28.Fare Construction
Air fare can be constructed through any GDS by making reservation and apply auto fare command. Its a common practice to book a passenger in an appropriate class of travel and ask GDS through auto fare guarantee command. GDS will advice a guaranteed fare to upload and assist to issue ticket. Some time passenger use to travel for multiple sectors and using multiple airlines than the most preferable fares are sector fares and if sector fares are not available for the said journey than ticketing can be done through IATA published fares.

Neutral Unit of Construction


The Neutral Unit of Construction or Neutral Unit of Currency (code: NUC) is a private currency used by the airline industry, to record fare calculation information. A set of exchange rates are issued by the International Air Transport Association (IATA) four times per year. The ticket component prices are converted from the original currency (of the country of commencement of travel) and recorded on the airline ticket. The NUC system came into being on 1 July 1989, having superseded the older "Fare Construction Unit" (FCU) system. As of 2008, the NUC is pegged approximately to the United States dollar ($1 1 NUC).

Document
An airline ticket is a document, issued by an airline or a travel agency, to confirm that an individual has purchased a seat on a flight on an aircraft. This document is then used to obtain a boarding pass, at the airport. Then with the boarding pass and the attached ticket, the passenger is allowed to board the aircraft.

There are two sorts of airline tickets - the older style with coupons now referred to as a paper ticket, and the now more common electronic ticket usually referred to as an e-ticket. Regardless of the type, all tickets contain details of the following information...
The passenger's name.

The issuing airline. A ticket number, including the airline's 3 digit code at the start of the number. The cities the ticket is valid for travel between. Flights that the ticket is valid for. (Unless the ticket is "open") Baggage allowance. Taxes. (It is normally a legal requirement to show taxes, even if the fare is not shown). The "Fare Basis", an alpha-numeric code that identifies the fare. Restrictions on changes and refunds. (Not always shown in detail, but referred to). Dates that the ticket is valid for. "Form of payment" ie, details of how the ticket was paid for, which will in turn affect how it would be refunded.

7. Ticket Endorsement.
The endorsement/restriction element (fe) is used to identify any restrictions, airline comments, or rules that may apply to a ticket. The endorsement is printed on the ticket in the endorsement box. The endorsement element can be: Automatically created by the fare server, or Manually entered by the agent

Depending on when you enter the manual fe element and when you price the itinerary, the system prints either the manual or the automatic endorsement on the ticket. In the following examples it is assumed that the fare server returns an automatic endorsement.

Routing and Types of Tickets.


Circle Trip Travel from A to B then back from B to A using different fare basis codes (see also round trip) --OR-- Any trip involving a stopover in addition to the ultimate destination (e.g. A-->B, B-->C then C-->A using the same or different fare basis codes). Combinability Whenever you are traveling on anything other than a round trip, fare combinations come into play. Combinability refers to whether two or more fares can be combined to construct an itinerary for a given passenger. Types of trips involving combinations include circle trips, open jaws and end-on-end combinations.

A few basic, general principles apply to fare combinations. 1) The most restrictive conditions apply. For example if you are combining a fare that is 50% refundable with one that is non-refundable, the whole ticket becomes non-refundable because the non-refundable rule is the most restrictive. As another example, if you are combining a fare that requires 7 days advance purchase with one that requires 14 days advance purchase, the entire ticket must be purchased 14 days in advance. The same reasoning applies for the minimum/maximum stay, change fees, service charges and other restrictions. It is virtually impossible to sort out all the combinability details yourself. Usually the online reservations system will work out all the details for you.

2)

Maximum Permitted Mileage In general, international fares are based on mileage and North American fares are based on routing. In the international fare tariffs there is an established amount of mileage called the maximum permitted mileage (MPM) between every point A and B. The carriers interested in the traffic between these points A and B, can use their own hubs to fly this traffic provided the maximum permitted mileage is not exceeded. In the event that the mileage is exceeded, a surcharge of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% or 25% can be assessed for an additional 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% or 25% mileage, respectively. Beyond 25% additional mileage, the through fare must be broken. In the MPM system backtracking is not prohibited, however there are certain other restrictions in place, such as: 1. The point of origin or the point of destination cannot be used as an intermediate point in the same fare breakdown (i.e. the following examples would not be allowed: YYZ LON PAR ZRH FRA ZRH or BKK SIN HKG BKK LAX YYZ) 2. You can travel via the same intermediate point more than once but you can only

stop once (i.e. the following would not be allowed: YYZ LON PAR FRA PAR ATH (stopping in PAR twice would require a side trip PAR FRA PAR)) 3. In some fares such as round the world fares, the rules state that travel must be in the same global direction, thus preventing backtracking

Open Jaw Travel from A to B then from C to A, with no air ticket from B to C. Usually the distance BC must be less than both AB and CA (i.e. the part without the air ticket must be shorter than the shortest distance flown).

OpenReturn: An open return is a ticket valid for transportation between the destination city and the city of origin with no set date or flight. Many fares do not allow open returns. The rules might say so explicity, or you may see something like "segments using this rule must be confirmed", which means no open return and no wait listing. Originating Flight : The first flight on your ticket is your originating flight. PTA PTA stands for prepaid ticket advice. This option allows someone other than the passenger to pay for the ticket, even if the payer is in a different city. The passenger then picks up the ticket from the airline or the travel agent in the passenger's city. Sometimes a fare rule states "PTA satisfies ticketing requirements", indicating that once the PTA is arranged, even if the ticket is not physically issued, the requirements for ticket issue (e.g. within a certain number of days after reservation and before departure) are met. Since the advent of electronic ticketing, PTA is used far less commonly. Electronic tickets are a much better way to handle this situation. Usually the airline charges a fee for processing a PTA, unlike for electronic tickets. Rerouting (Voluntary) If, before departure, a passenger wants to make a change to their itinerary, we call that voluntary rerouting. The term rerouting may be confusing, in that the actual route does not have to change (although it could) - i.e. any change to flights, dates, times or destinations are considered rerouting. First, consider some background. Recall that in the Penalty section of Fare Rule Basics, I said that certain conditions would apply to the ability to change a ticket for the change fee (e.g. $100). The rerouting rule describes conditions under which the itinerary can be changed for only the change fee. The underlying principle is to provide the passenger with some degree of flexibility while

at the same time not being unfair to passengers who have paid much higher fares (e.g. Full Coach) for maximum flexibility. For example, suppose a business traveler bought a full coach fare from New York to L.A. for $1680 return. She did so to provide maximum flexibility. Suppose also that a college student bought a ticket on the same route for $318 return. If the college student could make any changes he wanted for only $50 with no additional restrictions, then why would the business traveler pay $1680? As you will see, the rerouting rules attempt to be fair to both parties. Rerouting rules usually are different before departure and after departure. Before Departure...New Fare Required At the time the passenger wants to make a change to his/her originating flight, the passenger becomes subject to the fares in effect on the date the change is made for travel on the dates desired. In other words in effect the passenger is making a new reservation, and is subject to all of the rules of the new fare, including advance purchase requirements, ticket purchase deadlines and minimum/maximum stay requirements. The new itinerary must usually be of equal or higher value than the original itinerary. The passenger must pay the difference between the original fare and the new fare PLUS the administrative service charge (e.g. $100). If the new fare is of lower value, you may get a refund, a credit for future travel, or neither, depending on the fare rule. Suppose that today is March 25 and several weeks ago a college student living in New York bought a round trip ticket to L.A. with a departure date of April 1. The student now wants to leave March 26 instead of April 1. The only applicable fare at this time may be a Full Coach fare. The student would then be required to purchase a full coach fare, but he/she could use the value of his/her special fare ticket towards that purchase. The original non-refundable amount remains non-refundable. In other words one cannot "get around the system" by upgrading a discounted ticket to a full fare ticket and then getting a full refund for the full fare ticket as a way to in effect get a refund for an unused discounted ticket. Revalidate Generally airline tickets are valid for maximum one year from date of issue. If the airline were to revalidate a ticket, its value could not be extended beyond one year. Some fares specifically exclude revalidation. Round Trip Travel from A to B then back from B to A using the same fare basis code. Routing The routing rule lists the allowed connecting cities for travel from A to B for a particular fare. Sometimes this rule indicates that travel must be nonstop. Segment A segment refers to a single flight with the same flight number. For example, if you travel from A to B, change planes at B, and then travel from B to C, you will have flown two segments. On the other hand, if you travel from A to C and the flight stops at B, but you don't change planes, then your trip from A to C is one segment from the point of view of fare rules. Note that the US federal segment tax defines both of these scenarios as two

segments. Standby Standby allows a traveler to wait at the gate for a seat to become available, usually minutes before a flight departs. Some fares which otherwise require a change fee allow passengers to standby for earlier or later flights on the same day at no additional cost. Upgrade While most of us think of an upgrade as an opportunity to sit in First/Business class, in the world of fare rules an upgrade means something entirely different. An upgrade refers to changing your ticket to a higher fare for the same or different flights. The higher fare may still be in coach, but you may be required to upgrade if you want to make a change that does not meet the conditions of the change fee for the lower fare. See example in Rerouting. Waitlist Some fares allow a passenger to be put on a waiting list for the required booking class if it is sold out. Usually the deeply discounted seat sale fares do not allow waiting lists, but intermediate and higher fares usually do. A waitlist refers to making reservations only, and it has nothing to do with the standby list at the airport. You cannot usually add yourself to a waitlist using online travel reservations - call the airline or your professional travel agent.

Reconfirmation
Returnee passengers who have already travelled one way on their return ticket and want to travel back to their destination are supposed to reconfirm their tickets from the Airlines. This either reconfirmation can be done at Airline counter or by contacting any travel agent desk to reconfirm a return ticket. In electronic tickets there is no need for reconfirmation except Jeddah due to heavy traffic and shortage of space availability. For Reconfirmation below steps to be followed. 29. PNR (Passenger Name Record) must be Airline PNR.

30. Already booked travel date and timings to be checked. 31. Passenger Local Contact number (Two Contacts al least)

32. Valid Passport, Visa or any other Travel Document. 33. Check minimum connection time and transit should not exceed than 24 hours. 34. For international passport Pakistani visa or NICOP card should be checked for validity. 35. For one way tickets on work visa Protector.