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ACTIONAID-KENYA

REPORT OF THE HOUSEHOLD SURVEY OF ZIWA LA NGOMBE AREA, MOMBASA MUNICIPALITY

by

John Thinguri Mukui


Prepared for ACTIONAID-KENYA

May 2000
A

TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ..................................................................................................................................... ii CHAPTER 1: BACKGROUND .............................................................................................................................. 1
INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................................................................................... 1 TERMS OF REFERENCE ..................................................................................................................................................... 2 STUDY METHODOLOGY................................................................................................................................................... 4 PREPARATORY ACTIVITIES ............................................................................................................................................. 4 OUTLINE OF THE REPORT .............................................................................................................................................. 5

CHAPTER 2: A SOCIOECONOMIC PROFILE OF THE DI AREA .......................................................... 6


INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................................................................................... 6 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY AREA ....................................................................................................................... 6

CHAPTER 3: SURVEY DESCRIPTION AND ORGANIZATION ............................................................. 9


SAMPLE DESIGN AND SELECTION ............................................................................................................................. 9 ESTIMATION PROCEDURES ............................................................................................................................................ 9 PRE-TEST ................................................................................................................................................................................. 10 FIELDWORK .......................................................................................................................................................................... 11 DATA ENTRY AND PROCESSING ............................................................................................................................... 12

CHAPTER 4: RESULTS OF THE FIELD SURVEY....................................................................................... 13


RESPONSE RATES ............................................................................................................................................................... 13 DEMOGRAPHIC AND OTHER HOUSEHOLD CHARACTERISTICS............................................................... 13 CHILD WELFARE AND CHILD IMMUNIZATION ................................................................................................. 18 HOUSEHOLD AMENITIES .............................................................................................................................................. 19 HOUSEHOLD CONSUMPTION PATTERNS ............................................................................................................. 20 ESTIMATED CALORIE AND PROTEIN AVAILABILITY ..................................................................................... 22 SOURCES OF HOUSEHOLD INCOME ........................................................................................................................ 23 LAND OWNERSHIP AND ACCESS ............................................................................................................................... 24

CHAPTER 5: OVERVIEW, FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ................................................ 25


ACCURACY OF THE SURVEY RESULTS .................................................................................................................... 25 SUMMARY OF THE MAIN FINDINGS ........................................................................................................................ 25 PROGRAMME ACTIVITIES IN THE DI....................................................................................................................... 27 RECOMMENDATIONS ...................................................................................................................................................... 29

REFERENCES.......................................................................................................................................................... 30 LIST OF ENUMERATORS ................................................................................................................................... 33 STATISTICAL APPENDIX .................................................................................................................................. 34 ENUMERATORS REFERENCE MANUAL ................................................................................................... 80 SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRES .......................................................................................................................... 119

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This report presents the findings of a detailed household survey undertaken in five villages in Ziwa la Ngombe area, Mombasa municipality, during August 1999. The survey covered 332 households in five villages, namely, Ziwa la Ngombe, Bombolulu, Kisimani, Mkunguni and VoK. The main objective of the baseline survey was to collect information from households so as to give insights into the socioeconomic profile of the population, and identify causes of poverty and the coping mechanisms adopted by households and the community. The research was funded by ACTIONAIDKenya (AAK).

I thank Pamela Midiwo and Lawrence Mwagwabi of AAK-Mombasa Urban Development Initiative (DI) for their support in the exercise. The support of Anthony Mwaniki (former Director, Central Bureau of Statistics) and L.O. Obidha (Economist/ Statistician) is gratefully acknowledged. There would have been no survey without the efforts of enumerators and cooperation of respondents.

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CHAPTER 1: BACKGROUND INTRODUCTION


1.1. In 1997, AAK expanded into new districts following the realization that the bulk of its resources were invested in only one province (Eastern province). The expansion into new areas was expected to increase the legitimacy of the organization when speaking out on national issues that impact on poverty eradication. The expansion in area coverage coincided with a shift in the organizations programme approach from service delivery to community empowerment, which aimed to place poor and marginalized people in the driving seat of development process. A community empowerment approach increases the capability of poor people to critically analyze, make decisions and organize themselves to claim rights as the key to poverty eradication. AAK developed the Development Initiative (DI) model to propel this approach forward at the grassroots level. The DI operational areas are small, usually covering 1-2 administrative locations with a population of up to 20,000. Each DI has an optimum staff level of three persons, with no support staff. 1.2. ACTIONAID-Kenyas focus on poverty reduction had previously been directed towards the rural poor, with only one urban development programme located in the Korogocho slums of Nairobi. The selection of Mombasa town as a programme area followed recommendations by the AAK team selected in 1996 to undertake situation analysis of poverty in Kenya so as to sharpen the poverty focus of the AAK country programme and to reflect the changes in the location and situation of the poor. Mombasa is the second urban development programme for AAK, reflecting the reality of a rapidly increasing trend towards urbanization of poverty in Kenya. 1.3. The overall goal of Mombasa Urban Development Initiative is to improve the socioeconomic status of poor urban communities in Mombasa district by supporting them to organize and to build up their capacities to initiate actions for their overall development. The operational area includes five villages (Ziwa la Ngombe area), Mtongwe Bamako Initiative village health committee, and youth groups in Likoni division. The Ziwa la Ngombe informal settlement (village) was founded in 1986 although there were scattered houses long before that. The fact that the residents of Ziwa la Ngombe occupy government land allows AAK opportunities to negotiate settlement contracts to benefit the poor, using the experience gained in Korogocho and other informal settlements in Nairobi. 1.4. Recent findings indicate that urban poverty is increasing rapidly both in numbers of the poor and the depth of poverty. Urban poverty is manifested in the increasing number of street children in towns, beggars, prostitution and the sprouting of informal settlements (slums). The living conditions in these settlements are extremely poor with (a) inadequate sanitation, (b) poor and overcrowded shelter leading to high rates of morbidity and mortality, (c) limited access to education due to lack of school fees and inadequate schools and school facilities, and (d) restricted access to the labour market or self-employment opportunities due to limited demand and lack of capital and skills. In Mombasa, the informal settlements constitute an estimated 60% of the total population. Pockets of poverty also exist in the formal parts of the municipality alongside the high and middle-income classes. 1.5. A Participatory Urban Appraisal (PUA) for Ziwa la Ngombe area was conducted in September 1997. The PUA estimated the population in the area to be 77,000 comprising Kisimani (3,000), Kambi Moto (4,000), Bombolulu (45,000) and Mkunguni (25,000). The communities identified the poorest as living in thatched, temporary mud-walled houses who collect reject fruits and vegetables from Kongowea market, push handcarts for pay, and move from place to place seeking casual employment. 1.6. The communities indicated economic fortunes using long-term trends in commodity prices. The prices of sugar, maize flour and water rose slowly during 1963-75 with a sustained growth since the eighties, and an accelerated rise during 1993-95. The cost of social services (e.g. education and healthcare) had also reached levels beyond the reach of the poor. The PUA also reported that the programme area

has had little contact with external agents of change (e.g. nongovernmental organizations) and the few who had operated there failed to involve the poor in their plans and activities. 1.7. The PUA reported that sources of employment were formal employment (30%) and informal employment (70%), while 80% of the working-age population was reported as unemployed. The high unemployment rates had led to increased crime, rising number of street children, beggars, prostitution and a general feeling of helplessness and frustration. 1.8. According to the report of the community re-entry process (August 1998), the area is characterized by Swahili-type housing and a pathetic drainage system. There is only one primary school, and the conditions of the feeder roads and the primary school itself were described as deplorable. There are no government or municipal health facilities in the DI, apart from private clinics. The proximate causes of poverty were identified as land tenure/ownership, lack of income/low income, illiteracy, and high cost of water. 1.9. The power base is vested in the village elders who report to assistant chiefs, which gives the area a rural social setup. The inhabitants practise traditional systems of conflict resolution with all powers of decision-making vested in a village elder, and view women as not fit for community leadership. The leadership structure is therefore reliant on the goodwill of the local provincial administration rather than democratic grassroots social institutions. The report estimated equal shares of Christian and Muslims. There exists a powerful clique of opinion leaders which is not popular with the community since they are alleged to collude with the rich to parcel out land from the poor residents. 1.10. The report of the community re-entry process reported that eight poverty-focused studies were conducted in the study area during 1995-1997. However, the studies had not led to any project interventions in the area, nor had the community received feedback on the findings of the studies. The report identified the major problems in the area as lack of secure land tenure, low opportunities for income earning, and water and sanitation. The community re-entry process involved three villages (Ziwa la Ngombe, Mkunguni and Bombolulu) and excluded Kisimani and VoK, which probably explains the relatively low sense of communitys understanding of AAK programme interventions (including the household survey) in VoK village. 1.11. The initial momentum created at entry to the community was somewhat disrupted by the departure of the Programme Coordinator in February 1998 who was not replaced until May 1998, while actual programme work commenced in August 1998. In addition, the participatory urban appraisal and the community re-entry reports, though informative in many ways, did not lay sufficient background for a baseline survey e.g. estimates of population, population cluster maps, livelihoods patterns, environmental sanitation, education status, and health status and health-seeking behaviour.

TERMS OF REFERENCE
1.12. (a) (b) (c) The main objectives of this study are: To provide information required for targeting interventions on critical development issues in the operational area; To empower the DI staff with information that is required for participatory planning of development initiatives supported by AAK; To collect from households/ community/ institutions and analyze existing data which would form a benchmark for subsequent monitoring and evaluation of the impact of DI on the population, especially on the vulnerable groups; To inquire into the methods adopted by the population so as to cope with the constraints arising from poverty and social exclusion; and

(d)

(e) 1.13.

To draw conclusions and make recommendations on possible areas of intervention and strategic objectives AAK should pursue to make an impact in the area. In order to meet the above objectives, the study was supposed to focus on the following areas: Household and Demographic Analysis Household size and composition, age and sex distribution, marital status, and headship Occupational status by gender Literacy Migratory practices

Sources and Systems of Livelihoods Household living conditions and available material resources Resource availability, access, distribution and control by gender Sources of household income by season and gender Household expenditure on food and non-food items Nutritional status Land use patterns

Community Organization and Institutions Community institutions Community participation in self-help Types of community organizations and their use in socioeconomic development

Education Literacy levels School access, enrolment, dropout and completion rates by gender and age-group Reasons for dropping out by gender and age group Home and school variables/factors that inhibit access and retention in schools Magnitude and effects of early marriages and pregnancies on girls education Recommend strategies to raise educational standards in the area

Health, Water and Environmental Sanitation Morbidity by type and age Immunization coverage and prevalence of disabilities Household coping mechanisms and options for treatment Sources of water including safe water coverage by technology Water collection, storage, quality and reliability Waste disposal methods including latrine coverage

Development and Advocacy Issues Identification and categorization of resources needed to support basic human goals Resource potential of the DI area Problems facing women with respect to access to land, labour and capital, control over resources and access to benefits of development Socioeconomic development problems affecting the participation of the DI households in ownership, management and control of resources as well as self-help and income generating initiatives

Recommend realistic DI interventions, strategies and resources required to promote household welfare and sustainable development

STUDY METHODOLOGY
1.14. The methodology combines a variety of approaches to collect household and community variables in fulfilment of the terms of reference. Since secondary data is rather scanty especially specific to the five villages that constitute the DI operational area, the study faced the moral dilemma in research, i.e. if all the necessary data is available from secondary sources, the research would not be necessary, while lack of the same data makes it difficult to judge the validity of findings from the research activity. A resource profile of the study area was also not available at the DI. 1.15. At the DI level, data was gathered using two main methods. First, a structured questionnaire was used to collect household-level variables on demographics, housing and living conditions, poverty and livelihoods, education and literacy, and household access to health and water and sanitation. Secondly, interviews with community members using semi-structured questionnaires were used to solicit qualitative information on, say, distribution of power and resources within households, community organizations and institutions, reasons for school dropouts, and pregnancy and early marriages.

PREPARATORY ACTIVITIES
1.16. The survey was originally scheduled to commence in December 1998. However, there were no cluster maps from which household listings could be prepared. Different sources gave different estimates of total population, varying from 14,000 to 70,000. However, household listings for Mkunguni and Ziwa la Ngombe villages had been prepared by community resource persons, but did not cover the whole DI and had insufficient information on those covered. On the latter, houselords (as landlords are normally called in areas where land is not under individual ownership) indicated their names but were unwilling to report on those of their tenants. The survey was subsequently postponed to await the preparation of cluster maps for use in the August 1999 Kenya Population and Housing Census. 1.17. The five villages in the programme area formed the basis of the sample frame. Bombolulu village is in Kisauni sub-location, while the other four are in Maweni sub-location. Each village was structured as a unit (strata) on its own. However, Mkunguni and Ziwa la Ngombe villages were each subdivided into two blocks (A and B) since they were thought to be holding the highest concentrations of the population in the DI. All the structures in the survey area were listed and their appropriate locations put on the map. Both dwelling and non-dwelling units (e.g. schools, kiosks, posho mills, churches) were listed, but the latter were not allocated household numbers except for those which had dual usage. The total number of households was estimated at 7,432, with an estimated population of 20,356. 1.18. The timing of the survey was to depend on two factors: the availability of the sample frame and the normality of the survey period. The normal survey period requires an understanding of the seasonal calendar. If the survey is conducted in December, it is easier for respondents to recall regular (monthly) expenditures for the preceding month (November) and the non-regular expenditures for the year (e.g. on education). If the survey is conducted in January, it will pick up regular expenditures for December, which is normally not a normal expenditure month. However, this is not likely to be a serious source of error since the target population is poor. The question of school dropouts cannot be successfully answered whether the survey is conducted in December or January as children usually drop out of school in the middle of the year. 1.19. AAK has not had much presence on the ground. Community-willingness to respond or give correct information is also likely to be affected by respondent fatigue since there were several recent studies by AAK and other organizations in the area without tangible assistance to the communities. Respondent cooperation was achieved through active involvement of community leaders who are viewed

positively by the community, and the use of enumerators from the study area. Most of the enumerators were educated and respected members of the study area who were previously known to the respondents.

OUTLINE OF THE REPORT


1.20. The report is divided into five chapters. Chapter 2 gives a brief socioeconomic profile of the DI operational area. Chapter 3 focuses on the survey instruments used to collect quantitative data from households e.g. survey design and estimation procedures used in generating aggregates from individual questionnaires. Chapter 4 presents the results of the household survey, while chapter 5 gives conclusions and recommendations based on both qualitative and quantitative data collected during the entire study process. The last part of the report consists of (a) statistical appendix based on the results of the household survey, and (b) the survey instruments (enumerators reference manual and questionnaires).

CHAPTER 2: A SOCIOECONOMIC PROFILE OF THE DI AREA INTRODUCTION


2.1. The Mombasa Urban Development Initiative is located within Mombasa municipality/district. The study area falls within Kisauni division and covers five villages (Ziwa la Ngombe, Bombolulu, Kisimani, Mkunguni and VoK). The operational area is also loosely referred to as Ziwa la Ngombe. According to AAKs 1998 Plans and Budget, Mombasa municipality had an estimated 646,000 people. The municipality spatially nests Kisauni (mainland north), Changamwe (mainland west), Likoni (mainland south) and Mombasa Island divisions. 2.2. Mombasa forms one of the six districts comprising Coast province1. Mombasa has a dual administrative structure since the district and municipal boundaries are one and the same: the provincial administration falling under the central government, and an elected local authority. Poverty in Mombasa is mainly viewed from the perspectives of land management, housing, health, water, sanitation, solid waste disposal, and education. An estimated 95% of the land is registered, while the remainder is government land where the informal settlements are located (Bambrah, 1996). According to Bambrah (1996), an estimated 65% of Mombasa households are accommodated in Swahili-type housing; 70% of the population is dependent on water abstracted from boreholes or water purchased from itinerant water vendors (at high cost to consumers); and disposal of human excreta outside of the island is mainly in communal pit latrines (which contaminates underground water sources including boreholes). 2.3. The DI was established in January 1997 following the countrywide selection of DIs which commenced in 1996. A rapid participatory appraisal was conducted in November/December 1996 to enable the selection of target areas/groups which AAK could work with. The DI selected Ziwa la Ngombe informal settlement in Kisauni division, youth groups in Bofu sub-location in Likoni division, and Mtongwe Bamako Initiative village health committee in Mtongwe location, Likoni Division. The target population for the baseline survey was the Ziwa la Ngombe informal settlement.

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY AREA


2.4. The history of the Coast differs from that of the rest of Kenya due to associations with outsiders that stretch over five centuries. While inhabitants of the rest of Kenya who consider the coastal people as docile and politically weak may have experienced various forms of colonialism, the coastal people have been subjected to slavery and forceful occupation by white settlers and the Arabs before them. After independence, their land also became easy prey for tourist resorts, game parks, and allocation to politically-correct individuals. 2.5. The history of squatters dates back to pre-colonial years when Arabs established their rule through the Sultan of Zanzibar and took advantage of the indigenous inhabitants by appropriating their land. When Britain colonized Kenya, it recognized the Sultans right to the coastal strip, and in 1895 signed an agreement in which the coastal strip was leased to the British. The British also acquired rights over all the unoccupied land or unclaimed lands by the Sultan so that it could be allocated to British settlers. When Kenya became independent in 1963, the validity of the agreement ceased and the land reverted to the Kenya Government.

. Kenya has a hierarchically nested administrative organization, from nation, province, district, division, location, to sub-location. The hierarchically nested administrative organization of government is normally referred to as the provincial administration. It starts from the President all the way to the assistant chief at the sub-location level. 6

2.6. Until the early fifties, the few residents of the study area, estimated at about 12 families, were mainly Mijikenda sub-tribes (Digo and Giriama). The main economic activity was lime production, which employed most of the working age population. The land (Nyali estate) was owned by a white settler who allowed some farming at a fee. At independence, the land was converted to Government land. Migration from upcountry was accelerated in the early seventies by the construction of the road to Malindi which previously passed through Kisauni and Utange. According to the DIs 1998 Plans and Budget, the settlement had an estimated population of 15,000, out of which 43% were Mijikenda, Kamba (14%), Luo (9%), Luhya (8%), Taita-Taveta (6%), Kikuyu (6%), Embu-Meru (4%), Pokomo (2%), Somali-Borana (1%) and Kisii (1%). 2.7. Land at the Coast is a sensitive issue. The people interviewed view the issuance of documents of land ownership as the prime developmental issue. It was even difficult to sneak in any other developmental issues in the discussions. Some sources indicate that the land in the study area is officially designated as an industrial area intermingled with residential plots. The residents of the area are squatters on Government land to which they have no legal rights. The inhabitants of the area are generally classified under three categories: absentee houselords who own structures but live elsewhere, resident houselords who rent out portions of their residential structures, and tenants. 2.8. Since independence, the locals have accommodated upcountry people who needed small plots to build shanties for their own use. As years went by, in-migrants obtained official permission from the provincial administration to set up residential premises, even without consultation with the village leaders. Currently, huge chunks of the informal settlement have been allocated to private individuals from the whole country, thus squeezing more souls into limited space. 2.9. The land occupied by squatters is designated as Government land. However, the management of government lands throughout the country is not uniform. Unlike trust lands, which are by law held by local authorities in trust on behalf of the communities, government land is managed as if the government is a private owner. The case of informal settlements at the Coast (e.g. Ziwa la Ngombe) is probably more pathetic than that of, say, other settlements in Nairobi where at least a register exists in the chiefs office with the list of house-owners and approximate location of their premises. In the Coast, such conveniences are a luxury since they would act as a great hindrance to conversion of government land to private use. 2.10. The village elders are elected by the community, but the communitys power to hire does not include power to fire. Removal of village elders is generally resisted by the provincial administration since they (elders) operate as an unofficial rank below assistant chiefs in the administration hierarchy. The role of the village elders in most parts of Kenya is to serve government interests, and the community in the study area reported that some have been used to allow outsiders to settle in the area. The chiefs are mainly upcountry people who have settled in Mombasa, which is a big source of quiet discontent in the study area. 2.11. The health problems were reported as mainly malaria, typhoid, diarrhoea and vomiting, scabies and amoebic dysentery. There is also incidence of asthma and tuberculosis. There are no municipal health facilities, and people can only seek treatment from the modern healthcare system in private clinics and the provincial government hospital. 2.12. The whole of the settlement did not have a primary school until around 1980 when the community constructed the only school, namely, Ziwa la Ngombe. The school was later taken over by the local authority. The reported low enrolments in the area were explained by lack of places in the primary school and depth of poverty which puts primary education beyond the reach of many families. 2.13. The two main sources of water are piped water and private boreholes. Piped water is sold by those connected to the reticulation mains at about Shs 2 per 20-litre container. When piped water is scarce, the residents buy the same quantity of water from boreholes at around Shs 20 per 20-litre container, although the water is not treated. Despite the poor quality of water from the boreholes, not all families boil water before drinking.

2.14. Majority of the shelters are built of mud and mangrove poles and roofed with either iron sheets or makuti (coconut leaves). Each Swahili-type structure contains 3-10 rooms, with one room normally occupied by about 3-5 people. The most common destination of human waste is communal pit latrines. Only the rich afford to construct septic tanks, while others use manual pit exhausters for a fee. Assistance from the local authority for pit exhaustion is for a financial consideration where no receipts are issued. 2.15. The nutrition status was reportedly very low, with the poor mainly relying on maize flour and vegetables (mchicha) due to abject poverty. Some of the houselords (called so since they dont own the land their houses sit on) are outsiders. The main source of income for the local people was reported as casual labour since there is no major industry in the area. Food relief is not a regular feature in the settlement, and is not properly allocated when given e.g. in 1997. 2.16. Lack of employment opportunities is a major problem due to a free-fall in Kenyas economic performance and the general lack of capital and marketable skills among the residents. The labour market tends to favour men as casual workers (e.g. as loaders at the port, building sites, watchmen and factory hands), touts and drivers for the local passenger transport industry (matatus), and water vending. Women earn income from preparing and selling food, selling illicit liquor, and hawking fruits and vegetables. 2.17. Conditions in the informal settlement present particular difficulties to women and girls. Feminization of poverty is reflected in the relatively large number of woman-headed households, as products of broken marriages (i.e. unmarried through separation, divorce or death of spouse), or never married but with children and limited family support. Their limited income opportunities translate to congestion (usually rent only one room regardless of the household size and composition), limited childcare facilities, low school enrolment, and insufficient food and medical care. Many young girls of such woman-headed households become domestic workers at tender age, are used as cheap labour, become prostitutes, or become adolescent mothers to repeat the lifecycles their mothers have already undergone. And so on ad infinitum.

CHAPTER 3: SURVEY DESCRIPTION AND ORGANIZATION SAMPLE DESIGN AND SELECTION


3.1. The survey was carried out in the five villages of Ziwa la Ngombe area, namely, Ziwa la Ngombe (1,690 households), Bombolulu (682 households), Kisimani (2,287), Mkunguni (2,278) and VoK (495). The five villages in the study area formed the basis of the sample frame, with each village structured as a spatial unit on its own. Bombolulu village is in Kisauni sub-location while the other four are in Maweni sub-location. The administrative decisions that dictated the sample design included: a) b) That the survey should include all villages in the area; That the spatial unit of analysis would be the village.

3.2. The total number of households included in the household listing was 7,432. Upon receipt of the lists, numbers were sequentially assigned to all the households in the study area beginning with one (1). The required sample was generated by use of systematic selection with a random start, using the procedure in Sampling Manual of Macro International Inc (1996). Based on 6% sampling fraction, the survey covered 446 households out of the 7,432 households.

ESTIMATION PROCEDURES
Blanks and Non-Response 3.3. There are various sources of errors/ bias in a sample survey or census. Errors could be introduced by misreporting, lack of data, enumerator or respondent bias, non-response, and in data entry. This section deals with non-response and its effects on sample weights. Unit non-response occurs when sampled subjects do not participate in the survey, while item non-response occurs when participants in the survey fail to provide answers to some of the questions. In a household survey, unit non-response could be introduced through refusals and/or failure to locate a household. Although it is difficult to rule out inclusion in the frame (N) of some households which did not exist or to exclude some which existed before the frame was constructed (i.e. out-of-scope), it was decided to treat the sample frame (N) as a true report of the number of households in August 1999. Therefore refusals and failure to locate a household were summed as non-response. 3.4. Completed survey and census questionnaires may contain blanks or missing values attributable to lack of data or a question that was not asked. Blanks and non-response splits the original population (N) into two subclasses: M non-blank members and B blanks and non-response, i.e. N=M+B. The presence of blanks and non-response introduces variation in the size of the sample. This variation is a function of the proportion m=M/N. However, the selection interval (k) and selection fraction (f) do not change since the blanks and non-response are identified after the original sample had been selected. Weighting 3.5. In each sample, each element had an equal chance of selection. Therefore each element has the weight of 1 in the sample total, and F=1/f in the population total, where f is the selection fraction. Since the sampling fraction in each stratum was equal to the sampling fraction for the universe, the procedure ensured a self-weighting sample2.

. Rounding of the strata sample to the nearest integer introduces slight departures in the values of actual sampling fractions. However, this trivial departure is usually ignored (Kish, 1965).

3.6. The basic weights, before adjustment for non-response, are the reciprocals of the probabilities of selection, i.e. w = m/n Where: w is the weight in the stratum; m is the total number of households in the stratum; and n is the sample size in the stratum. 3.7. In producing survey estimates, the basic weights were adjusted for non-response to arrive at final adjusted weight, which is the product of the basic weight and a non-response adjustment factor. The procedure of calculating the non-response (nr) factor for each stratum was as follows: nr = Where: nr = n= i= n/i the non-response adjustment factor; the total number of originally selected households; the number of households which responded

The adjusted weights are wa = w * nr = (m/n)*(n/i) = m/i, i.e. the total number of households divided by the number of households which responded. Limitations of the Survey 3.8. A survey design which involves consecutive visits to the same household is said to be bounded if the recall is based on the period since my last visit. Under this definition, the reference periods (last month, last year) used in this survey is not bounded. Unbounded recall over a long period can lead to telescoping (mis-dating) errors, with consequent over-reporting or underreporting. Although this source of error cannot be completely eliminated, enumerators were instructed to assist the respondents by phrasing questions differently e.g. since August 1998 if the survey is conducted in August 1999 and the question refers to a one-year recall period.

PRE-TEST
3.9. A two-day training of enumerators was conducted during August 3-4, 1999. The training was conducted using the draft questionnaire and the enumerators reference manual. On the third day of training, the 10 enumerators formed three groups of three persons each to conduct mock interviews on each other: one as enumerator, the other as respondent, while the third took notes about the interview process. This was followed by a debriefing meeting to consolidate the experiences gained during training and mock interviews, and to make the necessary alterations to the survey instruments. On the fourth day, the enumerators conducted pre-tests in the study area in groups of two (enumerator and observer) and traded places such that each enumerator had a chance of conducting an interview. Finally, a meeting was held with the enumerators and AAK personnel to reach a consensus on the final revisions to the survey instruments. The total interview time per questionnaire was about two hours. Although some enumerators reported a few cases of respondent fatigue, it was decided to retain the whole questionnaire. 3.10. The enumerators were informed that a post-enumeration survey of a small sample of responding households would be conducted to gauge the quality of the information collected during the survey as a rough indicator of the confidence that should be placed on the survey findings. 3.11. Some enumerators reported that it might be difficult to obtain cooperation of respondents who do not know the interviewer and/or are not aware of AAK program in the study area. It was decided that community resource person enlisted as trouble-shooters during fieldwork would visit the sampled

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households prior to the actual interviews. Codes for ethnic groups were developed after the pre-tests, but were not used since the question would have compromised the success of the entire survey due to the sensitivity of ethnicity in the study area.

FIELDWORK
3.12. Field data collection started in August 1999. The disadvantage of the timing was that it proved difficult to bound recalls for annual purchases; and education expenses, for example, covered estimates for the whole of calendar year 1999. Although the period coincided with school holidays, there was some non-response on account of teachers who had travelled to their rural homes for vacation. In addition, the target community had been researched on by a number of agencies and individuals, and there was therefore fear of respondent fatigue. However, respondent cooperation was encouraging, except in one village (VoK) where the community was hostile due to lack of meaningful AAK support to community development activities. Some respondents claimed they did not know about AAK and its mission in the area. It is suspected that non-response was more common in households with few members (e.g. a bachelor living alone) since such members were more likely to be away during enumeration, thus distorting the true household size and overstating the total population in the settlement. 3.13. The sample frame provided by AAK was fairly adequate except for a few cases. For example, some houses indicated in the cluster maps could not be located on the ground, mainly due to demolitions and isolated fires that had gutted some structures. There were difficulties in identifying people to interview within a given structure since some respondents had given nicknames during household listing e.g. ingo which is used to refer to any member of the Luhya tribe. The sample frame also included single names of household heads which made it difficult to locate them especially if the single name is common in the neighbourhood e.g. Charo. Some respondents also refused to be interviewed, with some demanding to know who revealed their identities to AAK. Other respondents were interested to know how AAK will assist them after the survey is completed, citing the long delay in implementing community projects in the study area. 3.14. The consultant checked the filled questionnaires with the enumerators on a continuous basis. In the first two days, some enumerators had to revisit respondents to clarify on some information collected, based on the outcome of the review of the questionnaires. However, by the third day, the enumerators had grasped all the conceptual issues and their application to the data collection exercise. 3.15. Fieldwork was suspended to allow for the August 1999 Population and Housing Census. After the survey resumed, the consultant collected field notes and the completed questionnaires. However, on reaching Nairobi, the consultant was robbed of all his belongings including personal identification documents, about 70 completed questionnaires, field notebooks from the enumerators, and the consultants notes on interviews with community leaders and AAK personnel and the entire field experience. This has diluted the contents of the report, especially computation of non-response, representativeness of the sample to the universe, and background information on the DI. For example, completed questionnaires for Bombolulu village on households which had been interviewed but were not on the list had to be used since the notes indicating the ones to omit in data entry could not be traced. 3.16. At the end of the fieldwork, AAK and the consultant held a debriefing meeting with the enumerators. Some of the issues raised concerned AAK and its activities in the area, mainly the community misgivings about the delay in undertaking any meaningful development activities in the area outside of PRA work and development of community institutions. It was not clear to the respondents what project activities would be undertaken by the communities and AAK once the community grassroots institutions were formed and its members trained. The high non-response rate in VoK village is largely due to community hostility because of minimal AAK activity in the village. 3.17. During fieldwork, some inadequacies of the survey instruments were apparent. Although most problems were rectified in the second and third day, it is important that they are corrected during survey design stage.

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3.18. Household-level data on relationship to household head proved complicated in a number of questionnaires. For example, if a couple is living in the same household with their married sons, the old man would insist on being interviewed. His immediate nuclear family was easy to classify (spouses, sons, daughters) while the wives of his sons would be coded as other relative. In the case of religion, most enumerators solicited information only on the respondent and the spouse(s), and only sought further details on each household member if the respondent and spouse belonged to different religions. 3.19. The printed legends for types of sickness inadvertently omitted measles in the final print of the questionnaire, and there was therefore no option 5 which was supposed to capture incidence of measles infection. The problem was realised when more than a quarter of the selected households had been interviewed. 3.20. In Form Z/L/N/2, information on who normally collects water for household use was not meaningful in a few cases depending on a household composition e.g. males living together as a household. The legends in the question presume a balanced household composition with a respondent, respondents spouse(s), and male and female children. 3.21. The enumerators stated that it was difficult to get very accurate responses on, say, date of birth especially on adult members of the households who were away during the enumeration process. Some respondents were not sure of amount and date of non-regular annual purchases, and the data may therefore have telescoping errors and recall loss. Some enumerators cited cases of underestimation of wage and self-employment income. The underestimation of wage income was more apparent where a wife reported income of her husband who was away. 3.22. On illiteracy, subjective information was solicited on ability to read and write. This was intended to capture the household members who are on the margin of illiteracy, i.e. can read but cannot write. However, only three persons in the entire sample were picked at the illiteracy margin (can read, cant write). It is possible that some enumerators did not solicit information on ability to read and write separately, although there is no evidence.

DATA ENTRY AND PROCESSING


3.23. One of the serious errors a survey could suffer from is loss of data. This may arise from loss of questionnaires, data storage equipment, or data outputs. To guard against such losses, the survey set up data control mechanisms. After the sample was selected, the names of the household heads were compiled by village. A four-digit identification code was assigned against each household: the first digit represented the village e.g. Kisimani (3); and the next three digits represented the household number. 3.24. During training, enumerators were instructed that all questionnaires - completed, incomplete, spoilt and unused - should be returned at the completion of fieldwork. Upon receipt of the questionnaires, they were checked against the surveys master control list, and the questionnaires were then sequentially filed by village to avoid losses or misplacement. 3.25. Data were entered into the computer using SPSS. The data entry programme included range rules (acceptable values for categories of variables e.g. 1, 2 for gender) and skip rules after a filter question (e.g. membership in self-help groups and whether one was sick during the two weeks preceding the interview). After completing data entry, the data entry clerks carried out data validation, which revealed some errors. In an effort to produce an error-free data file, it was decided to recheck all entries and correct all wrong entries. Some data, e.g. estimated number of households per village were entered extraneously to allow computation of weights and estimation of total population. Tabulations were prepared using SPSS.

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CHAPTER 4: RESULTS OF THE FIELD SURVEY RESPONSE RATES


4.1. The enumerators were instructed to classify the outcome of the survey interview as either completed; partial; vacant - housing unit not occupied; unable to contact on vacation, or unable to get an appointment (but household is cooperative, i.e. not refusing); refusal - household refused to be interviewed, household shows resistance after repeated attempts; unable to interview due to age, illness or impairment; unable to interview due to language; out-of-scope - dignitaries, foreigners intending to leave Kenya before survey ends, etc; and other (specify). In this report, response is defined to include fullycompleted interview status, and all other interview outcomes were classified as non-response. 4.2. Table 1 shows that 332 out of 446 sampled households were covered, representing a 74.4% response rate. About 70 filled questionnaires (or 15.7% of the sampled households) were lost to thugs in a Nairobi street robbery when the consultant arrived from Mombasa. Filled questionnaires for Bombolulu village that covered households that were not selected had to be entered since the notes indicating the questionnaires to be omitted were also lost in the robbery. The response rate for Bombolulu village was therefore a high 112.5%.

DEMOGRAPHIC AND OTHER HOUSEHOLD CHARACTERISTICS


Household Composition 4.3. Table 2 shows the distribution of the responding population by age and sex. The age structure of the population slightly differs from the national structure as per the 1989 Population and Housing Census, with a lower proportion (37.9%) below the age of 15 compared with the national average of 47.8%; while the population 60 years and above was 2.6% compared with the national average of 4.8%. This can be explained by the fact that some residents of the area are workers with families (spouses, children and parents) living outside the study area. The sex ratio (males per 100 females) was 129.1 for Ziwa la Ngombe, 101.0 in Bombolulu, 138.7 for Kisimani, 121.3 for Mkunguni and a low 72.2 for VoK, giving an overall sex ratio of 119.0. However, the statistics for VoK village need to be interpreted with caution due to the low response rate (46.7%). The survey showed that the estimated total population was 29,165, comprising 15,796 males and 13,369 females. Estimated total population is higher than that given during cartographical work for the 1999 Kenya Population and Housing Census due to a relatively higher household size generated by the survey. Since non-response is likely to be higher for households with relatively fewer members compared with responding households, the estimated population should be taken as the upper limit of the true population size in the DI. 4.4. Table 4 shows the distribution of the responding population by sex and relation to household head. Most households were male-headed (78.2%), while Ziwa la Ngombe (68.4% male-headed households), Bombolulu (75.6%), and VoK (76.9%) were below the average for the entire study area, compared with 79.8% in Kisimani and 85.9% in Mkunguni. A reported 40.0% of the population were household heads and their spouses living in the households, although this does not imply that all the household heads are married. Most of the household members (82.3%) were close relatives - spouse, father, mother, son, daughter, i.e. a high prevalence of nuclear families. Non-relatives were virtually nonexistent at 1.2% of the total responding population. 4.5. As shown in Table 5, majority of the responding population were never married (57.2%). The conjugal relations show that there were 279 married males and 245 married females. However, the excess of males over females is largely explained by the presence of males in the settlement whose families live elsewhere (e.g. in the rest of Coast province and upcountry) since the number in polygamous unions is small. The final category comprises separated, divorced, widowed, as these were former unions that had

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unmarried through separation, divorce or death of spouse3. There were proportionately more women who were reported as having unmarried compared to men. This may be due to (a) the fact that it is culturally more acceptable for a man to remarry; and (b) polygamous unions where, say, a husband unmarries one wife would still remain married. 4.6. As shown in Table 6, the institution of marriage in the study area is not universal, except for males who were all reported as having joined a marriage union by the age of 59, regardless of whether one unmarries thereafter. However, there were still a small proportion of women of 40-59 years (1.9%) and over 60 years (6.3%) who had never been in a marriage union. In addition, women marry younger than men as very few women who eventually join a marriage union reach the age of 24 without marrying. A high 22.2% of the female population within 40-59 years and 37.5% of 60 years and above had unmarried. In the entire responding population, the youngest married male was 20 years and youngest separated at 25, compared with females at 14 and 20 years, respectively. Eight household members had no data on age. Education Profile of the Population 4.7. Table 7 shows the distribution of the population attending school. About 18.5% of the population was in school at the end of 1999, with almost equal proportions for males (18.3% of the male population) and females (18.8% of the female population). Only a small proportion of the household members at school were in secondary school (10.7%), while the majority were in nursery (29.0%) and primary school (60.3%). The primary school enrolment had a sex ratio of 120.3 males to 100 females. 4.8. The educational profile of the population of over 6 years and not at school (Table 8) shows that the majority had nursery or no education (19.4%) or had only primary education (58.6%). An estimated 21.7% of the non-school going population had attended secondary school. Only 0.2% had attended university or any formal postsecondary learning institution. 4.9. Table 9 shows the education profile of the responding population of over 6 years, regardless of whether at school or not. The data shows that 7.3% of males and 23.2% of females had never gone to school (including preschool), giving a combined mean of 14.6%. An estimated 4.0% had preschool education, lower primary (18.9%), upper primary (42.2%), any secondary education (19.9%) and university (0.2%). Education Indicators 4.10. Education indicators usually include literacy, enrolment and dropout rates, and age-grade mismatch. The literacy rate is defined as the proportion of the population of seven years and over which can read or write. The gross primary school enrolment rate is the total number of children regularly attending primary school in the current year divided by the total number of children of primary school age (6-14 years). The net primary school enrolment rate is the total number of children of primary school age (6-14 years) currently attending primary school divided by the total number of children of primary school age. The difference between primary school gross and net enrolment rates shows the children in primary school but was not of primary school age divided by the number of primary school age children. 4.11. An important education indicator is the dropout rate at various educations levels and the reasons for dropping out, especially reasons connected with the cost of education. The dropout rate is normally defined as the number of children who left school in the current year (excluding those who left due to completion of the relevant education cycle) divided by the total number of children enrolled in the current year (plus the dropouts). The age/grade mismatch shows the relation between age and school grade. If the children started school older than is normally the case, dropped out of school or repeated some grades in the past, the children will find themselves in grades inappropriate for their age. A child with an age/grade mismatch will observe a different educational experience, in addition to the fact that
3

In normal usage, unmarried means not married or single. 14

such a child will have additional, but undesirable, adult options compared with his/her classmates e.g. pregnancy, marriage or work. Other things being equal, age/grade mismatch is expected to be positively correlated with dropout rates. 4.12. As shown in Table 10, the number of children in nursery school who were above the rational age of 6 completed years was 33 out of 73 (45.2%) and slightly less than those below the threshold (54.8%). In an ideal situation with no age-grade mismatch, there would be 100% across top left to bottom right diagonal in the matrix and 0 in the rest of the matrix. In upper primary - Standard 5 to 8 - those above the rational age (41.7%) were less than those in the appropriate grades for the age group (58.3%). Age-grade mismatch appear to affect both sexes. The age-grade mismatch is explained by late entry to school and repetition since the problem affects the entire education cycle. 4.13. Table 11 presents data on primary school net and gross enrolment. The overall net enrolment ratio was 59.6%, with a relatively high 62.5% for males, compared with females (56.7%). The highest discrepancies between male and female net enrolment rates were recorded in Bombolulu (22.5 percentage points) and VoK (25.1 percentage points), while female net enrolment rate in Mkunguni (59.4%) was slightly higher than that of males (51.3%). The computed net enrolment ratio is highly sensitive to age misreporting. The overall gross enrolment ratio was 73.1%, with males (79.8%) and females (66.3%), while most surveys generate ratios of over 100%. The difference between net and gross enrolment is attributable to age-grade mismatch. 4.14. The data on literacy in Table 12 shows that only three persons in the sample were reported as able to read but not able to write. Respondents may have reported themselves as literate when they were not. However, this source of error cannot be avoided in a self-reporting literacy survey, unless one undertakes objective tests in reading and writing. This was, however, beyond the scope of this survey. 4.15. In this survey, illiteracy was taken as inability to both read and write. Although the data is based on self-reporting rather than objective tests, the reported literacy level was slightly higher than the national average (74.8% according to the 1994 National Household Welfare Monitoring Survey). The overall literacy rate for non-school population aged over 8 years was 80.0%, with males (89.2%) and females (69.2%). Male literacy rate was highest in Ziwa la Ngombe (90.0%), Bombolulu (90.0%) and Kisimani (91.3%), and lowest in VoK (84.2%). Female literacy rate was highest in Ziwa la Ngombe (74.3%) and lowest in VoK (46.2%). The gap between male and female literacy is smallest in Ziwa la Ngombe (15.7 percentage points) and Kisimani (15.7 percentage points) and highest in VoK (38.0 percentage points). 4.16. A total of 100 children (16.6%) dropped out of the primary school cycle during the period 199598, with close to gender parity in dropout rates. The dropout rates for males and females in Ziwa la Ngombe, Mkunguni and VoK were almost equal; dropout rates for males were slightly higher than those of females in Kisimani; while female dropout rate was almost three times that of males in Bombolulu. 4.17. The survey also solicited information on reasons for dropping out of primary school. For both sexes, lack of fees was the main reason given (76.0%). Surprisingly, pregnancy and marriage did not feature prominently as a cause of dropouts. This situation could represent the true state, or can arise if education ranks lower than marriage in peoples mission in life, and education is then viewed as interfering with marriage rather than vice-versa. In addition, the distinction between pregnancy and marriage is blurred since a girl who got pregnant and dropped out of school to marry is likely to have been reported under marriage rather than pregnancy. The female dropouts who do not get marriage partners stay at home; and single-motherhood is reportedly on the increase. According to the enumerators, most of the young single mothers were living with their parents, and their number could not therefore be estimated from the survey data. Place of Birth 4.18. As shown in Table 14, only 22.0% of the population was born within the study area, compared with 14.8% from the rest of Mombasa district, and 41.9% from Coast province outside Mombasa district,

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giving a combined total of 78.7% from Coast province. Only 21.3% were born outside Coast province. Ziwa la Ngombe and Kisimani had the highest proportions of the population born outside Coast province, while Bombolulu and VoK had the least. However, it was not possible to collect information on those born in the study area who might have later migrated. Membership in Self-Help Groups 4.19. The survey solicited information on household members membership of self-help groups. As shown in Table 15, for the population aged 15 and above, the most common membership in indigenous community groups was with respect to cash (merry-go-round) - 53.3% -- and savings and credit cooperatives (34.8%). Membership in cash groups included both men and women although male membership was higher than that of females for savings and credit cooperatives, while the situation is reversed for merry-go-round. It is not immediately apparent whether the respondents differentiated formal savings and credit cooperatives registered by the Department of Cooperatives with informal merry-go-rounds. However, the higher membership of women in informal cash groups is not surprising. As the African Development Fund (1999) report notes, rotating savings and credit associations (ROSCAs) are more successful among women largely because they are usually able to stay in one place for a relatively longer time and can therefore cope with the obligation of regular meetings and contributions. Health Seeking Behaviour 4.20. The survey included four health-related questions which were to be answered for each household member: whether one was sick in last two weeks, type of sickness, and first and second health restoration action taken. It is important to bear in mind that the information was collected on self-reporting basis. There are normally significant differences in definition of symptoms that constitute a sickness episode among different social groups. Awareness of significance of symptoms is expected to be positively correlated with income and educational attainment. In addition, one respondent answered on behalf of all household members, while the respondent might not be familiar with the health problems of all the household members or the health restoration actions the household members took. 4.21. The responses to the sickness episode need to be interpreted within a model of sickness experience relevant to the environment the data were collected. For example, are the health restoration actions in the questionnaire viewed as mutually exclusive choices or sequence of actions in the sickness experience? If the options are discrete choices that a sick person undertakes, then the policy response would be to improve availability and quality of health restoration points depending on the frequency of consultations e.g. support faith healers if a big portion of the sick people are reported as having consulted faith healers. However, the consultation may not have led to health restoration, and the sick person may have shopped for another health restoration point e.g. visited a hospital. This implies that the responses in the questionnaire may depend on the point the person was in seeking help to restore health. The survey included two sequential health restoration actions (first and second action), but the data on the second action was not very meaningful as most respondents reported that they recovered after the first action. This may be due to the fact that sickness was bounded to the two weeks preceding the survey. 4.22. Suchman (1963) provides a useful framework to studying the illness experience and medical care. His five stage model starts with: (a) Symptom experience stage when the individual perceives that something is wrong. The person either denies that he is sick, delays action awaiting further development of the symptoms, or attempts self-treatment with folk medicine and the popular over-thecounter drugs e.g. antiseptics, cough/ cold medicines, and antacid. Assuming the sick role and seeking provisional validation from family, friends and coworkers for his claim to that role. Provisional validation leads to the medical care contact stage when the person leaves the lay care system and enters professional care, where the person seeks treatment and professional validation for his claim to the sick role.

(b) (c)

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(d)

(e)

Dependent patient role stage, where the person reaches the decision to undergo treatment. This stage is also accompanied by substantial loss of personal rights (especially rights to privacy); hence the reluctance to move from lay to professional healthcare system. Recovery and rehabilitation, where the patient recovers and either leaves the sick role or gets hooked to the medical care system by feigning sickness to prevent relinquishing the sick role. The latter are referred to as malingerers.

4.23. Such a model is not necessarily relevant in all cultures or for all types of sickness e.g. an accident victim does not have to follow all the five stages. However, the importance of having a relevant health restoration behaviour model is important in the design of healthcare service delivery system and health training. For example, in some religious communities in Kenya, the professional validation is given by faith healers, who are therefore the only health restoration point. In such communities, health education should focus on advising people on significance of symptoms and the need to consult trained health personnel for professional validation that those symptoms constitute sickness. 4.24. Health behaviour models also distinguish between disease and illness. Disease is understood to be an objective phenomenon characterized by altered abnormal functioning of the body as a biological organism, while illness is a subjective phenomenon in which individuals perceive themselves as sick. Illness therefore includes both (a) symptoms of an actual disease, and (b) perception that one is sick without any organic processes of disease being manifested. A survey which is based on self-reporting rather than professional validation by trained health personnel can only collect responses on illness rather than disease. 4.25. Within a health restoration model, lay persons only give provisional validation to the sick role. However, the sick may not be aware of the symptoms that constitute a particular type of disease, unless the disease is common in the locality; or if the disease is recurring and the sick individual has previously received professional validation that the coincidental symptoms constitute a particular disease. In addition, trained health personnel do not always inform their patients the type of disease they are suffering from, and hence the patient may define symptoms to refer to a particular sickness when the symptoms actually relate to a different pathological disease. 4.26. As shown in Table 16, 296 out of 1,359 household members (21.8%) had fallen sick in the two weeks preceding the interview. The proportion of the population which was sick during the reference period was highest in the age group 0-5 years (25.0%) and lowest in age group 6-15 years (14.4%). The main type of sickness was malaria/ fever (60.8%), followed by cough/ cold (13.5%). There were minimal gender disparities in types of sickness, except in vomit/ diarrhoea where there were proportionately more females. As shown in Table 17, the types of sickness do not discriminate by age, except vomit/ diarrhoea which was more common among 0-5 year olds. 4.27. When people fall sick, the most reported first action taken to restore health was hospital facility (53.7%), followed by purchase of over-the-counter drugs (34.5%). The proportion of those who fall sick and do not visit a health facility (46.3%) is rather high for an urban setting where the use of credible traditional healing is likely to be limited. However, it was not possible to determine the seriousness of the symptoms so as to gauge whether lack of visit to health facilities constitute serious laxity of personal health. Prevalence of Disabilities 4.28. A disability is a limitation in an individuals ability to perform an activity in a manner that is considered to be normal. Impairment is an abnormality in the structure or function of a part of the body or mind. Disabilities are caused by impairments, which are in turn caused by diseases, injuries or congenital (inborn) or peri-natal conditions. The six common disabilities are difficulties in speaking, hearing, seeing, moving legs (lower limbs) or arms (upper limbs), and learning (mental retardation), either in mild or profound form. The definition of disability excluded injuries or conditions of durations of less than six (6) months.

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4.29. A census of disabled persons was conducted in conjunction with the 1989 Population and Housing Census in Kenya. In the census of disabled persons, data were recorded on disabilities rather than persons. Therefore, a person suffering from all six disabilities would be recorded 6 times, first as having difficulties in seeing, second as having difficulties in hearing, etc. A ratio of disability to the total population was to be interpreted as the prevalence of that disability. The 1989 population census reported that the prevalence of disabilities in the total population was 1.4%, that most of the disabled persons had no education, and that the main disabilities were in the lower limbs, vision, hearing and mental retardation, as reported in the Economic Survey 1991. 4.30. The Ziwa la Ngombe survey reported a total of 31 disabilities or 2.28% of the responding population. The most common disability was difficulties in the lower limbs (legs) which was higher for females than males; followed by difficulties in seeing (mainly among males); hearing (more reported among females); and arms (more reported among women). Although the incidence of disabilities was higher than the national average reported in the 1989 Population and Housing Census, the sample is rather small to derive specific conclusions. Unlike the 1989 Census of Disabled Persons, the data showed higher levels of disability for women (2.74%) than men (1.90%). Distribution of Household Members by Occupation 4.31. As shown in Table 20, 40.1% of the population above 14 years (excluding those reported as family worker, crop/ livestock farmer, or students) was reported as not engaging in any income earning opportunity, with a high 62.3% for females compared with 21.9% for males. Female unemployment was highest in VoK (83.3%) and Mkunguni (73.5%), and lowest in Ziwa la Ngombe (48.5%). Coincidentally, VoK (51.9%) and Mkunguni (30.7%) reported the highest incidence of females who had either no education or did not proceed beyond preschool, while Ziwa la Ngombe had the lowest (24.3%). Female illiteracy was also highest in VoK (53.8%) and lowest in Ziwa la Ngombe (25.7%) and Kisimani (24.4%). 4.32. Employment in the public sector (including public schools and health facilities) was insignificant, at 1.6% of the eligible population. The most significant source of employment was private sector (33.9% of the eligible population), followed by self-employment (23.9%). The proportion in unpaid family work in household enterprises was minimal, implying that most household enterprises are managed by one household member. Religion 4.33. Table 22 shows the distribution of the population by religion and place of birth for those above 14 years. Overall 27.1% of the population responded that they were of Muslim faith, followed by Christianity (64.5%). The choice of religion is largely determined by the province of birth, which implies that there is limited proselytization in the informal settlement. However, Protestant and evangelical Christian denominations have a major stronghold in the settlement.

CHILD WELFARE AND CHILD IMMUNIZATION


4.34. Form Z/L/N/2 collected child particulars on place of childs delivery, the personnel who assisted in delivery, child immunization, and breastfeeding practices (including weaning foods) for all under-fives. Most deliveries (58.4%) took place at home compared with 41.6% delivered in a hospital/ facility. Mkunguni (73.9%) reported the highest proportion born outside health facilities, while Ziwa la Ngombe (37.1%) and VoK (43.8%) reported the lowest. Most deliveries were assisted by TBA/other (55.1%), followed by doctor (33.2%). According to the enumerators reference manual, one would have expected that deliveries at hospital/ health facility would be assisted by a doctor or nurse/midwife. However, there were 7 cases of deliveries in health facilities where the women were recorded as having assisted themselves in delivery.

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4.35. Although information on immunization was solicited for all children below five years, immunization coverage can only be computed for those who are supposed to have completed the immunization schedule, i.e. over 9 months. Normally, immunization coverage is computed for children of 11 completed months and over. The data shows high full immunization coverage (90.2%), which is higher for female children (95.5%) than male children (86.6%). The dropout rate from one vaccine to the next in the immunization schedule is also minimal, other than the high dropout rate for measles among males (which largely explains the gender disparity in full immunization status). 4.36. Information on breastfeeding is divided into two categories: those still breastfeeding and those that have stopped. This is because inclusion of those still breastfeeding tends to lower mean months of breastfeeding. The average number of months of exclusive breastfeeding (i.e. without any supplementation) was 4.6 months, and 17.7 months of any breastfeeding (with or without supplementation). The results are in line with the National Policy on Infant Feeding Practices which aims at encouraging mothers to exclusively breastfeed their babies for the first four months. 4.37. In addition, 72.1% of the children are breastfed for over 12 months. The most common supplementation of mothers milk was porridge (60.7%), followed by semi-solids (20.5%). In most communities in Kenya, milk other than breast would rank as the main first supplement to breast-milk4. The mean months of exclusive breastfeeding for those who had stopped breastfeeding was inversely related with mothers education (i.e. high number of months associated with lower levels of mothers education), while the number of months breastfed (with or without supplementation) did not indicate any causation with mothers education. The mean number of months of exclusive breastfeeding for mothers with no education (6.1 months) was almost double that of mothers with secondary education (3.4 months).

HOUSEHOLD AMENITIES
The Main Residential Structure 4.38. Form Z/L/N/3 solicited information on construction materials of the main dwelling unit. A reported 26.5% of the walls were permanent (stone and brick/block), while the balance were mainly made of mud/ earth and mud/ cement. In the case of floors, 53.0% were permanent (cement); while roofs were almost equally distributed between makuti and iron sheets. The number of main residential structures with permanent wall, floor and roof were 60 (18.1%), while 109 (32.8%) were made of temporary wall, floor and roof. The mean number of persons per room (excluding those exclusively used as kitchen, bathroom or toilet) in the settlement was 2.66, with a high 4.25 for VoK and a low 2.26 for Ziwa la Ngombe. 4.39. The questionnaire also solicited information on the type of dwelling unit. A reported 96.7% of the dwelling units were either Swahili-type or barracks. However, there is likely to be minimum differences between the two types of dwelling units, since the main difference was whether there was a common entrance to the structure (Swahili-type) or each household had direct access to its residential room or rooms (barrack). There was little correlation between education and type of dwelling unit, mainly because differentiation of household heads by academic education was minimal in the settlement. A reported 34.9% of the households were staying in their own houses as houselords (although they could be renting out portions of their structures to other households), while 62.3% were renters. A reported 88.0% were in shared premises and 12.0% were occupying whole premises without sharing with other households. Since most of the responding households resided in Swahili-type structures regardless of economic differentiation by income or expenditure, residence in a Swahili-type dwelling unit need not be associated with abject poverty. It is also important to note that the by-laws of the local authority do not allow construction of permanent structures on land for which legal titles of ownership have not been issued. . The 1994 National Welfare Monitoring Survey conducted by the Central Bureau of Statistics reported a national mean of 31.3% for milk other than breast, followed by porridge (26.0%). 19
4

Water and Sanitation 4.40. The main source of water during wet season was piped (98.5%), with little variation by village. Piped water accounted for 49.2% in the dry season (as taps are normally dry in the peak of the dry season), followed by 33.3% from unprotected wells and 15.0% from boreholes. A reported 98.5% of the households were within 0.5 km distance to water source in the wet season, compared to 73.5% for the dry season. The mean distance to water source during wet season was insignificant and 0.48 km during the dry season. Water cost per 20-litre container during the dry season was highest in Bombolulu (Shs 7.3) and VoK (Shs 6.6), compared with an overall mean of Shs 4.2. Water consumption was highest in the two villages, probably reflecting a higher level of hygiene compared with other villages. Wives and female children were mainly responsible for fetching water for domestic use (in 64.2% of the households); 92.1% of households dispose human body waste in communal pit latrines; and 75.7% of the households do not do anything to water before drinking, despite the high proportion of households who obtain water from unprotected sources in the dry season. Sources of Cooking and Lighting Fuels 4.41. A reported 20.2% of the households had firewood/ charcoal as the main type of cooking fuel, compared with paraffin (79.8%). Virtually all the households reported paraffin as the main type of lighting fuel (98.2%). Ownership of Selected Household Assets 4.42. A reported 93.1% had at least one stove; 53.9% had a working radio; 26.2% had an iron box; while the incidence of ownership of at least one bicycle or one sewing machine was almost identical at 11.4% and 10.8%, respectively. The ownership of bicycles and iron box was lowest in VoK village and highest in Mkunguni. The incidence of ownership of handcarts (used as a productive asset in the study area) was 3.6%, with a high 4.3% in male-headed households and a low 1.4% in female-headed households. There were relatively more male-headed households which owned at least one of the listed assets compared with female-headed households, except ownership of sewing machines which was higher in female-headed households.

HOUSEHOLD CONSUMPTION PATTERNS


4.43. The expenditure items were grouped into few categories: Bread (bread, mandazi, cakes, biscuits, mahamuri); Cereals (maize grain/flour and green maize, rice, wheat, millet grain/flour, sorghum, baby foods, other grains); Pulses (beans, peas kunde/mbaazi); Meat (beef, goat, chicken, fish fresh/dry, other meat); Milk and eggs (milk, milk power, eggs); Fats (fats, oils, butter/margarine, other oils and fats); Fruits (ripe bananas, oranges, mangoes, papaws, pineapples, other fruits); Vegetables (cooking bananas, cabbages, kale, mchicha, onions, tomatoes, carrots, green grammes, other vegetables); Roots (English potatoes, sweet potatoes, cassava, other roots); Sugar; Beverages (coffee, cocoa, tea, madafu, soda); Flavours (salt, curry powder, coconut milk, other flavours); Meals eaten out; Fuel (firewood, charcoal, paraffin, gas, electricity);

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Household operations (soap, batteries, domestic workers, water); Alcohol (beer, local brew, other alcohol); Tobacco (cigarettes, snuff, khat); Transport (bicycle repair, other transport, petrol); Rent; Personal (haircut, hairdressing, personal care, other regular purchases); Health (hospital charges, medicine, other medical costs); Clothing (men, women, child, other); Footwear (men, women, child, other); Education (fees, uniform, books, other); Furniture; Other non-regular (utensils, other non-regular)

The last grouping (other non-regular) was excluded from the analysis since the responses consisted of large observations in a few households. 4.44. Consumption includes purchases, and own consumption from crops and livestock and livestock products. According to Table 47A, monthly household consumption was estimated at Shs 10,703; with the highest reported in Bombolulu (Shs 13,205), followed by Kisimani (Shs 12,235), VoK (Shs 10,128), and Mkunguni (Shs 9,324), while the lowest was recorded in Ziwa la Ngombe (Shs 9,295). The share of food in total expenditure was fairly uniform at around 55%, which is reasonable in an urban setting. In an urban setting, the relatively higher rent component (at 9.4% of total expenditure) increases the share of non-food in total expenditure compared with what would pertain in a rural setting. The share of alcohol and tobacco in total expenditure was high at 5.0%, which probably reflects the culture of despair in an urban slum. The share of alcohol and tobacco in total consumption was highest in Ziwa la Ngombe (6.6%) and Bombolulu (7.0%) and lowest in VoK (0.4%). The share of education in expenditure was highest in Kisimani (5.5%), VoK (4.6%) and Ziwa la Ngombe (3.4%), and lowest in Bombolulu (2.0%) and Mkunguni (2.0%). 4.45. As shown in Table 48A, total consumption in male-headed households was Shs 11,073 compared with Shs 9,390 in female-headed households, which is consistent with gender disparities in incomes reported below. The share of food in total consumption is higher for households with female heads (3.7 percentage points above male-headed households), which is also consistent with female bias towards nonwasteful expenditure and Engels law of declining food share as income rises5. Male-headed households spent more on alcohol and tobacco (5.3%) compared with female-headed households (3.7%). Overall, male-headed households had higher shares of meals eaten out (4.7%), purchased transport (5.6%) and education (3.9%), compared with female-headed households at 1.9% for meals eaten out, 3.3% for purchased transport and 1.8% for education. The relatively low share of education in female-headed households has implications for intergenerational transfer of poverty in female-headed households hypothesized at the beginning of this report. Household consumption patterns by age of household head do not show clear patterns, other than a reduction in share of meals eaten out which declines with age of household head. 4.46. Table 49A shows that total consumption per capita was Shs 3,606, with the highest reported in Bombolulu (Shs 4,072) followed by Kisimani (Shs 4,029), Ziwa la Ngombe (Shs 3,844), Mkunguni (Shs 3,051) and VoK (Shs 1,847). There was a rank reversal between Ziwa la Ngombe and VoK when classified by household expenditure rather than per capita expenditure, with Ziwa la Ngombe moving from position 5 by household expenditure to position 3 by per capita expenditure due to a relatively higher household size in VoK (6.64) compared with Ziwa la Ngombe (3.15). The other three villages retained their ranks under both classifications. Per capita consumption in male-headed households (Shs 3,734) was higher than in female-headed households (Shs 3,203).
5. Engels Law, sometimes attributed to the limited capacity of the human stomach, states that the proportion of a familys budget devoted to food declines as the familys income increases.

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4.47. Total household size was converted to adult equivalents using 0-3 years of age as 0.4 adult equivalents, 4-12 years as 0.7, and 13 and over as 1.0. Although adult equivalence scales are normally applied to calorie intake, they are often used over the entire expenditure profile. Table 51A shows that total consumption per adult equivalent was Shs 3,921, with the highest reported in Kisimani (Shs 4,369) followed by Bombolulu (Shs 4,278), Ziwa la Ngombe (Shs 4,165), Mkunguni (Shs 3,378) and VoK (Shs 2,221). There was a rank reversal between Bombolulu and Kisimani when classified by per capita expenditure rather than adult equivalent expenditure, with Kisimani moving from position 2 by per capita expenditure to position 1 by adult equivalent expenditure due to a relatively more youthful population in Kisimani compared with Bombolulu. The other three villages retained their ranks under both classifications. The ranking of adult equivalent expenditure by both sex and age of household head were similar to those obtained through use of per capita expenditure.

ESTIMATED CALORIE AND PROTEIN AVAILABILITY


4.48. Total household size was converted to adult equivalents using 0-3 years of age as 0.4 adult equivalents, 4-12 years as 0.7, and 13 and over as 1.0, based on food consumption tables published on behalf of the Kenya Government (Sehmi, 1993; see also Platt, 1962). The estimated calorie availability was higher than expected (3,030 kilocalories per adult equivalent per day), with the highest in Bombolulu (3,387), followed by Kisimani (3,189), Ziwa la Ngombe (3,098), Mkunguni (2,807), and lowest in VoK (2,001). The ranking is sensitive to the age-structure of the population, total consumption, share of food in total consumption, and the households choice of the food basket. In addition, expenditure item meals eaten out was not included in the analysis despite its large share in total consumption (4.1% of household consumption and 6.5% of per capita consumption). The large share of meals eaten out can be explained by working household members, and the fact that eating food in ones house rarely has the significance of a covenant in an urban setting. 4.49. The main source of calorie supply was cereals (67.0%), followed by beans (8.5%). Although the recommended daily allowance (RDA) is 2,600 kilocalories, the survey assumes lower energy requirements (say, 2,400) for the study area due to the hot climate. Based on this assumption, 140 households (42.2%) did not meet the adjusted RDA of 2,400 kilocalories assumed in this study, while 46 households (13.9%) did not meet the minimum protein requirements of 49 units. This can be explained by the preference for (or availability of) high fruit and vegetable diets among the coastal people of Kenya, and the relatively high cost of cereals imported from upcountry. Calorie supply was higher in female-headed households (3,135) compared with male-headed households (3,012) despite the fact that female-headed households had lower money-metric food consumption expenditure. The latter observation is contaminated by omission of meals eaten out whose share in total consumption was higher in male-headed households. 4.50. The mean protein availability was 103 units, with the highest in Kisimani (113), followed by Bombolulu (111) and lowest in VoK (62). Protein supply was slightly higher in female-headed households (107) compared to male-headed households (102). The main sources of protein were cereals (53.2%) followed by beans (16.2%) and meat (11.9%). The recommended daily allowance is 49 units. The excess protein units above the RDA may be spurious since the major source of proteins is cereals, which tend to have less digestibility than animal proteins and pulses. The distribution of calorie and protein availability by age of household head may not merit serious interpretation since the share of meals eaten out in total expenditure decreases with age of household head. 4.51. However, the use of fixed food weight-to-calorie conversion factors over the entire income profile might be inappropriate due to changing food quality and food preparation methods. As income rises, rich families are likely to consume more expensive calories (Behrman and Deolalikar, 1987; Bouis, 1992; Bouis, 1994). Distribution of welfare using calorie intake will concomitantly appear more egalitarian than that derived using money-metric food expenditures. In line with the United Nations National Household Survey Capability Programme, a household is deemed poor if, prudently managing its budget,

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cannot even meet its nutritional requirements6. Some families or individuals may report food calorie deficit due to high consumption of non-food items. While these families will be counted as food poor, they will be counted as non-poor when total expenditure data is used to identify and determine the extent of poverty. In addition, household budget survey data does not normally specify whether quantities consumed were fresh or dry, which makes it difficult to apply the correct food-to-energy conversion factors. 4.52. Household calorie availability also need to be adjusted for leakages due to plate waste, loss in cooking and other food preparation, feeding of animals, and feeding non-household members such as guests, hired farm labourers, and servants. Nutrient intake is affected by other variables e.g. non-nutrient food attributes (freshness of food products purchased, their cleanliness, their storability or shelf-life, and so forth), privately-provided inputs (time and care to prepare food, including cleaning, cooking, boiling water, and refrigeration which ensures that food does not get contaminated or spoilt), publicly-provided inputs (sewerage, water, electricity, and nutritional information), and health status (e.g. gut parasites) which can influence the degree of absorption of nutrients.

SOURCES OF HOUSEHOLD INCOME


4.53. The analytical categories of income used were: wage income (cash, in-kind and pension), rental income (rental, lease, interest, other income), transfers-in (cash, in-kind), transfers-out (cash, in-kind), and self-employment income (share of profit accruing to the household). 4.54. According to Table 55, the main sources of livelihoods were wage employment (44.8% of household income) and self employment (47.1%). Kisimani had the least share of household income from wage employment (30.8%). In decreasing order of household income, VoK was first (Shs 14,327) followed by Kisimani (Shs 13,994), Bombolulu (Shs 10,664), Mkunguni (Shs 10,070) and Ziwa la Ngombe (Shs 7,550). However, due to the difference in household size, per capital income in decreasing order was Kisimani (Shs 5,405), followed by Mkunguni (Shs 3,626), VoK (Shs 3,218), Bombolulu (Shs 3,022) and Ziwa la Ngombe (Shs 2,756). The high share of transfers-in and transfers-out in total income shows that the households in the settlement have significant links with people outside the settlement. Most incidence of transfers-out was to rural family members (parent, child, brother/ sister, other relative, spouse). Overall, there was little under-reporting of income compared with expenditure (with overall mean household expenditure being 98.6% of mean household income), except in VoK where mean expenditure was 70.7% of mean income. 4.55. Table 59 shows the distribution of mean household income by sex of household head. Overall, the average household income in female-headed households (Shs 9,511) was less than that of maleheaded households (Shs 11,239). Wage employment accounted for 48.0% of total household income in male-headed households compared with 29.8% in female-headed households. However, self-employment income accounted for 58.9% of income in female-headed households compared with 44.6% in maleheaded households. Transfers-in and transfers-out of the household were less significant in femaleheaded households, demonstrating high degree of vulnerability due to lack of linkages with family members in the rest of the country. . Food poverty can be crudely described as set within utility space, where utility is measured in terms of calorie intake. However, the minimum non-food expenditure required can also be taken as measurable within the same utility space, i.e. calorie intake, if we take the non-food items to be the basic needs that ensure that an individual does not need to take more than the required minimum calorie allowance. For example, an individual who does not have the minimum clothing, shelter and medical care would require a higher minimum calorie intake, and the minimum non-food items might be more economically acquired than the supplementary food intake required to compensate for lack of, say, clothing and shelter, while food energy can be more effectively increased by raising food-to-energy conversion through reduction in gut parasites i.e. medical care (Lipton, 1988).
6

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4.56. Table 59 also shows a strong association between household income and age of household head. For the entire sample, average household income increases with age of household. The share of wage employment income to total income was highest for households with heads aged less than 35 years and declines with the age of household head. The share of rental income increases with the age of household head, reaching a peak of 20.6% for households with heads aged over 50 years. 4.57. Overall, the average per capita income for female-headed households was slightly less than that of male-headed households. Wage employment accounted for 54.7% of per capita income in male-headed households compared with 23.9% in female-headed households. However, self-employment income accounted for 70.6% of per capita income in female-headed households compared with 42.3% in maleheaded households. 4.58. Table 60 shows a strong association between per capita income and age of household head. Average per capita income first increases with the age of household head, and records a steep decline for household heads of over 50 years of age. The contribution of wage employment to per capita income was highest for household with heads aged less than 35 years, and stabilizes to around 33% thereafter. However, rental income is low for household heads aged less than 50 years, reaching a peak of 28.0% for households with heads aged over 50 years. 4.59. Household income and per capita income data may lead to different conclusions since the latter factors in household size. For example, per capita income by sex of household head paints a less unequal picture due to the fact that female-headed households are normally smaller than male-headed households; while the positive association between household income and age of household head is spurious since household size in the survey increased with age of household head.

LAND OWNERSHIP AND ACCESS


4.60. Form Z/L/N/6A solicited information on ownership of land in any part of the country. Table 67 shows that 43.4% of the households own land and 37.0% access land that they do not own. The two groups are not mutually exclusive. The proportion of households that own land but have no access to land they do not own was 40.7%, while 34.3% do not own land but have access to use of land. A reported 22.3% of the households are landless, i.e. neither own land nor have access to land they do not own in any part of the country. 4.61. Table 68 shows the distribution of ownership of plots in the informal settlement by province of birth of household head. Only 54 (16.3% of the respondents) own plots in Ziwa la Ngombe, which is not surprising given that each residential structure normally accommodates several households, and the fact that there are absentee houselords. A reported 75.9% of the respondents who own plots in the settlement were born in Coast province, followed by Central (7.4%), Nyanza (5.6%) and Western (5.6%). Maleheaded households in the responding population owned 64.8% of the plots, and the balance of 35.2% were owned by female-headed households. The few plots in the settlement owned by non-coastal respondents residing in the study area (13 out of 54 or 24.1%) were mainly owned by male-headed households (76.9%) compared with female-headed households (23.1%). However, the survey only reports on ownership of plots in Ziwa la Ngombe settlement by people residing in the study area. It does not therefore give a complete picture since it omits ownership of plots by people residing elsewhere.

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CHAPTER 5: OVERVIEW, FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ACCURACY OF THE SURVEY RESULTS


5.1. In this survey, a maximum of three visits were made to each selected household so as to improve response. Discussions with enumerators revealed that the non-responding households may have had different socioeconomic characteristics from those which responded e.g. lower household size (e.g. oneperson households). This could overstate the mean household size and estimates of total population in the settlement. In addition, one expects the survey to suffer from recall loss (forgetting an event that occurred during the reference period) and telescoping errors (forgetting when an event occurred) especially on annual expenditure and income data. 5.2. In addition to sampling errors, the survey results may have been compromised by any of the following non-sampling errors: (a) Inaccuracies in the sample frame e.g. omissions during the initial household listing, households that had moved out of the settlement, and new households that might have come up through marriage and in-migration. However, errors from this source are likely to be minimal since the sample frame was professionally created for the 1999 Population and Housing Census and the time lapse between creation of the frame and fieldwork was only three months; Inaccuracy of information provided by the respondents; Errors by interviewer in recording responses; or Errors in editing, coding, and data entry.

(b) (c) (d)

5.3. Although little could be done about (a) and (b), the other sources of error were minimized by close supervision of the data collection exercise, editing of survey returns, and thorough checking of data entry. The cooperation of both respondents and enumerators is likely to have improved the overall success and accuracy of the survey. For example, the age profile of the population is largely similar to what one would expect in a settlement combining long-term residents and short-term renters (with families elsewhere). 5.4. At the end of the enumeration exercise, enumerators reported that some respondents felt that their involvement in the survey helped them to understand their community better and exposed AAK to the residents of the DI. Enumerators also reported having learnt from their involvement in the survey. This is likely to assist AAK in future action-research activities in the area and in community-based planning for AAK-supported programme interventions.

SUMMARY OF THE MAIN FINDINGS


Household and Demographic Characteristics 5.5. The age profile of the population slightly differs from the national structure as per the 1989 Population and Housing Census, with a lower proportion below the age of 15 compared with the national average, probably because some residents of the area are workers with families living outside the study area. Most households are male-headed, while most of the household members (98.8%) were relatives. The number in polygamous unions is small, and there were more women who were reported as having unmarried compared to men. The institution of marriage is not universal, except for males who were reported as having joined into a marriage union by the age of 59, regardless of whether one unmarries thereafter. In addition, women marry younger than men as very few women who eventually join a 25

marriage union reach the age of 24 without marrying. A high 22.2% of the female population within 4059 years and 37.5% of over 60 years had unmarried. 5.6. The overall primary school net and gross enrolments were low by national standards; in addition to the fact the education standards of those at school and out-of-school are also low. Primary school enrolment rates show gender disparities, with males having higher rates than females. The reported literacy level was slightly higher than the national average. For both sexes, lack of fees was the main reason for dropping out of school. 5.7. Only 22.0% of the population was born within the study area, compared with 14.8% from the rest of Mombasa district, and 41.9% from Coast province outside Mombasa, giving a combined total of 78.7% from Coast province. The most common membership in indigenous community groups were with respect to cash (merry-go-round) and savings and credit cooperatives, although it is not immediately apparent whether the respondents differentiated formal savings and credit cooperatives registered by the Department of Cooperatives with informal merry-go-rounds. 5.8. The main type of sickness was malaria/ fever followed by cough/ cold. There were minimal gender disparities in types of sickness, except in vomit/ diarrhoea where there were proportionately more females. When people fall sick, the most reported first action taken to restore health is hospital facility (53.7%), followed by purchase of over-the-counter drugs (34.5%). The proportion who did not visit a health facility (46.3%) is rather high for an urban setting. The prevalence of disabilities was higher than the national average reported in the 1989 Population and Housing Census. However, unlike the 1989 Census of Disabled Persons, the data showed higher levels of disability for women (2.74%) than men (1.90%). 5.9. A reported 40.1% of the population above 14 years was not engaged in any income earning activities, with a high 62.3% for females compared with 21.9% for males. Employment in the public sector (including public schools and health facilities) was insignificant. The most significant source of employment was private sector (33.9% of the eligible population) followed by self-employment (23.9%). The proportion in unpaid family work in household enterprises was minimal, implying that most household enterprises are managed by one household member. Child Welfare 5.10. Most child deliveries (58.4%) took place at home, and were assisted by TBA/other (55.1%) followed by doctor (33.2%). The data shows high full immunization coverage (90.2%), which is higher for female children (95.5%) than male children (86.6%). The dropout rate from one vaccine to the next in the immunization schedule is also minimal, other than the high dropout rate for measles among male children. The survey reveals an overall baby-friendly motherhood, with the average number of months of exclusive breastfeeding of 4.6 months; and 17.7 months of any breastfeeding (with or without supplementation). The results are in line with the National Policy on Infant Feeding Practices which aims at encouraging mothers to exclusively breastfeed their babies for the first four months. In addition, 72.1% of the children are breastfed for over 12 months. The most common supplementation of mothers milk was porridge (60.7%) followed by semi-solids (20.5%). The mean months of exclusive breastfeeding for those who had stopped breastfeeding was inversely related to mothers education. Household Amenities 5.11. Distribution of households by construction materials of the main residential structure shows that the number of residential structures with permanent wall, floor and roof were 60 (18.1%), while 109 (32.8%) were made of temporary wall, floor and roof. The mean number of people per room in the settlement was 2.66, with a high 4.25 for VoK and a low 2.26 for Ziwa la Ngombe. A reported 96.6% of the dwelling units were either Swahili-type or barracks. A reported 88.0% were in shared premises and only 12.0% were occupying whole premises without sharing with other households.

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5.12. The main source of water during the wet season was piped (98.5%). Piped water accounted for 49.2% in the dry season, followed by 33.3% from unprotected wells and 15.0% from boreholes. Water cost per 20-litre container during the dry season was highest in Bombolulu (Shs 7.3) and VoK (Shs 6.6), compared with an overall mean of Shs 4.2. A reported 92.1% of households dispose human body waste in communal pit latrines and 75.7% of the households do not do anything to water before drinking, despite the high share of households who obtain water from unprotected sources in the dry season. A reported 20.2% of the households had firewood/ charcoal as the main type of cooking fuel, compared with paraffin (79.8%); while virtually all households reported paraffin as the main type of lighting fuel (98.2%). Consumption and Income 5.13. The share of food in total expenditure was fairly uniform at around 55%, which is reasonable in an urban setting due to the rent component (at 9.4% of total expenditure) than would pertain in a rural setting. The share of alcohol and tobacco to total expenditure was high at 5.0%, which probably reflects the culture of despair in an urban slum. Total consumption in male-headed households was higher than in female-headed households, which is consistent with gender disparities in incomes. The share of food in total consumption is higher for households with female heads, which is also consistent with female bias towards non-wasteful expenditure. Male-headed households spent more on alcohol and tobacco (5.3%) compared with female-headed households (3.7%). Overall, male-headed households had higher shares of meals eaten out, purchased transport and education, compared with female-headed households. The relatively low share of education in female-headed households has implications for intergenerational transfer of poverty in those of households. 5.14. The main sources of livelihoods were wage employment (44.8%) and self employment (47.1%). The high shares of transfers-in and transfers-out in total income show that the households in the settlement have significant links with people outside the settlement. Overall, the average household income for female-headed households was less than that of male-headed households. Wage employment accounted for 48.0% of total household income in male-headed households compared with 29.8% in female-headed households. However, self-employment income accounted for 58.9% of income in femaleheaded households compared with 44.6% in male-headed households. Transfers-in and transfers-out of the household were less significant in female-headed households, demonstrating high degree of vulnerability due to lack of linkages with family members in the rest of the country. For the entire sample, average household income and household size increase with age of household head. Land Ownership and Access 5.15. A reported 43.4% of the households own land and 37.0% access land that they do not own. The proportion of households that own land but have no access to land they do not own was 40.7%, while 34.3% do not own land but have access to use of land. A reported 22.3% of the households are landless, i.e. neither own land nor have access to land they do not own in any part of the country. A reported 75.9% of the respondents who own plots in the settlement were born in Coast province.

PROGRAMME ACTIVITIES IN THE DI


5.16. The main focus of the programme is community mobilization and strengthening the capacity of community-based organizations to initiate and implement development actions and community-based development processes. This is expected to internalize the role of women and youth in development, in addition to improving the survival spaces (economic, social and environmental) of the poor in the settlement. Since the residents of Ziwa la Ngombe identify their core problem as lack of suitable land tenure, AAK also intends to intensify communitys advocacy for a tenurial system that accords legal land rights. 5.17. The DI also participates in the already existing Partnership Approaches to Meeting the Needs of the Urban Poor (PAMNUP), which hopes to tackle poverty by establishing sustainable approaches to

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poverty reduction. The PAMNUP project is concerned with developing an innovative approach to tackling urban poverty by creating an enabling environment whereby key stakeholders in Mombasa municipality act in partnership to meet the priority needs of the poor in the settlements. 5.18. The issuance of land rights is crucial to the creation of sustainable approaches to reduction in mass poverty in the settlement since security of tenure affects income levels (rental income, participation in water vending business, etc), development of permanent housing, long-term economic security, and feeling of belonging to Mombasa and Kenya as a whole. A village committee in the settlement has emerged as a strong advocacy on land rights, while the community has also been supported to create youth groups to address actions and policy issues on, say, environmental sanitation and community health. 5.19. The program initially targeted the formation of village committees which would later federate to a DI-wide development committee. However, representatives of several villages were opposed to the formation of an umbrella body as infeasible due to the large population in the whole settlement. AAK has conducted leadership training and REFLECT for facilitators7, and organized exposure visits for community leaders to visit development programmes in other regions which are implemented by local communities with the support of AAK and/or other development agencies e.g. in Kwale, Malindi and Nairobi. The activities have so far excluded VoK village where leadership wrangles have interfered with the DIs entry. The communities have also developed action plans using REFLECT and other participatory planning methodologies. AAK has assisted some community projects e.g. in water, but the communities are impatient with the support provided. 5.20. The DI faces the common problem associated with urban programmes since inhabitants have varying degrees of attachment to the area e.g. renters, non-resident property owners, indigenes from the settlement, and coastal versus upcountry people. The community in the settlement is also heterogeneous in terms of ethnic representation. The degree of attachment is also tied to a households availability of alternative habitation e.g. landless indigenes versus people from other parts of Coast province and upcountry who have land and family members elsewhere. The essence of who is a bona fide member of the community also affects the choice of community leaders to steer development processes in the settlement. 5.21. The report of the community re-entry process (1998) stated that the community has a feeling of disillusionment due to past studies undertaken by various development agencies, including AAK, that have not been followed by external support for community activities. Other major gaps specific to the AAK program includes (a) lack of a programme design especially tailor-made for the urban programme; (b) apparent lack of clarity in AAK as to what is supposed to be done after community organization; (c) lack of awareness in the community about AAKs vision, mission and goal; (d) covering all the five villages with thin staffing levels; (e) existence of non-democratic grassroots leaders and institutions e.g. village elders; and (f) lack of secure land rights which limits meaningful investment in the settlement. 5.22. The report of the community re-entry process presented a number of observations and recommendations. First is the specific role played by village elders and other opinion leaders, which has at least proved to be a problem in AAKs involvement in VoK village. Secondly is the desire by the community for immediate tangible benefits especially in hardware forms (physical investments that they can see and touch) rather than software (e.g. community organization and advocacy on land rights). Thirdly is a proposal to consider working in a maximum of two villages with gradual expansion to other villages.

7 REFLECT (Regenerated Freirean Literacy Through Empowering Community Techniques) is an approach to learning and social change. Reflect was developed through innovative pilot programmes in Uganda, Bangladesh and El Salvador between 1993 and 1995. It started as a fusion of the political philosophy of Brazilian educator Paulo Freire with the practical methodologies developed for Participatory Rural Appraisal (Archer and Cottingham, 1996).

28

RECOMMENDATIONS
5.23. AAK, together with other actors (Government, NGOs, community) should focus on critical areas necessary to improve the socioeconomic status of the DI population. Based on the findings of the household survey and discussions with local leaders, some of the issues that need to be addressed are: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Increase the communitys access to potable water at reasonable cost, especially during the dry season. Influence Government to increase the flow of resources to the settlement, especially on water, education and construction of a public health facility. Improve access to primary education by increasing school places and facilities in the settlement, as well as increasing the say of the community in the management of educational institutions. Civic education to encourage early enrolment at the rational age to avoid high wastage due to age-grade mismatch observed along the entire education cycle. Support to the disabled who are likely to be highly vulnerable to economic stress and the ability to cope with seasonal food stress. Continue to support the community in obtaining legal documents of land ownership, since it affects a households wellbeing in terms of income and ability to construct permanent structures in the settlement. Increase community education to boil water before drinking especially in the dry season when water is mainly from unprotected sources. Civic education on the deleterious socioeconomic effects of excessive consumption of traditional brew and tobacco i.e. crowding out food consumption and essential non-food expenditures (e.g. education, health, low labour inputs, etc.). Diversify self-employment income generating opportunities especially for women as they appear to be insignificant in wage employment. Work with the community and health personnel to understand the socioeconomic dynamics that determine the types of first supplement to breast-milk (including its impact on child health and nutrition), and design appropriate health education to address the issue.

(g) (h)

(i) (j)

29

REFERENCES
Aboud, A.A., Poverty Issues in Coast Province of Kenya, Research Report Prepared for AAK, March 1999 ACTIONAID-Kenya, Mombasa Urban Development Initiative, Plan and Budget 1999, 1998 ACTIONAID-Kenya, Mombasa Urban Development Initiative, Plan and Budget 1998, 1997 ACTIONAID-Kenya, Mombasa Urban Development Initiative, Plan and Budget 1997, 1996 ACTIONAID-Kenya, New Development Initiatives Selection, Appraisal Report for Mombasa, Kilifi and Kwale Districts, May 1996 ACTIONAID-Kenya, A Comparative District Analysis of Poverty Status in Kenya: A Paper Prepared for New DA Selection, by Martin Oloo, Nairobi, January 1996 African Development Fund, Preparation Report: Poverty Eradication Initiative, Nairobi, 1999 Archer, David, and Sara Cottingham, Action research report on Reflect, Education Research Paper No. 17, Overseas Development Administration, March 1996 Bambrah, G.K., Background Paper and Overview on Urban Poverty in Mombasa, Report Prepared for Mombasa Municipal Consultation on Urban Poverty Reduction, April 1996 Barnard, Raymond H., The Relation of Intelligence and Personality to Speech Defects, The Elementary School Journal, 30(8), April 1930 Behrman, Jere R., and Anil B. Deolalikar, Will Developing Country Nutrition Improve with Income? A Case Study for Rural South India, Journal of Political Economy, 95(3), June 1987 Bouis, Howarth E. The Effect of Income on Demand for Food in Poor Countries: Are Our Food Consumption Databases Giving Us Reliable Estimates?" Journal of Development Economics, 44, June 1994 Bouis, Howarth E., and Lawrence J. Haddad, Are Estimates of Calorie- Income Elasticities Too High? A Recalibration of the Plausible Range, Journal of Development Economics, 39, October 1992 Chambers, R., Rural Development: Putting the Last First, Harlow, Longman, 1983 Cochran, W. G., Sampling Techniques, Second edition, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1963 Coe, Rodney M., Social-psychological Factors influencing the use of community health services, American Journal of Public Health, 55(7), July 1965 Fletcher, John Madison, An Experimental Study of Stuttering, The American Journal of Psychology, 25(2), April 1914 Freire, P., The Politics of Education: Culture, Power and Liberation, London, Macmillan, 1985 Freire, P., Pedagogy of the Oppressed, London, Penguin Books Ltd, 1972 Freire, P., Cultural Action for Freedom, London, Penguin Books Ltd, 1972 International Labour Organization, Sixteenth International Conference of Labour Statisticians, Measurement of Income from Employment, Geneva, 1998 International Labour Office, Current International Recommendations on Labour Statistics, Geneva, 1988

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Katui-Katua, M., Participatory Urban Appraisal ACTIONAID-Mombasa Urban Programme, Kisimani Village, Kisauni Division, September 1997 Kenya, Central Bureau of Statistics, Kenya Population Census, 1989: Volumes I & II, Government Printer, Nairobi, 1994 Kenya, Central Bureau of Statistics, Economic Survey 1991 (Chapter 3: The 1989 Population Census Provisional Results), Government Printer, Nairobi, 1991 Kish, Leslie, Statistical Design for Research, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1987 Kish, Leslie, Survey Sampling, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1965 Lipton, Michael, The Poor and the Poorest: Some Interim Findings, World Bank Discussion Paper No. 25, World Bank, Washington, D.C., 1988 Macro International Inc., Sampling Manual. DHS-III Basic Documentation No 6, Calverton, Maryland, 1996 Moser, C.A. and G. Kalton, Survey Methods in Social Investigation, Heinemann Educational Books, London, 1979 Mukui, John T., Household Survey of Lelaitich Location, Bomet District, Report Prepared for ACTIONAIDKenya, April 1998 Mukui, John T., Kenya: Poverty Profiles, 1982-92, Consultant Report Prepared for the World Bank and the Ministry of Planning and National Development, March 1994 Narayan, D. and D. Nyamwaya, A Participatory Poverty Assessment: Kenya, British ODA and UNICEF, June 1995 Oyaya, Charles, Land and Sustainable Development: Towards Participation Policy and Legal Reforms in Kenya: A Case Study of Mombasa Municipality, Coast Province, Kenya. Report Prepared for African Centre for Technology Studies (ACTS) and AAK, March 1999 Pace-Setters Communications Network, Mombasa Urban Development Initiative: Participatory Community Reentry Process in Ziwa la Ngombe, August 1998 Platt, B.S., Tables of Representative Values of Foods Commonly Used in Tropical Countries, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, 1962 Sehmi, J.K., National Food Composition Tables and the Planning of Satisfactory Diets in Kenya, Government Printer, Nairobi, 1993 Subramanian, Shankar, and Angus Deaton, The Demand for Food and Calories, Journal of Political Economy, 104(1), February 1996 Suchman, Edward A., Social Patterns of Illness and Medical Care, Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 6(1), 1965 Suchman, Edward A., Stages of Illness and Medical Care , Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 6(3), 1965 Suchman, E.A., Sociology and the Field of Public Health, Russell Sage Foundation, New York, 1963

31

United Nations, National Household Survey Capability Programme, Household Income and Expenditure Surveys: A technical study, New York, 1989 United Nations, Studies in Methods: Handbook of Household Surveys, New York, 1984 Weisner, Thomas S., One Family, Two Households: Rural-Urban Kin Networks in Nairobi, University of Nairobi, 1970

32

LIST OF ENUMERATORS

George M. Kalato Albert Wamisi Ali Mwachewa Kasiwa Kithi Charo M. Tangai Hassan Musa Kahindi Kadenge Lemmy M. Leja Alice Mbithi Kadir Hamisi

Community Health Worker, Mtongwe Bamako Initiative Student, Mombasa Polytechnic Chairman, Steering Committee, Mtongwe Bamako Initiative Resident, Bombolulu village Resident, Ziwa la Ngombe village Community Health Worker, Mtongwe Bamako Initiative Resident, Bombolulu village Primary School Teacher Community Health Worker, Mtongwe Bamako Initiative Survey Coordinator

33

STATISTICAL APPENDIX
Table 1: Distribution of Households by Interview Status Table 2: Distribution of the Responding Population by Age Group and Sex Table 3: Estimates of Total Population Using Weighted Data Table 4: Distribution of the Responding Population by Sex and Relation to Head Table 5: Distribution of the Responding Population by Sex and Marital Status Table 6: Distribution of the Responding Population by Marital Status, Age Group and Sex Table 7: Distribution of the Population Attending School Table 8: Distribution of the Population Not at School, > 6 years Table 9: Education Profile of the Population, > 6 years Table 10: Age-Grade Mismatch in the Education Cycle Table 11: Primary School Enrolment Table 12: Literacy Status of the Non-school Population, > 8 Years Table 13: Reasons for Dropping Out of Primary School, 1995-1998 Table 14: Distribution of the Population by Place of Birth Table 15: Distribution of Group Membership by Type of Self-Help Group (15+ years) Table 16: Types of Sickness in the Preceding Two Weeks by Sex Table 17: Types of Sickness in the Preceding Two Weeks by Age Table 18: Types of Sickness by First Action Taken Table 19: Number of Disabilities in the Responding Population Table 20: Distribution of Out-of-School Population by Occupation, >14 Years Table 21: Distribution of the Population by Religion and Province of Birth Table 22: Distribution of the Population by Religion and Province of Birth, > 14 Years Table 23: Distribution of Under-Fives by Place of Delivery Table 24: Distribution of Under-Fives by Delivering Personnel Table 25: Immunization Status by Sex, 11-59 Months Table 26: Distribution of Under-Fives by Months Breastfed Table 27: Distribution of Under-Fives by Type of First Supplement Table 28: Distribution of Under-Fives by Months Breastfed and Mothers Education Table 29: Distribution of the Main Residential Structure by Construction Materials: Wall Table 30: Distribution of the Main Residential Structure by Construction Materials: Floor Table 31: Distribution of the Main Residential Structure by Construction Materials: Roof Table 32: Combination of Construction Materials of the Main Residential Structure Table 33: Distribution of Households by Type of Dwelling Unit Table 34: Distribution of Households by Type of Dwelling Unit and Education of Household Head Table 35: Distribution of Households by Tenure of Main Dwelling Unit Table 36: Distribution of Tenure of Main Dwelling Unit by Whether Shared Table 37: Distribution of Households by Source of Water: Wet Season Table 38: Distribution of Households by Source of Water: Dry Season Table 39: Distribution of Households by Distance to Water Source: Wet Season Table 40: Distribution of Households by Distance to Water Source: Dry Season Table 41: Distribution of Households by Daily Water Consumption and Cost (Shs) Table 42: Distribution of Households by Household Members Responsible for Collecting Water Table 43: Distribution of Households by Disposal of Human Excreta Table 44: Distribution of Households by Method of Water Treatment Table 45: Distribution of Households by Main Types of Cooking and Lighting Fuels Table 46A: Distribution of Households by Whether Owned Selected Assets Table 46B: Distribution of Households by Whether Owned Selected Assets (%) Table 47A: Household Consumption per Month (Shs) Table 47B: Household Consumption Patterns (%) Table 48A: Household Consumption per Month by Sex and Age of Household Head (Shs)

34

Table 48B: Household Consumption Patterns by Sex and Age of Household Head (%) Table 49A: Per Capita Consumption per Month (Shs) Table 49B: Per Capita Consumption Patterns (%) Table 50A: Per Capita Consumption per Month by Sex and Age of Household Head (Shs) Table 50B: Per Capita Consumption Patterns by Sex and Age of Household Head (%) Table 51A: Adult Equivalent Consumption per Month (Shs) Table 51B: Adult Equivalent Consumption Patterns (%) Table 52A: Adult Equivalent Consumption per Month by Sex and Age of Household Head (Shs) Table 52B: Adult Equivalent Consumption Patterns by Sex and Age of Household Head (%) Table 53A: Estimated Calorie and Protein Availability per Adult Equivalent Table 53B: Estimated Calorie and Protein Availability per Adult Equivalent (%) Table 54A: Estimated Calorie and Protein Availability per Adult Equivalent by Sex and Age of Household Head Table 54B: Estimated Calorie and Protein Availability per Adult Equivalent by Sex and Age of Household Head (%) Table 55: Mean Household Income by Village (Shs) Table 56: Mean Household Income by Village excluding non-response on income (Shs) Table 57: Per Capita Income by Village (Shs) Table 58: Per Capita Income by Village excluding non-response on income (Shs) Table 59: Mean Household Income per Month by Sex and Age of Household Head (Shs) Table 60: Per Capita Income per Month by Sex and Age of Household Head (Shs) Table 61A: Discrepancies between Mean Monthly Household Consumption and Income (Shs) Table 61B: Consumption as Percent of Income Table 62A: Discrepancies between Mean Monthly Household Consumption and Income excluding income non-response (Shs) Table 62B: Consumption as Percent of Income excluding income non-response (Shs) Table 63: Distribution of the Responding Population in Gainful Employment Table 64: Persons Engaged in Household Self-Employment Enterprises Table 65: Incidence of Transfers-in by Relation to Donor Table 66: Incidence of Transfers-out by Relation to Donor Table 67: Distribution of Households by Land Ownership Anywhere in the Country Table 68: Ownership of Plots in Ziwa la Ngombe by Birth-Place of Household Head

35

Table 1: Distribution of Households by Interview Status Responded 79 Ziwa la Ngombe Bombolulu 45 Kisimani 95 Mkunguni 99 VoK 14 Total 332
0-4 20 16 36 15 12 27 31 20 51 51 38 89 8 9 17 125 95 220 14.1 14.5 14.3 14.3 11.5 12.9 15.7 14.1 15.0 20.3 18.4 19.4 20.5 16.7 18.3 17.0 15.4 16.3 125.0 125.0 155.0 134.2 88.9 131.6 5-9 15 12 27 11 12 23 20 21 41 39 24 63 5 15 20 90 84 174 10.6 10.9 10.7 10.5 11.5 11.0 10.2 14.8 12.1 15.5 11.6 13.8 12.8 27.8 21.5 12.3 13.6 12.9 125.0 91.7 95.2 162.5 33.3 107.1

Selected 102 40 138 136 30 446


10-14 8 15 23 10 10 20 12 12 24 21 19 40 7 4 11 58 60 118 5.6 13.6 9.1 9.5 9.6 9.6 6.1 8.5 7.1 8.4 9.2 8.7 17.9 7.4 11.8 7.9 9.7 8.7 53.3 100.0 100.0 110.5 175.0 96.7 15-24 31 22 53 23 36 59 50 39 89 47 60 107 7 8 15 158 165 323 21.8 20.0 21.0 21.9 34.6 28.2 25.4 27.5 26.3 18.7 29.0 23.4 17.9 14.8 16.1 21.5 26.7 23.9 140.9 63.9 128.2 78.3 87.5 95.8

Response Rate (%) 77.5 112.5 68.8 72.8 46.7 74.4


25-39 47 35 82 31 17 48 56 34 90 62 45 107 5 12 17 201 143 344 33.1 31.8 32.5 29.5 16.3 23.0 28.4 23.9 26.5 24.7 21.7 23.4 12.8 22.2 18.3 27.4 23.2 25.5 134.3 182.4 164.7 137.8 41.7 140.6 40-59 18 8 26 11 12 23 23 15 38 24 16 40 7 3 10 83 54 137 12.7 7.3 10.3 10.5 11.5 11.0 11.7 10.6 11.2 9.6 7.7 8.7 17.9 5.6 10.8 11.3 8.8 10.1 225.0 91.7 153.3 150.0 233.3 153.7 60+ 3 2 5 4 5 9 5 1 6 7 5 12 0 3 3 19 16 35 2.1 1.8 2.0 3.8 4.8 4.3 2.5 0.7 1.8 2.8 2.4 2.6 0.0 5.6 3.2 2.6 2.6 2.6 150.0 80.0 500.0 140.0 0.0 118.8 Total 142 110 252 105 104 209 197 142 339 251 207 458 39 54 93 734 617 1,351 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 129.1 101.0 138.7 121.3 72.2 119.0

Table 2: Distribution of the Responding Population by Age Group and Sex


Ziwa la Ngombe Bombolulu Kisimani Mkunguni VoK TOTAL PERCENT Ziwa la Ngombe Bombolulu Kisimani Mkunguni VoK TOTAL SEX RATIO Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Ziwa la Ngombe Bombolulu Kisimani Mkunguni VoK Total

* Eight (8) household members did not indicate their age.

36

Table 3: Estimates of Total Population Using Weighted Data Survey Results Household Listing Male Female Total Households Population Household Size Ziwa la Ngombe 2,997 2,295 5,292 1,690 4,446 2.63 Bombolulu 1,548 1,533 3,081 682 1,795 2.63 Kisimani 4,737 3,432 8,169 2,287 6,570 2.87 Mkunguni 5,124 4,184 9,308 2,278 6,164 2.71 VoK 1,390 1,925 3,315 495 1,381 2.79 Total 15,796 13,369 29,165 7,432 20,356 2.74 Note: People normally absent have been removed in computing total population. Table 4: Distribution of the Responding Population by Sex and Relation to Head
Headmale Ziwa la Ngombe Bombolulu Kisimani Mkunguni VoK Total PERCENT Ziwa la Ngombe Bombolulu Kisimani Mkunguni VoK Total 54 34 75 85 10 258 21.4 16.3 22.1 18.2 10.8 19.0 Headfemale 25 11 19 14 3 72 9.9 5.3 5.6 3.0 3.2 5.3 Spouse 35 28 63 73 15 214 13.9 13.4 18.6 15.7 16.1 15.7 Son 60 41 74 111 24 310 23.8 19.6 21.8 23.8 25.8 22.8 Daughter 48 37 57 96 27 265 19.0 17.7 16.8 20.6 29.0 19.5 Other relative 25 57 49 81 12 224 9.9 27.3 14.5 17.4 12.9 16.5 Nonrelative 5 1 2 6 2 16 2.0 0.5 0.6 1.3 2.2 1.2 Total 252 209 339 466 93 1,359 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 68.4 75.6 79.8 85.9 76.9 78.2 31.6 24.4 20.2 14.1 23.1 21.8 Maleheaded (%) Femaleheaded (%)

37

Table 5: Distribution of the Responding Population by Sex and Marital Status


Ziwa la Ngombe Bombolulu Kisimani Mkunguni VoK TOTAL PERCENT Ziwa la Ngombe Bombolulu Kisimani Mkunguni VoK TOTAL Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Total Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Total Never Married 87 67 54 54 121 69 159 106 27 34 448 330 778 61.3 60.9 51.4 51.9 61.4 48.6 62.4 50.2 69.2 63.0 60.7 53.1 57.2 Monogamy 51 31 47 40 63 54 86 84 8 9 255 218 473 35.9 28.2 44.8 38.5 32.0 38.0 33.7 39.8 20.5 16.7 34.6 35.1 34.8 Polygamy 3 3 3 0 12 10 5 9 4 8 27 30 57 2.1 2.7 2.9 0.0 6.1 7.0 2.0 4.3 10.3 14.8 3.7 4.8 4.2 Unmarried 1 9 1 10 1 9 5 12 0 3 8 43 51 0.7 8.2 1.0 9.6 0.5 6.3 2.0 5.7 0.0 5.6 1.1 6.9 3.8 Total 142 110 105 104 197 142 255 211 39 54 738 621 1,359 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

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Table 6: Distribution of the Responding Population by Marital Status, Age Group and Sex
Ziwa la Ngombe Male 0-4 5-9 10-14 15-24 25-39 40-59 60+ 0-4 5-9 10-14 15-24 25-39 40-59 60+ 0-4 5-9 10-14 15-24 25-39 40-59 60+ 0-4 5-9 10-14 15-24 25-39 40-59 60+ 0-4 5-9 10-14 15-24 25-39 40-59 60+ 0-4 5-9 10-14 15-24 25-39 40-59 60+ 0-4 5-9 10-14 15-24 25-39 40-59 60+ 0-4 5-9 10-14 15-24 25-39 40-59 60+ 0-4 Never Married 20 15 8 29 13 2 0 16 12 15 13 10 1 0 15 11 10 15 3 0 0 12 12 10 18 2 0 0 31 20 12 41 15 2 0 20 21 12 14 2 0 0 51 39 21 35 12 1 0 38 24 18 22 2 0 1 8 Monogamous 0 0 0 2 32 14 3 0 0 0 9 19 3 0 0 0 0 8 26 10 3 0 0 0 17 12 8 3 0 0 0 9 38 12 4 0 0 0 22 23 8 1 0 0 0 12 45 22 4 0 0 1 34 32 12 3 0 Polygamous 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 9 1 0 0 0 2 4 4 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 2 0 0 0 2 4 2 1 0 Unmarried 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 3 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 4 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 5 3 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 0 0 0 2 7 2 0 0 Total 20 15 8 31 47 18 3 16 12 15 22 35 8 2 15 11 10 23 31 11 4 12 12 10 36 17 12 5 31 20 12 50 56 23 5 20 21 12 39 34 15 1 51 39 21 47 62 24 7 38 24 19 60 45 16 5 8

Female

Bombolulu

Male

Female

Kisimani

Male

Female

Mkunguni

Male

Female

VoK

Male

39

Female

Total

Male

Female

Total (%)

Male

Female

5-9 10-14 15-24 25-39 40-59 60+ 0-4 5-9 10-14 15-24 25-39 40-59 60+ 0-4 5-9 10-14 15-24 25-39 40-59 60+ 0-4 5-9 10-14 15-24 25-39 40-59 60+ 0-4 5-9 10-14 15-24 25-39 40-59 60+ 0-4 5-9 10-14 15-24 25-39 40-59 60+

Never Married 5 7 6 1 0 9 15 4 5 1 0 0 125 90 58 126 44 5 0 95 84 59 72 17 1 1 100.0 100.0 100.0 79.7 21.9 6.0 0.0 100.0 100.0 98.3 43.6 11.9 1.9 6.3

Monogamous 0 0 1 4 3 0 0 0 3 2 3 1 0 0 0 32 145 61 14 0 0 1 85 88 34 8 0.0 0.0 0.0 20.3 72.1 73.5 73.7 0.0 0.0 1.7 51.5 61.5 63.0 50.0

Polygamous 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 16 4 0 0 0 4 18 7 1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.5 19.3 21.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.4 12.6 13.0 6.3

Unmarried 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 0 5 1 1 0 0 0 4 20 12 6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.5 1.2 5.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.4 14.0 22.2 37.5

Total 5 7 7 5 7 9 15 4 8 12 3 3 125 90 58 158 201 83 19 95 84 60 165 143 54 16 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

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Table 7: Distribution of the Population Attending School


Nursery Ziwa la Ngombe Bombolulu Kisimani Mkunguni VoK TOTAL PERCENT Ziwa la Ngombe Bombolulu Kisimani Mkunguni VoK TOTAL Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total 3 2 5 6 4 10 11 6 17 17 10 27 4 10 14 41 32 73 10.7 10.0 10.4 35.3 30.8 33.3 32.4 20.7 27.0 38.6 26.3 32.9 33.3 58.8 48.3 30.4 27.4 29.0 Lower Primary 15 14 29 7 5 12 9 11 20 18 16 34 6 3 9 55 49 104 53.6 70.0 60.4 41.2 38.5 40.0 26.5 37.9 31.7 40.9 42.1 41.5 50.0 17.6 31.0 40.7 41.9 41.3 Upper Primary 8 3 11 3 2 5 8 5 13 7 7 14 2 3 5 28 20 48 28.6 15.0 22.9 17.6 15.4 16.7 23.5 17.2 20.6 15.9 18.4 17.1 16.7 17.6 17.2 20.7 17.1 19.0 Lower Secondary 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 4 6 0 1 1 0 1 1 4 8 12 3.6 5.0 4.2 5.9 7.7 6.7 5.9 13.8 9.5 0.0 2.6 1.2 0.0 5.9 3.4 3.0 6.8 4.8 Upper Secondary 1 0 1 0 1 1 4 3 7 2 4 6 0 0 0 7 8 15 3.6 0.0 2.1 0.0 7.7 3.3 11.8 10.3 11.1 4.5 10.5 7.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 5.2 6.8 6.0 University 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Total 28 20 48 17 13 30 34 29 63 44 38 82 12 17 29 135 117 252 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

41

Table 8: Distribution of the Population Not at School, > 6 years


None Ziwa la Ngombe Bombolulu Kisimani Mkunguni VoK TOTAL PERCENT Ziwa la Ngombe Bombolulu Kisimani Mkunguni VoK TOTAL Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total 6 17 23 6 22 28 11 20 31 16 39 55 2 14 16 41 112 153 6.6 24.3 14.3 8.6 29.7 19.4 8.7 23.0 14.5 11.0 30.7 20.2 10.5 51.9 34.8 9.1 29.1 18.3 Nursery 0 0 0 1 1 2 2 4 6 1 0 1 0 0 0 4 5 9 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.6 4.6 2.8 0.7 0.0 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.9 1.3 1.1 Lower Primary 14 8 22 6 9 15 13 9 22 21 14 35 2 0 2 56 40 96 15.4 11.4 13.7 8.6 12.2 10.4 10.2 10.3 10.3 14.5 11.0 12.9 10.5 0.0 4.3 12.4 10.4 11.5 Upper Primary 46 34 80 33 31 64 66 40 106 63 59 122 12 10 22 220 174 394 50.5 48.6 49.7 47.1 41.9 44.4 52.0 46.0 49.5 43.4 46.5 44.9 63.2 37.0 47.8 48.7 45.2 47.1 Lower Secondary 6 0 6 6 2 8 3 3 6 4 4 8 0 0 0 19 9 28 6.6 0.0 3.7 8.6 2.7 5.6 2.4 3.4 2.8 2.8 3.1 2.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.2 2.3 3.3 Upper Secondary 18 10 28 18 9 27 32 11 43 39 11 50 3 3 6 110 44 154 19.8 14.3 17.4 25.7 12.2 18.8 25.2 12.6 20.1 26.9 8.7 18.4 15.8 11.1 13.0 24.3 11.4 18.4 University 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 2 1.1 0.0 0.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.7 0.0 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.4 0.0 0.2 Total 91 70 161 70 74 144 127 87 214 145 127 272 19 27 46 452 385 837 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

42

Table 9: Education Profile of the Population, > 6 years


None Ziwa la Ngombe Bombolulu Kisimani Mkunguni VoK TOTAL PERCENT Ziwa la Ngombe Bombolulu Kisimani Mkunguni VoK TOTAL Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total 6 17 23 6 22 28 11 20 31 16 39 55 2 14 16 41 112 153 5.1 19.3 11.2 7.1 25.9 16.5 7.1 17.9 11.7 8.9 24.7 16.3 6.7 35.9 23.2 7.3 23.2 14.6 Nursery 1 0 1 5 3 8 6 7 13 9 3 12 3 5 8 24 18 42 0.9 0.0 0.5 5.9 3.5 4.7 3.9 6.3 4.9 5.0 1.9 3.6 10.0 12.8 11.6 4.2 3.7 4.0 Lower Primary 29 22 51 13 14 27 22 19 41 38 30 68 8 3 11 110 88 198 24.8 25.0 24.9 15.3 16.5 15.9 14.3 17.0 15.4 21.2 19.0 20.2 26.7 7.7 15.9 19.5 18.3 18.9 Upper Primary 54 37 91 36 33 69 74 45 119 70 66 136 14 13 27 248 194 442 46.2 42.0 44.4 42.4 38.8 40.6 48.1 40.2 44.7 39.1 41.8 40.4 46.7 33.3 39.1 43.9 40.2 42.2 Lower Secondary 7 1 8 7 3 10 5 7 12 4 5 9 0 1 1 23 17 40 6.0 1.1 3.9 8.2 3.5 5.9 3.2 6.3 4.5 2.2 3.2 2.7 0.0 2.6 1.4 4.1 3.5 3.8 Upper Secondary 19 10 29 18 10 28 36 14 50 41 15 56 3 3 6 117 52 169 16.2 11.4 14.1 21.2 11.8 16.5 23.4 12.5 18.8 22.9 9.5 16.6 10.0 7.7 8.7 20.7 10.8 16.1 University 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 2 0.9 0.0 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.6 0.0 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.4 0.0 0.2 Total 117 88 205 85 85 170 154 112 266 179 158 337 30 39 69 565 482 1,047 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

43

Table 10: Age-Grade Mismatch in the Education Cycle


Nursery Number Male 0-6 7-10 11-14 15-18 19+ Total 0-6 7-10 11-14 15-18 19+ Total 0-6 7-10 11-14 15-18 19+ Total 0-6 7-10 11-14 15-18 19+ Total 0-6 7-10 11-14 15-18 19+ Total 0-6 7-10 11-14 15-18 19+ Total 21 18 2 0 0 41 19 12 1 0 0 32 40 30 3 0 0 73 51.2 43.9 4.9 0.0 0.0 100.0 59.4 37.5 3.1 0.0 0.0 100.0 54.8 41.1 4.1 0.0 0.0 100.0 Lower Primary 1 29 21 4 0 55 1 34 12 1 1 49 2 63 33 5 1 104 1.8 52.7 38.2 7.3 0.0 100.0 2.0 69.4 24.5 2.0 2.0 100.0 1.9 60.6 31.7 4.8 1.0 100.0 Upper Primary 0 0 15 9 4 28 0 0 13 7 0 20 0 0 28 16 4 48 0.0 0.0 53.6 32.1 14.3 100.0 0.0 0.0 65.0 35.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 0.0 58.3 33.3 8.3 100.0 Lower Secondary 0 0 0 2 2 4 0 0 2 4 2 8 0 0 2 6 4 12 0.0 0.0 0.0 50.0 50.0 100.0 0.0 0.0 25.0 50.0 25.0 100.0 0.0 0.0 16.7 50.0 33.3 100.0 Upper Secondary 0 0 0 2 5 7 0 0 0 2 6 8 0 0 0 4 11 15 0.0 0.0 0.0 28.6 71.4 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 25.0 75.0 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 26.7 73.3 100.0 University 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Total 22 47 38 17 11 135 20 46 28 14 9 117 42 93 66 31 20 252 16.3 34.8 28.1 12.6 8.1 100.0 17.1 39.3 23.9 12.0 7.7 100.0 16.7 36.9 26.2 12.3 7.9 100.0

Female

TOTAL

PERCENT Male

Female

TOTAL

Table 11: Primary School Enrolment


Population Ziwa la Ngombe Bombolulu Kisimani Mkunguni VoK TOTAL Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total 18 21 39 16 15 31 20 23 43 39 32 71 11 13 24 104 104 208 Net enrolment 16 16 32 10 6 16 12 13 25 20 19 39 7 5 12 65 59 124 Net enrolment ratio (%) 88.9 76.2 82.1 62.5 40.0 51.6 60.0 56.5 58.1 51.3 59.4 54.9 63.6 38.5 50.0 62.5 56.7 59.6 Gross enrolment 23 17 40 10 7 17 17 16 33 25 23 48 8 6 14 83 69 152 Gross enrolment ratio (%) 127.8 81.0 102.6 62.5 46.7 54.8 85.0 69.6 76.7 64.1 71.9 67.6 72.7 46.2 58.3 79.8 66.3 73.1

44

Table 12: Literacy Status of the Non-school Population, > 8 Years Can read Cant read Can write Cant write 81 9 81 9 Ziwa la Ngombe Male Female 52 18 53 17 Total 133 27 134 26 Bombolulu Male 64 6 63 7 Female 49 23 48 24 Total 113 29 111 31 Kisimani Male 116 10 115 11 Female 66 19 65 20 Total 182 29 180 31 Mkunguni Male 123 18 123 18 Female 86 40 86 40 Total 209 58 209 58 VoK Male 16 3 16 3 Female 12 14 12 14 Total 28 17 28 17 TOTAL Male 400 46 398 48 Female 265 114 264 115 Total 665 160 662 163 PERCENT 90.0 10.0 90.0 10.0 Ziwa la Ngombe Male Female 74.3 25.7 75.7 24.3 Total 83.1 16.9 83.8 16.3 Bombolulu Male 91.4 8.6 90.0 10.0 Female 68.1 31.9 66.7 33.3 Total 79.6 20.4 78.2 21.8 Kisimani Male 92.1 7.9 91.3 8.7 Female 76.7 22.1 75.6 23.3 Total 85.8 13.7 84.9 14.6 Mkunguni Male 87.2 12.8 87.2 12.8 Female 68.3 31.7 68.3 31.7 Total 78.3 21.7 78.3 21.7 VoK Male 84.2 15.8 84.2 15.8 Female 46.2 53.8 46.2 53.8 Total 62.2 37.8 62.2 37.8 TOTAL Male 89.7 10.3 89.2 10.8 Female 69.7 30.0 69.5 30.3 Total 80.5 19.4 80.1 19.7

Can read/write 81 52 133 63 48 111 115 65 180 123 86 209 16 12 28 398 263 661 90.0 74.3 83.1 90.0 66.7 78.2 91.3 75.6 84.9 87.2 68.3 78.3 84.2 46.2 62.2 89.2 69.2 80.0

Total 90 70 160 70 72 142 126 86 212 141 126 267 19 26 45 446 380 826 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

45

Table 13: Reasons for Dropping Out of Primary School, 1995-1998


Pregnancy Ziwa la Ngombe Bombolulu Kisimani Mkunguni VoK TOTAL TOTAL (%) Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Total Male Female Total 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Marriage 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 3 3 0.0 6.5 3.0 Fees 7 5 3 7 15 7 18 11 2 1 45 31 76 83.3 67.4 76.0 Failed exam 2 2 0 0 0 1 0 2 1 1 3 6 9 5.6 13.0 9.0 Other 1 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 0 0 6 6 12 11.1 13.0 12.0 Total 10 7 4 8 16 11 21 18 3 2 54 46 100 100.0 100.0 100.0 Enrolment 92 68 40 28 68 64 96 92 32 24 328 276 604 Dropout rate (%) 10.9 10.3 10.0 28.6 23.5 17.2 21.9 19.6 9.4 8.3 16.5 16.7 16.6

Table 14: Distribution of the Population by Place of Birth Ziwa Mombasa Male 34 7 Ziwa la Ngombe Female 35 14 Total 69 21 Bombolulu Male 9 35 Female 10 37 Total 19 72 Kisimani Male 45 19 Female 41 15 Total 86 34 Mkunguni Male 63 21 Female 47 19 Total 110 40 VoK Male 3 17 Female 12 17 Total 15 34 TOTAL Male 154 99 Female 145 102 Total 299 201 PERCENT Male 23.9 4.9 Ziwa la Ngombe Female 31.8 12.7 Total 27.4 8.3 Bombolulu Male 8.6 33.3 Female 9.6 35.6 Total 9.1 34.4 Kisimani Male 22.8 9.6 Female 28.9 10.6 Total 25.4 10.0 Mkunguni Male 24.7 8.2 Female 22.3 9.0 46

Coast 53 29 82 48 48 96 82 48 130 122 101 223 17 21 38 322 247 569 37.3 26.4 32.5 45.7 46.2 45.9 41.6 33.8 38.3 47.8 47.9

Outside Coast 48 32 80 13 9 22 51 38 89 49 44 93 2 4 6 163 127 290 33.8 29.1 31.7 12.4 8.7 10.5 25.9 26.8 26.3 19.2 20.9

Total 142 110 252 105 104 209 197 142 339 255 211 466 39 54 93 738 621 1,359 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

VoK

TOTAL

Total Male Female Total Male Female Total


Merrygoround (cash) 0 4 2 8 4 8 3 14 2 4 11 38 49 0.0 33.3 33.3 53.3 36.4 80.0 33.3 87.5 50.0 100.0 31.4 66.7 53.3 Property agency 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0.0 0.0 0.0 6.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.8 1.1

Ziwa 23.6 7.7 22.2 16.1 20.9 23.3 22.0


Sacco

Mombasa 8.6 43.6 31.5 36.6 13.4 16.4 14.8


Fish marketing 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

Coast 47.9 43.6 38.9 40.9 43.6 39.8 41.9


Shop

Outside Coast 20.0 5.1 7.4 6.5 22.1 20.5 21.3


Other Total Grand Total 99 67 69 70 134 89 140 126 19 26 461 378 839

Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0


% in Groups 5.1 17.9 8.7 21.4 8.2 11.2 6.4 12.7 21.1 15.4 7.6 15.1 11.0

Table 15: Distribution of Group Membership by Type of Self-Help Group (15+ years)
Joint house ownership 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

Ziwa la Ngombe Bombolulu Kisimani Mkunguni VoK Total TOTAL PERCENT Ziwa la Ngombe Bombolulu Kisimani Mkunguni VoK Total TOTAL

Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female

3 8 4 6 4 0 4 1 2 0 17 15 32 60.0 66.7 66.7 40.0 36.4 0.0 44.4 6.3 50.0 0.0 48.6 26.3 34.8

0 0 0 0 2 1 1 0 0 0 3 1 4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 18.2 10.0 11.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 8.6 1.8 4.3

2 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 4 2 6 40.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 9.1 10.0 11.1 6.3 0.0 0.0 11.4 3.5 6.5

5 12 6 15 11 10 9 16 4 4 35 57 92 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Table 16: Types of Sickness in the Preceding Two Weeks by Sex Vomit/ Malaria/ Cough/ Injury/ Other Total diarrhea fever cold burns Male 9 90 21 4 19 143 Female 18 90 19 2 24 153 Total 27 180 40 6 43 296 PERCENT Male 6.3 62.9 14.7 2.8 13.3 100.0 Female 11.8 58.8 12.4 1.3 15.7 100.0 Total 9.1 60.8 13.5 2.0 14.5 100.0

Grand Total 738 621 1,359

Sick (%) 19.4 24.6 21.8

47

Table 17: Types of Sickness in the Preceding Two Weeks by Age


Vomit/ diarrhea 0-5 6-15 16+ Total PERCENT 0-5 6-15 16+ Total 13 2 12 27 19.4 5.1 6.3 9.1 Malaria/ fever 37 22 121 180 55.2 56.4 63.7 60.8 Cough/ cold 12 4 24 40 17.9 10.3 12.6 13.5 Injury/ burns 0 1 5 6 0.0 2.6 2.6 2.0 Other 5 10 28 43 7.5 25.6 14.7 14.5 Total 67 39 190 296 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Grand Total 268 270 821 1,359 Sick (%) 25.0 14.4 23.1 21.8

Table 18: Types of Sickness by First Action Taken


Nothing Prayers Traditional medicine/ healer OTC drugs Hospital facility Other Total PERCENT Nothing Prayers Traditional medicine/ healer OTC drugs Hospital facility Other Total Vomit/ diarrhea 3 0 1 9 14 0 27 11.1 0.0 3.7 33.3 51.9 0.0 100.0 Malaria/ fever 10 2 2 73 93 0 180 5.6 1.1 1.1 40.6 51.7 0.0 100.0 Cough/ cold 3 3 4 14 16 0 40 7.5 7.5 10.0 35.0 40.0 0.0 100.0 Injury/ burns 0 0 0 0 4 2 6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 66.7 33.3 100.0 Other 3 1 1 6 32 0 43 7.0 2.3 2.3 14.0 74.4 0.0 100.0 Total 19 6 8 102 159 2 296 6.4 2.0 2.7 34.5 53.7 0.7 100.0

Table 19: Number of Disabilities in the Responding Population


Seeing Male Female Total PERCENT Male Female Total 6 2 8 0.81 0.32 0.59 Hearing 1 4 5 0.14 0.64 0.37 Speaking 0 2 2 0.00 0.32 0.15 Upper limbs 1 3 4 0.14 0.48 0.29 Lower limbs 4 6 10 0.54 0.97 0.74 Hunch 0 0 0 0.00 0.00 0.00 Mental 2 0 2 0.27 0.00 0.15 Total Disabilities 14 17 31 1.90 2.74 2.28 Total Disabled 13 11 24 1.76 1.77 1.77 Total Population 738 621 1,359 100.00 100.00 100.00

48

Table 20: Distribution of Out-of-School Population by Occupation, >14 Years


EmployeePublic Ziwa la Ngombe Bombolulu Kisimani Mkunguni VoK TOTAL PERCENT Ziwa la Ngombe Bombolulu Kisimani Mkunguni VoK TOTAL Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total 2 1 3 1 0 1 3 1 4 4 0 4 1 0 1 11 2 13 2.2 1.5 1.9 1.5 0.0 0.7 2.4 1.2 2.0 3.0 0.0 1.6 5.6 0.0 2.4 2.5 0.6 1.6 EmployeePrivate 44 11 55 40 7 47 60 6 66 83 5 88 10 1 11 237 30 267 48.9 16.7 35.3 58.8 10.4 34.8 48.8 7.4 32.4 61.9 4.3 35.1 55.6 4.2 26.2 54.7 8.5 33.9 Self employedowner 23 22 45 12 22 34 29 25 54 23 26 49 3 3 6 90 98 188 25.6 33.3 28.8 17.6 32.8 25.2 23.6 30.9 26.5 17.2 22.2 19.5 16.7 12.5 14.3 20.8 27.6 23.9 Self employedunpaid 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.5 0.7 0.0 3.7 1.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.1 0.5 Unemployed 21 32 53 15 37 52 31 46 77 24 86 110 4 20 24 95 221 316 23.3 48.5 34.0 22.1 55.2 38.5 25.2 56.8 37.7 17.9 73.5 43.8 22.2 83.3 57.1 21.9 62.3 40.1 Total 90 66 156 68 67 135 123 81 204 134 117 251 18 24 42 433 355 788 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

49

Table 21: Distribution of the Population by Religion and Province of Birth Muslim Catholic Protestant None Not Stated 0 0 0 1 Nairobi 0 2 1 7 Central 0 1 22 13 Coast 87 404 145 413 Eastern 0 0 62 50 Northeastern 0 0 0 1 Nyanza 0 0 19 52 Rift Valley 0 3 3 9 Western 0 1 5 33 Total 87 411 257 579 PERCENT Not Stated 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 Nairobi 0.0 20.0 10.0 70.0 Central 0.0 2.7 59.5 35.1 Coast 8.2 38.1 13.7 39.0 Eastern 0.0 0.0 53.0 42.7 Northeastern 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 Nyanza 0.0 0.0 26.0 71.2 Rift Valley 0.0 20.0 20.0 60.0 Western 0.0 2.3 11.4 75.0 Total 6.4 30.3 18.9 42.7

Other 0 0 1 10 5 0 2 0 5 23 0.0 0.0 2.7 0.9 4.3 0.0 2.7 0.0 11.4 1.7

Total 1 10 37 1,059 117 1 73 15 44 1,357 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Total 1 8 26 604 97 1 55 13 34 839 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Table 22: Distribution of the Population by Religion and Province of Birth, > 14 Years None Muslim Catholic Protestant Other Not Stated 0 0 0 1 0 Nairobi 0 2 1 5 0 Central 0 1 14 10 1 Coast 59 220 87 234 4 Eastern 0 0 51 44 2 Northeastern 0 0 0 1 0 Nyanza 0 0 14 40 1 Rift Valley 0 3 3 7 0 Western 0 1 4 25 4 Total 59 227 174 367 12 PERCENT Not Stated 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 Nairobi 0.0 25.0 12.5 62.5 0.0 Central 0.0 3.8 53.8 38.5 3.8 Coast 9.8 36.4 14.4 38.7 0.7 Eastern 0.0 0.0 52.6 45.4 2.1 Northeastern 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 Nyanza 0.0 0.0 25.5 72.7 1.8 Rift Valley 0.0 23.1 23.1 53.8 0.0 Western 0.0 2.9 11.8 73.5 11.8 Total 7.0 27.1 20.7 43.7 1.4

50

Table 23: Distribution of Under-Fives by Place of Delivery Hospital/ health facility Ziwa la Ngombe Bombolulu Kisimani Mkunguni VoK Total PERCENT Ziwa la Ngombe Bombolulu Kisimani Mkunguni VoK Total Table 24: Distribution of Under-Fives by Delivering Personnel Doctor Nurse/ midwife 16 6 Ziwa la Ngombe Bombolulu 8 2 Kisimani 22 4 Mkunguni 16 13 VoK 9 0 Total 71 25 PERCENT 45.7 17.1 Ziwa la Ngombe Bombolulu 33.3 8.3 Kisimani 43.1 7.8 Mkunguni 18.2 14.8 VoK 56.3 0.0 Total 33.2 11.7 Table 25: Immunization Status by Sex, 11-59 Months
Card Male Female Total PERCENT Male Female Total 85 63 148 87.6 94.0 90.2 BCG 93 67 160 95.9 100.0 97.6 BCG Scar 92 67 159 94.8 100.0 97.0 PolioB 92 67 159 94.8 100.0 97.0 Polio1 91 66 157 93.8 98.5 95.7 Polio2 91 67 158 93.8 100.0 96.3 Polio3 91 66 157 93.8 98.5 95.7 DPT1 89 66 155 91.8 98.5 94.5

Home 22 10 25 23 9 89 62.9 41.7 49.0 26.1 56.3 41.6 TBA 12 13 20 52 3 100 34.3 54.2 39.2 59.1 18.8 46.7
DPT2 89 66 155 91.8 98.5 94.5 DPT3 89 66 155 91.8 98.5 94.5

Total 35 24 51 88 16 214 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Total 35 24 51 88 16 214 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Total 97 67 164

13 14 26 65 7 125 37.1 58.3 51.0 73.9 43.8 58.4 Other 1 1 5 7 4 18 2.9 4.2 9.8 8.0 25.0 8.4
Measles 83 65 148 85.6 97.0 90.2 Full immu. 84 64 148 86.6 95.5 90.2

Table 26: Distribution of Under-Fives by Months Breastfed

Breastfeeding Stopped PERCENT Breastfeeding Stopped

0-12 59 34 66.3 27.9

13-24 22 79 24.7 64.8

25+ 8 9 9.0 7.4

Total 89 122 100.0 100.0

Mean months exclusive 3.4 4.6

Mean months total 11.6 17.7

51

Table 27: Distribution of Under-Fives by Type of First Supplement

Milk other than breast Breastfeeding Stopped Total PERCENT Breastfeeding Stopped Total 3 14 17 4.5 11.5 9.0 Months Breastfed None Primary Secondary
**For those who had stopped breastfeeding

Porridge 55 74 129 82.1 60.7 68.3

Semi-solids 6 25 31 9.0 20.5 16.4

Other 3 9 12 4.5 7.4 6.3

Total 67 122 189 100.0 100.0 100.0

Table 28: Distribution of Under-Fives by Months Breastfed and Mothers Education

Months Exclusive 19.6 16.6 19.5 6.1 4.4 3.4

Table 29: Distribution of the Main Residential Structure by Construction Materials: Wall
Stone Ziwa la Ngombe Bombolulu Kisimani Mkunguni VoK Total PERCENT Ziwa la Ngombe Bombolulu Kisimani Mkunguni VoK Total 13 6 24 12 1 56 16.5 13.3 25.3 12.1 7.1 16.9 Brick/ block 6 7 8 11 0 32 7.6 15.6 8.4 11.1 0.0 9.6 Mud/ earth 33 25 41 42 7 148 41.8 55.6 43.2 42.4 50.0 44.6 Mudcement 27 7 20 34 6 94 34.2 15.6 21.1 34.3 42.9 28.3 Other 0 0 2 0 0 2 0.0 0.0 2.1 0.0 0.0 0.6 Permanent 19 13 32 23 1 88 24.1 28.9 33.7 23.2 7.1 26.5 Temporary 60 32 63 76 13 244 75.9 71.1 66.3 76.8 92.9 73.5 Total 79 45 95 99 14 332 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 People per room 2.26 2.79 2.64 2.73 4.25 2.66

Table 30: Distribution of the Main Residential Structure by Construction Materials: Floor Mud/ earth Timber Cement Other Permanent Temporary 35 1 43 0 43 36 Ziwa la Ngombe Bombolulu 19 0 26 0 26 19 Kisimani 51 0 43 1 43 52 Mkunguni 41 0 58 0 58 41 VoK 8 0 6 0 6 8 Total 154 1 176 1 176 156 PERCENT 44.3 1.3 54.4 0.0 54.4 45.6 Ziwa la Ngombe Bombolulu 42.2 0.0 57.8 0.0 57.8 42.2 Kisimani 53.7 0.0 45.3 1.1 45.3 54.7 Mkunguni 41.4 0.0 58.6 0.0 58.6 41.4 VoK 57.1 0.0 42.9 0.0 42.9 57.1 Total 46.4 0.3 53.0 0.3 53.0 47.0

Total 79 45 95 99 14 332 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

52

Table 31: Distribution of the Main Residential Structure by Construction Materials: Roof

Ziwa la Ngombe Bombolulu Kisimani Mkunguni VoK Total PERCENT Ziwa la Ngombe Bombolulu Kisimani Mkunguni VoK Total

Makuti 38 29 43 47 11 168 48.1 64.4 45.3 47.5 78.6 50.6

Iron sheets 40 16 52 52 3 163 50.6 35.6 54.7 52.5 21.4 49.1

Other 1 0 0 0 0 1 1.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3

Permanent 40 16 52 52 3 163 50.6 35.6 54.7 52.5 21.4 49.1

Temporary 39 29 43 47 11 169 49.4 64.4 45.3 47.5 78.6 50.9

Total 79 45 95 99 14 332 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Table 32: Combination of Construction Materials of the Main Residential Structure

NUMBER Temporary Roof Wall Temporary Permanent Total Permanent Roof Wall Temporary Permanent Total PERCENT Temporary Roof Wall Temporary Permanent Total Permanent Roof Wall Temporary Permanent Total Floor Temporary 30.9 13.0 23.3 Permanent 69.1 87.0 76.7 100.0 100.0 100.0 Floor Temporary 72.7 47.4 69.8 Permanent 27.3 52.6 30.2 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Floor Temporary 29 9 38 Permanent 65 60 125 94 69 163 Floor Temporary 109 9 118 Permanent 41 10 51 Total 150 19 169

53

Table 33: Distribution of Households by Type of Dwelling Unit

Ziwa la Ngombe Bombolulu Kisimani Mkunguni VoK Total PERCENT Ziwa la Ngombe Bombolulu Kisimani Mkunguni VoK Total

Swahili 67 39 76 88 12 282 84.8 86.7 80.0 88.9 85.7 84.9

Barrack 11 4 12 10 2 39 13.9 8.9 12.6 10.1 14.3 11.7

House 1 1 2 1 0 5 1.3 2.2 2.1 1.0 0.0 1.5

Maisonette 0 1 0 0 0 1 0.0 2.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3

Shanty 0 0 5 0 0 5 0.0 0.0 5.3 0.0 0.0 1.5

Total 79 45 95 99 14 332 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Table 34: Distribution of Households by Type of Dwelling Unit and Education of Household Head

None Primary Secondary Secondary+ Total PERCENT None Primary Secondary Secondary+ Total

Swahili 43 141 95 1 280 84.3 79.2 96.0 50.0 84.8

Barrack 7 30 2 0 39 13.7 16.9 2.0 0.0 11.8

House 0 3 1 1 5 0.0 1.7 1.0 50.0 1.5

Maisonette 0 0 1 0 1 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 0.3 Houselord

Shanty 1 4 0 0 5 2.0 2.2 0.0 0.0 1.5 Other 0 0 0 1 0 1 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 0.3

Total 51 178 99 2 330 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Total 79 45 95 99 14 332 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Table 35: Distribution of Households by Tenure of Main Dwelling Unit

Ziwa la Ngombe Bombolulu Kisimani Mkunguni VoK Total PERCENT Ziwa la Ngombe Bombolulu Kisimani Mkunguni VoK Total

Renter 51 23 63 63 7 207 64.6 51.1 66.3 63.6 50.0 62.3

Rent-free 2 3 0 3 0 8 2.5 6.7 0.0 3.0 0.0 2.4

26 19 32 32 7 116 32.9 42.2 33.7 32.3 50.0 34.9

54

Table 36: Distribution of Tenure of Main Dwelling Unit by Whether Shared

Renter Shared Yes No Total PERCENT Shared Yes No Total 202 5 207 97.6 2.4 100.0

Rent-free 6 2 8 75.0 25.0 100.0

Houselord 83 33 116 71.6 28.4 100.0

Other 1 0 1 100.0 0.0 100.0

Total 292 40 332 88.0 12.0 100.0

Table 37: Distribution of Households by Source of Water: Wet Season Borehole Piped Unprotected well 0 78 Ziwa la Ngombe Bombolulu 0 45 Kisimani 1 92 Mkunguni 0 98 VoK 1 13 Total 2 326 PERCENT 0.0 98.7 Ziwa la Ngombe Bombolulu 0.0 100.0 Kisimani 1.1 97.9 Mkunguni 0.0 99.0 VoK 7.1 92.9 Total 0.6 98.5 Table 38: Distribution of Households by Source of Water: Dry Season Borehole Piped Unprotected well 6 30 40 Ziwa la Ngombe Bombolulu 8 34 3 Kisimani 29 12 44 Mkunguni 0 77 22 VoK 6 8 0 Total 49 161 109 PERCENT 7.9 39.5 52.6 Ziwa la Ngombe Bombolulu 17.8 75.6 6.7 Kisimani 31.2 12.9 47.3 Mkunguni 0.0 77.8 22.2 VoK 42.9 57.1 0.0 Total 15.0 49.2 33.3

Total 1 0 1 1 0 3 1.3 0.0 1.1 1.0 0.0 0.9 79 45 94 99 14 331 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Total 76 45 93 99 14 327 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Other 0 0 8 0 0 8 0.0 0.0 8.6 0.0 0.0 2.4

55

Table 39: Distribution of Households by Distance to Water Source: Wet Season 0-0.5 <=1.0 <=2.0 >2.0 Total 78 1 0 0 79 Ziwa la Ngombe Bombolulu 44 1 0 0 45 Kisimani 94 0 1 0 95 Mkunguni 97 0 2 0 99 VoK 14 0 0 0 14 Total 327 2 3 0 332 PERCENT 98.7 1.3 0.0 0.0 100.0 Ziwa la Ngombe Bombolulu 97.8 2.2 0.0 0.0 100.0 Kisimani 98.9 0.0 1.1 0.0 100.0 Mkunguni 98.0 0.0 2.0 0.0 100.0 VoK 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 Total 98.5 0.6 0.9 0.0 100.0 Table 40: Distribution of Households by Distance to Water Source: Dry Season 0-0.5 <=1.0 <=2.0 >2.0 Total 54 15 7 3 79 Ziwa la Ngombe Bombolulu 40 3 1 1 45 Kisimani 52 36 4 3 95 Mkunguni 86 8 5 0 99 VoK 12 2 0 0 14 Total 244 64 17 7 332 PERCENT 68.4 19.0 8.9 3.8 100.0 Ziwa la Ngombe Bombolulu 88.9 6.7 2.2 2.2 100.0 Kisimani 54.7 37.9 4.2 3.2 100.0 Mkunguni 86.9 8.1 5.1 0.0 100.0 VoK 85.7 14.3 0.0 0.0 100.0 Total 73.5 19.3 5.1 2.1 100.0

Mean distance (km) 0.06 0.09 0.12 0.07 0.11 0.08

Mean distance (km) 0.64 0.30 0.72 0.23 0.32 0.48

Table 41: Distribution of Households by Daily Water Consumption and Cost (Shs)

Ziwa la Ngombe Bombolulu Kisimani Mkunguni VoK Total

20-litre containers 2.89 4.05 3.23 2.78 4.29 3.17

Cost-wet season 2.18 2.00 2.22 2.25 2.14 2.19

Cost-dry season 3.21 7.26 3.83 3.76 6.64 4.24

56

Table 42: Distribution of Households by Household Members Responsible for Collecting Water

Ziwa la Ngombe Bombolulu Kisimani Mkunguni VoK Total PERCENT Ziwa la Ngombe Bombolulu Kisimani Mkunguni VoK Total

Wife/ female children 46 33 55 65 11 210 60.5 75.0 57.9 66.3 78.6 64.2

Husband/ male children 23 8 30 25 2 88 30.3 18.2 31.6 25.5 14.3 26.9

Other 7 3 10 8 1 29 9.2 6.8 10.5 8.2 7.1 8.9

Total 76 44 95 98 14 327 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Table 43: Distribution of Households by Disposal of Human Excreta Own pit Communal pit 5 Ziwa la Ngombe Bombolulu 0 Kisimani 6 Mkunguni 2 VoK 1 Total 14 PERCENT 6.3 Ziwa la Ngombe Bombolulu 0.0 Kisimani 6.3 Mkunguni 2.1 VoK 7.1 Total 4.3

Bush 70 42 89 88 13 302 88.6 93.3 93.7 92.6 92.9 92.1 Other 1 0 0 0 0 1 1.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 4 3 0 5 0 12 5.1 6.7 0.0 5.3 0.0 3.7

Total 79 45 95 95 14 328 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Total 79 45 95 96 14 329 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Table 44: Distribution of Households by Method of Water Treatment Nothing Boil Filter 60 18 0 Ziwa la Ngombe Bombolulu 32 13 0 Kisimani 70 25 0 Mkunguni 77 16 3 VoK 10 4 0 Total 249 76 3 PERCENT 75.9 22.8 0.0 Ziwa la Ngombe Bombolulu 71.1 28.9 0.0 Kisimani 73.7 26.3 0.0 Mkunguni 80.2 16.7 3.1 VoK 71.4 28.6 0.0 Total 75.7 23.1 0.9

57

Table 45: Distribution of Households by Main Types of Cooking and Lighting Fuels Cooking fuel Lighting fuel Firewood/ Electricity Gas Paraffin Electricity Gas Paraffin charcoal Ziwa la 16 0 0 63 0 0 79 Ngombe Bombolulu 11 0 0 34 2 0 43 Kisimani 17 0 0 78 3 0 91 Mkunguni 19 0 0 80 0 1 98 VoK 4 0 1 9 0 0 14 Total 67 0 1 264 5 1 325 PERCENT Ziwa la 20.3 0.0 0.0 79.7 0.0 0.0 100.0 Ngombe Bombolulu 24.4 0.0 0.0 75.6 4.4 0.0 95.6 Kisimani 18.1 0.0 0.0 83.0 3.2 0.0 96.8 Mkunguni 19.2 0.0 0.0 80.8 0.0 1.0 99.0 VoK 28.6 0.0 7.1 64.3 0.0 0.0 100.0 Total 20.2 0.0 0.3 79.8 1.5 0.3 98.2 Table 46A: Distribution of Households by Whether Owned Selected Assets
Cooker Ziwa la Ngombe Bombolulu Kisimani Mkunguni VoK Total Gender Male Female Total 1 2 0 4 1 8 7 1 8 Stove 71 41 92 93 12 309 242 65 307 Radio 41 23 55 53 7 179 149 28 177 TV 5 3 3 8 1 20 15 5 20 Bicycle 7 2 12 17 0 38 34 4 38 Sewing machine 6 8 11 9 2 36 25 10 35 Car 1 0 1 0 0 2 2 0 2 Motorcycle 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Refrigerator 1 0 2 0 0 3 3 0 3 Ironbox 16 10 27 32 2 87 73 13 86 Handcart 2 1 5 4 0 12 11 1 12 Goat 5 7 3 9 1 25 20 5 25

Total 79 45 94 99 14 331 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Total 79 45 95 99 14 332 258 72 330

Table 46B: Distribution of Households by Whether Owned Selected Assets (%)


Cooker Ziwa la Ngombe Bombolulu Kisimani Mkunguni VoK Total Gender Male Female Total 1.3 4.4 0.0 4.0 7.1 2.4 2.7 1.4 2.4 Stove 89.9 91.1 96.8 93.9 85.7 93.1 93.8 90.3 93.0 Radio 51.9 51.1 57.9 53.5 50.0 53.9 57.8 38.9 53.6 TV 6.3 6.7 3.2 8.1 7.1 6.0 5.8 6.9 6.1 Bicycle 8.9 4.4 12.6 17.2 0.0 11.4 13.2 5.6 11.5 Sewing machine 7.6 17.8 11.6 9.1 14.3 10.8 9.7 13.9 10.6 Car 1.3 0.0 1.1 0.0 0.0 0.6 0.8 0.0 0.6 Motorcycle 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Refrigerator 1.3 0.0 2.1 0.0 0.0 0.9 1.2 0.0 0.9 Ironbox 20.3 22.2 28.4 32.3 14.3 26.2 28.3 18.1 26.1 Handcart 2.5 2.2 5.3 4.0 0.0 3.6 4.3 1.4 3.6 Goat 6.3 15.6 3.2 9.1 7.1 7.5 7.8 6.9 7.6 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

58

Table 47A: Household Consumption per Month (Shs)

Ziwa FOOD Bread Cereals Pulses Meat Fats Fruits Vegetables Roots Milk and Eggs Sugar Beverages Flavors Meals-out Total Food NON-FOOD Fuel Household operations Alcohol Tobacco Transport Rent Personal Health Cloth-wear Footwear Education Furniture Total Non-Food Food Non-food Total 465 1,066 237 787 225 214 653 191 466 168 134 112 331 5,050 451 540 363 254 337 946 140 316 386 125 315 72 4,245 5,050 4,245 9,295

Bombolulu 748 1,734 286 1,020 332 342 747 209 572 329 226 210 361 7,117 820 665 667 249 588 1,162 279 695 363 118 263 75 5,987 7,117 5,987 13,205

Kisimani 610 1,351 322 1,047 270 276 792 164 652 212 200 122 667 6,686 425 655 189 366 808 1,021 222 503 461 164 676 62 5,549 6,686 5,549 12,235

Mkunguni 511 1,251 250 945 202 204 602 160 443 183 170 94 377 5,393 325 541 160 193 463 953 187 450 312 124 188 36 3,931 5,393 3,931 9,324

VoK 654 1,615 196 668 206 283 609 436 243 218 109 175 243 5,654 439 830 44 1 484 1,054 73 487 398 174 466 24 4,474 5,654 4,474 10,128

Total 567 1,316 270 935 245 249 688 187 517 209 175 126 441 5,926 455 602 280 256 550 1,003 193 468 383 137 380 56 4,767 5,926 4,767 10,703

59

Table 47B: Household Consumption Patterns (%)

Ziwa FOOD Bread Cereals Pulses Meat Fats Fruits Vegetables Roots Milk and Eggs Sugar Beverages Flavors Meals-out Total Food NON-FOOD Fuel Household operations Alcohol Tobacco Transport Rent Personal Health Cloth-wear Footwear Education Furniture Total Non-Food Food Non-food Total 5.0 11.5 2.6 8.5 2.4 2.3 7.0 2.1 5.0 1.8 1.4 1.2 3.6 54.3 4.9 5.8 3.9 2.7 3.6 10.2 1.5 3.4 4.2 1.3 3.4 0.8 45.7 54.3 45.7 100.0

Bombolulu 5.7 13.1 2.2 7.7 2.5 2.6 5.7 1.6 4.3 2.5 1.7 1.6 2.7 53.9 6.2 5.0 5.1 1.9 4.5 8.8 2.1 5.3 2.7 0.9 2.0 0.6 45.3 53.9 45.3 100.0

Kisimani 5.0 11.0 2.6 8.6 2.2 2.3 6.5 1.3 5.3 1.7 1.6 1.0 5.5 54.6 3.5 5.4 1.5 3.0 6.6 8.3 1.8 4.1 3.8 1.3 5.5 0.5 45.4 54.6 45.4 100.0

Mkunguni 5.5 13.4 2.7 10.1 2.2 2.2 6.5 1.7 4.8 2.0 1.8 1.0 4.0 57.8 3.5 5.8 1.7 2.1 5.0 10.2 2.0 4.8 3.4 1.3 2.0 0.4 42.2 57.8 42.2 100.0

VoK 6.5 15.9 1.9 6.6 2.0 2.8 6.0 4.3 2.4 2.2 1.1 1.7 2.4 55.8 4.3 8.2 0.4 0.0 4.8 10.4 0.7 4.8 3.9 1.7 4.6 0.2 44.2 55.8 44.2 100.0

Total 5.3 12.3 2.5 8.7 2.3 2.3 6.4 1.7 4.8 2.0 1.6 1.2 4.1 55.4 4.3 5.6 2.6 2.4 5.1 9.4 1.8 4.4 3.6 1.3 3.6 0.5 44.5 55.4 44.5 100.0

60

Table 48A: Household Consumption per Month by Sex and Age of Household Head (Shs)

Male FOOD Bread Cereals Pulses Meat Fats Fruits Vegetables Roots Milk and Eggs Sugar Beverages Flavors Meals-out Total Food NON-FOOD Fuel Household operations Alcohol Tobacco Transport Rent Personal Health Cloth-wear Footwear Education Furniture Total Non-Food Food Non-food Total 576 1,343 279 969 246 254 665 171 522 211 187 117 516 6,056 447 606 312 279 621 999 189 513 395 145 435 61 5,004 6,056 5,004 11,073

Female 539 1,223 237 807 237 233 782 246 498 205 136 158 179 5,481 485 569 173 175 310 1,026 214 319 329 102 165 41 3,908 5,481 3,908 9,390

<=35 Years 496 1,059 219 846 223 260 607 155 519 149 165 101 567 5,365 388 543 256 270 493 798 193 404 346 120 236 58 4,106 5,365 4,106 9,484

36-50 502 1,297 257 797 242 203 693 157 443 215 142 104 273 5,325 407 590 231 204 449 1,116 172 286 384 140 544 47 4,571 5,325 4,571 9,895

>50 1,065 2,508 563 1,696 357 310 1,107 417 685 498 311 298 223 10,040 903 884 534 314 1,099 1,735 261 1,202 550 204 694 75 8,454 10,040 8,454 18,494

61

Table 48B: Household Consumption Patterns by Sex and Age of Household Head (%)

Male FOOD Bread Cereals Pulses Meat Fats Fruits Vegetables Roots Milk and Eggs Sugar Beverages Flavors Meals-out Total Food NON-FOOD Fuel Household operations Alcohol Tobacco Transport Rent Personal Health Cloth-wear Footwear Education Furniture Total Non-Food Food Non-food Total 5.2 12.1 2.5 8.7 2.2 2.3 6.0 1.5 4.7 1.9 1.7 1.1 4.7 54.7 4.0 5.5 2.8 2.5 5.6 9.0 1.7 4.6 3.6 1.3 3.9 0.6 45.2 54.7 45.2 100.0

Female 5.7 13.0 2.5 8.6 2.5 2.5 8.3 2.6 5.3 2.2 1.4 1.7 1.9 58.4 5.2 6.1 1.8 1.9 3.3 10.9 2.3 3.4 3.5 1.1 1.8 0.4 41.6 58.4 41.6 100.0

<=35 Years 5.2 11.2 2.3 8.9 2.3 2.7 6.4 1.6 5.5 1.6 1.7 1.1 6.0 56.6 4.1 5.7 2.7 2.8 5.2 8.4 2.0 4.3 3.7 1.3 2.5 0.6 43.3 56.6 43.3 100.0

36-50 5.1 13.1 2.6 8.1 2.4 2.1 7.0 1.6 4.5 2.2 1.4 1.1 2.8 53.8 4.1 6.0 2.3 2.1 4.5 11.3 1.7 2.9 3.9 1.4 5.5 0.5 46.2 53.8 46.2 100.0

>50 5.8 13.6 3.0 9.2 1.9 1.7 6.0 2.3 3.7 2.7 1.7 1.6 1.2 54.3 4.9 4.8 2.9 1.7 5.9 9.4 1.4 6.5 3.0 1.1 3.8 0.4 45.7 54.3 45.7 100.0

62

Table 49A: Per Capita Consumption per Month (Shs)

Ziwa FOOD Bread Cereals Pulses Meat Fats Fruits Vegetables Roots Milk and Eggs Sugar Beverages Flavors Meals-out Total Food NON-FOOD Fuel Household operations Alcohol Tobacco Transport Rent Personal Health Cloth-wear Footwear Education Furniture Total Non-Food Food Non-food Total 173.5 365.9 86.1 344.2 85.1 90.5 276.4 76.2 217.9 62.6 56.4 41.5 193.3 2,069.6 170.3 196.3 181.2 133.0 132.0 371.4 55.2 126.4 173.3 61.6 144.9 29.1 1,774.5 2,069.6 1,774.5 3,844.1

Bombolulu 201.2 428.1 85.4 349.3 99.7 116.2 232.2 76.1 192.5 75.1 80.5 56.0 223.4 2,215.6 202.0 219.8 225.2 74.9 228.0 373.2 92.2 138.1 134.2 42.6 52.7 33.3 1,826.8 2,215.6 1,826.8 4,072.4

Kisimani 187.7 384.0 104.0 346.0 90.8 111.2 276.0 58.8 246.0 67.1 70.5 35.2 334.5 2,311.8 128.5 211.0 76.8 146.4 234.7 352.8 77.4 114.7 166.4 53.4 132.6 22.4 1,717.1 2,311.8 1,717.1 4,028.9

Mkunguni 156.1 351.5 60.1 298.4 68.6 72.0 190.6 47.5 145.6 50.0 57.3 20.4 185.3 1,703.5 90.8 185.9 65.7 83.3 199.3 318.0 61.4 136.3 104.0 40.1 42.3 20.6 1,347.9 1,703.5 1,347.9 3,051.4

VoK 116.3 247.8 38.6 111.1 34.6 46.3 100.3 53.8 42.3 33.3 19.4 29.7 160.1 1,033.6 71.4 151.8 5.3 0.1 104.0 202.3 9.6 103.6 67.2 25.0 70.4 2.2 812.9 1,033.6 812.9 1,846.5

Total 173.7 370.2 81.4 321.9 81.7 92.5 237.3 61.7 193.5 60.6 62.4 34.9 234.0 2,005.9 134.8 198.7 115.4 108.5 193.3 343.3 66.5 126.6 140.9 48.7 95.3 24.0 1,596.7 2,005.9 1,596.7 3,605.9

63

Table 49B: Per Capita Consumption Patterns (%)

Ziwa FOOD Bread Cereals Pulses Meat Fats Fruits Vegetables Roots Milk and Eggs Sugar Beverages Flavors Meals-out Total Food NON-FOOD Fuel Household operations Alcohol Tobacco Transport Rent Personal Health Cloth-wear Footwear Education Furniture Total Non-Food Food Non-food Total 4.5 9.5 2.2 9.0 2.2 2.4 7.2 2.0 5.7 1.6 1.5 1.1 5.0 53.8 4.4 5.1 4.7 3.5 3.4 9.7 1.4 3.3 4.5 1.6 3.8 0.8 46.2 53.8 46.2 100.0

Bombolulu 4.9 10.5 2.1 8.6 2.4 2.9 5.7 1.9 4.7 1.8 2.0 1.4 5.5 54.4 5.0 5.4 5.5 1.8 5.6 9.2 2.3 3.4 3.3 1.0 1.3 0.8 44.9 54.4 44.9 100.0

Kisimani 4.7 9.5 2.6 8.6 2.3 2.8 6.8 1.5 6.1 1.7 1.8 0.9 8.3 57.4 3.2 5.2 1.9 3.6 5.8 8.8 1.9 2.8 4.1 1.3 3.3 0.6 42.6 57.4 42.6 100.0

Mkunguni 5.1 11.5 2.0 9.8 2.2 2.4 6.2 1.6 4.8 1.6 1.9 0.7 6.1 55.8 3.0 6.1 2.2 2.7 6.5 10.4 2.0 4.5 3.4 1.3 1.4 0.7 44.2 55.8 44.2 100.0

VoK 6.3 13.4 2.1 6.0 1.9 2.5 5.4 2.9 2.3 1.8 1.1 1.6 8.7 56.0 3.9 8.2 0.3 0.0 5.6 11.0 0.5 5.6 3.6 1.4 3.8 0.1 44.0 56.0 44.0 100.0

Total 4.8 10.3 2.3 8.9 2.3 2.6 6.6 1.7 5.4 1.7 1.7 1.0 6.5 55.6 3.7 5.5 3.2 3.0 5.4 9.5 1.8 3.5 3.9 1.4 2.6 0.7 44.3 55.6 44.3 100.0

64

Table 50A: Per Capita Consumption per Month by Sex and Age of Household Head (Shs)

Male FOOD Bread Cereals Pulses Meat Fats Fruits Vegetables Roots Milk and Eggs Sugar Beverages Flavors Meals-out Total Food NON-FOOD Fuel Household operations Alcohol Tobacco Transport Rent Personal Health Cloth-wear Footwear Education Furniture Total Non-Food Food Non-food Total 177.8 376.6 81.9 336.1 82.6 92.3 229.1 58.5 191.6 61.0 63.2 31.1 275.4 2,057.3 130.3 203.6 124.2 122.3 219.1 347.3 60.5 129.0 146.5 53.4 110.4 24.7 1,672.1 2,057.3 1,672.1 3,733.9

Female 162.8 352.1 80.9 274.6 78.7 94.9 272.1 74.2 202.6 60.3 61.1 48.8 90.8 1,853.9 152.6 180.6 87.1 60.5 106.3 334.9 89.9 121.7 121.8 31.7 39.8 22.3 1,349.3 1,853.9 1,349.3 3,203.1

<=35 Years 180.5 379.7 80.5 344.4 86.0 105.2 245.2 62.4 223.9 55.4 71.0 35.1 315.1 2,184.5 136.5 219.8 124.6 122.3 232.0 356.1 80.6 134.2 137.3 48.1 56.5 29.1 1,678.9 2,184.5 1,678.9 3,869.9

36-50 147.6 325.5 77.0 268.8 79.0 76.9 217.4 51.1 157.3 56.8 53.3 29.2 119.4 1,659.2 113.9 171.7 87.3 79.0 138.1 328.3 48.5 101.7 148.5 51.5 174.3 20.6 1,463.3 1,659.2 1,463.3 3,122.6

>50 208.1 424.7 100.1 345.1 68.9 71.1 257.5 85.3 134.5 97.5 44.8 48.1 108.5 1,994.1 179.9 158.2 142.5 112.5 141.7 326.8 42.6 151.3 145.6 46.1 106.0 8.4 1,561.7 1,994.1 1,561.7 3,555.8

65

Table 50B: Per Capita Consumption Patterns by Sex and Age of Household Head (%)

Male FOOD Bread Cereals Pulses Meat Fats Fruits Vegetables Roots Milk and Eggs Sugar Beverages Flavors Meals-out Total Food NON-FOOD Fuel Household operations Alcohol Tobacco Transport Rent Personal Health Cloth-wear Footwear Education Furniture Total Non-Food Food Non-food Total 4.8 10.1 2.2 9.0 2.2 2.5 6.1 1.6 5.1 1.6 1.7 0.8 7.4 55.1 3.5 5.5 3.3 3.3 5.9 9.3 1.6 3.5 3.9 1.4 3.0 0.7 44.8 55.1 44.8 100.0

Female 5.1 11.0 2.5 8.6 2.5 3.0 8.5 2.3 6.3 1.9 1.9 1.5 2.8 57.9 4.8 5.6 2.7 1.9 3.3 10.5 2.8 3.8 3.8 1.0 1.2 0.7 42.1 57.9 42.1 100.0

<=35 Years 4.7 9.8 2.1 8.9 2.2 2.7 6.3 1.6 5.8 1.4 1.8 0.9 8.1 56.4 3.5 5.7 3.2 3.2 6.0 9.2 2.1 3.5 3.5 1.2 1.5 0.8 43.4 56.4 43.4 100.0

36-50 4.7 10.4 2.5 8.6 2.5 2.5 7.0 1.6 5.0 1.8 1.7 0.9 3.8 53.1 3.6 5.5 2.8 2.5 4.4 10.5 1.6 3.3 4.8 1.6 5.6 0.7 46.9 53.1 46.9 100.0

>50 5.9 11.9 2.8 9.7 1.9 2.0 7.2 2.4 3.8 2.7 1.3 1.4 3.1 56.1 5.1 4.5 4.0 3.2 4.0 9.2 1.2 4.3 4.1 1.3 3.0 0.2 43.9 56.1 43.9 100.0

66

Table 51A: Adult Equivalent Consumption per Month (Shs)

Ziwa FOOD Bread Cereals Pulses Meat Fats Fruits Vegetables Roots Milk and Eggs Sugar Beverages Flavors Meals-out Total Food NON-FOOD Fuel Household operations Alcohol Tobacco Transport Rent Personal Health Cloth-wear Footwear Education Furniture Total Non-Food Food Non-food Total 191.6 405.0 93.9 374.2 93.2 100.9 300.3 83.0 236.2 68.0 60.6 46.3 200.3 2,253.3 188.4 217.6 186.5 136.9 141.6 400.2 61.1 145.0 187.2 65.4 150.7 31.1 1,911.7 2,253.3 1,911.7 4,165.0

Bombolulu 216.7 460.1 89.0 364.8 105.2 122.5 244.6 80.0 201.5 81.4 83.4 60.7 224.2 2,334.0 216.5 231.1 229.7 82.0 236.4 389.5 96.3 153.5 139.7 44.1 57.2 34.5 1,916.9 2,334.0 1,916.9 4,278.4

Kisimani 204.3 427.1 113.6 376.2 99.8 119.3 303.0 64.7 268.6 73.7 75.3 39.5 352.0 2,517.2 141.4 232.5 79.6 156.8 251.1 377.6 85.9 122.8 181.8 58.4 139.3 24.4 1,851.7 2,517.2 1,851.7 4,369.0

Mkunguni 175.9 398.2 68.7 331.8 76.2 78.8 213.6 53.9 164.0 56.9 63.6 24.2 196.1 1,902.0 103.3 204.1 71.0 86.6 213.6 349.0 67.7 154.6 114.5 44.3 46.1 21.4 1,476.2 1,902.0 1,476.2 3,378.1

VoK 142.9 306.2 48.3 136.7 43.5 56.6 125.8 64.3 51.9 41.6 23.7 36.6 164.9 1,242.9 89.2 184.2 6.2 0.1 129.7 239.0 12.4 118.3 79.5 30.6 85.5 2.9 977.6 1,242.9 977.6 2,220.5

Total 191.9 412.6 89.5 350.8 89.6 100.6 260.3 67.9 211.5 67.0 67.2 39.3 244.2 2,192.4 149.2 218.3 119.7 114.4 206.7 370.2 72.9 141.6 153.0 52.8 101.0 25.5 1,725.4 2,192.4 1,725.4 3,921.0

67

Table 51B: Adult Equivalent Consumption Patterns (%)

Ziwa FOOD Bread Cereals Pulses Meat Fats Fruits Vegetables Roots Milk and Eggs Sugar Beverages Flavors Meals-out Total Food NON-FOOD Fuel Household operations Alcohol Tobacco Transport Rent Personal Health Cloth-wear Footwear Education Furniture Total Non-Food Food Non-food Total 4.6 9.7 2.3 9.0 2.2 2.4 7.2 2.0 5.7 1.6 1.5 1.1 4.8 54.1 4.5 5.2 4.5 3.3 3.4 9.6 1.5 3.5 4.5 1.6 3.6 0.7 45.9 54.1 45.9 100.0

Bombolulu 5.1 10.8 2.1 8.5 2.5 2.9 5.7 1.9 4.7 1.9 1.9 1.4 5.2 54.6 5.1 5.4 5.4 1.9 5.5 9.1 2.2 3.6 3.3 1.0 1.3 0.8 44.8 54.6 44.8 100.0

Kisimani 4.7 9.8 2.6 8.6 2.3 2.7 6.9 1.5 6.1 1.7 1.7 0.9 8.1 57.6 3.2 5.3 1.8 3.6 5.7 8.6 2.0 2.8 4.2 1.3 3.2 0.6 42.4 57.6 42.4 100.0

Mkunguni 5.2 11.8 2.0 9.8 2.3 2.3 6.3 1.6 4.9 1.7 1.9 0.7 5.8 56.3 3.1 6.0 2.1 2.6 6.3 10.3 2.0 4.6 3.4 1.3 1.4 0.6 43.7 56.3 43.7 100.0

VoK 6.4 13.8 2.2 6.2 2.0 2.5 5.7 2.9 2.3 1.9 1.1 1.6 7.4 56.0 4.0 8.3 0.3 0.0 5.8 10.8 0.6 5.3 3.6 1.4 3.9 0.1 44.0 56.0 44.0 100.0

Total 4.9 10.5 2.3 8.9 2.3 2.6 6.6 1.7 5.4 1.7 1.7 1.0 6.2 55.9 3.8 5.6 3.1 2.9 5.3 9.4 1.9 3.6 3.9 1.3 2.6 0.7 44.0 55.9 44.0 100.0

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Table 52A: Adult Equivalent Consumption per Month by Sex and Age of Household Head (Shs)

Male FOOD Bread Cereals Pulses Meat Fats Fruits Vegetables Roots Milk and Eggs Sugar Beverages Flavors Meals-out Total Food NON-FOOD Fuel Household operations Alcohol Tobacco Transport Rent Personal Health Cloth-wear Footwear Education Furniture Total Non-Food Food Non-food Total 194.2 414.0 89.1 362.0 89.3 99.1 248.2 63.4 206.7 66.6 67.8 34.7 286.4 2,221.3 142.4 220.5 128.6 127.6 232.8 370.9 66.0 143.2 157.1 56.8 115.7 26.2 1,788.1 2,221.3 1,788.1 4,013.8

Female 187.5 412.0 92.1 313.2 90.5 108.1 309.5 84.9 230.3 69.7 66.9 56.2 98.3 2,119.2 174.8 208.5 91.1 67.7 119.1 373.8 99.7 139.6 138.5 37.5 46.2 23.9 1,520.3 2,119.2 1,520.3 3,639.5

<=35 Years 200.7 423.0 89.5 376.9 95.3 115.2 271.1 69.5 246.2 61.5 76.5 39.7 329.7 2,394.8 153.6 241.0 128.7 128.9 247.7 383.0 88.4 151.3 151.0 52.7 59.9 30.9 1,817.9 2,394.8 1,817.9 4,219.2

36-50 160.7 360.0 82.6 287.0 84.8 82.6 235.5 54.5 168.3 62.4 56.8 31.7 123.5 1,790.4 123.6 187.8 92.1 83.7 148.1 354.4 53.1 109.0 157.9 54.6 184.3 21.8 1,570.2 1,790.4 1,570.2 3,360.7

>50 226.5 465.0 109.2 378.9 74.2 75.3 276.9 93.4 146.2 106.9 49.6 56.0 111.7 2,169.5 191.3 174.3 147.3 116.7 152.7 350.0 46.5 171.5 155.1 48.9 112.3 9.1 1,675.8 2,169.5 1,675.8 3,845.3

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Table 52B: Adult Equivalent Consumption Patterns by Sex and Age of Household Head (%)

Male FOOD Bread Cereals Pulses Meat Fats Fruits Vegetables Roots Milk and Eggs Sugar Beverages Flavors Meals-out Total Food NON-FOOD Fuel Household operations Alcohol Tobacco Transport Rent Personal Health Cloth-wear Footwear Education Furniture Total Non-Food Food Non-food Total 4.8 10.3 2.2 9.0 2.2 2.5 6.2 1.6 5.2 1.7 1.7 0.9 7.1 55.3 3.5 5.5 3.2 3.2 5.8 9.2 1.6 3.6 3.9 1.4 2.9 0.7 44.6 55.3 44.6 100.0

Female 5.2 11.3 2.5 8.6 2.5 3.0 8.5 2.3 6.3 1.9 1.8 1.5 2.7 58.2 4.8 5.7 2.5 1.9 3.3 10.3 2.7 3.8 3.8 1.0 1.3 0.7 41.8 58.2 41.8 100.0

<=35 Years 4.8 10.0 2.1 8.9 2.3 2.7 6.4 1.6 5.8 1.5 1.8 0.9 7.8 56.8 3.6 5.7 3.0 3.1 5.9 9.1 2.1 3.6 3.6 1.2 1.4 0.7 43.1 56.8 43.1 100.0

36-50 4.8 10.7 2.5 8.5 2.5 2.5 7.0 1.6 5.0 1.9 1.7 0.9 3.7 53.3 3.7 5.6 2.7 2.5 4.4 10.5 1.6 3.2 4.7 1.6 5.5 0.6 46.7 53.3 46.7 100.0

>50 5.9 12.1 2.8 9.9 1.9 2.0 7.2 2.4 3.8 2.8 1.3 1.5 2.9 56.4 5.0 4.5 3.8 3.0 4.0 9.1 1.2 4.5 4.0 1.3 2.9 0.2 43.6 56.4 43.6 100.0

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Table 53A: Estimated Calorie and Protein Availability per Adult Equivalent

Ziwa CALORIES Cereals Beans Meat Milk and Eggs Fruits Vegetables Roots Sugar Total PROTEINS Cereals Beans Meat Milk and Eggs Fruits Vegetables Roots Total 2,019 271 98 134 53 182 147 193 3,098 55 18 13 7 1 10 3 106 Ziwa CALORIES Cereals Beans Meat Milk and Eggs Fruits Vegetables Roots Sugar Total PROTEINS Cereals Beans Meat Milk and Eggs Fruits Vegetables Roots Total 65.2 8.8 3.2 4.3 1.7 5.9 4.8 6.2 100.0 51.4 16.6 12.1 7.0 0.7 9.5 2.7 100.0

Bombolulu 2,326 255 97 115 57 147 159 231 3,387 62 17 13 7 1 8 3 111 Bombolulu 68.7 7.5 2.9 3.4 1.7 4.3 4.7 6.8 100.0 55.8 14.9 12.2 6.2 0.7 7.6 2.7 100.0

Kisimani 2,011 329 102 153 69 213 103 209 3,189 54 21 14 9 1 12 2 113 Kisimani 63.0 10.3 3.2 4.8 2.2 6.7 3.2 6.6 100.0 47.8 18.8 12.5 7.7 0.8 10.5 1.8 100.0

Mkunguni 2,000 192 85 89 37 149 95 162 2,807 55 13 10 5 0 8 2 94 Mkunguni 71.2 6.8 3.0 3.2 1.3 5.3 3.4 5.8 100.0 58.3 13.8 11.2 5.3 0.5 9.0 1.9 100.0

VoK 1,511 136 37 25 34 64 76 118 2,001 40 9 5 1 0 4 2 62 VoK 75.5 6.8 1.9 1.2 1.7 3.2 3.8 5.9 100.0 65.4 14.4 8.4 1.9 0.8 6.3 2.8 100.0

Total 2,031 256 92 119 52 171 118 190 3,030 55 17 12 7 1 10 2 103 Total 67.0 8.5 3.1 3.9 1.7 5.7 3.9 6.3 100.0 53.2 16.2 11.9 6.5 0.7 9.3 2.2 100.0

Table 53B: Estimated Calorie and Protein Availability per Adult Equivalent (%)

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Table 54A: Estimated Calorie and Protein Availability per Adult Equivalent by Sex and Age of Household Head

Male CALORIES Cereals Beans Meat Milk and Eggs Fruits Vegetables Roots Sugar Total PROTEINS Cereals Beans Meat Milk and Eggs Fruits Vegetables Roots Total 2,036 256 95 115 52 162 107 189 3,012 55 17 12 6 1 9 2 102

Female 2,040 263 83 131 55 207 157 198 3,135 55 17 11 8 1 12 3 107

<=35 Years 2,076 256 100 140 60 174 121 175 3,100 56 17 13 8 1 9 2 107

36-50 1,786 238 73 92 41 164 92 177 2,663 48 15 10 5 1 10 2 91

>50 2,296 314 105 80 46 183 166 304 3,494 61 21 14 4 1 11 3 114

Table 54B: Estimated Calorie and Protein Availability per Adult Equivalent by Sex and Age of Household Head (%)

Male CALORIES Cereals Beans Meat Milk and Eggs Fruits Vegetables Roots Sugar Total PROTEINS Cereals Beans Meat Milk and Eggs Fruits Vegetables Roots Total 67.6 8.5 3.2 3.8 1.7 5.4 3.6 6.3 100.0 53.6 16.3 12.2 6.3 0.7 8.8 2.1 100.0

Female 65.1 8.4 2.7 4.2 1.8 6.6 5.0 6.3 100.0 51.6 16.0 10.7 7.1 0.7 11.3 2.6 100.0

<=35 Years 67.0 8.3 3.2 4.5 1.9 5.6 3.9 5.6 100.0 52.6 15.6 12.4 7.6 0.8 8.8 2.2 100.0

36-50 67.1 8.9 2.7 3.5 1.5 6.2 3.4 6.7 100.0 53.4 17.1 10.7 5.5 0.6 10.7 2.0 100.0

>50 65.7 9.0 3.0 2.3 1.3 5.2 4.7 8.7 100.0 53.7 18.1 12.0 3.8 0.6 9.4 2.5 100.0

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Table 55: Mean Household Income by Village (Shs) Ziwa Bombolulu Wage employment 4,178 5,047 Self employment 3,394 5,150 Rental 767 1,166 Transfers in 255 432 Transfers out 1,045 1,130 Net transfers (789) (699) Total 7,550 10,664 Household size 3.15 4.51 PERCENT Wage employment 55.3 47.3 Self employment 45.0 48.3 Rental 10.2 10.9 Transfers in 3.4 4.0 Transfers out 13.8 10.6 Net transfers (10.5) (6.6) Total 100.0 100.0 Household size 3.15 4.51

Kisimani 4,312 9,894 776 282 1,271 (988) 13,993 3.56 30.8 70.7 5.5 2.0 9.1 (7.1) 100.0 3.56

Mkunguni 5,395 1,914 1,099 2,307 645 1,662 10,070 4.03 53.6 19.0 10.9 22.9 6.4 16.5 100.0 4.03

VoK 8,119 4,741 1,343 786 661 124 14,327 6.64 56.7 33.1 9.4 5.5 4.6 0.9 100.0 6.64

Total 4,863 5,107 947 921 986 (64) 10,853 3.86 44.8 47.1 8.7 8.5 9.1 (0.6) 100.0 3.86

Table 56: Mean Household Income by Village excluding non-response on income (Shs)

Ziwa NUMBER Wage employment Self employment Rental Transfers in Transfers out Net transfers Total Household size PERCENT Wage employment Self employment Rental Transfers in Transfers out Net transfers Total Household size 4,228 3,456 787 262 934 (672) 7,799 3.21 54.2 44.3 10.1 3.4 12.0 (8.6) 100.0 3.15

Bombolulu 5,188 5,389 1,220 452 1,060 (608) 11,190 4.63 46.4 48.2 10.9 4.0 9.5 (5.4) 100.0 4.51

Kisimani 4,312 9,894 776 282 1,271 (988) 13,993 3.56 30.8 70.7 5.5 2.0 9.1 (7.1) 100.0 3.56

Mkunguni 5,395 1,914 1,099 2,307 645 1,662 10,070 4.03 53.6 19.0 10.9 22.9 6.4 16.5 100.0 4.03

VoK 8,119 4,741 1,343 786 661 124 14,327 6.64 56.7 33.1 9.4 5.5 4.6 0.9 100.0 6.64

Total 4,896 5,163 959 932 949 (17) 11,002 3.89 44.5 46.9 8.7 8.5 8.6 (0.2) 100.0 3.86

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Table 57: Per Capita Income by Village (Shs)

Ziwa NUMBER Wage employment Self employment Rental Transfers in Transfers out Net transfers Total PERCENT Wage employment Self employment Rental Transfers in Transfers out Net transfers Total 1756.20 1299.60 295.05 102.70 697.24 -594.55 2756.30 63.7 47.2 10.7 3.7 25.3 (21.6) 100.0 Ziwa NUMBER Wage employment Self employment Rental Transfers in Transfers out Net transfers Total PERCENT Wage employment Self employment Rental Transfers in Transfers out Net transfers Total 1,743 1,307 303 105 578 (472) 2,881 60.5 45.4 10.5 3.7 20.1 (16.4) 100.0

Bombolulu 1658.92 1645.74 234.59 103.77 621.09 -517.33 3021.93 54.9 54.5 7.8 3.4 20.6 (17.1) 100.0 Bombolulu 1,643 1,722 245 109 527 (418) 3,193 51.5 53.9 7.7 3.4 16.5 (13.1) 100.0

Kisimani 1920.43 3692.32 207.64 159.05 573.95 -414.90 5405.48 35.5 68.3 3.8 2.9 10.6 (7.7) 100.0 Kisimani 1,920 3,692 208 159 574 (415) 5,405 35.5 68.3 3.8 2.9 10.6 (7.7) 100.0

Mkunguni 2051.16 555.88 215.59 1123.65 320.40 803.25 3625.87 56.6 15.3 5.9 31.0 8.8 22.2 100.0 Mkunguni 2,051 556 216 1,124 320 803 3,626 56.6 15.3 5.9 31.0 8.8 22.2 100.0

VoK 998.33 2178.57 175.30 202.95 337.01 -134.06 3218.14 31.0 67.7 5.4 6.3 10.5 (4.2) 100.0 VoK 998 2,179 175 203 337 (134) 3,218 31.0 67.7 5.4 6.3 10.5 (4.2) 100.0

Total 1846.00 1846.47 233.10 427.64 524.08 -96.44 3829.13 48.2 48.2 6.1 11.2 13.7 (2.5) 100.0 Total 1,842 1,863 236 433 482 (49) 3,892 47.3 47.9 6.1 11.1 12.4 (1.3) 100.0

Table 58: Per Capita Income by Village excluding non-response on income (Shs)

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Table 59: Mean Household Income per Month by Sex and Age of Household Head (Shs) Male Female <=35 Years 36-50 NUMBER Wage employment 5,392 2,838 5,039 4,684 Self employment 5,009 5,600 5,190 4,438 Rental 939 1,004 321 1,541 Transfers in 1,003 627 311 2,471 Transfers out 1,104 557 985 1,019 Net transfers (101) 70 (674) 1,452 Total 11,239 9,511 9,876 12,115 Household size 3.85 3.85 3.09 4.42 Responses 258 72 198 91 PERCENT Wage employment 48.0 29.8 51.0 38.7 Self employment 44.6 58.9 52.6 36.6 Rental 8.4 10.6 3.2 12.7 Transfers in 8.9 6.6 3.1 20.4 Transfers out 9.8 5.9 10.0 8.4 Net transfers (0.9) 0.7 (6.8) 12.0 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Table 60: Per Capita Income per Month by Sex and Age of Household Head (Shs) Male Female <=35 Years NUMBER Wage employment 2,112 901 2,243 Self employment 1,633 2,664 1,890 Rental 231 249 120 Transfers in 489 214 139 Transfers out 601 257 557 Net transfers (111) (43) (418) Total 3,864 3,771 3,836 Responses 258 72 198 PERCENT Wage employment 54.7 23.9 58.5 Self employment 42.3 70.6 49.3 Rental 6.0 6.6 3.1 Transfers in 12.7 5.7 3.6 Transfers out 15.6 6.8 14.5 Net transfers (2.9) (1.1) (10.9) Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 36-50 1,470 2,103 299 1,233 538 695 4,567 91 32.2 46.1 6.5 27.0 11.8 15.2 100.0

>50 4,288 6,604 2,696 438 929 (491) 13,097 6.20 40 32.7 50.4 20.6 3.3 7.1 (3.7) 100.0 >50 798 1,184 652 50 357 (307) 2,327 40 34.3 50.9 28.0 2.2 15.3 (13.2) 100.0

Table 61A: Discrepancies between Mean Monthly Household Consumption and Income (Shs)

Food NUMBER Ziwa la Ngombe Bombolulu Kisimani Mkunguni VoK Total 5,050 7,117 6,686 5,393 5,654 5,926

Non-food 4,245 5,987 5,549 3,931 4,474 4,767

Total Expenditure 9,295 13,205 12,235 9,324 10,128 10,703

Income 7,550 10,664 13,993 10,070 14,327 10,853

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Table 61B: Consumption as Percent of Income

Ziwa la Ngombe Bombolulu Kisimani Mkunguni VoK Total

Food 66.9 66.7 47.8 53.6 39.5 54.6

Non-food 56.2 56.1 39.7 39.0 31.2 43.9

Total Expenditure 123.1 123.8 87.4 92.6 70.7 98.6

Income 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Table 62A: Discrepancies between Mean Monthly Household Consumption and Income excluding income non-response (Shs)

Ziwa la Ngombe Bombolulu Kisimani Mkunguni VoK Total

Food 5,114 7,163 6,686 5,393 5,654 5,945 Food 65.6 64.0 47.8 53.6 39.5 54.0

Non-food 4,286 6,128 5,549 3,931 4,474 4,790 Non-food 55.0 54.8 39.7 39.0 31.2 43.5

Total Expenditure 9,400 13,398 12,235 9,324 10,128 10,745 Total Expenditure 120.5 119.7 87.4 92.6 70.7 97.7

Income 7,799 11,190 13,993 10,070 14,327 11,002 Income 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Grand Total 101 76 129 141 17 464

Table 62B: Consumption as Percent of Income excluding income non-response (Shs)

Ziwa la Ngombe Bombolulu Kisimani Mkunguni VoK Total

Table 63: Distribution of the Responding Population in Gainful Employment

Ziwa la Ngombe Bombolulu Kisimani Mkunguni VoK Total

Paid Employment Regular Casual Total 35 24 59 32 13 45 59 16 75 51 43 94 5 6 11 182 102 284

Self Employment Owner Unpaid Total 41 1 42 27 4 31 52 2 54 45 2 47 6 0 6 171 9 180

Table 64: Persons Engaged in Household Self-Employment Enterprises

Paid Ziwa la Ngombe Bombolulu Kisimani Mkunguni VoK Total 6 11 21 7 6 51

Unpaid 42 32 54 48 6 182

Total 48 43 75 55 12 233

Paid (%) 12.5 25.6 28.0 12.7 50.0 21.9

Unpaid (%) 87.5 74.4 72.0 87.3 50.0 78.1

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Table 65: Incidence of Transfers-in by Relation to Donor

Rural Parent Child Brother/sister Other Relative Unrelated Spouse Total Rural Parent Child Brother/sister Other Relative Unrelated Spouse Total Own Land NUMBER Ziwa la Ngombe Bombolulu Kisimani Mkunguni VoK Total PERCENT Ziwa la Ngombe Bombolulu Kisimani Mkunguni VoK Total 21 29 43 49 2 144 26.6 64.4 45.3 49.5 14.3 43.4 Other Access 27 10 35 44 7 123 34.2 22.2 36.8 44.4 50.0 37.0 76 12 30 22 7 36 183 Own only 19 29 37 48 2 135 24.1 64.4 38.9 48.5 14.3 40.7 5 1 2 3 1 0 12

Urban 2 4 3 7 19 1 36 Urban 4 1 5 1 18 1 30 Access only 25 10 29 43 7 114 31.6 22.2 30.5 43.4 50.0 34.3

Abroad 0 0 0 3 8 1 12 Abroad 1 0 0 0 1 0 2 Landless 33 6 23 7 5 74 41.8 13.3 24.2 7.1 35.7 22.3 Total 79 45 95 99 14 332 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Table 66: Incidence of Transfers-out by Relation to Donor

Table 67: Distribution of Households by Land Ownership Anywhere in the Country

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Table 68: Ownership of Plots in Ziwa la Ngombe by Birth-Place of Household Head

Male NUMBER Nairobi Central Coast Eastern Northeastern Nyanza Rift Valley Western Total PERCENT Nairobi Central Coast Eastern Northeastern Nyanza Rift Valley Western Total 0 3 25 1 0 3 0 3 35 0.0 8.6 71.4 2.9 0.0 8.6 0.0 8.6 100.0

Female 0 1 16 1 0 0 1 0 19 0.0 5.3 84.2 5.3 0.0 0.0 5.3 0.0 100.0

Total 0 4 41 2 0 3 1 3 54 0.0 7.4 75.9 3.7 0.0 5.6 1.9 5.6 100.0

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ACTIONAID-KENYA
MOMBASA URBAN DEVELOPMENT INITIATIVE

ZIWA LA NGOMBE BASELINE SURVEY

SURVEY INSTRUMENTS AND ENUMERATORS REFERENCE MANUAL

28 July 1999

79

ENUMERATORS REFERENCE MANUAL


INTRODUCTION Background Information 1. ACTIONAID-Kenya Mombasa Development Initiative (DI) was initiated in July 1996 as a follow-up and in response to the national study that identified the district as one of the poorest in Kenya. The selection of Mombasa as a new development initiative is in line with AAKs strategy to focus on the poorest communities in some of the most vulnerable areas in the country. The district was subsequently recommended for AAKs intervention focusing on poverty alleviation. The initiative became operational in September 1996. 2. Efforts to improve the wellbeing of the poor can only be effective if seen in the context of the community, particularly at the household level. However, given the absence of benchmark information on which interventions could be based, it was difficult to identify the real problems facing the community. Although the participatory urban appraisal (PUA) generated a lot of useful data, there is still need for deeper analysis of the root causes of poverty and the coping mechanisms adopted by households and the community using a detailed household income and expenditure survey. The survey findings are expected to lead to a better understanding of poverty and its concomitant effects on household food security, education, health, and environmental sanitation. Objectives of the Survey 3. (a) (b) (c) The main objectives of the study are: To provide baseline information required for targeting interventions on critical development issues in the operational area; To empower the DI staff with information that is required for participatory planning of development initiatives supported by AAK; To collect from households/ community/ institutions and analyze existing data which would form a benchmark for subsequent monitoring and evaluation of the impact of the DI on the population, especially on the vulnerable groups; To inquire into the methods adopted by the population so as to cope with the constraints arising from poverty and social exclusion; and To draw conclusions and make recommendations on possible areas of intervention and strategic objectives AAK should pursue to make an impact in the area.

(d) (e)

4. This manual is designed to guide enumerators and supervisors during the data collection phase of the survey. The manual defines main concepts used in the survey and presents procedures to be followed in completing each section of the questionnaire. Geographical codes are presented in the appendix. 5. (a) (b) The following questionnaires will be administered in this survey: Household Composition (Form Z/L/N/1) Child Welfare and Child Immunization (Form Z/L/N/2)

80

(c) (d) (e) (f)

Housing, Assets and Amenities (Form Z/L/N/3) Household Regular Purchases for one Month (Forms Z/L/N/4A and Z/L/N/4B) Household Non-regular Purchases for one Year (Form Z/L/N/5) Household Non-Agricultural Income (Forms Z/L/N/6A and Z/L/N/6B) SURVEY DESCRIPTION AND ORGANIZATION

Survey Coverage and Methodology 6. The survey is to be carried out in the five villages of Ziwa la Ngombe area, namely, Ziwa la Ngombe (with 1,690 households), Bombolulu (682 households), Kisimani (2,287 households), Mkunguni (2,278 households) and VoK (495 households). The five villages in the study area formed the basis of the sample frame, with each village structured as a unit on its own. Bombolulu village is in Kisauni sublocation while the other four are in Maweni sub-location. Numbers were sequentially assigned to all the households in the study area and a sample of 6% of the households selected through systematic selection with a random start. Based on 6% sampling fraction, the survey covered 446 households out of 7,432 households. 7. It is possible to fail to locate a selected household during the enumeration. The rules to guide in replacing a selected household are: (a) (b) If a household moved within the same village and can be located, tag/follow and interview it. If the household moved out of the village or cannot be located after moving from the sampled dwelling unit, then REPLACE with the household currently occupying the selected dwelling unit, and indicate the replacement in the identification particulars section of Form Z/L/N/1.

Sample Design 8. The administrative decisions that dictated the Ziwa la Ngombe sample design include: a) b) That the survey should include all villages in the area; That the spatial unit of analysis would be the village.

9. The total number of households included in the household listing was 7,432. Upon receipt of the lists, the first step was to assign numbers to households beginning with 1 so that each village became a stratum. The use of the term strata therefore refers to classification of households by village. The second step was to select the total sample proportionate to the size of each stratum. The required sample was generated by use of systematic selection with a random start, using the procedure in Sampling Manual of Macro International Inc (1996). 10. In each sample, each element had an equal chance of selection. Therefore each element has the weight of 1 in the sample total, and F=1/f in the population total, where f is the selection fraction. Since the sampling fraction in each stratum was equal to the sampling fraction for the universe, the procedure ensured a self-weighting sample8. 11. The basic weights, before adjustment for non-response, are the reciprocals of the probabilities of selection, i.e. w = m/n
. Rounding of the strata sample to the nearest integer introduces slight departures in the values of actual sampling fractions. However, this trivial departure is usually ignored (Kish, 1965).
8

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Where: w is the weight in the stratum; m is the total number of households in the stratum; and n is the sample size in the stratum. 12. In producing survey estimates, the basic weights will be adjusted for non-response to arrive at final adjusted weight, which is the product of the basic weight and a non-response adjustment factor. The procedure of calculating the non-response (nr) factor for each stratum was as follows: nr = Where: nr = n= i= n/i the non-response adjustment factor; the total number of originally selected households; the number of households which responded

The adjusted weights are wa = w * nr = (m/n)*(n/i) = m/i, i.e. the total number of households divided by the number of households which responded. ESTIMATION PROCEDURES Blanks and Non-Response 13. There are various sources of errors/ bias in a sample survey or census. Errors could be introduced by misreporting, lack of data, enumerator or respondent bias, non-response, and in data entry. This section deals with non-response and its effects on sample weights. In a household survey, nonresponse could be introduced through refusals and failure to locate a household. Although it is difficult to rule out inclusion in the frame (N) of some households which did not exist or to exclude some which existed before the frame was constructed, i.e. out-of-scope, it was decided to treat the sample frame (N) as a true report of the number of households in August 1999. Therefore refusals and failure to locate were summed as non-response. 14. Completed survey and census questionnaires may contain blanks or missing values attributable to lack of data or a question that was not asked. Blanks and non-response splits the original population (N) into two subclasses: M non-blank members and B blanks and non-response, i.e. N=M+B. The presence of blanks and non-response introduces variation in the size of the sample. This variation is a function of the proportion M=M/N. However, the selection interval (k) and selection fraction (f) do not change since the blanks and non-response are identified after the original sample had been selected. PRE-TEST 15. A two-day training of enumerators was conducted during August 3-4, 1999. The training was conducted using the draft questionnaire and the enumerators reference manual. On the third day of training, the 10 enumerators formed three groups of three persons each to conduct mock interviews on each other: one as enumerator, the other as respondent, while the third took notes about the interview process. This was followed by a debriefing meeting to consolidate the experiences gained during training and mock interviews, and to make the necessary alterations to the survey instruments. On the fourth day, the enumerators conducted pre-tests in the study area in groups of two (enumerator and observer) and traded places such that each enumerator had a chance of conducting an interview. Finally, a meeting was held with the enumerators and AAK personnel to reach a consensus on the proposed revisions to the

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survey instruments. The total interview time was about two hours. Although some enumerators reported a few cases of respondent fatigue, it was decided to retain the whole questionnaire. 16. The enumerators were informed that a post-enumeration survey of a small sample of responding households will be conducted to gauge the quality of the information collected during the survey as a rough indicator of the confidence that should be placed on the survey findings. 17. Some enumerators reported that it might be difficult to obtain cooperation of respondents who do not know the interviewer and/ or are not aware of AAK program in the study area. It was decided that the community resource persons doing troubleshooting during fieldwork will visit the sampled households prior to the actual interviews. 18. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) Additional issues of concern on the pre-test included: Need for neat handwriting. Put the names of the sub-location and village above the box provided for identification particulars. In all cases, all observations coded under Other should be specified. Observe the age inclusion/ exclusion rule for Form Z/L/N/2. Record the observations in the proper column e.g. one person filled Highest grade completed in column 20 of Form Z/L/N/1. In case of owner-occupier, record the rooms occupied by the responding household rather than all the rooms in the entire structure. In Form Z/L/N/3, column 19, there may be a case for adding an option 9=N/A (water in dwelling unit). Proper arithmetic for enterprise operating accounts of household enterprises is essential.

19. Codes for ethnic groups were developed after the pre-tests, but were not used since the question would have compromised the success of the entire survey due to the sensitivity of ethnicity in the study area. Kenyan Central Bantu Embu Kamba Kikuyu Mbeere Meru Tharaka Western Bantu Kisii Kuria Luhya Basuba Coastal Bantu 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10

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Bajun Boni-Sanye Mijikenda Pokomo Taita Taveta Swahili Nilotic Luo Nilo-Hamitic Dorobo El-Molo Tugen Kipsigis Nandi Pokot Keiyo Marakwet Maasai Jemps Samburu Teso Turkana Sabaot Kalenjin Western Hamitic Boran Gabbra Ormo Rendille Eastern Hamitic Ajuran Degodia Gosha Gurreh Hawiyah Ogaden Somali-so-stated Kenyan Asian Kenyan European Kenyan Arabs Other Kenyans Foreigners Tanzanian Ugandan Other Africans Outside Africa Not stated

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53

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PRINCIPLES OF INTERVIEWING 20. This section of the manual gives a summary of some important points to be kept in mind when conducting personal interviews during the survey. Interviewing is a Specialized Art 21. Interviewing involves two people -- interviewer and the respondent. Interviewing facilitates obtaining of information from someone by asking an organized set of questions designed for a purpose. Interviewing differs from ordinary conversation in several respects: (a) The interviewer and the respondent are strangers to each other. One of the main tasks is therefore to gain the confidence of the respondent so that he/she is at ease and willing to answer the questions asked. Unlike normal conversation, one person is asking all the questions and the other person answering them all. You must refrain from giving your opinion until you have completed the interview. You must not react in any way to what the respondent tells you. Never show disapproval but probe in a manner that should not offend the respondent. At all times throughout the interview you must remain neutral. However, you should show interest in the answers by nodding your head or saying something like I see or Yes. There is a strict sequence of questions that must be asked. You must always be in control of the situation. This means you must maintain the interest of the respondent throughout the interview. The enumerator should prepare (head-tune) the respondent when starting to ask questions on a particular Form (record type), i.e. state the type of information being solicited, so as to ease communication with the respondent. The record type (RT) is used in data entry to identify the Form.

(b)

(c)

Role of the Enumerator 22. The interviewer or enumerator plays a central role in this survey, and the ultimate outcome of the survey depends on how (s)he conducts the interviews. In general, the responsibility of the enumerator will include: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Training 23. Your training as an enumerator is crucial to the success of the survey field operations. The training will be conducted by the consultant (John T. Mukui) and the AAK contact persons for the survey (Pamela Midiwo and Lawrence Mwagwabi). The training will be conducted on Monday, August 2, 1999. This manual will be a useful guide to the enumerators during the survey period. Locating the sampled respondents within the survey area assigned to him/her; Conducting the interviews; Checking the completed questionnaires to ensure that all questions were asked and the responses were neatly and legibly recorded; Returning to the respondents for appointments, or to finish uncompleted interviews; Preparing debriefing notes for the supervisor on the problems encountered; and Forwarding to the supervisor all questionnaires (completed, spoilt, uncompleted).

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24. The list of respondents that you will interview will be given to you in advance. You will be required to deliver the letters of introduction to respondents personally. When you deliver the letters, you are required to make appointments and note the physical address of the respondent, the person you will interview, the date of the appointment, or the date and time you are supposed to call back to confirm an appointment. This information must be passed on to your supervisor at the end of each working day. Gaining Access to the Respondent 25. Although you and the respondent are strangers to each other, you must approach the respondent and in a very short time, gain his/her confidence and cooperation so that he/she will answer all the questions. First impressions of your appearance and the things you say and do are of vital importance in gaining the respondents cooperation. Therefore, you must be sure that your appearance and behaviour are acceptable to the respondent and also to other people in the area in which you will be interviewing. On meeting the respondent (preferably the head of the household) the first thing you should do is introduce yourself stating your name, the agency you are working for, and what you want of the respondent. A good introduction may be something like: Good morning Sir/Madam. I am Salim Juma and I am here on behalf of ACTIONAID-Kenya. My visit this morning is part of the Ziwa la Ngombe Baseline Survey. Your household is one of the many chosen in the area for this study. The information I get from you will be confidential. The information will be pooled together and be used to obtain knowledge on livelihoods systems in the area. This information will then be used in formulating policy for planning purposes and socioeconomic development. The baseline study is intended to define the starting point for the AAK programme and will be used to (a) identify community development priorities, and (b) assess achievements of the programme when subsequent surveys are conducted to see if there are changes as compared to the baseline. Confidentiality 26. All information collected from the households is strictly confidential. No individual report is to be released to anyone other than the survey personnel. Because some of the questions to be asked are personal, the interview should not be conducted in the presence of visitors unless the respondent, having first learnt the nature of the survey, has no objection. Also, you should never mention other interviews or show completed questionnaires to other enumerators or supervisors in front of a respondent or any other persons. Neutrality 27. Apart from confidentiality, most people are polite, especially to strangers, and they tend to give answers that they think will please the interviewer. It is therefore extremely important that you remain absolutely neutral towards the subject matter of the interview. Do not show surprise, approval, or disapproval of the respondents answer by your tone of voice or facial expression. Probing 28. It is possible that the respondents answer to a question is not satisfactory. From what is required, his/her answer may be incomplete or irrelevant, or sometimes he/she may be unable to answer the question as put to him/her. If this happens, asking some additional questions is required to obtain a complete answer to the original question. Asking additional questions to obtain a complete answer is called probing. The probes must be worded so that they are neutral and do not lead the respondent in a particular direction. Remember that the quality of data to be collected depends very much on the enumerators ability to probe correctly. In probing you should ensure that the meaning of the question is not changed.

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Recording Answers 29. Each answer must be recorded in the correct cell in the questionnaire. Before leaving the respondent you should check to see that all required questions have been answered. If the question requires a numerical answer, be sure to enter the appropriate number or zero if the answer is None. If a column is left blank for questions requiring numerical answers or numerical codes, it is impossible to tell whether or not the question was asked or answered. Blanks and 0 have very different meanings when the survey is analyzed. All numerical answers must be right-justified in the space provided. Leading zeros can be inserted to avoid recording errors. Always visit the respondent with the correct Forms. Never rely on taking answers in a notebook for transfer later. This is a bad habit and only complicates your work. Record what the respondent says, not your own interpretation/ summary. Nonetheless, if a respondent gives an answer that contradicts an earlier response, confirm the true position by probing. 30. All interviewers will use pens with blue ink or blue ball-pens to complete all questionnaires. Supervisors will do their work using pens with red ink or red ball-pens. Enumerators should not use pencils in filling the questionnaires. Any data edit during data entry will be recorded using pens with green ink or green ball-pens. Making Appointments 31. You should always try to arrange beforehand for a suitable time for interviewing the respondent. You should never try to force the respondent to attend at a time that would obviously be inconvenient to him/her. Once a time has been set for an interview it is important that you keep the appointment. Being late for appointments inconvenience respondents and results in unpleasant situations. Handling Reluctant Respondents 32. Actual refusals are rare and for most enumerators there will be no refusals. If refusals come often, then there is something wrong with the way you are introducing yourself or explaining the purpose of the survey. If the enumerator continues to have problems, he/she should contact his/her supervisor at once. The person who says he does not have time for the interview is usually trying to put you off. Ordinarily a statement such as this wont take very long or I can ask you some questions while you are working will start the ball rolling and soon he/she will give you his entire attention. Always be honest. Never tell a respondent that the interview will take only ten minutes if you believe forty minutes will be needed. If he really does not have the time, make an appointment for a return visit. A good enumerator is proud of his ability to meet people with ease and friendliness and to secure their cooperation. Call-Back Procedures 33. It is important that you attempt to interview the head of the household, but occasionally you may need to make a second visit if the head of the household (or other members) is not present. Most of the questions that are contained in the questionnaire can only be answered by the head of the household or another person next in line in taking the responsibility of the head of the household. Do not try to complete the questionnaire by interviewing children or other persons who are not familiar with the household. Enumerator Review of Questionnaires 34. As soon as possible after leaving the respondent, the enumerator must check over the questionnaire carefully to see that all the answers are complete. In some cases it may be necessary to revisit the respondent for more complete information and this is the time to do it. Under the pressure to complete an interview, some enumerators become lazy in checking over each questionnaire while the interview is fresh in their minds. This part of the job should never be overlooked. Experience has shown that most of the problems involving completed questionnaires could have been eliminated by the

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enumerator if he/she had made a check of the questionnaire before handing it over to the supervisor. The enumerator should therefore plan his workload to include some time for checking the questionnaire. Supervisors Review 35. On the first day of fieldwork, it will be necessary for supervisors to edit the completed questionnaires the same day to ensure that training was properly understood and remedial action taken. A supervisor should go through the filled questionnaire with the enumerator during fieldwork so that revisits can be arranged to fill gaps and clarify any issues. Language 36. Interview the respondent in the language in which he/she feels most comfortable. If he/she prefers English, do the interview in English. If the respondent is most comfortable in Kiswahili, then speak Kiswahili. If he/she speaks only another language you understand, then you can do the interview in that language. If the respondent speaks only a language you do not understand, then you must raise this problem with your supervisor. In translating and probing, be sure you do not give the answer you expect. Translating Difficult Concepts 37. When translating certain words, it is essential that the question is framed in such a way that it would mean the same as in the English phrasing of the questionnaire. There may be particular difficulty with the word work. In many languages, when a person is asked Do you work? it means Are you employed by someone else for pay? Try to avoid this type of misunderstanding when you are asking questions in other languages. Ending the Interview 38. Once all the information has been obtained the interview should be brought to a close without undue extension. Even if the respondent is very friendly, you should always avoid overstaying your welcome. You should always acknowledge and thank the respondent for his/her time and willingness to provide you with the data. After completing the interview, thank the respondent for his/her time and cooperation. A respondent that you have favourably impressed will be willing to give information when his/her household is selected for another survey. CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS 39. For the survey to serve its intended purpose and avoid data misinterpretation, it is important that information collected refer to the same items or universe. To this end, this section attempts to explain concepts and unfamiliar terms used in the questionnaire so that they are understood uniformly and used consistently during the training, data collection, and analysis. Below are common concepts and definitions used in the survey. An Interview 40. An interview is a structured conversation with the specific objective of obtaining and recording information. Household 41. A household is defined as a person or a group of persons, whether related or not, residing in the same home or compound, and are answerable to the same head and share a common source of food. There are three important ways of identifying whether you are dealing with the same household: (a) Whether the people reside in the same compound;

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(b) (c)

Whether they are answerable to the same head; and Whether they pool and share their resources.

If the answer to each of the above criteria is Yes, then you are sure that you are dealing with one household. If any of them is No, then you may be dealing with more than one household. 42. The survey is mainly interested in the de jure (usual resident) household members, i.e. persons who normally live in the household. Under this definition, polygamous wives living within a single compound are included in the same household regardless of the cooking arrangements. Domestic servants who have meals with the household should be included as household members. If the servants cook and eat separately, they should be listed as separate households. Head of Household 43. The head of a household is a person who is regarded by the other members of the household as its head, and may be a man or a woman. The head of household is the key decision maker within the household, and his authority is acknowledged by the other members of the household. As such, the fact of being the main economic provider is not necessarily the most important criterion. Respondent 44. Any member of the household who provides information to the interviewer. In this survey, the respondent must be an adult member of the household competent to answer questions on the household. Holding 45. A holding is the land associated with a household, being used wholly or partially for agricultural purposes and being managed as a single economic unit under the overall control of a holder. A holder is the person with overall control over the management of the holding. Dwelling Unit 46. A place of residence for a family, an individual or a group of persons eating together and sharing the same budget for common provisions. Household Income 47. The sum of money income and income in-kind and consists of receipts which, as a rule, are of a recurring nature and accrue to the household or to individual members of the household regularly at annual or more frequent intervals. Urban area 48. These consist of all towns which, according to the Kenya 1989 Population and Housing Census, had 2,000 residents or more. Enterprise 49. For the purpose of this survey, an enterprise is an entity which exclusively or principally carries out a single type of economic activity at a single physical location. In the case of commercial banks, an enterprise would be a branch at a specific location. Likewise in the hotel industry, a chain of hotels with different locations and names, but under the same management would be considered as separate enterprises. There are, however, some complications in this definition because some units are hard to locate physically due to the nature of their activities. Thus construction workers such as masons may carry

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out daily activities at different worksites which are far away from each other, while self-employed taxi drivers and peddlers/ hawkers/ tinkerers (travelling menders of metal household utensils) have unlimited worksites. Main Economic Activity 50. Economic activities are essentially related to the supply of labour for the production and distribution of goods and services, thereby earning incomes, during the reference period chosen for the investigation. Therefore, if a person reports working in a factory producing suitcases and handbags, the detailed activity would be Tanning and dressing of leather, manufacture of luggage, handbags, saddler and harness falling under the major group labelled Manufacturing. Noneconomic activities include learning, housekeeping, raising children, care of the old, voluntary community services, social, religious or political activities, etc., which do not normally involve any income -- monetary or non-monetary. Occupation 51. An occupation is the smallest segment of work which is specifically identified in the occupational classification system. It refers to the type of work one was doing during the reference period regardless of the economic activity in which one may be employed or the type of training received. For example, a stenographer may work in a school, voluntary organization, Government office, etc. Occupationally, she remains a stenographer as long as she performs the same kind of work. However, if her main duties change to those of general office clerk, then she can no longer be classified as stenographer. A mere change of employers doesnt change the occupation as long as the principal tasks remain the same. It is also important to distinguish between occupation (duties performed) and education/ training received. Gross Income 52. For the purpose of this survey, gross entrepreneurial income consists of profits i.e. operating surplus before allowance for depreciation and direct taxes. It includes goods and services removed for household use (imputed value of what would have been received if the goods or services were actually sold) e.g. retail-shop owners may remove household goods for household consumption. Consumption 53. Indicates all goods and services (or items) that are used, acquired or purchased not for business purposes and not for accumulation of wealth. Household Consumption Expenditure 54. Refers to all money expenditure by the household and individual members on goods intended for consumption and expenditure on services, plus the value of goods and services received as income in kind and consumed by the household or individual members of the household. Thus the value of items produced by the household and utilized in its own consumption, the net rental value of owner-occupied housing, and the gross rental value of free housing occupied by the household represent part of household consumption expenditure. Household Non-consumption Expenditure 55. Includes income tax and other direct taxes, service charges, deductions for health services e.g. National Hospital Insurance Fund, pension and social security contributions remittances, gifts given out and similar transfers by the household as a whole and its individual members. Regular Worker 56. A salaried person employed on monthly, weekly or ticket contract terms of service on a verbal or written contract.

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Casual Worker 57. A casual worker is any person the terms of whose engagement provide for his/her payment at the end of each day and who is not engaged for a period longer than 30 days continuously. Land Tenure 58. Land tenure in Kenya can broadly be classified under the following categories: freehold, leasehold and trust land. Freehold land is a parcel of land held in perpetuity through absolute title. There is no time limit in ownership and land use is only subject to relevant existing laws, i.e. Land Planning Act, Land Acquisition Act, and the building codes. There are no restrictions on transfer. Leasehold land is a parcel of land held for a fixed term given by either a local authority or the Commissioner of Lands, normally for periods ranging from 30 to 99 years. Trust land is land held by indigenous communities under tribal arrangements (normally communal ownership), and has not been demarcated and registered. Such land is normally held in trust on behalf of the communities by Country Councils, hence the term trust land. Rent 59. land. Rent or rental is money paid for use over a period of time of anything such as house, truck, and

INSTRUCTIONS FOR COMPLETING THE QUESTIONNAIRE GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS 60. To keep the respondents mind focused, introduce each section of the questionnaire before asking specific questions listed below the section heading. For example, the section on household composition could be introduced by drawing the respondents attention with, say: I want to ask you a few questions concerning your household. FILLING THE IDENTIFICATION PARTICULARS 61. All the schedules have a common identification section at the top. You will be provided with a list of households. A complete list of district codes is given in the Appendix of this manual. For this section: i) ii) iii) Enter your name and your Supervisors name in the upper left hand corner of the Form. Write the name of the village in which the household is located in the space provided at the right hand side of the Form, and enter the village code in column 2. You will be supplied with a list of selected households to interview for the survey. Enter the household number in columns 3-5. If household is 3, enter 003. If you write 3 in column 4, this will be taken as household 030. Avoid this problem by filling all the columns for household number. Enter the date of interview. Indicate in the space provided whether the household interviewed was a replacement from the list provided to you. The sub-location codes are: 1= Maweni

iv) v) 62.

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2= 63.

Kisauni

The village codes are: 1= 2= 3= 4= 5= Ziwa la Ngombe (Maweni sub-location) Bombolulu (Kisauni sub-location) Kisimani (Maweni sub-location) Mkunguni (Maweni sub-location) VoK (Maweni sub-location)

Final Interview Status 64. Indicate final interview status in column 8. Final interview status can fall under the following categories: Code 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Interview Status Completed Partial Vacant - housing unit not occupied. No people live there Unable to contact on vacation, or unable to get an appointment (but household is cooperative, i.e. not refusing) Refusal -- household refused to be interviewed. Household shows resistance after repeated attempts Unable to interview due to age, illness or impairment Unable to interview due to language Out-of-scope - dignitaries, foreigners intending to leave Kenya before survey ends, etc. Other (specify)

HOUSEHOLD COMPOSITION: FORM Z/L/N/1 65. The Form labelled Z/L/N/1 is to be used to record information on the usual household members. For a household having 12 or fewer members, only one copy of the Form is necessary. If there are more than 12 members, then you will fill two Forms, starting the first row of the second Form with serial number 13. Serial Number 66. The first person should be the head of the household and will be Serial Number 01, the second 02, and so on. If you continue to another Form, the first person on the second Form will be serial number 13, and all identification particulars should be the same as those given in the first Form as they refer to the same household.

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Name of household member 67. The list of respondents given to you gives the name of the household head selected for the survey. You must locate this person and enter his/her particulars on the first line of the Form, provided he/she is still a usual member of the household. The name of each person is entered under column headed Name. Enter sufficient details to allow identification of the person in case of call-backs or reinterview. Relationship to head 68. For each listed member write his/her relationship to the household head by blood or marriage. Enter the relevant relationship code. Parent includes parent-in-law. If a salaried domestic employee is also a relative to the household head, he/she should be taken as domestic employee. In cases where several persons who are not related by blood or marriage constitute a household as common in urban areas, code one of them as Head and the rest Unrelated. A grandchild is a direct descendant of the respondents children, regardless of whether the childs parent(s) is/are members of the household or not. Sex 69. Record 1 for male and 2 for female. The enumerator must ask the sex of small children when in doubt. In Mombasa, it might be difficult to guess the sex of household members from names derived from Kiswahili language e.g. Furaha (happiness), Bahati (luck), Mapenzi (love), Taabu (difficulties), Shida (problems), and Riziki (reward/blessings). Age 70. How old is...? Enter the age of the person in completed years in the two boxes provided9. A child under one year of age should be coded as 00. Anyone aged 100 or over should be coded as 99. Do not round the age to end in 0, 5 or other preferred digit. The recorded age of children below one year will be misleading if the reference date is taken to be the date of the interview since all households will not be interviewed on the same day. To correct the problem, any child whose first birthday will be on or before 19 August 1999 will be entered as 00 since this is the date the survey is expected to end. 71. It is sometimes possible to estimate a persons age by relating his/her birth to a notable event if they can indicate how old he/she was when the event occurred or how many years elapsed before his/her birth. A calendar of events for Ziwa la Ngombe is difficult to compile since it is a multi-ethnic community. 72. The calendar of events for Mombasa/ Kilindini (based on the 1989 Population and Housing Census) include: 1907: 1908: 1911: 1912: 1916: 1914-18: 1918: Fort Jesus turned into prison Native hospital Makadara Mombasa (sipitali ya nitifu) Plagi and tete za makhakhi disease First ship wreck (Indian) S.S. Mongal off cliffs at State House, Mombasa Heavy rains submerged of Mombasa First World War Germany war prisoners captured in Tanzania and built Salim Road from Likoni Ferry to Nyali Bridge

9 In census and survey work, there are hardly any guidelines on how to compute age in completed years

using the date of birth (day, month and year). However, according to the Age of Majority Act, Cap 33, in computing the age of any person the day on which he was born shall be included as a whole day and he shall be deemed not to have attained such age as may be specified until the beginning of the relevant anniversary of the day of his birth. 93

1920: 1924: 1925: 1927: 1928: 1929: 1930: 1931: 1932: 1933: 1934: 1936: 1939: 1942: 1943: 1945: 1947: 1950: Marital Status

Old Port of Mombasa ceased to accept big ships The first German Tourist Ship called at Port of Mombasa Khoja Jamat Khan was completed (Kuze Road) Railway Bridge Kilindini was built Duke of Wales paid a visit to Mombasa Mackinnon market in Old Town was built Mfalme wa Ngoma was installed Nyali Bridge was built European Hotel converted into Customs House Present D.C.s office ceased to operate as Railway office; Nyali Bridge became operational Origin of Kenya Bus Service in Mombasa Queen Kinana was installed; Vita vya washihiri na wakavirondo Bombardment of Malindi by air; Old Makupa Police under the officer who was designated Mungu wa Makupa Lady Grigg Maternity Hospital was built Prison lines at Uhuru Gardens, Kilindini Road Lions ate some people in Mombasa Tononoka centre opened The Tusker Building (East African Breweries) was opened

73. For all persons 14 years and above, ask if they are/or have ever been married. Select the appropriate current marital status and record it in the space provided. Accept what people tell you about their marital status and do not embarrass them by asking unnecessary questions about their marriage. Fill marital status even for children below 14 years. The threshold of 14 years in the question is used since the Children and Young Persons Act, cap 141, defines a child as under 14 years; while the Penal Code, cap 63, define unlawful carnal knowledge of a girl under the age of 14 as defilement. Please note that: Never married include those with children but have never married. Divorced means that all legal formalities have been completed and there is no chance of reunion. Separated means the couple are no longer living together and are in the process of reconciliation or divorce. Separated does not include persons living separately in two households for purposes of work or other convenience. Absence/ presence 74. Indicate whether the household member listed usually resides in the household and his/her regularity of residency using the codes given. Children household members in boarding schools should be coded 2 and members of the nuclear family within a marriage union but living in separate households should be coded 3. Religion 75. In column 17, indicate the religion of each household member using the codes provided. None includes pagans and traditionalists. Accept the answer given. Education 76. Under column 18, code 1 if the respondent is attending school or college fulltime, and 2 if the respondent is not attending school or college fulltime.

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77. Under column 19, state the highest grade completed for each member of the household and enter the appropriate code. This should be the highest grade completed at the end of the previous schooling year. Information on highest grade completed and class/ form in education cycle should be solicited on all household members, including those reported in column 18 as not attending school or college fulltime. 78. A preschool is a place where a group of children aged under 6 years are under the care of an adult. The centre could be a classroom attached to a primary school, a church, a social or special hall, someones house or under a tree. Some of the common labels used to define preschools include nursery schools, kindergartens, pre-primary units, and duksi/madrassa. In a rural setting, nursery schools normally refer to programmes for children under six years while in urban centres, the normal rational age is below four years. Kindergarten is a German term which refers to education programmes for young children similar to those offered in nursery schools. Pre-primary units provide education to children aged 5-6 years, are normally attached to a primary school, and such children may or may not have attended nursery school previously. 79. Column 20 refers to class/ form completed in that educational cycle. The completed class/form in any type of educational institution should range between 1 and 8 years. Thus for a member of the household whose highest grade in formal education was Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education/Cambridge Overseas School Certificate or London General Certificate of Education (GCE) Ordinary Level, you should code 4 in column 19 and 4 in column 20; 4 standing for the Secondary Education code and 4 standing for the four years spent at this educational cycle. Reasons for not Completing the Cycle 80. If a member of the household dropped out of school before completing an education cycle, find out the reason why. In ordinary usage, someone who has completed an education cycle e.g. after doing CPE and does not continue to Form One has not dropped from school. If, however, someone stops schooling at Form Three, then he has dropped from school. However, for the purpose of this survey, those who completed the primary education cycle and did not proceed to secondary school will be counted as dropouts. The question should only be asked of those who dropped out of the education cycle during the period 1995-98. Literacy 81. For those household members not in school and are above 8 years of age, ask whether the member can read or write a simple statement in any language, and record the responses in columns 24 and 25, respectively. Literacy in Arabic is also included. Literacy should only be asked on those who have never enrolled in the secondary school cycle. Vocational/ Professional Training 82. According to the annual World Banks World Development Report, tertiary education includes all postsecondary schools and universities. Those who have attended vocational schools, adult education programmes, two-year community colleges, and distance-education centres (primarily correspondence courses) are included. 83. Solicit information on the training the respondent has had. Respondents may have had some of each or possibly none at all; but this column seeks particulars of non-formal or tertiary education, as opposed to formal education particulars sought in columns 19, 20, 21-22 and 23. Enter the appropriate code in column 26 for each member of the household as given at the bottom of Form Z/L/N/1. Main Occupation 84. This question applies to all members of the household aged 8 years and above. Main economic activity/ occupation means the dominant activity where the household member spends most of his/her

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time. If a member regularly works in, for example, trading/business, for over 50 percent of his/her time, then the work he/she is engaged in is the main occupation. The categories of the occupation codes for Column 27 are given at the bottom of the Form. Note that: Unemployed household members are more likely to be found in urban situations. Rural residents whose primary or sole occupation is working on the family farm fall into the family worker category. Own-account workers are people who operate their own economic enterprises or engage independently in a profession or trade. In normal usage, the term excludes those who hire employees. Unpaid family worker is a person who works without pay in an economic enterprise operated by a related person living in the same household. Not applicable applies to children below 8 years. Migration 85. An in-migrant is a person who enters a migration-defining area by crossing its boundary from some point outside the area, but within the same country; while an out-migrant is a person who departs from a migration-defining area by crossing its boundary to a point outside it, but within the same country. An emigrant is an international migrant, departing to another country by crossing an international boundary. In a national survey, information on out-migration from a particular migration-defining area is collected from households in the destination districts. Out-migration data will not be collected in this survey. 86. Kenya has a hierarchically nested spatial and administrative organization, from nation, province, district, division, location, to sub-location. The hierarchically nested administrative organization of government is normally referred to as the provincial administration. It starts from the President all the way to the assistant chief at the sub-location level. 87. Column 28 refers to the place where one was born. The place of birth refers to mothers usual residence when the index child was born. The codes are: Ziwa la Ngombe, within Kisauni division/outside Ziwa la Ngombe, within Mombasa/outside Kisauni division, within Coast province/outside Mombasa, within Kenya/outside Coast, and Outside Kenya. For those born outside Mombasa district, record district of birth in columns 29-30 using the district codes given in the Appendix. Membership in Self-help Groups 88. Ask the respondent whether there are any household members aged 15 and over who are members of community-support groups and code 1 for Yes and 2 for No in Column 31. In column 32, code the type of group to which the person belongs from the list given on the Form. If he/she belongs to more than one group, record the one that he/she considers most important to him/her. Sickness 89. Indicate whether the household member has been sick in the last two weeks in column 33, type of sickness in column 34 only for those who responded Yes in column 33, and actions taken to restore health in columns 35 and 36. The first action is to be coded on column 35 and the second action on column 36. Responses to a sickness episode need to be interpreted within a model of sickness experience i.e. the sequence of actions people take when they fall sick. For example, the first health restoration action may not have led to health restoration, and the sick person may have shopped for another health restoration point. OTC drugs in the Form means over-the-counter non-prescribed drugs.

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90. For first action taken to restore health, N/A refers to those who were reported as not sick in the two weeks preceding the interview, while N/A for second action taken refers to those who were not sick and those who recovered after the first health restoration action. Disability 91. A disability is a limitation in an individuals ability to perform an activity in a manner that is considered to be normal. Impairment is an abnormality in the structure or function of a part of the body or mind. Disabilities are caused by impairments, which are in turn caused by diseases, injuries or congenital (inborn) or peri-natal conditions. Disabilities reported in the survey should have had duration of at least six months. Disabilities can be: Difficulties in seeing (visual defects) Difficulties in hearing Difficulties in speaking Includes all people who have difficulty in seeing and the completely blind. The mere possession of a functional pair of squint eyes does not constitute a disability. A squint (strabismus), often called crossed-eyes, is a condition in which the eyes are not properly aligned with each other. One eye is either constantly or intermittently turned in (esotropia) or out (exotropia). Includes all people who have difficulty in hearing and the completely deaf. Includes all people who have difficulty in speaking and those who have complete loss of speech, excluding stammerers/ stutterers (with difficulties in pronouncing words beginning with certain letters such as B, D, G, K and V) e.g. those who skip letter K. Lisping is a common form of stammer and consists in the substitution of th sounds for those of s and z (Barnard, 1930; Fletcher, 1914). A person with (a) one arm or both too short or too long or deformed in such a way as to prevent normal functioning; or (b) armless. A person with (a) one leg or both too short or too long or deformed in such a way as to prevent normal functioning; or (b) legless. A person with a deformity of the spine or sternum with visible protruding (heaped) muscles either on the back or the chest may be referred to as a hunch. Includes conditions which affect a persons ability to learn, to acquire knowledge and to adapt to environment which other people of the same age and within the same environment are able to cope with.

Upper limbs Lower limbs Hunch Mental retardation

92. Some respondents may be reluctant or shy to talk about disabled household members. Your duty is to make sure that you collect the information on disability using the best diplomacy you can bring to bear. Remind the respondents that the information will be kept confidential. If a member has multiple disabilities, for example difficulties in seeing, upper limbs and hunch, the responses should be entered sequentially separated by a , as follows 1, 4, 6 in column 37. Skip Sequence 93. (a) (b) (c) (d) The skip sequences for Form Z/L/N/1 are as follows: If the response to column 18 is Yes, skip columns 23, 24, 25, 26 and 27. If the response to column 28 is 1-3, skip columns 29-30. If the response to column 31 is No, skip column 32. If the response to column 33 is No, skip columns 34, 35 and 36.

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CHILD WELFARE AND CHILD IMMUNIZATION (FORM Z/L/N/2) 94. The objectives of the Kenya Expanded Programme on Immunization (KEPI) is to ensure that, by the first birthday, all children are vaccinated against measles, polio, tuberculosis, tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis. Primary healthcare facilities are widespread in all the districts to ensure delivery of quality immunization services throughout the country. At the age of one, a fully-immunized child should have received BCG against tuberculosis and polio B at birth; polio I, II and III and DPT I, II and III (against diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus) at 6, 10 and 14 weeks, respectively; and measles at nine months. A booster immunization of Polio and DPT is given after 5 years. KEPI provides immunization cards for each child which gives a record of the immunizations. Serial Numbers 95. This Form solicits information on child immunisation for all children in the household aged under 60 months. Children eligible for inclusion in Form Z/L/N/2 are those whose recorded age in Form Z/L/N/1 is 04 years since 04 completed years translates to a maximum of 59 months. Columns 78 record serial number of mother as given on the first form (Form Z/L/N/1). Columns 9-10 record the serial number of the index child within the household as given on the first Form (Form Z/L/N/1). It would be advisable to enumerate children in the order in which they are listed in Form Z/L/N/1. 96. NOTE THAT if the biological mother of a child eligible for inclusion in Form Z/L/N/2 (i.e. 04 completed years) is not a member of the household, allocate serial number of mother 99 and explain in your notebook why the mother is not a household member (death, in school, parents divorced, etc.). The information might be useful in understanding outcomes e.g. orphanhood. Name/ Date of Birth of Index Child 97. Record the names of the children in the space provided. Give at least two names. Record the month and year of birth in columns 11-12 and 13-14, respectively. For example, a child who was born in July 1995 will be recorded as 0795. This must be entered for every child, and if not known, probe and estimate. If the child has a health card, use the card as the source of information on the date of birth. Place of Delivery and Assisting Personnel 98. Record place of delivery and the personnel who attended the mother in columns 15 and 16, respectively. A traditional birth attendant (TBA) is recognized as such by the community. Other community personnel who assisted in delivery should be recorded under other. A child delivered in a health centre/dispensary is expected to have been assisted by nurse/ midwife, while those born in hospitals should be recorded as having their delivery assisted by doctors whether or not a doctor or nurse assisted. The respondent should also indicate the name of the hospital/ health facility (at the left hand margin of the Form against the index child) to facilitate editing of the completed Form. Immunization Received 99. Ask the mother if the child has a health card (any written document should be taken as a card). Code 1 for Yes if the card is available for your perusal and 2 for No in column 17. Check the vaccines administered from the health card and complete the appropriate columns 18 and 20 to 27. Check if the child has the BCG scar and record the response in column 18. If the health card is not traceable, ask the mother for details of immunization history. For those without cards, you are supposed to specify how each is given so the mother will know which vaccine we are talking about. A BCG vaccination against tuberculosis is an injection in the left forearm that makes a scar; polio vaccine is drops in the mouth; and an injection against measles is given in the top part of the right arm. It is also important to remember that a child can receive a vaccine but no record is made on the card.

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Breastfeeding 100. Ask the respondent if the child is still breastfeeding. Enter 1 for Yes and 2 for No in column 28. Ask the mother the length of time in months she exclusively breastfed the child without giving any other food, i.e. milk or semi-solid food to the child. If exclusively breastfed for less than one month, code 00. If breastfeeding is still continuing, then the number of months breastfed is EQUAL TO THE AGE OF THE CHILD. If breastfeeding has stopped, ask the respondent how old the child was when he/she stopped breastfeeding completely. Enquire from the mother as to what type of supplement the child was first fed on and enter the response in column 33. Skip Sequence 101. The only skip sequence for Form Z/L/N/2 is: If the response to column 28 is Yes, skip columns 31-32 on months breastfed since it will be identical to the age of the child. HOUSING, ASSETS AND AMENITIES: FORM Z/L/N/3 Type of Dwelling Unit 102. A dwelling unit is a place of residence for a household, an individual or a group of persons eating together and sharing the budget for common provisions. In addition, a self-contained dwelling unit is that which has toilet, bathroom, and kitchen facilities that are not shared with occupants of other dwelling units. Indicate codes for house, flat, maisonette, Swahili type, Barrack type, shanty and others, as given in the Form. These terms are defined below for clarity. House: Maisonette: Flat/Apartment: A house is a self-contained single or multi-storeyed dwelling unit on its own compound. A house is in most cases occupied by one household. Is a semi-detached or terraced self-contained dwelling unit on two floors. There are usually many maisonettes in a single structure. Is a self-contained dwelling unit joined to others in a single multi-storeyed building. Each flat is usually on a single floor. Dwelling units above shops and other commercial premises in multi-storeyed buildings are also classified as flats. These are dwelling units found under one structure with a common passage and common toilet/bathroom facilities. They are mainly found at the coast, and their walls are made of a mixture of mud, sand, cement and stones. The roofing material used is makuti or iron/tin sheets. This is single-roomed dwelling unit that is located in a single long structure, or a train-like structure, composed of numerous rooms. This type is common in tea and coffee plantations. They are also found in low-income residential areas such as Kibera and Muthurwa in Nairobi. Toilet and washing facilities are detached from the main block. These are temporary dwelling units made of cardboard, iron sheets, etc. Bathing and toilet facilities are generally found outside the building. These are structures which do not fall into categories listed above. Bathroom and toilet facilities are generally outside the main dwelling unit.

Swahili:

Barrack:

Shanty: Other/specify:

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Whether Unit Shared 103. In certain cases, you may find two separate households in one housing unit like a flat or a maisonette or even a room. If shared code 1, and 2 for not shared. Number of Rooms Occupied 104. This refers to the number of rooms excluding kitchen, bathroom and toilet but including living and dining rooms. Put down the correct number of rooms. Tenure of Main Residential Structure 105. The unit in which the household is residing could be either rented, rent free, employer-provided or owner-occupied. Put the appropriate code. If owner-occupied, then the enumerator should impute a rental market value of the unit and put down the value in Form Z/L/N/4B. Rent-free includes staying in relatives houses. 106. In Mombasa, the slum elites euphemistically refer to a house-owner who does not own the land as houselord, to distinguish him/her from landlord who owns both the residential/commercial structure and the land it sits on. Construction Materials of the Main Residential Structure 107. Pick the main material used for the wall, floor and roof and code appropriately in columns 11, 12 and 13, respectively. The information should be collected regardless of the tenurial status. Plastered mud/earth wall should be reported as mud/earth, while asbestos roofing should be included under tiles. Water 108. Ask What is the main source of water? This is the source from which the household draws its water for most part of the year. Pick the main source of water out of the listed options and put down the corresponding code. If the main source of water is not among the sources listed in columns 15 and 16, specify it under other and code 4. In case of source of water supplied by a vendor, the respondent should be asked where the vendor collects the water from. Some of the main sources of water include: Piped: Borehole: Indicate whether piped water is provided inside or outside the dwelling unit. Same as the well, but deeper than a well and has pump for drawing the water into a tank, buckets, etc. A private borehole is one that is exclusively used by occupants of the dwelling unit; whereas a common borehole is communally used. This is a man-made shaft dug in the ground from which water is obtained. Water is drawn using buckets. Refers to water purchased by households from mobile sellers or distributors. Examples of ferrying include cart, bicycle, individuals, truck, etc. The source of the water may be known or not, by the household.

Well: Vendor:

109. Distance to water source one-way should be recorded in kilometres to one decimal place. On who is mainly responsible for water collection, worker/vendor includes paid workers who are not members of the household and water sold from vendors and water-point owners. The amount of water collected is supposed to be the average rather than what was collected on the day prior to the interview. A household that does not purchase water from a vendor should leave columns 21-22 and 23-24 blank. Column 25 is on whether the household does anything to the water before drinking.

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Toilet Facilities 110. Ask Where do members of this household go for toilet? Pick the relevant option and write its corresponding code in column 26. A flush is a toilet facility using water disposal system, regardless of whether it is exclusively used by the household or shared by occupants of two or more dwelling units. Main Cooking Fuel 111. Ask What is the main cooking fuel used in this household? Note that some households may use electricity, paraffin, gas, firewood, charcoal, all at the same time. The answer required here is the fuel used most of the time. Put down the appropriate code. Main Type of Lighting 112. Enter the appropriate code. Note that paraffin lamps include lanterns, pressure lamps and karabai (one made out of tin), etc. Assets Owned 113. In the case of assets owned by the household, record the number of each respective asset owned. Enter 0 in the appropriate column if the household does not own the asset. For example, if the household has two bicycles, record 2 under column 33. Only operational or serviceable assets should be recorded. An operational radio without batteries should be recorded as an asset. The listed household durables are known by those who own them; and the enumerator is supposed to read out the listed assets (columns 29-40) to the respondent. Also most of these household durables are familiar. HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURE 114. Complete the identification particulars in the section provided at the top of the Form. If there are two or more spenders in the household, record combined information for all spenders. i) ii) Under each item, indicate the quantity purchased in the month of July 1999 for each of the specified units, e.g. 10 debes of maize grain. Indicate the unit of measurement of the item, e.g. kilogram, bottle, metre, bag, litre, etc. Whenever possible all item quantities should be converted to standard units, e.g. kilograms, litre, metre, numbers, etc. If the item quantities are given in non-standard units, the enumerator, with the help of respondent, should convert them into standard units. If and only if the enumerator is unable to identify the correct code, then enter code 6 for other and specify the unit reported as used in the transaction of the item. Enter the price per unit and full value in Shillings, irrespective of whether it was bought in cash or on credit. Forms Z/L/N/4A and Z/L/N/4B solicit information on purchases and own consumption (withdrawals from business for household use) which will be valued as if it were bought i.e. at prevailing market prices.

iii) iv)

115. The enumerator should make sure that the total costs per food item are actual rather than imputed. To countercheck information on prices, a retail price survey will be conducted alongside the household survey to determine the prevailing market prices which will be used to convert food costs to weight for the purpose of estimating calorie supply by the use of food-to-energy conversion tables. The retail market survey will entail purchasing the food items in representative markets in Ziwa la Ngombe, and then weighing them later.

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116. The use of data on retail prices prevailing during the survey period to convert money food expenditures into quantity for use in food-energy conversion invokes leap of faith (drastic assumptions). These include (a) that food prices during the survey period are typical of the survey area, or (b) quantities purchased remain roughly the same regardless of the prevailing prices, and (c) changes in prices do not lead to substitution in the household commodity space and their quantities. If the leap of faith does not hold, then the imputed calorie/protein supply can only be interpreted to refer to the survey month. HOUSEHOLD REGULAR EXPENDITURES FOR A MONTH: FORM Z/L/N/4A & 4B 117. The regular expenditure categories include food items, cooking and lighting fuels, water, household operations, alcoholic beverages and tobacco, transport operating costs (e.g. fuel and repair, and use of public transportation), personal care, medical, and other items and services that are purchased regularly in a month. This excludes durable and semi-durable items. The item transactions (Form Z/L/N/4A) cover purchases, gifts and consumption of own produce, while Form Z/L/N/4B cover only purchases and withdrawal from business reported in Form Z/L/N/6A. Bread, Cereals and Pulses 118. Bread refers to all types of bread including biscuits, cakes, chapattis, mandazi, buns, scones, and so on. The cereals to be covered in the survey are maize (grain, flour, green), rice (grain), wheat (flour), millet (grain and flour) and sorghum (flour). Pulses include all varieties excluding French beans. 119. Bread only refers to ready-made products and does not include bread prepared in the household as the ingredients (wheat flour, cooking fat/oils) are already included in the Form; while baby foods (cereals) refer to purchased baby foods (e.g. Cerelac) rather than food prepared in the household for consumption by children. Meat and Products 120. Beef should include all forms of cattle meat i.e. beef with bones, beef without bones, bones, beef sausages and offal (matumbo). Other meat is likely to include mutton. Dairy Products/Oils and Fats 121. Milk refers to any form of milk e.g. cow, goat, sheep and camel, whether packeted or unpacketed. Examples of cooking fats are Kimbo, Joma, Kasuku and Cowboy. Cooking oils refer to liquid oils such as corn and salad oils. Others refer to oils such as lard from butcheries. Fruits, Vegetables, Roots and Tubers 122. Expenditures on fruits include ripe and green bananas, although green bananas are normally classified under vegetables. The list of commonly used vegetables and roots are indicated in the questionnaire. All other types of vegetables such as pumpkins, coriander (dania), spinach, amaranthus (terere), black nightshade (managu), and so on should be coded under other vegetables. Sugar, Beverages and Flavours 123. Sugar includes white, brown and jaggery (nguru). Common beverages and flavours are given on the Form. Meals Eaten Out 124. This refers to total cost of all meals and snacks eaten out by the members of the household, individually or collectively. Sodas, juices and fruits are listed separately.

102

Water 125. Note that where a household pays a porter to deliver water or purchase water from neighbours, the expenses should be added when calculating water expenses incurred by the household last month. Water expenses should only include expenses on water for domestic use. Batteries 126. Batteries include the cost of dry cells and for charging a car battery solely for domestic use i.e. not for use in a mode of transport. Tobacco and Alcoholic Beverages 127. Tobacco and alcoholic beverages include tobacco, khat (miraa) and cigarettes.

Transport and Communication 128. Transport and communication expenditures include car/motorcycle service/repair, bicycle repair, petrol, diesel and engine oil expenses, and other costs e.g. bus and matatu fares. Domestic Workers 129. Ask respondent whether the household spent any money in the last month on cooks, housemaids (ayahs), or watchmen and enter the responses in Form Z/L/N/4B, columns 40-43. Any amount spent on these workers should be recorded even if the service rendered was for a shorter duration. House Rent 130. Enter the type of rent i.e. whether cash or imputed in column 8 and the value of cash or imputed rent in columns 9-12. The imputed (estimated market) value should be obtained with the help of the respondent. Other personal care 131. Other personal care include powder, soap, toothpaste, lotions, deodorants, perfumes, aftershave, body oil, ladies toiletries, other. Other Medical Costs 132. Other medical care includes over-the-counter drugs and medicinal herbs.

HOUSEHOLD NON-REGULAR EXPENDITURES FOR ONE YEAR: FORM Z/L/N/5 133. The enumerator should probe the respondents to recall all the possible transactions of such goods and services which the household made in the last one year. This category includes clothing and footwear, education, furniture, utensils, etc. The treatment of the items should be the same as for regular expenditures only that the reference period has changed from one month to one year. 134. A survey design which involves consecutive visits to the same household is said to be bounded if the recall is based on the period since my last visit. Under this definition, a reference period (last 12 months, last month) used in this survey is not bounded. Unbounded recall over a long period can lead to telescoping (mis-dating) errors, with consequent over-reporting or underreporting. The responses are likely to be affected by recall loss (forgetting an event that occurred during the reference period) and telescoping errors (forgetting when an event occurred). The reference period for education costs will be January-December 1999, while the rest of non-regular expenditures refer to calendar year 1998. This is

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because education expenditures can be determined in advance, are usually substantial proportions of household expenditures, and are unstable over time due to changes in the family lifecycle. Clothing and Footwear 135. Other clothing includes blankets, bed-sheets, towels, clothing materials, handkerchiefs and so on. School uniforms should be recorded under education expenses rather than clothing and footwear. Other footwear costs include repair, polish, other maintenance, and so on. Education 136. Education expenses include school fees and other related charges (nursery, primary, secondary, training and technical colleges, university), school books and stationery (writing, textbooks, schoolbags, school uniform), transport/travel to school (e.g. day students spend daily fares and boarders spend on bus, matatu and rail fares to boarding school), feeding (day students) and boarding (boarding students) if not part of the fees, individual tutoring carried out within the school compound and outside the school, and compulsory school development levies. The PTA School Development Fund only includes compulsory and fixed development fund decided by Parents-Teachers Associations, whose collection is enforced in the same manner as other regular school charges. If a respondent has more than one child in a particular school, PTA funds charged per parent should be apportioned among the respondents children attending the school. Furniture and Utensils 137. Furniture include the purchase and repair of sofas; dining, dressing, working tables; chairs, beds, stools, cupboards, bookshelves, wardrobes, etc. Utensils include glassware, tableware and household utensils (cutlery, glasses, cups, saucers, bowls, teapot, plates, spoons, knives, sufurias, forks, frying pans, basins, bucket, brooms, etc). HOUSEHOLD NON-AGRICULTURAL INCOME: FORM Z/L/N/6A and 6B 138. Forms Z/L/N/6A and Z/L/N/6B have four sections: paid employee income, own-account worker, transfers and other sources of income, and land holding. PAID EMPLOYEE RECORD (FORM Z/L/N/6A) 139. This section seeks information on incomes of paid employees in the household. Paid employees are individuals who work for pay. The reference period is one month. Serial Number and Name 140. Begin a line for each individual. Fill in the serial number and name of the individual. Be sure the serial number of each individual is the same as that reported on Form Z/L/N/1. Type of Industry 141. Try to determine the industry or economic activity in which the respondent is working. Economic activity is defined in terms of kinds of goods produced or services supplied by the unit or establishment in which the person works. Write down the main economic activity and its corresponding code. However, if you are unsure of the appropriate activity, enter any relevant information in the space provided to the right of columns 10-11. For example, you may wish to enter the main products of the company or institution employing the household member, or the services it provides. This information is important and the survey personnel will use it to assign the correct industry or activity. The list of industries or activity codes include: agriculture, forestry, fishing, mining and quarrying, manufacturing, building and construction, electricity and water, wholesale/ retail trade/ vending, personal/ household 104

services (hair salons, auto repair, etc), tailoring/ dressmaking, hotels and restaurants, transport and related services, communications, finance/ insurance/ real estate services, public administration and security, education, health, and other not elsewhere classified. Monthly Cash Income 142. Monthly cash income refers to cash incomes from paid employment. Respondents may be hesitant to disclose their incomes, and you should be careful not to express any interest in their answers. Do not offer any figure to the respondent. Some respondents may wish to have their names removed from the Form before they answer this question. If they wish to use initials only, that is sufficient. However, be sure to enter the proper serial number of the respondent. Also, some respondents may wish to keep this information from their spouses. One possibility is to have them write their earnings on a slip of paper and hand it to you or show you their payslips. To help you fill particulars pertaining to monthly cash incomes, it is necessary to note that in normal circumstances, gross salary is equal to basic gross salary plus housing allowance plus other allowances and benefits, commissions and gratuities. 143. Monthly deductions are essentially compulsory. They are regular deductions like income tax, NSSF, NHIF, local authority service charge, pension dues, union dues, etc. If the respondent has other deductions like loan repayment, life policy premiums, etc, these are not compulsory deductions although they might appear in his payslip, and should not be netted out. Total gross income less all the above deductions will give the net income of the respondent or the take-home-pay plus non-compulsory deductions e.g. voluntary savings and servicing of cooperative/ bank loans. In-kind Income per Month 144. Income-in-kind received refers to employer provided goods and services such as food, housing, clothing, transport, etc. The respondent should estimate the value received per month, and enter this amount in the appropriate columns. Note that there is no monetary transaction involved in income-inkind. Clothing received in kind includes working uniforms. The value of in-kind income should be apportioned to arrive at a monthly figure. INCOME OF BUSINESS OWNERS AND THE SELF-EMPLOYED (FORM Z/L/N/6A) 145. This Form seeks particulars on incomes of business owners who are essentially self-employed persons. Self-employed persons are those individuals who operate an unincorporated enterprise or business. The business may be an office, shop, factory, roadside stand, matatu, and may be located at the home (e.g. home-brewed beer and wine for sale) or have no fixed location. Serial Number and Name 146. Begin a line for each individual. Fill in the serial number and name of the individual. Be sure the serial number of each individual is the same as that reported on Z/L/N/1 for that particular individual. Industry 147. For all household members 12 years and above and who are business owners or self-employed, fill in the appropriate industry or activity code as described in the paid employee record. If a household member operates businesses in more than one activity or operates a business which encompasses more than one activity, for each activity repeat the serial number of the household member and fill the details of the activity on a separate line. However, if you are unsure of the appropriate activity, enter any relevant information in the space provided to the right of columns 29-30. 148. There is normally slight confusion on sector/industrial classification between production, trade and services. For example, a tailor is a tailor (to use a tautology), while one who buys ready-made clothes for resale is included in trade.

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Status 149. The respondent may be either owner of the enterprise he operates or an unpaid family worker. An unpaid family worker is usually a person who works without pay in an economic enterprise operated by a related person living in the same household. Thus, the person who works in his/her own enterprise and the unpaid family worker are both self-employed persons. Enter the appropriate status code in column 31. For respondents who are owners of business, record employment and incomes in columns 32-33 to 63-64. Unpaid family workers should not answer questions relating to employment and incomes from the enterprise. Employment 150. The persons engaged (employment) comprises all those reported to have worked fulltime, parttime or occasionally in the establishment during the reference period. Included are wage employees (both regular and occasional), self-employed proprietors and unpaid family workers. 151. Fulltime workers are persons who work for all the hours of work and for all the working days, as defined by the employer, except when on leave or otherwise officially away. Part-time workers are employees who work fewer hours than is normal for the enterprise. The term includes only those parttime employees who are permanent employees. Thus a person hired for, say, one month, is separately counted as occasional/seasonal worker. Seasonal workers are persons engaged in specific tasks (as they arise) or only for specific periods of the year, i.e. engaged in seasonal activities such as coffee picking, planting, tourism, etc. 152. The purpose of the question is to get the total number of employees who normally worked in the enterprise during the reference period, rather than the diverse individuals who worked in the enterprise. For example, if there was only one position but different individuals took up the position on different days, the total number of workers will be recorded as 1. NOTE THAT the total number of employees reported should not exceed the number of persons who worked in the enterprise in a normal working day during the reference period. Numbers of Persons Employed 153. If the member of the household owns a business, put the number of paid employees in his business in columns 32-33, the number of unpaid employees in columns 34-35, and the total in columns 36-37. Monthly Gross Income 154. Gross entrepreneurial income consists of profits i.e. operating surplus before allowance for depreciation. If more than one member of the household are engaged in a particular family enterprise, all the profit should be recorded against the household head. The revenue may arise from sales, fees, commissions, interest earned (e.g. for deposit-taking institutions) or other services rendered. 155. The basis for calculating monthly sales and outlays are commonly determined by the needs of a particular survey. Options include the previous month, the latest month with complete records, or the monthly average over a particular period of time (especially for enterprises with widely fluctuating sales and outlays). This survey seeks information on monthly average sales, outlays and profits. 156. If certain goods and services are not physically sold but removed for household use, impute a value which would have been received if the goods were actually sold and enter this amount as in-kind income. For instance, retail-shop owners may take household goods for home use e.g. sugar or maize flour. The net profit made by the business is the net income.

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Monthly costs 157. All monthly costs incurred in running the business should be entered in the appropriate columns, i.e. wages/salaries paid in cash, cost of goods or inputs and operating costs like electricity, telephone, rent, indirect taxes, insurance, loan interest, transport, equipment, water, security, etc. Impute a value for wages/salaries paid in kind e.g. food, clothing, housing, etc. 158. Gross wages and salaries are cash and in-kind payments relating to a given period including remuneration for time worked, overtime, piecework, bonuses, remuneration according to the law for hours not worked (e.g. holidays, sick leave and maternity), and supplements for night work. Own-Consumption from Business 159. The respondent should estimate the value of goods/services withdrawn from the business for household consumption. Note that there is no physical monetary transaction involved. Net Income/profit 160. A minus sign should precede a negative net income (loss), while a positive sign must precede a profit. Business Co-owned with Other Households 161. If business is co-owned with member(s) of other households, code 1 in column 62, otherwise code 2. Respondents Share of Net Income 162. If the business is co-owned give the respondents share of net income from the business in columns 63-64. OTHER SOURCES OF INCOME (FORM Z/L/N/6B) 163. These include income from investment (interest/dividends), rental income, and lease of land with a reference period of one year. Rental income is for letting out property he/she owns, excluding land which will be recorded separately. You should exclude very temporary dwellings e.g. those built of cartons. Interest income includes earnings from bank savings, and investments in stocks and bonds. Rental Income 164. Record in column 12-16 the amount the household received for last month from rent for letting out property he/she owns under actual rent. You should exclude very temporary dwellings e.g. those built of cartons. Interest Income 165. The respondent may save money in banks, invest in stocks and bonds or give loans. Such interest, if received in the previous month, should be recorded in columns 17-21. Dividends 166. All dividends received the previous month by the respondent from owning stocks and shares in corporate enterprises should be recorded in columns 17-21.

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HOUSEHOLD TRANSFERS (FORM Z/L/N/6B) 167. The Form seeks particulars on all cash and in-kind transfers into and out of the household during the month. Transfers are non-refundable receipts or payments which could be in the form of gifts or grants. One should also look at transfers as receipts or payments for services not rendered. 168. For respondents with homes in different locations as a result of labour migration or marriage to more than one current spouse, remittances (cash or in-kind) to family members not listed in the household composition particulars are likely to be substantial. 169. Goods stolen from a responding household during the reference period should not be reported as a transfer since it was involuntary and particulars of the beneficiary may not be known. Serial Number and Name 170. Begin a line for each individual. Fill in the serial number and name of the individual. Be sure the serial number of each individual is the same as that reported on Form Z/L/N/1. Transfers/Gifts Received 171. Indicate in columns 29-33 (cash) and 34-38 (imputed value of in-kind gifts received) the amount received against members of the household who received donations. Location of Donor 172. For transfers into the household, indicate if the donor is based in rural Kenya, urban centres in Kenya or abroad, and enter the corresponding codes in column 39. Please note that urban refers to all gazetted urban centres within Kenya. Relationship of Donor to Recipient 173. Indicate the relationship of the donor to the member of the household who received the transfer, and enter the corresponding code in column 40. Transfers/Gifts Given Out 174. For each member of the household who gave out gifts and grants during the month, enter the cash value of the transfer against his name in columns 43-47 (cash gifts given out) and 48-52 (imputed value of in-kind gifts given out). Location of Beneficiary 175. For transfers out of the household indicate if the beneficiary (the person who received donations from each listed member of the household) is based in rural areas, urban centres or abroad and enter the corresponding codes in column 53. Relationship of Beneficiary to the Donor 176. Indicate the relation of beneficiary to the member of the household (the donor) who remitted gifts and enter the corresponding code in column 54.

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LAND HOLDING (FORM Z/L/N/6B) 177. Solicit information on all land parcels owned by the household and record Yes or No in column 55 and the location of each parcel in column 56. Space is provided for three parcels. If the household owns more than three parcels, record the details at the bottom of the Form. The codes for location of land are the same as those in Form Z/L/N/1, column 28, except code 6 (outside Kenya) which is out-of-scope. Enquire the size (in acres) of the holding to the nearest one decimal place. If the holding size is 3.4 acres enter 003.4. Enquire also whether the holding has a title deed, and enter 1 for Yes and 2 for No in column 61. For a household that does not own land, enquire how it obtains access to land for crop and/or livestock purpose, and the size of land the household accesses and record accordingly. Land purchased should be included under land owned whether issuance of title deed has been completed or not. However, land expected to be acquired from parents under inheritance should be recorded as free access from parents rather than owned. 178. Respondents can report sizes of land parcels in hectares, acres, or dimensions of rectangular/ square measurements (e.g. 100 by 100 feet). The sizes of land should be recorded in the measurements given by the respondent and converted to acres later e.g. 1 hectare = 2.471 acres. Information will be collected on a maximum of three parcels of land. On tenurial status, freehold and leasehold will be taken to mean that the household owns the parcel, while the other options are intended to capture other types of access to land. Skip Sequence 179. If the response to column 55 is No, skip columns 56-61.

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PROCEDURE FOR ANALYSING INCOME AND EXPENDITURE DATA 180. Household Income 1.1 1.2 Income from paid employment Income from self-employment (working alone) and employer (business) enterprise 1.2.1 Cash income 1.2.2 In-kind income (domestic consumption of goods and services) 1.2.3 Net income (1.2.1 + 1.2.2) Income from rents, interest, pensions, etc 1.3.1 Lease/rent of land and other rental income 1.3.2 Interest/dividends received 1.3.3 Pensions Cash transfers (remittances) 1.4.1 Cash transfers in 1.4.2 Cash transfers out 1.4.3 Net cash transfers (1.4.1 less 1.4.2) 1.4.4 In-kind transfers in 1.4.5 In-kind transfers out 1.4.6 Net in-kind transfers (1.4.4 less 1.4.5)

1.3

1.4

181.

Household Consumption Expenditure 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10 1.11. Food: Purchases and own consumption Fuel and power Water Household operations (soaps and detergents, batteries, matches, domestic workers) Alcoholic beverages and tobacco Transport and communications Personal and medical care Clothing and footwear Education Furniture, furnishings, household equipment and operation Miscellaneous goods and services

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DISTRICT CODES 11 21 22 23 24 25 31 32 33 34 35 36 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 51 52 53 61 62 63 64 65 66 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 81 82 83 84 85 86 91 Nairobi Kiambu Kirinyaga Muranga Nyandarua Nyeri Kilifi/Malindi Kwale Lamu Mombasa Taita-Taveta Tana River Embu Isiolo Kitui Machakos Marsabit Meru Makueni* Tharaka-Nithi* Garissa Mandera Wajir Kisii Kisumu Siaya Homa Bay* Migori* Nyamira* Kajiado Kericho Laikipia Nakuru Narok Trans Nzoia Uasin Gishu Bomet* Baringo Elgeyo Marakwet Nandi Samburu Turkana West Pokot Bungoma

111

92 93 94

Busia Kakamega Vihiga*

* Newly created districts.

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CLASSIFICATION OF EXPENDITURE CONSUMPTION EXPENDITURE 1. Food 1.0 Cereals and cereal products 1.0.1 Cereals (rice, maize grain, green grammes, kidney beans, millet, chick peas, dry peas, other grains, wheat flour, maize flour, uji flour, corn flour) 1.0.2 Bread and cereal products (bread, cakes, biscuits, mandazi, buns, spaghetti, macaroni, porridge oats, breakfast cereals) Meat, fish and eggs 1.1.1 Meat (beef, pork, chicken-live, goat meat, sheep meat, chicken-frozen, matumbo, turkey, bacon, ham, sausages, hot dog, tinned corned beef) 1.1.2 Fish (fresh, frozen, tinned fish, fish fillets, prawns, dried fish) 1.1.3 Eggs (fresh) Milk and milk products 1.2.1 Milk (fresh milk, powdered, tinned, cream, yoghurt, ice cream, mala, baby milk, UHT) 1.2.2 Butter (salted, unsalted, peanut) 1.2.3 Cheese and other milk products (processed, cooking) Oils and fats 1.3.1 oils (cooking, corn, salad, olive) 1.3.2 Fats other than butter (margarine, Kimbo, ghee, lard) Fruits, vegetables and tubers 1.4.1 Fruits (bananas, oranges, papaws, avocados, mangoes, pineapples, passion fruits, pears, peaches, plums, apples, lemons, grape fruit, strawberries, melons, tangerines, coconut) 1.4.2 Vegetables (onion, cabbage, carrots, tomatoes, spinach, sukuma wiki, capsicums, cucumber, French beans, lettuce, courgette, celery, mushrooms, cauliflower, aubergines, matoke, green maize, pumpkins, terere) 1.4.3 Potatoes and other tubers (English, sweet potatoes, arrowroots, cassava, yams) Sugar, salt and spices 1.5.1 Sugar (refined, brown, jaggery, icing, cubes) 1.5.2 Salt and spices (salt, curry powder, chilly powder, black pepper, ginger powder, mchuzi mix, garlic powder) Coffee, tea and cocoa 1.6.1 Coffee (instant, fresh) 1.6.2 Tea (leaves, bags) 1.6.3 Cocoa (Milo/Bournvita, drinking chocolate, cocoa) Prepared foods 1.7.1 Prepared foods (tinned foods, baby foods, tinned soup-packet, peanuts, crisp, prickles)

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.6

1.7

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1.7.2 1.7.3 1.7.4 2.

Preserves (tomato sauce, honey, chilly sauce, salad dressings, soya sauce, jams, marmalades) Confectionery (sweets, chocolates, chewing gum, toffees) Miscellaneous (vinegar, baking powder, yeast, mustard, glucose)

Drinks and tobacco 2.1 Drinks 2.1.1 Alcoholic (beer, wine, whisky, brandy, spirits, liquor, cider) 2.1.2 Non-alcoholic (squashes, soda, mineral waters) Tobacco and tobacco products (cigarettes, tobacco, miraa, snuff)

2.2 3.

Clothing and footwear 3.1 Clothing other than footwear 3.1.1 Clothing materials (dress material, kanga, wool, sewing accessories - thread, needles, buttons, zips) 3.1.2 Ready-made clothing (mens clothing - shirt, trouser, underwear, suit, sweaters, other; womens clothing - dress, blouse, skirt, jacket, underwear, sweaters, other; childrens clothing - school uniform, shirt/blouse, shorts/skirt, underwear, sweaters, other) 3.1.3 Tailoring (dress) 3.1.4 Repairs to clothing other than footwear Footwear including repairs 3.2.1 Footwear (mens - leather, plastic, rubber, other; womens - leather, plastic, tennis, rubber, other; childrens - leather, plastic, tennis, rubber, other) 3.2.2 Repairs to footwear

3.2

Housing 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 House rent (cash) Rental value of rent-free housing Rental value of owner-occupied housing Repairs and maintenance (painting, roof, tiles)

5.

Fuel and power 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 Electricity Gas (including liquefied petroleum gases) Liquid fuels (heating and lighting oils) (Kerosene, paraffin) Other fuels (coal, firewood, charcoal, briquettes) Water charges and garbage/sewerage disposal

6.

Furniture, furnishings, household equipment and operation 6.1 Furniture, fixtures and floor coverings

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6.1.1 6.1.2 6.2

Furniture, fixtures and floor coverings (sofas; dining, dressing, working tables; chairs, beds, stools, cupboards, bookshelves, wardrobes, etc.) Repair of furniture, fixtures and floor coverings

Household textiles and other furnishings and repairs 6.2.1 Household textiles and other furnishings (curtains, bedsheets, bed covers, pillows, mattress, towels, blankets, table cloth, napkins, mosquito nets) 6.2.2 Repair of household textiles and other furnishings Heating, cooking appliances, refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioners, including fittings and repairs 6.3.1 Heating, cooking appliances, refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioners (refrigerator, washing machine, iron, heater, sewing machine, vacuum cleaner, electric juicer, toasters, pressure cooker, electric kettle, fans, lawn mower) 6.3.2 Repair of heating, cooking appliances, refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioners Glassware, tableware and household utensils 6.4.1 Glassware, tableware and household utensils (cutlery, glasses, cups, saucers, bowls, tea pot, plates, spoons, knives, sufurias, forks, frying pans, basins, bucket, brooms) 6.4.2 Repair of glassware, tableware and household utensils Nondurable household goods (washing soap, detergents, dish washing liquids, insecticides/disinfectants, matches, candles, shoe polish, air fresheners, lavatory cleaners, floor polish, toilet paper, Dettol, bulbs, brooms, torches, brushes) Household services 6.6.1 Domestic services (cooks, domestic servants, cleaners) 6.6.2 Other household services (gardener, watchman)

6.3

6.4

6.5

6.6

7.

Transport and communication 7.1 7.2 Personal transport equipment (motorcars - saloon, station wagon, pickup, other; bicycles, scooter) Operation of personal transport 7.2.1 Tires, tubes, parts, accessories, and repairs (tires, tubes, car batteries, spark plugs, clutch plates, brake lining, alarm, other) 7.2.2 Petrol, oils, greases (petrol, engine oil, brake fluid, battery, battery water) 7.2.3 Chauffeur and driver services (drivers) 7.2.4 Other expenditures (ferry and road tolls, car service, driving lessons) Purchased transport services 7.3.1 Road, rail and inland transport (country bus fares, train fares, local bus fares, matatus, car hire, taxi hire) 7.3.2 Air and ocean transport (local air fares, international, boat, ship fares)

7.3

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7.4

Communication services 7.4.1 Post (postage stamps) and telegraph (box rental, inland postage, air mail, express, telegraphs, telex) 7.4.2 Telephone (telephone rental, local calls, trunk, overseas calls)

8.

Medical care and health services 8.1 Medical and pharmaceutical products (medicines, vitamins, cough syrup, cod and halibut liver oils, cotton wool, antiseptic, first aid - bandages, tapes, other) Therapeutic appliances and equipment (eye glasses, hearing aids, orthopaedic supports, wheelchairs, others) Medical, optical, paramedical and dental services (doctors, dentists, opticians, specialists, nurses, who are not employed by hospitals) Hospital and related care (room, operations, delivery, ambulance, X-ray, physiotherapy)

8.2 8.3

8.4 9.

Education, recreation, entertainment and cultural services 9.1 Education 9.1.1 School fees and other related charges (nursery, primary, secondary, training and technical colleges, university) 9.1.2 School books and stationery (writing, textbooks, schoolbags, school uniform) 9.1.3 School transport (bus, private) 9.1.4 Boarding and lodging expenses at school 9.1.5 Private tuition (academic) 9.1.6 PTA school development fund Books, newspapers and magazines (other than school) 9.2.1 Books (novels, dictionary, religious) 9.2.2 Newspapers (daily, overseas) 9.2.3 Magazines (weekly, monthly) Equipment and accessories for recreation and entertainment 9.3.1 Audio-visual equipment (TV, video, video cassettes) 9.3.2 Musical instruments (cassette, recorder+radio, radio, record player, record, piano) 9.3.3 Photographic equipment (camera, projector) 9.3.4 Other durable equipment 9.3.5 Nondurable goods 9.3.6 Accessories and repairs (films, developing) Recreational, entertainment and cultural services (cinemas, stadium, clubs, national parks, traditional dances, disco-nightclubs) Writing and drawing equipment and supplies (pens, pencils, envelopes, writing pads, rulers, markers, ink, other)

9.2

9.3

9.4 9.5

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10.

Miscellaneous 10.1 Personal care, personal effects and personal goods 10.1.1 Personal care services (hairdressing, barber, beautician, massage) 10.1.2 Personal care goods (powder, soap, toothpaste, lotions, deodorants, perfumes, aftershave, body oil, other) 10.1.3 Jewellery, watches, etc. (jewellery, watches, other) 10.1.4 Other personal goods (shavers, razors, clocks, sunglasses) Expenditure on hotels, restaurants, etc. 10.2.1 Hotels (full-board stay) 10.2.2 Restaurants, cafes, etc. (meals eaten out - lunch, dinner, breakfast) Expenditure on package tours 10.3.1 Transport 10.3.2 Accommodation 10.3.3 Food 10.3.4 Other elements (games, sports, entertainment, sight-seeing) Goods not elsewhere classified Services not elsewhere classified

10.2

10.3

10.4 10.5

NON-CONSUMPTION EXPENDITURE 1. Direct taxes 1.1 1.2 2. 3. Income tax Other direct taxes

Taxes, duties, fees, service charge and other compulsory charges Pension and social security contributions and insurance premium 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 Pension contributions (by household) Provident fund contributions (by household) Social security contributions (by household) Life insurance premium (by household) Health insurance premium (by household) Property insurance premium (by household) Other insurance premium (by household)

4. 5. 6.

Remittances, gifts, Harambee and other similar transfers Subscriptions, contributions Interest on consumer debt

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TRAINING OF ENUMERATORS Objectives (a) (b) (c) To explain the concepts and unfamiliar terms used in the survey questionnaires so that they are understood and used uniformly; To enhance skills in conducting interviews and recording answers; and To develop self-confidence and capabilities to work independently.

Training Process (a) (b) Active involvement through direct experience with mock interviews and practical fieldwork; and Learn through group discussions and by asking questions. The first session, which is expected to last one hour, is intended to give participants the opportunity to get acquainted with each other, and understand the importance of the task ahead.

DAY ONE: Session One:

Session Two: The second session, lasting about one hour, will cover background of the survey, objectives, and scope and coverage. Session Three: Principles of interviewing: One and a half hours. Session Four: Concepts and definitions, geographical and sector codes: Two hours. Session Five: DAY TWO: Session One: Review of days work, questions, group discussions, evaluation of enumerators understanding of the issues already covered: One and a half hours. The first session, which is expected to last four hours, will focus on instructions for completing the survey questionnaires.

Session Two: The second session, lasting about two hours, is intended for mock interviews. The enumerators will be divided into groups of three: interviewer, respondent and observer. The observer will record how questions are asked or translated, probe questions, time spent on each section, questions not easily understood by respondents/enumerators, etc. Session Three: Review of experience in mock interviews and retraining on aspects that appear difficult to the enumerators: One hour. DAY THREE: Pre-testing of survey instruments. The clients used in the pre-test should exclude those who have been sampled for the actual survey. Enumerators must record all problems encountered during the pre-tests. DAY FOUR: Debriefing meeting with enumerators on pre-tests, preparation of notes on pre-tests, and revision of the survey instruments.

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SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRES

119

ACTIONAID-KENYA MOMBASA URBAN DEVELOPMENT INITIATIVE ZIWA LA NGOMBE BASELINE SURVEY, AUGUST 1999 HOUSEHOLD COMPOSITION FORM Z/L/N/1
Enumerator_______________________ Sub-location 1 Village 2 Household 3|5 Supervisor________________________ Date of interview___________________ Name of Village_____________________ RT 6 1 Replacement: 1=Yes, 2= No 7 Final Interview Status (see Manual) 8

TO BE COMPLETED FOR ALL MEMBERS OF THE HOUSEHOLD


Seria l No. Name of househol d member Relatio n to head Sex Age in complete d years Marita l status Absent/presen t Religio n At school/colleg e fulltime Highest grade complete d Class/ Form in educatio n cycle Year highest class/ form complete d Reason for not completin g education cycle If No in Col 18 Can read Can a simple write a statemen simple t in any statemen language? t in any language? 1=Yes 2=No 24 1=Yes 2=No 25 Highest vocational/ professiona l certificate attained Main occupatio n Wher e was born? If born outside Mombasa , District code Is . membe r of any selfhelp group? If Yes in Col. 31, type of grou p Sick last two weeks ? If Yes in column 33 Type of First Secon sicknes actio d s n action taken taken Does have difficultie s in

See code 9|10 11

1= M 2=F 12

See code 13|14 15

See code 16

See code 17

1=Yes 2=No 18

See code 19

See manual 20 21|22

See code 23

See code 26

See code 27

See code 28

See manual 29|30

1=Yes 2=No 31 32

1=Yes 2=No 33

See code 34

See code 35

See code 36

See code 37

Column 11: 1 = Head, 2 = Spouse, 3 = Son, 4 = Daughter, 5=Grandchild, 6 = Parent, 7= Other relative, 8=Domestic employee, 9= Non-relative Column 15: 1=Never married, 2=Married monogamous, 3=Married polygamous, 4=Separated, 5=Divorced, 6=Widowed, 7=Other (specify) Column 16: 1=Usually present, 2=Usually absent less than three months, 3=Longer absence Column 17: 1=None, 2=Muslim, 3=Catholic, 4=Protestant, 5=Other (specify) Column 19: 1=None, 2=Preprimary/ madrassa, 3=Primary, 4=Secondary, 5=University, 6=Other (specify) Column 23: 1=Pregnancy, 2=Marriage, 3=Lack of fees, 4=Failed exam, 5=Illness, 6=Employment/ Family Labor, 7= Not interested, 8= Other (specify), 9= N/A Column 26: 1=None, 2=Trade tests 1-3, 3=Teaching, 4=Medical, 5=Other postsecondary (specify) Column 27: 1=Family worker, 2=Crop/ livestock farmer, 3=Public sector employee, 4=Private sector employee, 5=Own account worker (owner), 6=Unpaid family worker, 7=Student, 8=Unemployed, 9=N/A Column 28: 1=Ziwa la Ngombe, 2=Within Kisauni division/ Outside Ziwa la Ngombe, 3=Within Mombasa/ Outside Kisauni, 4=Within Coast/ Outside Mombasa, 5=Within Kenya/ Outside Coast, 6=Outside Kenya Column 32: 1= Merry-go-round (cash), 2=Property agency, 3=Savings and Credit cooperative, 4= Fish marketing, 5=Joint house ownership, 6=Duka (shop), 7=Other (specify), 8=N/A Column 34: 1=Vomit/ diarrhea, 2=Malaria/ fever, 3=Cough/ cold, 4=Injury/ burns, 5=Measles, 6=Eye infection, 7=Skin rash, 8=Other (specify), 9=N/A Columns 35 & 36: 1=N/A, 2=Nothing, 3=Prayers, 4=Traditional medicine/ healer, 5=OTC drugs, 6=Coast General, 7=Municipal Clinic, 8=Private Clinic, 9=Other (specify) Column 37: 1=Seeing, 2=Hearing, 3=Speaking, 4=Upper limbs, 5=Lower limbs, 6=Hunch, 7=Mental, 8=None

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ACTIONAID-KENYA MOMBASA URBAN DEVELOPMENT INITIATIVE ZIWA LA NGOMBE BASELINE SURVEY, AUGUST 1999 CHILD WELFARE AND CHILD IMMUNIZATION FORM Z/L/N/2 Enumerator_______________________
Sub-location 1 Village 2

Supervisor________________________
Household 3|5 RT 6 2

Serial number of mother

Serial number of Child

Name of Child

Month/ year of birth MM YY

Place of delivery See code

Who delivered the child? See code

Does child have a health card? 1 = Yes 2 = No 17

7|8

9|10

11|12

13|14

15

16

BCG Scar 1= Yes 2= No 18

BCG 1= Yes 2= No 19

POLIO-B (given at birth) 1 = Yes 2 = No 20

POLIO1 1 = Yes 2 = No 21

POLIO2 1 = Yes 2 = No 22

POLIO3 1 = Yes 2 = No 23

DPT1 1= Yes 2= No 24

DPT2 1= Yes 2= No 25

DPT3 1= Yes 2= No 26

Measles 1= Yes 2 = No 27

Is child still breastfeeding? 1 = Yes 2 = No 28

Months exclusively breastfed

Months breastfed

Type of first supplement See code

29|30

31|32

33

Column 15: 1=Hospital/ health facility, 2=At home, 3=Other (specify) Column 16: 1=Doctor, 2=Nurse/ midwife, 3=TBA, 4=Self, 5=Other (specify) Column 33: 1 = Milk other than breast, 2 = Commercial Infant Food/Formula, 3 = Porridge: Maize/ Millet/ Other, 4 = Semi-solids, 5 = Tea, 6 = Other (specify), 7=N/A (still exclusively breastfeeding)

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ACTIONAID-KENYA MOMBASA URBAN DEVELOPMENT INITIATIVE ZIWA LA NGOMBE BASELINE SURVEY, AUGUST 1999 HOUSING, ASSETS AND AMENITIES FORM Z/L/N/3 Enumerator_______________________ Supervisor________________________
Sub-location 1 Village 2 Household 3|5 RT 6 3

MAIN HOUSE Type of dwelling unit See code 7 Whether shared 1=Yes 2=No 8 Number of rooms occupied 9 Tenure of main residential structure See code 10 Type of wall See code 11 Type of floor See code 12 Type of roof See code 13 Is kitchen separate? 1=Yes 2=No 14

Main source of water Wet Dry season season See code 15 See code 16

Distance to water source one way (kms) Wet Dry season season

Who normally collects the water? See code

Number of 20-litre containers currently collected per day

Water cost Shs of 20litre container Wet Dry season season

Water treatment before drinking See code

Disposal of human excreta See code 26

17

18

19

20

21|22

23|24

25

Main type of Cooking Fuel See code 27

Main type of lighting Fuel Electric/ gas cooker See code 28 29 30 31 32 33 Kerosene stove Radio/ cassette Player TV Bicycle

NUMBER OF ASSETS OWNED Sewing Machine Car/ pickup 34 35

Motorcycle 36

Refrigerator 37

Iron box 38

Handcart 39

Goat 40

Other (specify) 41

Column 7: 1=Swahili, 2=Barrack, 3=Flat/ apartment, 4=House, 5=Maisonette, 6=Shanty, 7=Other (specify) Column 10: 1=Renter, 2=Employer-Provided, 3=Rent-Free, 4=Owner/landlord, 5=Owner/houselord, 6=Other (specify) Column 11: 1=Stone, 2=Brick/ block, 3=Mud/ earth, 4=Timber, 5=Mud-Cement, 6=Iron sheets, 7=Tin, 8=Other (specify) Column 12: 1=Mud/ Earth, 2=Timber, 3=Cement, 4=Tiles, 5=Other (specify) Column 13: 1=Makuti/ grass, 2=Iron sheets, 3=Tin, 4=Tiles, 5=Concrete, 6=Other (specify) Columns 15-16: 1=Borehole, 2=Piped, 3=Unprotected well, 4=Other (specify) Column 19: 1=Wife, 2=Husband, 3=Female children, 4=Male children, 5=Wife and female children, 6=Husband and male children, 7=Worker/ vendor, 8=Other (specify), 9=N/A (water in dwelling unit) Column 25: 1=Nothing, 2=Boil, 3=Filter, 4=Other (specify) Column 26: 1=Own pit latrine, 2=Communal pit latrine, 3=Flush, 4=Bush, 5=Other (specify) Column 27: 1=Firewood, 2=Charcoal, 3=Electricity, 4=Gas, 5=Paraffin Column 28: 1=Electricity, 2=Gas, 3=Paraffin, 4=Other (specify)

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ACTIONAID-KENYA MOMBASA URBAN DEVELOPMENT INITIATIVE ZIWA LA NGOMBE BASELINE SURVEY, AUGUST 1999 HOUSEHOLD REGULAR PURCHASES FOR ONE MONTH: JULY 1999 FORM Z/L/N/4A Enumerator_______________________ Supervisor________________________ Sub-location 1 Village 2 Household 3|5 RT 6 4

BREAD Line Item 7 1 2 3 4 Bread 8|11 Mandazi 12|15 Cakes 16|19 Biscuits 20|23 Mahamuri/ buns 24|27 Grain 28|31 MAIZE Flour Green maize 32|35 36|39 Rice Grain 40|43 Wheat flour 44|47

CEREALS AND PRODUCTS Millet (wimbi) Sorghum flour Grain Flour 48|51 52|55 56|59

Baby foods (cereals) 60|63

Other grains/ flours 64|67

QUANTITY UNIT PRICE/UNIT TOTAL COST

Beans QUANTITY UNIT PRICE/UNIT TOTAL COST Line Item 7 1 2 3 4 8|11

PULSES Peas (mbaazi) 12|15

MEAT Peas (kunde) 16|19 Beef 20|23 Goat 24|27 Chicken 28|31 Fresh 32|35 Fish Dried 36|39 Other meat 40|43

DAIRY PRODUCTS AND EGGS Milk Milk powder Eggs 44|47 48|51 52|55

Cooking fat 56|59

Cooking oils 60|63

OILS AND FATS Butter/ margarine 64|67

Other oils and fats 68|71

QUANTITY UNIT PRICE/UNIT TOTAL COST

Line Item 7 1 2 3 4

Bananas Ripe Cooking 8|11 12|15

Oranges 16|19

FRUITS Mangoes Papaws 20|23 24|27

Pineapples 28|31

Other fruits 32|35

Cabbages 36|39

Sukuma wiki (kale) 40|43

Mchicha (pigweed) 44|47

VEGETABLES Onions Tomatoes 48|51 52|55

Carrots 56|59

Green grammes (dengu) 60|63

Other vegetables 64|67

English potatoes Line Item 7 1 2 3 4 8|11

ROOTS AND TUBERS Sweet potatoes Cassava 12|15 16|19

Other roots and tubers 20|23

SUGAR White/ brown 24|27

Coffee 28|31

Cocoa and products 32|35

BEVERAGES Tea leaves 36|39

Madafu 40|43

Soda and juices 44|47

Salt 48|51

Curry powder 52|55

FLAVORS Coconut milk (huwi) 56|59

Meals eaten out Other spices/ flavors 60|63 64|67

QUANTITY UNIT PRICE/UNIT TOTAL COST

UNIT CODE: 1= Kilograms, 2 = Grams, 3 = Litres, 4 = Metres, 5 = Number, 6 =Other, specify

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ACTIONAID-KENYA MOMBASA URBAN DEVELOPMENT INITIATIVE ZIWA LA NGOMBE BASELINE SURVEY, AUGUST 1999 HOUSEHOLD REGULAR PURCHASES FOR ONE MONTH: JULY 1999 FORM Z/L/N/4B Enumerator_______________________ Sub-location 1 Village 2 Supervisor________________________ Household 3|5 RT 6 4
Batteries 36|39 Domestic workers 40|43

Firewood Line Item 7 QUANTITY UNIT PRICE/UNIT TOTAL COST 1 2 3 4 8|11

FUEL FOR COOKING AND LIGHTING Charcoal Paraffin Gas 12|15 16|19 20|23

WATER Electricity 24|27 28|31

Soaps and detergents 32|35

Beer QUANTITY UNIT PRICE/UNIT TOTAL COST Line Item 7 1 2 3 4 8|11

Local brew 12|15

ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES AND TOBACCO Other alcoholic beverages Khat (miraa) Cigarettes 16|19 20|23 24|27

Snuff and other tobacco products 28|31

Bicycle repair 32|35

TRANSPORT Other transport (matatu/bus/rail fares) 36|39

Car, motor vehicle: petrol, diesel and engine oils 40|43

HOUSE RENT Type of rent Amount 1=Paid 2=Imputed QUANTITY UNIT PRICE/UNIT TOTAL COST Line Item 7 1 2 3 4 8 9|12

Haircut (men)

PERSONAL CARE Hairdressing (women)

Other personal care

Hospital charges

MEDICAL Medicine/ injections

Other purchases (specify) Other medical costs

13|16

17|20

21|24

25|28

29|32

33|36

37|40

UNIT CODE: 1= Kilograms, 2 = Grams, 3 = Litres, 4 = Metres, 5 = Number, 6 = Other, specify

124

ACTIONAID-KENYA MOMBASA URBAN DEVELOPMENT INITIATIVE ZIWA LA NGOMBE BASELINE SURVEY, AUGUST 1999 HOUSEHOLD NON-REGULAR PURCHASES FOR ONE YEAR: 1998 FORM Z/L/N/5 Enumerator_______________________ Sub-location 1 Village 2 Supervisor________________________ Household 3|5 RT 6 5

Mens Clothing QUANTITY UNIT PRICE/UNIT TOTAL COST Line Item 7 1 2 3 4 8|11

Womens Clothing 12|15

Childrens Clothing 16|19

CLOTHING & FOOTWEAR Other clothing Mens Footwear 20|23 24|27

Womens Footwear 28|31

Childrens Footwear 32|35

Other Footwear 36|39

School fees 40|44

EDUCATION (1999) School uniform Books/stationery 45|49 50|54

Other educational costs 55|59

Line Item 7 QUANTITY UNIT PRICE/UNIT TOTAL COST 1 2 3 4

Furniture 60|64

Utensils 65|69

Other non-regular goods and services (specify) 70|74

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ACTIONAID-KENYA MOMBASA URBAN DEVELOPMENT INITIATIVE ZIWA LA NGOMBE BASELINE SURVEY, AUGUST 1999 HOUSEHOLD NON-AGRICULTURAL INCOME, JULY 1999 FORM Z/L/N/6A Enumerator_______________________ Sub-location 1 Village 2 Supervisor________________________ Household 3|5 RT 6 6

Name of Household member

Serial No. from Z/L/N/1

Type of worker 1=Regular 2=Casual 9

PAID EMPLOYEE RECORD Industry/ activity (see code)

Description of Activity

Monthly wage Cash 12|16 In-kind 17|21

Monthly pension

7|8

10|11

22|26

Name of Household member

Serial No. from Z/L/N/1

Industry/ activity (see code) 29|30

Description of Activity

Status (see code)

SELF-EMPLOYED/ UNPAID FAMILY WORKER No. of persons Monthly Own consumption employed sales from business Paid 32|33 Unpaid 34|15 Total 36|37

Monthly costs

Monthly profit

Is business co-owned with other households? 1=Yes 2=No 62

If co-owned, respondents share of profit (%) 63|64

27|28

31

38|43

44|49

50|55

56|61

Columns 9-10: 1=Agriculture, 2=Forestry, 3=Fishing, 4=Mining and quarrying, 5=Manufacturing, 6=Building/ construction, 7=Electricity/water, 8=Wholesale/ retail trade/ vending, 9= Personal/ household services (hair salons, auto repair, etc), 10=Tailoring/dressmaking, 11=Hotels and restaurants, 12=Transport, related services, 13=Communications, 14=Finance, insurance, real estate services, 15= Public administration and security, 16=Education, 17= Health, sanitation, 18= Other (Specify) Column 31: 1=Owner, 2=Unpaid Family Worker [If owner, answer the remainder of the questions]

126

ACTIONAID-KENYA MOMBASA URBAN DEVELOPMENT INITIATIVE ZIWA LA NGOMBE BASELINE SURVEY, AUGUST 1999 HOUSEHOLD NON-AGRICULTURAL INCOME, JULY 1999 FORM Z/L/N/6B Enumerator_______________________ Sub-location 1 Village 2 Supervisor________________________ Household 3|5 RT 6 6

Lease/rent of land (receipts) 7|11

OTHER SOURCES OF INCOME Rental Income Interest/dividends 12|16 17|21

Other (specify) 22|26

Serial No. 27|28

Name

Cash 29|33

TRANSFERS IN /GIFTS RECEIVED Kind Location of donor (see code) 34|38 39

Relation to donor (see code) 40

Serial No. 41|42

Name

Cash 43|47

Kind 48|52

TRANSFERS OUT /GIFTS GIVEN OUT Location of beneficiary (see code) 53

Relation to beneficiary (see code) 54

Do you own land? 1=Yes 2= No 55 Parcel 1 Parcel 2 Parcel 3

Where is the parcel located? (see code) 56

Size in acres 57|60

LAND TENURE If dont own, how do you access land? (see Do you have a title code) deed? 1=Yes 2=No 61 62

Where is the parcel accessed located? (see code) 63

Acres accessed and not owned 64|67

Columns 39 & 53: 1=Rural Kenya, 2=Urban Kenya, 3=Abroad Columns 40 & 54: 1=Parent, 2=Child, 3=Brother/Sister, 4=Other Relative, 5=Unrelated Columns 56 & 63: 1=Ziwa la Ngombe, 2=Within Kisauni division, 3=Within Mombasa, 4=Within Coast Province, 5=Within Kenya Column 62: 1=Free/ parent, 2=Free/ non-parent, 3=Lease/rent, 4=Squatting, 5=Landless, no access, 6=Other (specify)

127