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MaterialBalanceEqua/on

Applica/on
INTRODUCTION
LaurieDakeinhisdefenceoftheuseoftheMBequa5on:Itseemsno
longerfashionabletoapplytheconceptofmaterialbalancetooilelds,
thebeliefthatitisnowsupersededbytheapplica9onofmodern
numericalsimula9on.Acceptanceofthisideahasbeenatragedyandhas
robbedengineersoftheirmostpowerfultoolforinves9ga9ngreservoirs
andunderstandingtheirperformanceratherthanimposingtheirwills
uponthem,asiso=enthecasewhenapplyingnumericalsimula9on
directlyinhistorymatching.......Thereshouldbenocompe99onbetween
materialbalanceandsimula9oninsteadtheymustbesuppor9veofone
another:theformerdeningthesystemwhichisthenusedasinputtothe
model.Materialbalanceisexcellentathistorymatchingproduc9on
performancebuthasconsiderabledisadvantageswhenitcomesto
predic9on,whichisthedomainofnumericalsimula9onmodelling.
Onereasonforperhapsalackofapprecia5onoftheequa5onmightbe
theimmediateimpressionofcomplexitythroughitsmanyterms.A
signicantstepforwardintheequa5onwhichhadbeenoriginally
presentedbySchilthuisin1936wasbyOdehandHavlena,whoin1963
examinedtheequa5oninitsvariouslinearforms.
INTRODUCTION
Wehavedevelopedthematerialbalanceequa5oniden5fyingthevarious
elements.Nowwewillexaminetheapplica5onoftheequa5onto
dierentreservoirtypesandexaminesometechniquesdevelopedto
predictreservoirperformance.
Inrecent5mesthecompu5ngpowerbehindotherreservoirengineering
toolslikenumericalsimula5on,hascastashadowofalackofcondence
intheoldmaterialbalanceapproach.
LINEARFORMOFMBEQUATION
ShortHandVersionofMBEqua/on
In1963,HavlenaandOdehhadintroducedtheirmethodconsistsofre
arrangingthematerialbalanceequa5ontoresultinanequa5onofa
straightline.
ThemethodrequirestheploRngofavariablegroupversusanother
variablegroupwiththevariablegroupselec5ondependingonthedrive
mechanism.
Theirtechniqueisusefulinthatifalinearrela5onshipdoesnotexistfor
apar5cularinterpreta5onofthereservoir,thenthisdevia5onfrom
linearitysuggeststhatthereservoiritselfisnotperformingas
an5cipatedandothermechanismsareinvolved.
Oncelinearityhasbeenachieved,basedonmatchingpressureand
produc5ondatathenamathema5calmodelhasbeenproduced.This
techniqueisreferredtoashistorymatching,andtheapplica5onofthe
modeltothefutureenablespredic5onsofthereservoirsfuture
performancetobemade.

N
p
B
o
+ R
p
R
s
( )
B
g [ ]
+ W
p
B
w
= N B
o
B
oi
( )
+ R
si
R
s
( )
B
g
[ ]
+mNB
oi
B
g
B
gi
1








+
1+ m
( )
NB
oi
c
w
S
w
+ c
f
( )
p
1S
wc
( )
+ W
e
Insomeinstanceswaterforma5onvolumefactorsarenotincluded,i.e.W
p
,
W
e
andW
i
B
w
HavlenaandOdehsimpliedtheequa5onintoashorthandform:
F=NE
o
+NmE
g
+NE
fw
+W
e
TheleXhandsideofequa5onrepresentstheproduc5ontermsinreservoir
volumesandaredenotedbyF,i.e.
F=N
p
[B
o
+B
g
(R
p
R
s
)]+W
p
bbl
Thematerialbalanceequa5oncanbewri^eninthefollowingform:
Therighthandsideincludes:
(i) theexpansionoftheoilanditsoriginallydissolvedgas,E
o
,where:
E
o
=B
o
B
oi
+(R
si
R
s
)B
g
bbl/STB
(ii) theexpansionoftheporesandconnatewaterE
fw
where:
(iii) expansionofthefreegasE
g
where:
Withtheabovetermsthematerialbalanceequa5oncanbewri^en:
F=NE
o
+NmE
g
+NE
fw
+W
e

Thisequa5onaspresentedaboveneglectswaterorgasinjec5onterms.
Usingthisequa5onasabasis,HavelenaandOdehmanipulatedthe
equa5onmakingdierentassump5onstoproducealinearfunc5on.

E
fw
= 1+ m
( )
B
oi
1S
w
( )
c
w
S
w
+ c
f
( )
p bbl /STB

E
g
= B
oi
B
g
B
gi
1








bbl /STB
NoWaterDriveandNoOriginalGasCap
Inthiscondi5onW
e
andNmarezeroandtheequa5onbecomes:F=NE
o

i.e.aplotofFvsE
o
shouldproduceastraightlinethroughtheoriginin
Figure.Thisisthesimplestrela5onandisjustaplotofobserved
produc5onagainstdeterminedPVTparameters.Theslopeofthelinegives
theoilinplaceN.
GasDriveReservoirs,NoWaterDriveandKnownGasCap
AlthoughW
e
iszero,thegascaphasavolumeasgivenbym,andthe
equa5onbecomes:
F=N(E
o
+mE
g
)
AplotofFvs(E
o
+mE
g
)shouldproduceastraightlinethroughtheorigin
withaslopeN.Ifmisnotknownthenbymakingassump5onsforma
numberofplotscanbegeneratedwiththelinearslopebeingthecorrect
valueform.
GasDriveReservoirswithNoWaterDrive,NandGAreUnknown
Ifthereisuncertaintyinboththesizeoftheoilandgasaccumula5on
thenHavlenaandOdehsuggestthefollowingformofthematerial
balanceequa5on,bydividingbothsidesbyE
o
.
AplotofF/E
o
vsE
g
/E
o

shouldbelinear
withanintercept
ofNandaslopeofmN.

F
E
o
= N+ G
E
g
E
o
where G = Nm
B
oi
B
gi
WaterDriveSystems
Waterinuxisdiscussedingreaterdetailinalaterchapterandwewill
examinethislinearisa5onoftheMBequa5oninthatcontextthen.
DEPLETIONDRIVEOROTHER
Determiningthedriveenergiesresponsibleforproduc5onisimportantin
understandingandpredic5ngthefuturebehaviourofareservoir.The
materialbalanceequa5oncanbeusedinthisshorthandformtogetan
indica5onofwhetheraeldisdeple5ngvolumetricallyorthereisother
energysuppor5ngthesystemforexample,waterdriveorgascap
expansion.Ifweconsiderareservoirwhichdoesnothaveanaquiferbut
thereisthepossibilityofasuppor5ngaquifer.Inthiscasetheshorthand
versionoftheMBequa5onis;
F=N(E
o
+E
fw
)+W
e
bbl
IfbothsidesaredividedbyE
o
+E
fw

F
E
o
+ E
fw
= N+
W
e
E
o
+ E
fw
STB
Dakepointsthattherighthandsidehastwounknowns,NandW
e
,andthe
MBinthisformisusedinassessingwhetherthereisasuppor5ngaquiferor
not.ByploRngF/(E
o
+E
fw
)vsN
p
,or5meorpressuredrop,p.Theplotwill
takedierentshapesdependantontheenergysupport(seeFigurebelow).
CurveAhorizontalline
indicatestheleXandrighthand
sideoftheequa5onare
constant,i.e.W
e
=0,c=constant,
asolelydeple5ondrive(energy
comesfromthecompressibility
oftheoilanditsoriginally
dissolvedgas),N=intercepton
theyaxisisalsotheconstant
term,theoilinplace.
CurveCthereisawaterdrivefromaninniteaquifer,wheretheaquifer
boundaryhass5lltofeelthepressure.
CurveBmightbeforaniteaquifer,wherelaterinproduc5on,thereis
lesssupportfromtheaquifer.
Anotherfeatureofthispresenta5onisthatbackextrapola5onoftheBand
Ccurvesalsogivestheinplaceoilvolume,N.
GASFIELDAPPLICATIONSOF
THEMATERIALBALANCEEQUATION
Inthepreviouschapterweintroducedthetopicofthelinearformofthe
MBequa5onforagasreservoirwithoutwaterdrive,thep/zplot.CraX
andHawkinsintheirtextgaveawarningoftheapplica5onofthis
approachbothwithrespecttoneglec5nganotherpossibleenergysupport
suchaswaterdrive,andusingG
p
vs.pasagainstp/z.Ingurebelow,the
plotsofG
p
vsporp/zillustratethedierentvaluesofgasinplacewhich
canresultfromthelinear
extrapola5onoftheearly
produc5onpressurevalues.
UsingtheG
p
vs.presultsinan
underes5mateofthegasin
placewhereasneglec5ngwater
drivecouldresultinasignicant
overes5mateofgasinplace.
Thematerialbalanceequa5onlendsitselftogaseldapplica5oninpart
becauseofamoreuniformpressureacrossthereservoir,becauseofthe
uiddiusivity,k/c.
Forgasesbecauseoflowviscosity,thisgivesadiusivityoftheorderof
ve5mesthatofoil.Becauseofsuchrapidequilibriumofpressureitis
easytoneglectpressuresupportfromelsewhere.
WewillexamineboththeapproachofHavlenaandOdehandthelong
establishedp/zapproach.
UsingtheapproachofHavlenaandOdehtogasreservoirsprovidesa
historymatchingapproachtogetagoodes5mateofgasini5allyinplace
tocomparewithpreviousvolumetriccalcula5onsandalsodetermineif
thereservoirisavolumetricdeple5onreservoiroritisalsosupported
withwaterdrive.
Usingtheapproachofuidproduc5onbeingequaltotheexpansionof
insitugas+waterandporeexpansion+waterinuxgivesthefollowing
equa5on.
Fluidproduc5on=gasexpansion+waterexpansion&porecompac5on
+waterinux
UsingtheshorthandversionofHavlenaandOdehresultsin
Theshorthandgasmaterialbalanceequa5onbecomes
Whendealingwithgasreservoirsthewaterandporecompressibilityterms
cangenerallybeneglectedbecauseofthelargegascompressibility.The
equa5onresultsin

G
p
B
g
+ W
p
B
w
= G B
g
B
gi
( )
+ GB
gi
c
w
S
wc
+ c
f
( )
1S
wc
p + W
e

F = G
p
B
g
+ W
p
B
w
res.cu.ft
E
g
= B
g
B
gi
( )
rcf /scf
E
fw
= B
gi
c
w
S
wc
+ c
f
( )
1S
wc
p rcf /scf

F = G E
g
E
fw
( )
+ W
e

F = GE
g
+ W
e
DividingbothsidesbyE
g
gives
Thisprovidesausefulformtoexaminetheproduc5onguresofagas
reservoir.Thegurebelowillustratesthepossibleresul5ngplotsfrom
ploRngF/E
g
vsG
p
,5me,orp.

F
E
g
= G+
W
e
E
g
Theplotsshowifthereispressure
supportfromanaquiferthecurves
deviatefromthehorizontalline
applicabletothevolumetricdeple5on.
Theinterceptalsoprovidesagurefor
gasini5allyinplace.Thiscanbealso
beausefultoolingaseld
developmentsinceifwaterdriveby
thismeansisdetected,thenitcould
besome5mebeforethereisevidence
ofwaterproduc5on.
Theadvancingwaterwillonlyrevealitselfwhenthegaswatercontact
reachesthelowerlimitofthegasproduc5onwellswhicharegenerallyset
highinthestructure.Anotherconsidera5onisthemobilityra5oforwater
displacinggas.
where:k
rw
andk
rg
aretheendpointrela5vepermeabili5esforwater
andgas.
Mcanbeaslowas0.10forthissitua5onwhichinterpretsintothegas
moving1005mesfasterthanthewater.Clearlyasthewatertableadvances
itwilltrapgas,intheformoftheresidualgassatura5on,S
gr
.Thehigherthe
pressureofthereservoirthelargertheamountofgaswhichwillbetrapped.
Dake1developedanequa5ontodeterminethevolumeofgastrapped
behindanadvancingwaterdrive.
Gasini5allyinplace=G=

M=
k
rw
'

w
/
k
rg
'

g

V 1S
wc
( )
/B
g
Theporevolume,PV,ofthereservoir,Vcanbeexpressedintermsofthe
gasinplace.
themovablegasvolume,MGV,bywateroodingis;
AXeraninuxofW
e
B
w
intothegasreservoir,thepropor5onofthismovable
gasvolumesweptbythewateris:
Thevolumeoftrappedgaswithinthissweptpropor5onistherefore:
Thisequa5oncanbeusedtodeterminetheamountofgasthatisbeinglost
toproduc5onthroughanadvancingwaterdrive.Thiscanbereducedby
deple5ngthegasreservoiratahigherratetakingadvantageofthehigher
diusivityofthegasrela5vetothatofthewater.

PV = GB
gi
1
1S
wc

MGV = PV 1S
gr
S
wc
( )
= GB
gi
1S
gr
S
wc
( )
1S
wc

= W
e
B
w
/GB
gi
1S
gr
S
wc
( )
1S
wc

PV
( )
S
gr
/B
g
=
GB
gi
B
g
S
gr
1S
wc
= G
S
gr
1S
wc
p/z
pi /zi
Thep/zapproachislongestablishedingasreservoirengineeringasa
methodtodeterminegasinplaceandrecoveryateldabandonment.
GasproducedfromReservoir=Gasini5allyinreservoir
Gasremaininginreservoir(scf)
Theabovedoesnotincludethewaterproduc5onterm,W
p
.Weis
consideredintheabovetobethenetwaterinux.
Asstatedbeforethecompressibilitytermsforwaterandporeareverysmall
andcanbeneglectedwhichreducestheequa5onto:
Fromtheequa5onofstateandassumingconstanttemperaturethegas
forma5onfactorscanbereplacedwithz/p,andtheequa5onbecomes:

G
p
= G GB
gi
GBg
c
f
+ c
wc
S
wc
1S
wc
p W
e
B
w






/B
g

G
p
G
=1
B
gi
B
g
1
W
e
B
w
GB
gi









p
z
=
p
i
z
i
1G
p
/G
( )
1
W
e
B
w
/B
gi
G






ThetermW
e
B
w
/GB
gi
isthepropor5onofthegasinplacevolumeinvadedby
water,andascanbeseenintheequa5onthehigherthispropor5onthe
higherthepressureandviceversatotheextentthatwithdeple5ondrive
wherethereisnowaterdriveorcompac5ondrive,theequa5onsimplies
to:

p
z
=
pi
zi
1
G
p
G






Thisisthewellknownlinear
equa5onofp/zvs.G
p
which
whenplo^edenablesthegasin
place,Gtobeobtainedwhen
p/z=0.Ifthereisanyother
pressuresupportthecurvewill
deviatefromlinearas
demonstratedingurebyDake.
Thedicultywiththeapplica5onofthisapproachisthatintheearly
5meperiods,thepressuresupportfromtheaquifermaynotbefeltand
decidingwhatistheslopeofalinearlinemaytakeinpointsfrom
pressuresbeingsupportedbywaterdrive,leadingtoanoveres5mateof
gasinplace.
Thisdangerhasbeenknownforsome5me,butthesimplicityaorded
bythisp/zvs.G
p
plotcanreadilyleadtoerroneousinterpreta5on.As
pointedoutbyDake,warningsbyrespectedreservoirengineersofCraX
&Hawkins1959,Bruns&Fetkotch1965,Agarwal,AlHussainy&
Raimey1965,Dake1978weretakenupbyCasonin1989,whenhesaid,
Thetheoryshowingthatdeple5ondrivegasreservoirswillexhibita
straightp/zplothasbeendevelopedbutthecorollary;thatastraightline
p/zplotprovestheexistenceofdeple5ondrivehasnotbeenproven
Asindicatedabovethehighdiusivityofthegasincontactwithan
aquiferissuchthatifgasiswithdrawnatarategreaterthanwatercan
encroachintothegasreservoirthenthepressurewilldeclinefasterthan
ifthegasproduc5onrateisslowerenablingthewaterdrivetoreplace
gasproduc5on.
Thisrateeectalsodistortstheslopeofthep/zplotforeldssupported
bywaterdrive.
Varyingproduc5onrateisacommoncharacteris5cingaseld
management,wherehighergasproduc5oninwinterperiodswillbe
followedbylowersummerproduc5on.
Clearlyallthesecontribu5ngfactorscanosetotherphenomenainp/z
plotsandleadtopoorinterpreta5on.
Therateeectisillustratedinthenextgureinthedistor5ongenerated
withhighwinterandlowsummerproduc5on.
Atabandonmentgasproduc5onG
p
=GTrappedGasBypassedgas.
isthevolumetricsweepeciencyattheabandonment,pressureB
gab
,gas
forma5onvolumefactoratabandonment.

G
p
= G GB
gi
S
gr
1S
wc
+ 1
( )
GB
gi






/B
gab
Dakehasalsodemonstratedhowthe
p/zplotcanbeusedtodetermine
abandonmentcondi5ons.Whenwater
drivereacheswaterbreakthrough,
thangaswillberemainingintwo
forms.Inthesweptpor5onata
residualgassatura5onandinpor5ons
bypassedbythewaterattheoriginal
satura5on(1S
wc
).
Whenthisequa5onisexpressedintermsofp/zitbecomes
Thisisplo^edonthep/zvsG
p
plot.Itindicatesthemaximumgasrecovery
pointsforthestrongwaterdriveandthemoderatewaterdrive.Dake
explainsfurtherapplica5onofthisinhistext.

p
z
ab
=
p
i
z
i
1
G
p
G
[
\
|

)
j

S
gr
1S
wc
+
1

|
|
|
|
|
|
MATERIALBALANCEEQUATION
APPLIEDTOOILRESERVOIRS
Deple/onDriveReservoirs
Wewillnowexaminetheapplica5onofthematerialbalancetooil
reservoirsandpresentsomemethodsusingthematerialbalance
equa5ontopredictreservoirperformance.Aswasdiscussedinthe
sec5onondrivemechanisms,adeple5ondrivereservoirhastwophases
ofdeple5on.Therststageabovethesatura5onpressurethe
undersaturatedstate,andthatbelowthesatura5onpressurefromwhere
thedrivemechanismgainsitsname,solu5ongasdrive.
Abovethebubblepoint
Intheundersaturatedstate,thesystemisallliquidandwithoutanyother
drivemechanismthereforetheuidproduc5onispurelyaresultofthe
totalcompressibilityofthesystem.
Althoughitappearscomplex,thematerialbalancetheequa5onisa
sophis5catedversionofthecompressibilitydeni5on:
dV=CxVxp
Produc5on=Expansionofreservoiruids
IfwetakethefullMBequa5ondevelopedinthepreviouschapterthen
theequa5onsimpliesabovethebubblepointto:
nogascap
aquifersmallinvolumeW
e
=W
p
=0
R
s
=R
si
=R
p
allgasatsurfacedissolvedinoilinreservoir
Oilcompressibilityis
Replacingthisfortheoiltermgives:
Abovethebubblepointonlyoilandconnatewaterexists,
therefore:

N
p
B
o
= NB
oi
B
o
B
oi
( )
B
oi
+
c
w
S
wc
+ c
f
( )
1S
wc
p







c
o
=
B
o
B
oi
( )
B
oi
p

N
p
B
o
= NB
oi
c
o
+
c
w
S
wc
+ c
f
( )
1S
wc






p

S
o
+S
wc
=1
TheMBequa5onforapplica5onabovethebubblepointbecomes:
or:N
p
B
o
=NB
oi
c
e
p
c
e
istheeec5vesatura5onweightedcompressibilityofthereservoir
system.
Therecoveryatbubblepointpressureistherefore:
Clearlythisfrac5onalrecoveryexpressedasN
p
/Ncanbedeterminedfrom
asimplefunc5onofthechangeinoilforma5onvolumefactors,andwater
andporecompressibili5esforthecondi5onsabovethebubblepoint
whereN
p
=cumula5veoilproduced,andN=originaloilinplace.

N
p
B
o
= NB
oi
c
o
S
o
+ c
w
S
wc
+ c
f
1S
wc






p

c
e
=
1
1S
wc
c
o
S
o
+ c
w
S
wc
+ c
f
( )

N
p
N
=
B
oi
B
ob
c
e
p
( )
Theequa5onsabovehaveneglectedwaterproduc5on.Thismaynotbethe
caseasareduc5oninpressurecouldmobiliseconnatewater.Theequa5on
insuchacasewouldbe:
N
p
B
o
+W
p
B
w
=NB
oi
C
e
p
Duringthisphasepressuredeclinesveryrapidlyandtherecoveryislow.
Therearesomeexcep5onstothiswherethecompressibili5esoftherock
areexcep5onallylarge,suchthattherockcompressibilityprovidesthe
majorenergysource.SuchisthecaseinsomeVenezuelaneldsandinthe
carbonateeldofEkoskintheNorthSea.
Asproduc5onwellsarebroughtonstreamtheirproduc5vitycanputa5me
linetotheMBcalcula5onsofproduc5onvs.pressure.The5meforthe
reservoirpressuretodroptoasafeposi5onabovethebubblepoint,thenis
abasisfordeterminingthe5meavailabilityforwaterinjec5oninstalla5ons
toarrestthepressuredecline.
Solu/onGasDrive
Whenthereservoirpressuredropsbelowthebubblepoint,thensolu5on
gasdriveiseec5ve,thentheanalysisismorecomplexasgascomesout
ofsolu5on.Solu5ongasdriveisthemostcommondrivemechanisminoil
reservoirsbutunfortunatelyitisalsoveryinecient.ItisoXenassociated
withotherdrivemechanismsforexamplewaterdriveandgascapdrive.
Inordertousethematerialbalanceequa5ontopredictfurtherproduc5on
asafunc5onofpressuredecline,weneedtodevelopotherindependent
equa5ons,theinstantaneousproducinggasoilra5oequa5onandthe
satura5onequa5on.
InstantaneousGasOilRa/o
Theinstantaneousgasoilra5o,R,isthera5oofgasproduc5ontooil
produc5onatapar5cularpointintheproduc5on5meofthereservoir,
thatisatapar5cularreservoirpressure.
Thegasoilra5oequa5onisbasedontheDarcyowequa5on.
Theinstantaneousproducinggasoilra5ois:
Thegasproduc5oncancomefromgasinsolu5oninthereservoirandfrom
produc5onfreegasinthereservoirwhichhascomeoutofsolu5on.
FreeGas=
Solu5ongas=Q
o
R
s
where:
q
g
=freegasowrate,res.bbls/day
B
g
=gasforma5onvolumefactor,bbls/SCF
Q
o
=oilowrate,STB/day
R
s
=gassolubilitySCF/STB
Totalgasproduc5onrate:,where:Q
g
=totalgas
producingrate.

R =
Gas producing rate, SCF/Day
Oil producing rate, STB/Day

q
g
B
g

Q
g
=
q
g
B
g
+ Q
o
R
s
Oilproducingrateis:,q
o
=reservoiroilowrate,res.bbls/day
Combiningequa5onsgives:
since:Q
o
=q
o
/B
o
,thus
q
g
andq
o
arereservoirowratewhereforaradialsystemintermsof
Darcyslawgives:
and

Q
o
=
q
o
B
o

R =
q
g
B
g
+ Q
o
R
s
q
o
/B
o

R =
q
g
/B
g
q
o
/B
o
+ R
s

q
g
=
2k
e
g
hp

g
ln
r
e
r
w

q
o
=
2k
e
o
hp

o
ln
r
e
r
w
Therefore:
Thisistheusualformoftheinstantaneousgasoilra5oequa5on.
Whendiscussingsolu5ongasdrive(Chapter10)wepresentedthetypical
shapefortheproducinggasoilra5ocurve.Thedis5nc5veshapeisagain
reproducedbelowandshowsthevariousphases.

R =
2k
eg
hp

g
ln
r
e
r
w
2k
e
o
hp

o
ln
r
e
r
w
+ R
s
=
B
o
k
eg

o
B
g
k
eg

g
+ R
s
Examina5onofthisplotinthecontextoftheinstantaneousGORequa5on
isconsistentwithitsshape.Abovethebubblepointat1,thereisnofree
gas,thereforek
eg
iszero,andR=Rs=Rsi.Oncegascomesoutofsolu5on
fromthebubblepoint,theore5callytherewillbeashort5mewhencri5cal
gassatura5onhasnotbeenreached,k
eg
iss5llzerobutR=R
s
<R
si
(point
2).Inrealityitisunlikelythatthisreduc5oninGORisseensincethewhole
reservoirisnotatuniformsatura5on.From2to3gashasreachedthe
cri5calgassatura5on,andk
eg
increaseswithincreasinggassatura5on,
whilecorrespondinglyk
eo
decreases.Gasisverymobilecomparedtothe
oilandthereservoirgivesupitsfreegaswhiletheoilmovingatan
increasinglyslowerrateisdepletedofitssolu5ongas.Thecurvegoes
throughamaximum.Tounderstand
thisnega5veslopeistoappreciatethat
thegasforma5onfactorisincreasing
withdecreasingpressure.Athigh
pressuresthechangeinB
g
issmallbut
atlowerpressuresthechangeislarger
andgreaterthantheincreasingvalues
ofk
eg
and
g
.
ThisinstantaneousGORshouldnotbeconfusedwiththecumula5ve
producingGOR,R
p
.orthesolu5onGOR,R
s
.TheinstantaneousGOR,R,is
thera5oofthetotaloilandgasproduc5onratesatapar5cularmoment
in5me.Thecumula5veGOR,R
p
isthera5oofthecumula5vegasand
cumula5veoilproduceduptoapar5cularmomentin5me.Thesetwo
GOR'sarerelatedtobythefollowingtwoequa5ons.

R
p
= RdN
p
o
Np


R
p
=
RiN
pi

N
p
whereR
i
istheaverageinstantaneousGORovertheperiodthatN
pi
ofoil
wasproduced.Anotherequa5onwhichisrequiredinconjunc5onwiththe
instantaneousgasoilra5oequa5onistheOilSatura2onEqua2on.
OilSatura/onEqua/on
Thisequa5on,theoilsatura5onequa5on,providesanaverageoil
satura5onforareservoiratany5me.Itisdenedas:
whereS
o
=oilsatura5onatany5me,S
wi
=connatewatersatura5on,N=oil
inplaceatthebubblepoint,andN
p
=cumula5veoilproduc5onbelowthe
bubblepoint.Thisequa5oncanberearrangedtotheoilsatura2on
equa2on:

S
o
=
oil volume remaining
total pore volume

S
o
=
NN
p
( )
B
o
NB
ob
/ 1S
wc
( )

S
o
= 1
N
p
N






B
o
B
ob
1S
wi
( )
Aboveequa5onisimportantbecausetheoilsatura5onasafunc5onof
pressuremustbeknowntodeterminetherela5vepermeabilityassociated
withtheinstantaneousGORequa5on.Thisequa5onassumesthattheoil
satura5onisuniformthroughoutthereservoir.Howeverduetover5cal
migra5onoffreegasasecondarygascapmaybeproducedandanother
equa5onmayberequired.
where:S
o
=oilsatura5onwithoilzone,andm=ra5oofsecondarygas
captooriginaloilzonesize.

S
o
'
=
NN
p
( )
B
o
NB
ob
m' NB
ob
( )
/ 1S
wi
( )
S
o
'
=
NN
p
( )
B
o
1S
wi
( )
NB
ob
1m'
( )
S
o
'
=
1
N
p
N






B
o
B
ob
1S
wi
( )
1m'
Thebigassump5oninoveequa5onisthattheoilsatura5oninthe
secondarygascapiszero.
Predic5ngthefutureperformanceofareservoirisdicultnottheleast
becausetherearemanyuncertain5esassociatedwiththereservoir.For
examplewemaynotknowthedrivemechanismresponsibleforuid
produc5onwhichwouldhaveanimpactontheparametersincludedin
theMBequa5on.Wemayhavedoubtsinrela5ontothequalityofthe
laboratorydata,suchasrela5vepermeability.
HistoryMatching
Acommontoolinreservoirengineeringishistorymatching,which
operatesontheprincipleifyourpredic5onmodelcannotbeusedto
predictthepastthenitsapplica5onforthefuturewillbeinserious
ques5on.Whenpastperformancecannotbecalculatedtheneitherthe
inputdataiswrongorthemodelisincorrectorbotharenotcorrect.Itis
likelythatthereareerrorsassociatedwiththeinputdata.
TheinstantaneousGORequa5oncanbeusedtoprovideahistorymatched
setofrela5vepermeabilitydata.Theinstantaneousgasoilra5oequa5on
whenrearrangedinanotherformcanbeusedforgenera5ngrela5ve
permeabilitydatafromproduc5ondataorvalida5nglaboratorygenerated
rela5vepermeabilitydata.

K
eg
K
eo
= R R
s
( )
B
o

g
B
g

o
Oneofthemostdicultyaspectsinpredic5ngreservoirperformanceof
solu5ongasdrivereservoirsishavingrela5vepermeabili5eswhich
representthereservoir.Laboratoryvaluesarespecictosmallsamples
ofrockwhichclearlycannotberepresenta5veofthewholeeld.There
isevendoubtonthelaboratoryproceduresusedandtheprepara5on
procedurestoobtainrealityofrocksanduids.Theaboveequa5on
provideswheredataisavailableaproceduretomakeuseofpast
produc5ondatatogenerateeldrela5vepermeabili5esforusein
performancepredic5ons.
Produc5ondatawillprovidedataforR,andN
p
asafunc5onofpressure.
Foreachpressurevalue,thePVTvalueswouldbeavailablefromthePVT
report.TheN
p
valuewillenabletheoilsatura5ontobecalculatedfrom
theoilsatura5onequa5on,andthecorrespondinggas/oilrela5ve
permeabilityra5oiscalculatedfromtheIGORequa5onbelow.

K
eg
K
eo
= R R
s
( )
B
o

g
B
g

o
PerformancePredic/onMethodsForSolu/onGasDrive
ReservoirReservoirs
Therearetwophasestoasolu5ongasdrivereservoir,theperiodabove
thebubblepointwherereservoiruidsremainsinglephase,withthegas
remaininginsolu5on.Theotherphaseisthatbelowthebubblepoint,
wheregascomesoutofsolu5onandtheproduc5vityoftheforma5onis
inuencedbytherela5veproper5esoftheoilandgasphases.
Inpredic5ngreservoirperformance,thesephasesofproduc5onare
treatedseparately.Theproduc5onandpressuresfromtheini5alpressure
andpressuredowntothebubblepoint,andthentheproduc5onand
pressureprolefromtheoilinplaceatthebubblepointpressure.
Solu/onGasDriveCharacteris/cs.
Beforelookingatthevariouspredic5onsitisworthwhilereviewingthe
characteris5csofsolu5ongasdrivereservoirs.Whenthesubjectwas
consideredinthedrivemechanismchapteritwasindicatedthatthese
reservoirsdonotyieldgoodcharacteris5csfromanoilrecoveryperspec5ve.
Theyarecharacterisedby:
(1)Rapidpressuredecline
(2)Waterfreeproduc5on
(3)Rapidlyincreasinggasoilra5o
(4)Lowul5materecovery
Thereareanumberofprocedureswhichdierentauthorshavedeveloped
forpredic5ngperformance,theyarea^ributedtoSchilthuis,theoriginator
oftheMBequa5on,Tarner,Tracy&TarnerandMuska^.Themethodsfocus
onthepredic5onsbelowthebubblebecausethepredic5onsabovethe
bubblepointarestraigh{orward.Suchcalcula5onsneedtodoneseparately
fromthosebelowthebubblepoint.
PerformancePredic/onSchilthuisMethod
Schilthuisrearrangedthematerialbalanceequa5ontothefollowingform:
AllthePVTrelatedproper5esaredeterminedfromthePVTreportusingthe
reservoirpressure.
Atthestartofthepredic5onthevaluesoftheparametersatthebubble
pointareknown,N,G,B
ob
,R
si
andB
gi
.
Thegasproduc5on,GpisobtainedfromtheproducingGORandcumula5ve
oilproduc5on.ThisGORhowevervariesasthereservoirisdepleted,soan
incrementalprocedureisusedbasedon
R
j
istheaverageproducingGORovertheincrementofproduc5on.

N
p
=
N B
o
B
ob
+ R
si
R
s
( )
B
g
[ ]
+ G B
g
B
gi
( )
G
p
B
g
B
o
B
g
R
s

G
p
= R
j
N
pj
j=1
j=n

TheGORfromtheinstantaneousgasoilra5oequa5onisalsoafunc5onof
rela5vepermeability.
andtherela5vepermeabilityisrelatedtosatura5onwhichisrelatedto
cumula5veoilproduc5onthroughthesatura5onequa5on.

R =
B
o
k
e
g

o
B
g
k
eo

g
+ R
s

S
o
= 1
N
p
N






B
o
B
ob
1S
wi
( )
Schilthuissprocedureisasfollows:
1. SetapressurebelowP
b
Bubblepointpressure
2. AssumeG
p
andcalculateN
p
fromtheMBequa5onabove.
3. CalculateS
o
fromoilsatura5onequa5onabove,usingN
p
determined
in2.
4. Determinerela5vepermeabilityra5ofromlaboratoryoreld
generatedrel.permvsS
o
data.
5. CalculateG
p
usinginstantaneousGOReqn.andG
p
equa5onabove.
R
i
andR
i+1
aretheinstantaneousGORatthestartendoftheproduc5on
interval.
Comparethecalcula5onofG
p
withpredictedG
p
andrepeatsteps,25if
theydonotagree.Whenthevaluesagreegotostep1andsetalower
pressureandcon5nuewiththeN
p
andG
p
vspressuredeclinepredic5on.
Tarnersmethod
TarnerapproachisnottoodierentfromtheSchilthuismethod.InTarners
methodthematerialbalanceequa5onisarrangedasfollowsinaformto
calculateG
p
,wheresubscriptsrefertothesatura5oncondi5on.
Theprocedureisofatrialanderrorapproachusingthetwoindependent
equa5ons,instantaneousGORandMB:
1. Star5ngatthebubblepointpressure.
2. SelectafuturepressureandassumeavalueofN
p
atthatpressure.It
maybeconvenienttoexpressN
p
asafunc5onofN.SolvetheMB
equa5onforN
p
R
p
whichisthecumula5vegasproduc5on.
3. UsingtheassumedN
p
solvetheoilsatura5onequa5onequa5on45for
So.Theseenablek
eg
/k
eo
tobedetermined.
4. Calculatetheinstantaneousgasoilra5oRfromequa5on:
5. Calculatethegasproducedduringthepressure
dropperiod,i.e.

N
p
R
p
=
N B
o
+ R
si
R
s
( )
B
g
B
ob
( )
+ N
p
B
o
R
s
B
g
( )
B
g

R
i
+ R
i+1
( )
2
N
p1

R
p
= RdN
p
o
Np

whereR
i
=instantaneousgasoilra5oatstartofperiod,R
i+1
=
instantaneousGORatendofperiod,andN
p1
=cumula5veoilproducedat
endoftheperiod.
Theassump5onoftheequa5onisthataplotofRvsN
p
islinear.Sinceit
isunlikelythatsucharela5onshipexistssmallpressuredropsshouldbe
used.Agureof50psi.issuggested.
6. Thetotalgasproducedfromthematerialbalanceequa5onandthe
instantaneousGORequa5onarecompared,andtheassumedvalueof
N
p
adjustedandsteps26repeatedun5lthetwovaluesmatchto
withinanacceptableerror.Wethengotothenextstep
b)StepTwo
1 AsecondpressureisselectedandanewvalueofN
p
assumedN
p2
.
2 SolveMBforN
p2
.Thisisthecumula5vegasproduc5onattheendof
thesecondpressure.

G
2
= N
p2
R
p2
N
p1
R
p1
=
N B
o
+ R
si
R
s
( )
B
g
B
ob
( )
+ N
p2
B
o
R
s
B
g
( )
B
g
N
p1
R
p1
3 Calculategasproducedduring2ndstepbyremovingfromcumula5ve
gas,gasproducedduringstep1,G
1
4 WiththeassumedN
p2
avalueofS
o
isobtainedfromthesatura5on
equa5on.
5 InstantaneousGORcalculatedk
eg
/
keo
abovera5odetermined.
6 Gasproducedduringsecondstep:
whereG
2
isthetotalgasproducedduringsteptwo.
7 IfG
2MB
doesnotcomparewithG
2GOR
thenanewvalueofN
p2
is
assumed,andsoonun5lconvergenceasbefore.ByploRngG
mb
and
G
GOR
vsN
p
thepointofconvergencecanbedetermined.
Thestepwisetrialanderrorprocedureiscon5nuedun5lthedesiredlimitis
achieved.
Bothoftheseproceduresarenotsowellsuitedtocomputerapplica5on
andTracymodiedTarnersmethodtomakeitmoresuitedtocomputer
applica5on.

R
i+1
+ R
i+2
( )
2
N
p2
N
p1
( )
= G
2
Tracy'sFormofTarnerMethod
TracytooktheSchilhuisMBequa5on:
andsuggestedashorthandversion,where:

N =
N
p
B
o
R
s
B
g
( )
+ G
p
B
g
W
e
W
p
( )
B
o
B
oi
+ R
si
R
s
( )
B
g
+ mB
oi
B
g
B
gi
( )
/B
gi

n
=
B
o
R
s
B
g
B
o
B
oi
+ R
si
R
s
( )
B
g
+ mB
oi
B
g
B
gi
( )
/B
gi

g
=
B
g
B
o
B
oi
+ R
si
R
s
( )
B
g
+ mB
oi
B
g
B
gi
( )
/B
gi

w
=
1
B
o
B
oi
+ R
si
R
s
( )
B
g
+ mB
oi
B
g
B
gi
( )
/B
gi
Forsimplicityinpresen5ngtheequa5onsifweassumenogascapthese
become:

n
=
B
o
R
s
B
g
B
o
B
oi
+ R
si
R
s
( )
B
g

g
=
B
g
B
o
B
oi
+ R
si
R
s
( )
B
g

w
=
1
B
o
B
oi
+ R
si
R
s
( )
B
g
Thesefunc5ons
n
,
g
and
w
areonlydependentonreservoirpressure
andoilproper5es,i.e.theycanallbeobtainedfromPVTdata.Usingthe
aboveshorthandsystemthematerialbalanceequa5oncanbewri^en:
N=N
p

n
+G
p

g
(W
e
W
p
)
w
Ifweassumenowaterencroachmentorproduc5on:N=N
p

n
+G
p

ThisisnowasimpliedformoftheMBequa5onwiththePVTrelated
func5onsconvenientlygroupedtogether.Tracyconsideredtwopressure
condi5onsP
j
andalowerpressureP
k
andtheoilproduc5onN
p
duringthis
pressureinterval.TracydiersfromTarnerines5ma5ngtheproducing
GOR,R
k
atthelowerpressureratherthantheproduc5onN
p
.
Forthekthpressure:N=N
pk

nk
+G
pk

gk

IfNissetat1.0thentheequa5ontakesafrac5onalrecoveryform:
1.0=N
pk

nk
+G
pk

gk

also:1.0=(N
pj
+N
pk
)
nk
+(G
pj
+G
pk
)
gk

and:1.0=(N
pj
+N
pk
)
nk
+(G
pj
+R
avg
xN
pk
)
gk

whereR
avg
isthees5matedaveragegasoilra5obetweenpressureP
j
and
P
k
.

i.e. R
avg
'
=
R
j
+ R
K
'
2
R
k
canbees5matedbyextrapola5ngtheplotofRversuspressure
calculatedatahigherpressure.
Equa5on1.0=(N
pj
+N
pk
)
nk
+(G
pj
+R
avg
xN
pk
)
gk
canalsobewri^enin
theform:
1.0=N
pj

nk
+G
pj

gk
+N
pk
(
nk
+
gk
R
avg
)
solvingforNgives:
Aboveequa5on,theonlyunknownisR
avg
.Alltheotherparametersare
uniquelydeterminedfromthePVTdataorhavebeencalculatedduring
previouspressuresteps.R
k
canalsobees5matediftheliquidsatura5onis
knownusingtheinstantaneousGORequa5on,equa5on42.

N
pk
=
1.0 N
pj

nk
G
pj

gk

nk
+
gk
R
avg
'

R
k
=
B
o
B
g
k
eg
k
eo

g
+ R
k
eg
/k
eo
ises5matedfromtheliquidsatura5onsincek
eg
/k
eo
=f(S
o
)
S
o
beingobtainedfromtheoilsatura5onequa5on:
Tracyobservedthat
n
,
g
and
w
are
smoothcurvedandaboveP
b
theyhave
inniteslope.Anexampleofthese
curvesisgiveninthisgure.

S
o
= 1
N
p
N






B
o
B
oi
1S
w
( )
Usingtheaboveequa5onsthestepbystepprocedureofTracyisasfollows.
TracysProcedure
SetpressurestepbelowP
b
(1) Es5mateR
k

abovebubblepointR
s
fromextrapola5onofprevioustrend
frominstantaneousGORequa5on
(2)Es5mateR
avg
(Equa5on67)
(3)Determinefunc5ons
n
and
g
(Equa5on55and56).
(4)Usingequa5on69determineN
pk
&N
p
.

n
=
B
o
R
s
B
g
B
o
B
oi
+ R
si
R
s
( )
B
g
+ mB
oi
B
g
B
gi
( )
/ B
gi

g
=
B
g
B
o
B
oi
+ R
si
R
s
( )
B
g
+ mB
oi
B
g
B
gi
( )
/ B
gi

N
pk
=
1.0 N
pj

nk
G
pj

gk

nk
+
gk
R
avg
'
(5)UsingN
p
.DetermineS
o
fromsatura5onequa5onandtherebyk
eg
/k
eo

fromS
o
vsk
eg
/k
eo
data.
(6)CalculateR
k
frominstantaneousGORequa5on.
(7)CompareR
k
withR
k
.ofstep1.If(RkRk)isgreaterthantolerance,
tolerancelimitsetR
k
=R
k
andrepeatsteps16.
(8)Es5mateG
p
andG
p
.G
p
=N
p
xR
avg
.
(9)Es5mate
g
G
p
+N
p

n
.Thisshouldbe1.00.Iftheerrorisgreaterthan
apresettolerance,calcula5onsarerepeatedwithanadjustmenttoR
k
.
(10)Setnextpressureandrepeatstep19.

S
o
= 1
N
p
N






B
o
B
ob
1S
wi
( )

R
p
= RdN
p
o
Np

MuskatMethod
MorrisMuskat,accordingtoDakedidmoreinthe40sand50stoevolve
reservoirengineeringtechniquesintermsofwellestablishedphysical
principlesandtheirmathema5calfounda5on.Muskatconsideredtheoil
remaininginthereservoir,N
r
,fromwhichN
p
ofoilhadbeenproduced.The
remainingoilis:
V
p
istheporevolumeinrb(resbll).Thechangeinthisvolumeis;
Thetotalvolumeofdissolvedandfreegasis:

N
r
= NN
p
=
V
p
S
o
B
o

dN
r
dp
= V
p
1
B
o
dS
o
dp
Vp
S
o
B
o
2
dB
o
dp

G
r
= V
p
S
o
R
s
B
o
+ 1S
o
S
wc
( )
V
B
g
Thechangeinthisvolumewithpressureis:
ThecurrentproducingGORcanbeobtainedbydividingequa5ons.
TheproducingGORcanalsobeobtainedthroughtheinstantaneousGOR
equa5on

dG
r
dp
= V
S
o
B
o
dR
s
dp
+
R
s
Bo
dS
o
dp

R
s
S
o
B
o
2
dB
o
dp

1S
o
S
wc
B
g
2
dB
g
dp









R =
G
p
N
p
=
G
r
N
r
=
G
r
/p
N
r
/p
=
dG
r
/dp
dN
r
/dp

R =
S
o
B
o
dR
s
dp
+
R
s
B
o
dS
o
dp

R
s
S
o
B
o
2
dB
o
dp

1S
o
S
wc
B
g
2
dB
g
dp
1
B
o
S
o
dp

S
o
B
o
2
dB
o
dp

R =
B
o
k
eg

o
B
g
k
eo

g
+ R
Thisequa5onisequatedtotheeqn.75abovetoyield:
Thisequa5oncanbeexpressedinanincrementalformtoyield:
Inwhich:

dS
o
dp
=
S
o
B
g
B
o
dR
s
dp
+
S
o
B
o
k
rg
k
ro

g
dB
o
dp

1S
o
S
wc
B
g
dB
g
dp
1+
k
rg
k
ro

g

So = p
S
o
X(p) +S
o
Y(p)k
rg
/k
ro
1S
o
S
wc
( )
Z(p)
1+
k
rg
k
ro

g

X(p) =
B
g
B
o
dR
s
dp

Y(p) =
1
B
o
dB
o
dp

g

Z(p) =
1
B
g
dB
g
dp
Theseareallpressurerelatedfunc5onsandcanbeobtainedfromPVTdata.
Whichgives
Dake1proposesstructuringatablewiththefollowingsteps:Steps:
(i)(ii)(iii)(iv)(v)(vi)(vii)(viii)
Pressure X,Y,Z(p) S
o
k
rg
/k
ro
S
o
S
o
N
p
/N GOR
(psia) /psi PVPV PVscf/stb
(i) Pressureinstepsbelowbubblepoint
(ii) TableofX,Y&Z(p)values,calculatedattheaveragepressuresbetweenthe
stepsinI.
(iii) Sopriortothepressuredropp.
(iv) Rela5vepermeabilityra5oatlastvalueofS
o
.
(v) Sodeterminedusingeqn.77.
(vi) ThelowervalueofS
o
atreducedpressure.
(vii) Thefrac5onalrecoveryfrombubblepoint.Equa5on82
(viii) TheGORobtainedfromGOReqnusingk
rg
/k
ro
valueobtainedfromnewSo

S
o
=
oil remaining
one PV
=
NN
p
( )
B
o
NB
oi
1S
wc
( )

N
p
N
=1
S
o
1S
wc
B
oi
B
o
Alltheproceduresaresimilar,andareverydependantonreservoir,uid
androckdata.Thequalityofamaterialbalancestudyofareservoiris
relatedtothequalityofthedata.Thereclearlyshouldbesucientdata
bothwithrespecttoquan5tyandqualityasinanysimula5onstudythe
qualityoftheoutputisdirectlyrelatedtothequalityoftheinput.Another
challengeisthedeni5onoftheaveragereservoirpressure.Wewill
brieylookatthesetwodataperspec5ves.
DataforSolu/onGasDrivePredic/ons
PriortocarryingouttheMBprocedureitisimportanttotestthedata,if
thereispastproduc5ondataavailable.Themethodscanthenbeusedto
examineiftheyarecapableofpredic5ngpastperformance.Clearlyifthe
colddatadoesnotenablepastperformancepredic5onstobematched,
thenthereisanopportunitytoadjustsomeofthedatatoobtainahistory
match.Thedatacanthenbeusedwithbe^ercondencetopredict
futureperformance.Listedbelowarethedatawhichareusedinthe
varioussolu5ongasdrivepredic5onprocedures.Someofthemcouldbe
adjustedinhistorymatching.
(a) Reservoiruidinforma5onfromPVTanalysis:(i)Oilforma5on
volumefactorB
o
(ii)Gassolubility,R
s
(iii)Compressibilityfactor,zcan
becalculatedfromgascomposi5on,orgasgravity.(iv)Reservoiroil
andgasviscosity,
o
and
g
Itisconvenienttoplotthedataasa
func5onofpressure.
(b) Pastproduc5on:(i)Oilproduc5on(ii)Gasproduc5on(iii)Water
produc5on(iv)Netwaterinux
Againtheseareplo^edversuspressure.
(c) Coreanalysisdata:(i)Laboratoryrela5vepermeabilityk
eg
/k
eo
vsS
o
or
k
ew
/k
eo
vsS
o
(d) Geological,petrophyisicalandsimplecoredata:(i)Originaloilin
place,N(ii)Sizeofgaszone,m(iii)Ini5alwatersatura5on,S
wi
(iv)
Porosity.
GasDriveReservoirs
AsdiscussedinDriveMechanismsChapter,GasDriveisalsoadeple5on
typereservoir.Fromthenatureofthepressuregradientswithintheoil
columnitisalsolikelythatsolu5ongasdriveisalsoac5vewhendeple5ng
agascapdrivereservoir.Colehaspointedoutthatgasdriveisessen5allya
frontaldrivedisplacingmechanism.Inthisrespectthehighmobilityofthe
displacinggastothatofthedisplacedoilissuchthatindeple5ngtheoil
reservoiritisimportanttominimisetherate,toreducebypassingofoil
bytheadvancinggasoilcontact.Thedensitydierencesofgasandoil
clearlyhelptoosettheadvancingmobilityra5oeect.Tarner'smethod
canbeusedforGasCapdrivereservoirpredic5ons.Theequa5onhowever
mayneedaltera5ontoaccountforgascomingoutofsolu5onmigra5ng
intothegascap.InTarner'smethodtheequa5onforGasProduc5on,G,
becomes:

N
p
R
p
=
N B
o
+ R
si
R
s
( )
B
g
B
ob
( )
+ mB
ob
B
g
B
gi
B
gi








N
p
B
o
R
s
B
g
( )
B
g
AverageReservoirPressure
Thematerialbalanceapproachissome5mesconsideredasthetank
model.Intheapplica5onoftheMBequa5onweareassumingthatthe
pressureisuniformlydistributedacrossthereservoir.Ifthereisuniform
pressuredeclineinallthewellsinthereservoirthenthispressuredecline
givescondenceforapplica5onoftheMBtool.Dakepointedoutthatif
thisequilibriumisnotachieved,theMBapproachcans5llbeused.He
suggestedthatanaveragepressurecanbedeterminedtorepresenta
reservoirwheretherearelargedieren5alpressuresacrossthereservoir.
Hepresentsanaveragingprocedureforreservoirswherepressure
equilibriumhasnotbeenachieved.InthegurebelowfromDakeare
presentedthepressuresforequilibriumcondi5onsandthewellposi5ons
andboundariesforanonequilibriumcondi5on.
WellPosi5onsand
Drainage
Boundaries
WellpressureforNon
EquilibriumWells
HavingworkedthroughthischaptertheStudentwillbeableto:
GiventheMBequa5onbeabletopresentitinashorthandformas
abasisforuseinlinearforms.
UsingthevariouslinearformswithsketchesillustratetheMB
equa5onforusefor:Reservoirwithnowaterdriveorgascap.
Nowaterdrivebutwithknowngascap.
Commentwiththeaidofsketchestheimpactofwaterdriveonthe
applica5onofMBequa5oninlinearandotherforms.
DeriveanduseasimpliedMBequa5onforapplica5ontoanoil
reservoirabovethebubblepoint,intermsofrecovery,andoil,rock
andwatercompressibility.
Derivetheinstantaneousgasoilra5oequa5onandusetoexplain
theproducingGORofasolu5ongasdrivereservoir.
HavingworkedthroughthischaptertheStudentwillbeableto:
CommentonhowtheinstantaneousGORequa5oncanbeusedto
historymatchthera5oofthegastooilrela5vepermeabili5es.
Describetheprocedurefortheapplica5onoftheTarnerorTracy
Tarnermethodsinpredic5ngsolu5ongasdriveperformance.
BeabletousebothTracyandTracyTarnermethodsforpredic5ng
futureperformancegivenprerequisiteequa5onsanddata.
Commenthowwithwellperformanceinforma5ona5melinecanbe
includedinmaterialbalancepredic5ons.