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G12MAN Matbematica| Ana|ysis

Based on noLes by Dt J. Zachatias


Modied by Dt J. F. FeinsLein
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About tbese notes
These noLes include all of Lhe deniLions and Lheotems of
Lhe module.
MosL of Lhem ate examinable.
The noLes omiL a numbet of ptoofs and explanaLions of
examples given duting Lhe lecLutes.
Thete ate gaps lefL whete Lhese should be lled in by you
duting Lhe lecLutes.
Technology petmiLLing, Dt FeinsLein's annoLaLed slides
ftom Lhe lecLutes will be made available ftom Lhe module
web page, along wiLh audio andot video.
2
Examinab|e and non-examinab|e materia|
CetLain maLetial in Lhis module will be cleatly matked as
Not examinab|e as bookwork, ot NEB fot shotL.
This does noL mean LhaL Lhis maLetial is ittelevanL Lo
exam quesLions.
Some secLions of some of Lhe exam quesLions ate likely Lo
be `unseen'.
lL is possible LhaL some of Lhe NLB maLetial could be
televanL Lo some unseen potLions of exam quesLions.
Fot mote infotmaLion on Lhe sLyle of exam quesLions, see
Lhe G12MAN Modu|e lnformation page and Lhe
G12MAN Modu|e Feedback page.
3
1 lntroduction to 6
H
ln Lhis chapLet we look aL subseLs of
6
H
= _(\

\
H
) ` \

\
H
6a and
esLablish some of Lhe basic noLaLion and Letminology LhaL
we will need in Lhe tesL of Lhe module.
You have meL 6

= 6, 6

, 6

and Lo some exLenL 6


H
alteady, fot insLance when solving latget sysLems of lineat
equaLions.
4
1.1 5et notation
We use Lhe sLandatd seL LheoteLical noLaLions ftom
C11ACF. ln patLiculat we denoLe Lhe seL of
d posiLive inLegets by 2 = _1 2 8 4 a,
d inLegets by > = _ n2 n1 0 1 2 a,
d taLional numbets (ftacLions) by
5 = _
E
F
` E > F 2a;
d teal numbets by 6,
d non-negaLive teal numbets by
6

= _\ 6 ` \ 0a = [0 )
5
SubseLs ate ofLen specied by a cetLain condiLion shated
by all iLs elemenLs.
Fot insLance cetLain subseLs of 6 can be wtiLLen as
_\ 6 ` \

\a
ot
_\ 6 ` \

1 = 0a
The fotmet is anoLhet way Lo wtiLe
_\ 6 ` 0 \ 1a
The laLLet is anoLhet way Lo wtiLe Lhe empLy seL .
same seL.
6
A seL % is a subseL of a seL &, wtiLLen % &, if each
elemenL in % lies also in &, i.e. \ % implies \ & (we
can wtiLe: \ % \ &).
Thus % = & if and only if % & and & %.
Fot seLs ' and ( Lheit inLetsecLion is
' ( = ( ' = _\ ` \ ' and \ (a
= _\ ` \ ( \ 'a
and Lheit union is
' ( = ( ' = _\ ` \ ( ot \ 'a
7
Similatly if (

(
R
ate seLs Lhen
(

(
R
=
R
M!
(
M
= _\ ` \ (

\ (

\ (
R
a
and
(

(
R
=
R
M!
(
M
= _\ ` \ (

ot \ (

ot ot \ (
R
a
lnLetsecLions and unions can also be dened fot inniLely
many (
M
's, see laLet.
8
' and ( is
'@( = _\ ' ` \ (a
whete \ ( means LhaL \ is noL an elemenL of (.
(@' = _\ ( ` \ 'a
lf % is a subseL of a latget seL & Lhen iLs complemenL (in
&) is %
G
= &@%.
Usually iL is cleat ftom Lhe conLexL whaL & is.
Exam|es: ComplemenL of a subseL of 6.
Ga to || in
9
1.2 Cartesian roducts
The Cartesian roduct of Lwo seLs % and & is Lhe seL
of all otdeted paits of elemenLs in % and &, i.e.
% & = _(E F) ` E % F &a
(E

) = (E

) if and only if E

= E

and F

= F

.
Exam|e 1.2.1 6 6 is Lhe seL of otdeted paits of teal
numbets.
Lach (\ ]) 6 6 can be visualised as a poinL in a
cootdinaLe sysLem.
Ga to || in
10
The CatLesian ptoducL of Lwo subseLs % & 6 can be
visualised as well, e.g. if % = [1 2[ and & = [2 4[, Lhen
% & is teptesenLed by
Ga to || in
11
We can ptoduce a vatieLy of subseLs of 6

by Laking
ptoducLs of subseLs of 6, buL Lhete ate many oLhets such
as 7 = _(\ ]) ` 0 \ 1 0 ] \a ot
6 = _(\ ]) ` \

= 1a which can noL be wtiLLen as


CatLesian ptoducLs.
(See quesLion sheeLs fot deLails.)
Ga to || in
12
6 6 is also denoLed by 6

.
Similatly % & ' is Lhe seL of otdeted Ltiples
% & ' = _(E F G) ` E % F & G 'a
eLc.
We denoLe 6 6 6 by 6

and mote genetally


6
H
= 6 6 6
H
= _(\

\
H
) ` \

\
H
teal numbetsa
Lhe seL of all H-Luples of teal numbets.
Hete H is a posiLive inLeget. 6

is idenLied wiLh 6.
13
1.3 Revision of 6
H
LlemenLs of 6
H
may be tegatded as oints which ate
posiLioned in a cetLain way ot as vecLots which we can
add ot mulLiply.
The fotmet is 6
H
as an analyLic ot geomeLtical objecL,
Lhe laLLet is 6
H
as a vecLot space: an algebtaic objecL.
We will noL wotty abouL Lhe disLincLion in Lhis module.
Thus elemenLs in 6
H
ate denoLed by (fot example)
\ ] ^ T U
eLc. whete \ = (\

\
H
), ] = (]

]
H
) eLc.
14
SomeLimes we will wtiLe Lhem as H-dimensional column
vecLots.
\ =
\

.
.
.
\
H
] =
]

.
.
.
]
H
^ =
^

.
.
.
^
H
eLc.
Column vecLots may be added
\ ] =
\

.
.
.
\
H
]
H
Column vecLots may be mulLiplied by scalats 6
\ =
\

.
.
.
\
H
=

.
.
.
H
15
Since we idenLify (\

\
H
) and
\

.
.
.
\
H
we may
well also wtiLe
(\

\
H
) (]

]
H
)
= (\

\
H
]
H
)
eLc.
16
Recall Lhe standard inner roduct on 6
H
:
\ ] =
\

.
.
.
\
H

.
.
.
]
H
=
H
M!
\
M
]
M

The notm cottesponding Lo iL is Lhe Euc|idean norm


dened by
\ = \ \ =
H
M!
`\
M
`

fot \ =
\

.
.
.
\
H
and may be tegatded as Lhe lengLh of a vecLot.
Recall Lhe Caucby-5cbwarz inequa|ity
\ ] \ ]
which holds fot all \ ] 6
H
.
17
Proosition 1.3.1 The funcLion `` `` : 6
H
6

has Lhe
following ptopetLies:
(i) \ ] \ ] (Ltiangle inequaliLy),
(ii) \ = ` \ (homogeneiLy),
(iii) \ = 0 \ =
fot \ ] 6
H
and 6.
The statement and a|ications of Lhis tesulL ate
examinable as bookwotk.
The roof of Lhis tesulL is NEB (not examinab|e as
bookwork), buL is available on tequesL.
Ga to || in
18
The Lhtee ptopetLies above ate all you usually need Lo
know abouL Lhe Luclidean notm \ in Lhis module.
Using out Luclidean notm , we dene Lhe Euc|idean
distance beLween poinLs \ and ] by
H(\ ]) = \ n] = ] n\ = H(] \)
lf ^ is anoLhet poinL in 6
H
we have
H(\ ]) H(\ ^) H(^ ])
(Ltiangle inequaliLy fot Lhe Luclidean disLance), since
Ga to || in
19
ThtoughouL Lhis module, Lhe Luclidean disLance
H(\ ]) = \ n]
= (\

n ]

(\
H
n ]
H
)

will play an impotLanL tole.


ln Lhis module, un|ess otberwise secied, when we
tefet Lo disLance in 6
H
we wi|| a|ways mean tbe
Euc|idean distance.
20