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SUMMER TRAINING REPORT

(11th June to 21 July2012)

Submitted By:-

GAURAV BHATT
Roll No. 9634 Branch: INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL Engineering College: P.D.M college of engineering

PART -1 ABOUT THE COMPANY

NTPC Limited
Type Public Founded 1975 Headquarters Delhi, India Key people Industry Products Revenue Net income R S Sharma, Chairman & Managing Director Electricity generation Electricity INR 416.37 billion (2008) or USD 18.15 billion INR 70.47 billion (2008) or USD 1.89 billion

Employees 23867 (2006) Website http://www.ntpc.co.in

CORPORATE VISION:
A world class integrated power major, powering Indias growth with increasing global presence.

CORE VALUES:
B - Business ethics C -Customer focus O -Organizational & professional pride M -Mutual respect & trust I -Innovation & speed T -Total quality for excellence NTPC Limited is the largest thermal power generating company of India, Public Sector Company. It was incorporated in the year 1975 to accelerate power development in the country as a wholly owned company of the Government of India. At present, Government of India holds 89.5% of the total equity shares of the company and the balance 10.5% is held by FIIs, Domestic Banks, Public and others. Within a span of 31 years, NTPC has emerged as a truly national power company, with power generating facilities in all the major regions of the country.

POWER PLANT DISTRIBUTION:

NTPC Headquarters

NTPC Limited is divided in 6 HQ. Sr. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Headquarter NCRHQ ER-I, HQ ER-II, HQ NER SR HQ WR HQ City Noida Patna Bhubaneshwar Lucknow Hyderabad Mumbai

NO. OF PLANTS CAPACITY (MW) NTPC Owned Coal Gas/Liquid Fuel Total Owned By JVs Coal & Gas Total 15 7 22 5 27 24,885 3,955 28,840 2,864 31,704

Regional Spread of Generating Facilities

REGION Northern Western Southern Eastern JVs Total

COAL 7,525 6,360 3,600 7,400 924 25,809

GAS 2,312 1,293 350 1,940 5,895

TOTAL 9,837 7,653 3,950 7,400 2,864 31,704

NTPC Plants

Coal Based (Owned by JVs) State


West Bengal Orissa Chhattisgarh Bihar TOTAL

Sr. No. City


1 2 3 4 Durgapur Rourkela Bhilai Kanti

Capacity (MW)
120 120 574 110 924

Thermal based

Sr. City No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Singrauli Korba Ramagundam Farakka Vindhyachal Rihand Kahalgaon NCTPP, Dadri Talcher Kaniha Unchahar Talcher Thermal Simhadri

Tanda Badarpur Sipat-II Sipat-I(erection Chhattisgarh 1980 phase) Bongaigaon(erection Assam 750 phase.) Total 24,835

-- POWER State GENERATION (MW) Uttar Pradesh 2,000 Chhattisgarh 2,100 Andhra 2,600 Pradesh West Bengal 1,600 Madhya 3,260 Pradesh Uttar Pradesh 2,000 Bihar 2,340 Uttar Pradesh 1,330 Orissa 3,000 Uttar Pradesh 1,050 Orissa 460 Andhra 1,000 Pradesh Uttar Pradesh 440 Delhi 705 Chhattisgarh 1000

Gas based

S.No. City 1. 2. 3 4. 5. 6. 7. Anta Auraiya Kawas Dadri Jhanor Rajiv Gandhi Faridabad

state Rajasthan U.P. Gujarat U.P. Gujarat Kerala Haryana Total

Capacity(MW) 413 652 645 817 648 350 430 3955

EVOLUTION OF NTPC

1975

NTPC was set up in 1975 with 100% ownership by the Government of India. In the last 30 years, NTPC has grown into the largest power utility in India. In 1997, Government of India granted NTPC status of Navratna being one of the nine jewels of India, enhancing the powers to the Board of Directors. NTPC became a listed company with majority Government ownership of 89.5%. NTPC becomes third largest by Market Capitalisation of listed companies. The company rechristened as NTPC Limited in line with its changing business portfolio and transform itself from a thermal power utility to an integrated power utility.

1997

2004

2005

NTPC is the largest power utility in India, accounting for about 20% of Indias installed capacity.

STRATEGIES

Technological Initiatives

Introduction of steam generators (boilers) of the size of 800 MW Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Technology Launch of Energy Technology Centre -A new initiative for development of technologies with focus on fundamental R&D The company sets aside up to 0.5% of the profits for R&D Roadmap developed for adopting Clean Development Mechanism to help get / earn Certified Emission Reduction

Corporate Social Responsibility


As a responsible corporate citizen NTPC has taken up number of CSR initiatives

NTPC Foundation formed to address Social issues at national level

NTPC has framed Corporate Social Responsibility Guidelines committing up to 0.5% of net profit annually for Community Welfare The welfare of project affected persons and the local population around NTPC projects are taken care of through well drawn Rehabilitation and Resettlement policies

Partnering government in various initiatives


Consultant role to modernize and improvise several plants across the country Disseminate technologies to other players in the sector Consultant role Partnership in Excellence Programme for improvement of PLF of 15 Power Stations of SEBs. Rural Electrification work under Rajiv Gandhi Garmin Vidyutikaran

Environment Management
All stations of NTPC are ISO 14001 certified Various groups to care of environmental issues The Environment Management Group Ash Utilization Division Afforestation Group Centre for Power Efficiency & Environment Protection Group on Clean Development Mechanism NTPC is the second largest owner of trees in the country after the Forest department.

PART 2 Thermal power plant


(Badarpur thermal power station)

Table: Capacity of Badarpur Thermal Power Station, (BTPS) New Delhi

Introduction
Power Station (also referred to as generating station or power plant) is an industrial facility for the generation of electric power. Some prefer to use the term energy centre because it more accurately describes what the plants do, which is the conversion of other forms of energy, like chemical energy, gravitational potential energy or heat energy into electrical energy. In thermal power stations, mechanical power is produced by a heat engine, which transforms Thermal energy (often from combustion of a fuel) into rotational energy. Most thermal power stations produce steam, and these are sometimes called steam power stations. About 80% of all electric power is generated by use of steam turbines. Not all thermal energy can be transformed to mechanical power, according to the second law of thermodynamics. Therefore, there is always heat lost to the environment. If this loss is employed as useful heat, for industrial processes or district heating, the power plant is referred to as a cogeneration power plant or CHP (combined heat-and-power) plant. In countries where district heating is common, there are dedicated heat plants called heat-only boiler stations. An important class of power stations in the Middle East uses by-product heat for desalination of water.

The operating performance of NTPC has been considerably above the national average. The availability factor for coal stations has increased from 85.03 % in 1997-98 to 90.09 % in 2006-07, which compares favourably with international standards. The PLF has increased from 75.2% in 1997-98 to 89.4% during the year 2006-07 which is the highest since the inception of NTPC. In Badarpur Thermal Power Station, steam is produced and used to spin a turbine that operates a generator. Water is heated, turns into steam and spins a steam turbine which drives an electrical generator. After it passes through the turbine, the steam is condensed in a condenser; this is known as a Rankine cycle. Shown here is a diagram of a conventional thermal power plant, which uses coal, oil, or natural gas as fuel to boil water to produce the steam. The electricity generated at the plant is sent to consumers through high-voltage power lines. The Badarpur Thermal Power Plant has Steam Turbine-Driven Generators which has a collective capacity of 705MW. The fuel being used is Coal which is supplied from the Jharia Coal Field in Jharkhand. Water supply is given from the Agra Canal.

Ash handling system at BTPS

Detailed process:
Main parts of a thermal power station can be categorized as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Cooling water pump Three phase transmission line Step up transformer Electrical generator Low pressure steam Boiler feed water pump Surface condenser Intermediate pressure steam turbine Steam control valve 10. High pressure steam turbine 11. Deaerator feed water heater 12. Coal conveyer 13. Coal hopper 14. Coal pulverizer 15. Boiler steam drum 16. Boiler ash hopper 17. Super heater 18. Force draught (draft) fan 19. Reheater 20. Combustion air intake 21. Economiser 22. Airpreheater 23. Precipitator 24. Induced draught(draft) fan 25. Fuel gas stack

Detailed process of power generation in a thermal power plant: 1) Water intake: Firstly, water is taken into the boiler through a water source. If water is available in a plenty in the region, then the source is an open pond or river. If water is scarce, then it is recycled and the same water is used over and over again. 2) Boiler heating: The boiler is heated with the help of oil, coal or natural gas. A furnace is used to heat the fuel and supply the heat produced to the boiler. The increase in temperature helps in the transformation of water into steam. 3) Steam Turbine: The steam generated in the boiler is sent through a steam turbine. The turbine has blades that rotate when high velocity steam flows across them. This rotation of turbine blades is used to generate electricity. 4) Generator: A generator is connected to the steam turbine. When the turbine rotates, the generator produces electricity which is then passed on to the power distribution systems. 5) Special mountings: There is some other equipment like the economizer and air pre-heater. An economizer uses the heat from the exhaust gases to heat the feed water. An air pre-heater heats the air sent into the combustion chamber to improve the efficiency of the combustion process.

6) Ash collection system: There is a separate residue and ash collection system in place to collect all the waste materials from the combustion process and to prevent them from escaping into the atmosphere. Apart from this, there are various other monitoring systems and instruments in place to keep track of the functioning of all the devices. This prevents any hazards from taking place in the plant. Coal is conveyed from an external stack and ground to a very fine powder by large metal spheres in the pulverised fuel mill. There it is mixed with preheated air driven by the forced draught fan. The hot air-fuel mixture is forced at high pressure into the boiler where it rapidly ignites. Water of a high purity flows vertically up the tube-lined walls of the boiler, where it turns into steam, and is passed to the boiler drum, where steam is separated from any remaining water. The steam passes through a manifold in the roof of the drum into the pendant super heater where its temperature and pressure increase rapidly to around 200 bar and 540C, sufficient to make the tube walls glow a dull red. The steam is piped to the high pressure turbine, the first of a three-stage turbine process. A steam governor valve allows for both manual control of the turbine and automatic set-point following. The steam is exhausted from the high pressure turbine, and reduced in both pressure and temperature, is returned to the boiler reheater . The reheated steam is then passed to the intermediate pressure turbine, and from there passed directly to the low pressure turbine set. The exiting steam, now a little above its boiling

point, is brought into thermal contact with cold water (pumped in from the Cooling tower) in the condenser , where it condenses rapidly back into water, creating near vacuum-like conditions inside the condenser chest. The condensed water is then passed by a feed pump through a deaerator , and pre-warmed, first in a feed heater powered by steam drawn from the high pressure set, and then in the economiser , before being returned to the boiler drum. The cooling water from the condenser is sprayed inside a cooling tower, creating a highly visible plume of water vapour, before being pumped back to the condenser in cooling water cycle. The three turbine sets are sometimes coupled on the same shaft as the three-phase electrical generator which generates an intermediate level voltage (typically 20-25 kV). This is stepped up by the unit transformer (4) to a voltage more suitable for transmission (typically 250-500 kV) and is sent out onto the three-phase transmission system. Exhaust gas from the boiler is drawn by the induced draft fan through an electrostatic precipitator and is then vented through the chimney stack.

Auxiliaries Fuel Preparation System


In coal-fired power stations, the raw feed coal from the coal storage area is first crushed into small pieces and then conveyed to the coal feed hoppers at the boilers. The coal is next pulverized into a very fine powder. The pulverisers may be ball mills, rotating drum grinders, or other types of grinders. Some power stations burn fuel oil rather than coal. The oil must kept warm (above its pour point) in the fuel oil storage tanks to prevent the oil from congealing and becoming unpumpable. The oil is usually heated to about 100C before being pumped through the furnace fuel oil spray nozzles. Boilers in some power stations use processed natural gas as their main fuel. Other power stations may use processed natural gas as auxiliary fuel in the event that their main fuel supply (coal or oil) is interrupted. In such cases, separate gas burners are provided on the boiler furnaces.

Fuel Firing System and Igniter System


From the pulverized coal bin, coal is blown by hot air through the furnace coal burners at an angle which imparts a swirling motion to the powdered coal to enhance mixing of the coal powder with the incoming preheated combustion air and thus to enhance the combustion. To provide sufficient combustion temperature in the furnace before igniting the powdered coal, the furnace temperature is raised by first burning some light fuel oil or processed natural gas (by using auxiliary burners and igniters provide for that purpose).

Air Path
External fans are provided to give sufficient air for combustion. The forced draft fan takes air from the atmosphere and, first warming it in the air preheater for better combustion, injects it via the air nozzles on the furnace wall. The induced draft fan assists the FD fan by drawing out combustible gases from the furnace, maintaining a slightly negative pressure in the furnace to avoid backfiring through any opening. At the furnace outlet and before the furnace gases are handled by the ID fan, fine dust carried by the outlet gases is removed to avoid atmospheric pollution. This is an environmental limitation prescribed by law, and additionally minimizes erosion of the ID fan.

Fly Ash Collection


Fly ash is captured and removed from the flue gas by electrostatic precipitators or fabric bag filters (or sometimes both) located at the outlet of the furnace and before the induced draft fan. The fly ash is periodically removed from the collection hoppers below the precipitators or bag filters. Generally, the fly ash is pneumatically transported to storage silos for subsequent transport by trucks or railroad cars.

Bottom Ash Collection and Disposal


At the bottom of every boiler, a hopper has been provided for collection of the bottom ash from the bottom of the furnace. This hopper is always filled with water to quench the ash and clinkers falling down from the furnace. Some arrangement is included to crush the clinkers and for conveying the crushed clinkers and bottom ash to a storage site.

Boiler Make-up Water Treatment Plant and Storage


Since there is continuous withdrawal of steam and continuous return of condensate to the boiler, losses due to blow-down and leakages have to be made up for so as to maintain the desired water level in the boiler steam drum.

For this, continuous make-up water is added to the boiler water system. The impurities in the raw water input to the plant generally consist of calcium and magnesium salts which impart hardness to the water. Hardness in the makeup water to the boiler will form deposits on the tube water surfaces which will lead to overheating and failure of the tubes. Thus, the salts have to be removed from the water and that is done by a Water Demineralising Treatment Plant (DM). A DM plant generally consists of cation, anion and mixed bed exchangers. The final water from this process consists essentially of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions which is the chemical composition of pure water. The DM water, being very pure, becomes highly corrosive once it absorbs oxygen from the atmosphere because of its very high affinity for oxygen absorption. The capacity of the DM plant is dictated by the type and quantity of salts in the raw water input. However, some storage is essential as the DM plant may be down for maintenance. For this purpose, a storage tank is installed from which DM water is continuously withdrawn for boiler make-up. The storage tank for DM water is made from materials not affected by corrosive water, such as PVC. The piping and valves are generally of stainless steel. Sometimes, a steam blanketing arrangement or stainless steel doughnut float is provided on top of the water in the tank to avoid contact with atmospheric air. This arrangement not only sprays the water but also DM water gets deaerated, with the dissolved gases being removed by the ejector of the condenser itself.

Condenser
The surface condenser is a shell and tube heat exchanger in which cooling water is circulated through the tubes. The exhaust steam from the low pressure turbine enters the shell where it is cooled and converted to condensate (water) by flowing over the tubes as shown in the adjacent diagram. Such condensers use steam ejectors or rotary motor-driven exhausters for continuous removal of air and gases from the steam side to maintain vacuum. For best efficiency, the temperature in the condenser must be kept as low as practical in order to achieve the lowest possible pressure in the condensing steam. Since the condenser temperature can almost always be kept significantly below 100 C where the vapour pressure of water is much less than atmospheric pressure, the condenser generally works under vacuum. Thus leaks of noncondensible air into the closed loop must be prevented. Plants operating in hot climates may have to reduce output if their source of condenser cooling water becomes warmer; unfortunately this usually coincides with periods of high electrical demand for air conditioning. The condenser generally uses either circulating cooling water from a cooling tower to reject waste heat to the atmosphere, or once-through water from a river, lake or ocean.

Oil System
An auxiliary oil system pump is used to supply oil at the start-up of the steam turbine generator. It supplies the hydraulic oil system required for steam turbine's main inlet steam stop valve, the governing control valves, the bearing and seal oil systems, the relevant hydraulic relays and other mechanisms. At a preset speed of the turbine during startups, a pump driven by the turbine main shaft takes over the functions of the auxiliary system.

TABLES OF CYCLES

COAL CYCLE

CONDENSATE CYCLE

FEED WATER CYCLE

STEAM CYCLE

PART 3 CONTROL & INSTRUMENTATION

This division basically calibrates various instruments and takes care of any faults occur in any of the auxiliaries in the plant. This department is the brain of the plant because from the relays to transmitters followed by the electronic computation chipsets and recorders and lastly the controlling circuitry, all fall under this. Instrumentation can be well defined as a technology of using instruments to measure and control the physical and chemical properties of a material Control and instrumentation has following departments: 1. Manometry 2. Protection and interlocks 3. Automation 4. Electronics 5. Water treatment plant 6. Furnaces Safety Supervisory System

Manometry
Transmitters- Transmitter is used for pressure measurements of gases and liquids, its working principle is that the input pressure is converted into electrostatic capacitance and from there it is conditioned and amplified. It gives an output of 4-20 ma DC. It can be mounted on a pipe or a wall. For liquid or steam measurement transmitters is mounted below main process piping and for gas measurement transmitter is placed above pipe. Manometer- Its a tube which is bent, in U shape. It is filled with a liquid. This device corresponds to a difference in pressure across the two limbs. Bourden Pressure Gauge- Its an oval section tube. Its one end is fixed. It is provided with a pointer to indicate the pressure on a calibrated scale. It is of two types : (a) Spiral type : for low pressure measurement and (b) Helical type : for high pressure measurement

PRESSURE MONITORING
Although pressure is an absolute quantity, everyday pressure measurements, such as for tire pressure, are usually made relative to ambient air pressure. In other cases

measurements are made relative to a vacuum or to some other ad hoc reference. When distinguishing between these zero references, the following terms are used:

Absolute pressure is zero referenced against a perfect vacuum, so it is equal to gauge pressure plus atmospheric pressure. Gauge pressure is zero referenced against ambient air pressure, so it is equal to absolute pressure minus atmospheric pressure. Negative signs are usually omitted. Differential pressure is the difference in pressure between two points.

The zero reference in use is usually implied by context, and these words are only added when clarification is needed. Tire pressure and blood pressure are gauge pressures by convention, while atmospheric pressures, deep vacuum pressures, and altimeter pressures must be absolute. Differential pressures are commonly used in industrial process systems. Differential pressure gauges have two inlet ports, each connected to one of the volumes whose pressure is to be monitored. In effect, such a gauge performs the mathematical operation of subtraction through mechanical means, obviating the need for an operator or control system to watch two separate gauges and determine the difference in readings. Moderate vacuum pressures are often ambiguous, as they may represent absolute pressure or gauge pressure without a negative sign. Thus a vacuum of 26 inHg gauge is equivalent to an absolute pressure of 30 inHg (typical atmospheric pressure) 26 inHg = 4 inHg.

Atmospheric pressure is typically about 100 kPa at sea level, but is variable with altitude and weather. If the absolute pressure of a fluid stays constant, the gauge pressure of the same fluid will vary as atmospheric pressure changes. For example, when a car drives up a mountain (atmospheric air pressure decreases), the (gauge) tire pressure goes up. Some standard values of atmospheric pressure such as 101.325 kPa or 100 kPa have been defined, and some instruments use one of these standard values as a constant zero reference instead of the actual variable ambient air pressure. This impairs the accuracy of these instruments, especially when used at high altitudes. Use of the atmosphere as reference is usually signified by a (g) after the pressure unit e.g. 30 psi g, which means that the pressure measured is the total pressure minus atmospheric pressure. There are two types of gauge reference pressure: vented gauge (vg) and sealed gauge (sg). A vented gauge pressure transmitter for example allows the outside air pressure to be exposed to the negative side of the pressure sensing diaphragm, via a vented cable or a hole on the side of the device, so that it always measures the pressure referred to ambient barometric pressure. Thus a vented gauge reference pressure sensor should always read zero pressure when the process pressure connection is held open to the air. A sealed gauge reference is very similar except that atmospheric pressure is sealed on the negative side of the diaphragm. This is usually adopted on high pressure ranges

such as hydraulics where atmospheric pressure changes will have a negligible effect on the accuracy of the reading, so venting is not necessary. This also allows some manufacturers to provide secondary pressure containment as an extra precaution for pressure equipment safety if the burst pressure of the primary pressure sensing diaphragm is exceeded. There is another way of creating a sealed gauge reference and this is to seal a high vacuum on the reverse side of the sensing diaphragm. Then the output signal is offset so the pressure sensor reads close to zero when measuring atmospheric pressure. A sealed gauge reference pressure transducer will never read exactly zero because atmospheric pressure is always changing and the reference in this case is fixed at 1 bar. An absolute pressure measurement is one that is referred to absolute vacuum. The best example of an absolute referenced pressure is atmospheric or barometric pressure. To produce an absolute pressure sensor the manufacturer will seal a high vacuum behind the sensing diaphragm. If the process pressure connection of an absolute pressure transmitter is open to the air, it will read the actual barometric pressure.

Typical Bourdon Tube Pressure Gages

For Switches pressure swithes are used and they can be used for digital means of monitoring as swith being ON is referred as high and being OFF is as low. All the monitored data is converted to either Current or Voltage parameter. The Plant standard for current and voltage are as under Voltage : 0 10 Volts range Current : 4 20 milliAmperes We use 4mA as the lower value so as to check for disturbances and wire breaks. Accuracy of such systems is very high . ACCURACY : + - 0.1 % The whole system used is SCADA based. Programmable Logic Circuits ( PLCs) are used in the process as they are the heardt of Instrumentation .

Protection and Interlock

Interlocking: It is basically interconnecting two or more equipments so that if one equipments fails other one can perform the tasks. This type of interdependence is also created so that equipments connected together are started and shut down in the specific sequence to avoid damage. For protection of equipments tripping are provided for all the equipments. Tripping can be considered as the series of instructions connected through OR GATE. When The main equipments of this lab are relay and circuit breakers. Some of the instrument uses for protection are: RELAY: It is a protective device. It can detect wrong condition in electrical circuits by constantly measuring the electrical quantities flowing under normal and faulty conditions. Some of the electrical quantities are voltage, current, phase angle and velocity. FUSES: It is a short piece of metal inserted in the circuit, which melts when heavy current flows through it and thus breaks the circuit. Usually silver is used as a fuse material because: a) The coefficient of expansion of silver is very small. As a result no critical fatigue occurs and thus the continuous full capacity normal current ratings are assured for the long time. b) The conductivity of the silver is unimpaired by the surges of the current that produces temperatures just near the melting point. c) Silver

fusible elements can be raised from normal operating temperature to vaporization quicker than any other material because of its comparatively low specific heat.

Miniature Circuit Breaker: They are used with combination of the control circuits to. a) Enable the staring of plant and distributors. b) Protect the circuit in case of a fault. In consists of current carrying contacts, one movable and other fixed. When a fault occurs the contacts separate and are is stuck between them.

Pyrometry Lab
1.Ultra violet censor- This device is used in furnace and it measures the intensity of ultra violet rays there and according to the wave generated which directly indicates the temperature in the furnace 2. Liquid in glass thermometer:

Thermometer consisting of mercury in a glass tube. Calibrated marks on the tube allow the temperature to be read by the length of the mercury within the tube, which varies according to the heat given to it. To increase the sensitivity, there is usually a bulb of mercury at the end of the thermometer which contains most of the mercury; expansion and contraction of this volume of mercury is then amplified in the much narrower bore of the tube.

3.

Thermocouples:
A thermocouple is a junction between two different metals that produces a voltage related to a temperature difference. Thermocouples are a widely used type of temperature sensor for measurement and control[1] and can also be used to convert heat into electric power. They are inexpensive and interchangeable, are supplied fitted with standard connectors, and can measure a wide range of temperatures. The main limitation is accuracy: system errors of less than one degree Celsius (C) can be difficult to achieve.

Any junction of dissimilar metals will produce an electric potential related to temperature. Thermocouples for practical measurement of temperature are junctions of specific alloys which have a predictable and repeatable relationship between temperature and voltage. Different alloys are used for different temperature ranges. Properties such as resistance to corrosion may also be important when choosing a type of thermocouple. Where the measurement point is far from the measuring instrument, the intermediate connection can be made by extension wires which are less costly than the materials used to make the sensor. Thermocouples are usually standardized against a reference temperature of 0 degrees Celsius; practical instruments use

electronic methods of cold-junction compensation to adjust for varying temperature at the instrument terminals. Electronic instruments can also compensate for the varying characteristics of the thermocouple, and so improve the precision and accuracy of measurements.

It was discovered that when any conductor is subjected to a thermal gradient, it will generate a voltage. This is now known as the thermoelectric effect or Seebeck effect. Any attempt to measure this voltage necessarily involves connecting another conductor to the "hot" end. This additional conductor will then also experience the temperature gradient, and develop a voltage of its own which will oppose the original. Fortunately, the magnitude of the effect depends on the metal in use. Using a dissimilar metal to complete the circuit creates a circuit in which the two legs generate different voltages, leaving a small difference in voltage available for measurement. That difference increases with temperature, and is between 1 and 70 microvolts per degree Celsius (V/C) for standard metal combinations.

Cold junction compensation: Thermocouples measure the temperature difference between two points, not absolute temperature. To measure a single temperature one of the junctionsnormally the cold junctionis maintained at a known reference temperature, and the other junction is at the temperature to be sensed. Having a junction of known temperature, while useful for laboratory calibration, is not convenient for most measurement and control applications. Instead, they incorporate an artificial cold junction using a thermally sensitive device such as a thermistor or diode to measure the temperature of the input connections at the instrument, with special care being taken to minimize any temperature gradient between terminals. Hence, the voltage from a known cold junction can be simulated, and the appropriate correction applied. This is known as cold junction compensation. It is worth noting that the EMF (or voltage) is NOT generated at the junction of the two metals of the thermocouple but rather along that portion of the length of the two dissimilar metals that is subjected to a temperature gradient.

Types: certain popular as combination convenience, stability, and

combinations of alloys have become industry standards. Selection of the is driven by cost, availability, melting point, chemical properties, output. Different types are best suited for

different applications. They are usually selected based on the temperature range and sensitivity needed. Thermocouples with low sensitivities (B, R, and S types) have correspondingly lower resolutions. Other selection criteria include the inertness of the thermocouple material, and whether it is magnetic or not. Standard thermocouple types are listed below with the positive electrode first, followed by the negative electrode.

Type K: Type K (chromelalumel) is the most common general purpose thermocouple with a sensitivity of approximately 41 V/C, chromel positive relative to alumel.[7] It is inexpensive, and a wide variety of probes are available in its 200 C to +1350 C / -328 F to +2462 F range. Type K was specified at a time when metallurgy was less advanced than it is today, and consequently characteristics vary considerably between samples. One of the constituent metals, nickel, is magnetic; a characteristic of thermocouples made with magnetic material is that they undergo a step change in output when the magnetic material reaches its Curie point (around 354 C for type K thermocouples).

Applications: Thermocouples are suitable for measuring over a large temperature range, up to 2300 C. They are less suitable for applications where smaller temperature

differences need to be measured with high accuracy, for example the range 0100 C with 0.1 C accuracy.

RTDs
Resistance thermometers, also called resistance temperature detectors or resistive thermal devices (RTDs), are temperature sensors that exploit the predictable change in electrical resistance of some materials with changing temperature. As they are almost invariably made of platinum, they are often called platinum resistance thermometers (PRTs). They are slowly replacing the use of thermocouples in many industrial applications below 600 C, due to higher accuracy and repeatability.

The current international standard which specifies tolerance and the temperature to electrical resistance relationship for platinum resistance thermometers is IEC 751:1983. By far the most common devices used in industry have a nominal resistance of 100 ohms at 0 C, and are called Pt-100 sensors ('Pt' is the symbol for platinum). The sensitivity of a standard 100 ohm sensor is a nominal 0.385 ohm/C. RTDs with a sensitivity of 0.375 and 0.392 ohm/C as well as a variety of others are also available. Resistance thermometers are usually made using platinum, because of its linear resistance-temperature relationship and its chemical inertness. The platinum detecting wire needs to be kept free of contamination to remain stable. A platinum wire or film is supported on a former in such a way that it gets minimal differential expansion or other strains from its former, yet is reasonably resistant to vibration. RTD assemblies made from iron or copper are also used in some applications. Resistance thermometers require a small current to be passed through in order to determine the resistance. This can cause resistive heating, and manufacturers' limits should always be followed along with heat path considerations in design. Care should also be taken to avoid

any strains on the resistance thermometer in its application. Lead wire resistance should be considered, and adopting three and four wire connections can eliminate connection lead resistance effects from measurements - industrial practice is almost universally to use 3-wire connection. 4wire connections need to be used for precise applications.

Advantages of platinum resistance thermometers:


High accuracy Low drift Wide operating range Suitable for precision applications

Limitations:

RTDs in industrial applications are rarely used above 660 C. At temperatures above 660 C it becomes increasingly difficult to prevent the platinum from becoming contaminated by impurities from the metal sheath of the thermometer. This is why laboratory standard thermometers replace the metal sheath with a glass construction. At very low temperatures, say below -270 C (or 3 K), due to the fact that there are very few phonons, the resistance of an RTD is mainly determined by impurities and boundary scattering and thus basically independent of temperature. As a result, the sensitivity of the RTD is essentially zero and therefore not useful.

Compared to thermistors, platinum RTDs are less sensitive to small temperature changes and have a slower response time. However, thermistors have a smaller temperature range and stability.

When to use RTDs or thermocouples??? The answer is usually determined by four factors: Factors: Temperature, time, size, and overall accuracy requirements.

What are the temperature requirements? If process temperatures fall from -200 to 500 C (-328 to 932 F), then an industrial RTD is the preferred option. Thermocouples have a range of -180 to 2,320 C (-292 to 4,208 F), so for extremely high temperatures they are the only contact temperature measurement choice.

What are the time-response requirements? If the process requires a very fast response to temperature changesfractions of a second as opposed to seconds (i.e. 2.5 to 10 s)then a thermocouple is the best choice. Keep in mind that time response is measured by immersing the sensor in water moving at 1 m/s (3 ft/s) with a 63.2% step change. What are the size requirements? A standard RTD sheath is 3.175 to 6.35 mm (0.1250 to 0.250 in) in diameter, while sheath diameters for thermocouples can be less than 1.6 mm (0.063 in).

What are the overall requirements for accuracy? If the process only requires a tolerance of 2 C or greater, then a thermocouple is appropriate. If the process needs less than 2 C tolerance, then an RTD is sometimes the only choice. Keep in mind, unlike RTDs that can maintain stability for many years, thermocouples can drift within the first few hours of use

Furnace Safety and Supervisory System


This lab has the responsibility of starting fire in the furnace to enable the burning of coal. For first stage coal burners are in the front and rear of the furnace and for the second and third stage corner firing is employed. Unburnt coal is removed using forced draft or induced draft fan. The temperature inside the boiler is 1100 degree Celsius and its height is 18 to 40 m. It is made up of mild steel. An ultra violet sensor is employed in furnace to measure the intensity of ultra violet rays inside the furnace and according to it a signal in the same order of same mV is generated which directly indicates the temperature of the furnace. For firing the furnace a 10 KV spark plug is operated for ten seconds over a spray of diesel fuel and preheater air along each of the feeder-mills. The furnace has six feeder mills each separated by warm air pipes fed from forced draft fans. In first stage indirect firing is employed that is feeder mills are not fed directly from coal but are fed from three feeders but are fed from pulverized coalbunkers. The furnace can operate on the minimum feed from three feeders but under not circumstances should any one be left out under operation, to prevent creation of pressure different with in the furnace, which threatens to blast it.

FLOW MEASUREMENT
Flow measurement does not signify much and is measured just for metering purposes and for monitoring the processes ROTAMETERS: A Rotameter is a device that measures the flow rate of liquid or gas in a closed tube. It is occasionally misspelled as 'rotometer'. It belongs to a class of meters called variable area meters, which measure flow rate by allowing the cross sectional area the fluid travels through to vary, causing some measurable effect. A rotameter consists of a tapered tube, typically made of glass, with a float inside that is pushed up by flow and pulled down by gravity. At a higher flow rate more area (between the float and the tube) is needed to accommodate the flow, so the float rises. Floats are made in many different shapes, with spheres and spherical ellipses being the most common. The float is shaped so that it rotates axially as the fluid passes. This allows you to tell if the float is stuck since it will only rotate if it is not. For Digital measurements Flap system is used. For Analog measurements we can use the following methods

Flowmeters Venurimeters / Orifice meters Turbines Massflow meters ( oil level ) Ultrasonic Flow meters Magnetic Flowmeter ( water level )

Selection of flow meter depends upon the purpose , accuracy and liquid to be measured so different types of meters used. Turbine type are the simplest of all. They work on the principle that on each rotation of the turbine a pulse is generated and that pulse is counted to get the flow rate. VENTURIMETERS :

Referring to the diagram, using Bernoulli's equation in the special case of incompressible fluids (such as the approximation of a water jet), the theoretical pressure drop at the constriction would be given by (/2)(v22 - v12).

And we know that rate of flow is given by: Flow = k (D.P) Where DP is Differential Presure or the Pressure Drop.

Snubber
It is a device used to suppress ("snub") voltage transients in electrical systems, pressure transients in fluid systems, or excess force or rapid movement in mechanical systems. Snubbers are frequently used in electrical systems with an inductive load where the sudden interruption of current flow often leads to a sharp rise in voltage across the device creating the interruption. This sharp rise in voltage is a transient and can damage and lead to failure of the controlling device. A spark is likely to be generated (arcing), which can cause electromagnetic interference in other circuits. The snubber prevents this undesired voltage by conducting transient current around the device.

IGNITER SYSTEM
Igniter system is an automatic system, it takes the charge from 110kv and this spark is brought in front of the oil guns, which spray aerated HSD on the coal for coal combustion. There is a 5 minute delay cycle before igniting, this is to evacuate or burn the HSD. This method is known as PURGING.

The 95 MW boilers are indirect type boilers. Fire takes place in front and in rear side. Thats why its called front and rear type boiler. The 210 MW boilers are direct type boilers (which mean that HSD is in direct contact with coal) firing takes place from the corner. Thus it is also known as corner type boiler.

Acknowledgement

With profound respect and gratitude, I take the opportunity to convey my thanks to everyone who made the training successful. I do extend my heartfelt thanks to Mrs. Rachna Singh for providing me this opportunity to be a part of this esteemed organization. I would especially like to thank to Mr. shyamal bhattacharya and Ms sonia of , C & I dept for their unconditional support and guidance without which the Training wouldnt have been successful. I am extremely grateful to all the technical staff of BTPS/NTPC for their co-operation and guidance that helped me a lot during the course of training. I have learnt a lot working under them and I will always be indebted of them for this value addition in me. I would also like to thank the Training and Placement Department of P.D.M college of engineering for giving me this opportunity to pursue my training.

Mr. Shyamal bhattacharya D.G.M(control and instrumentation) B.T.P.S(national thermal power cooperation)