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Read BS, Chapter 6

Problems in previous chapters have focused on systems. These systems always were com-

posed of the same matter. However, for a wide variety of engineering devices, for example

ow in pipes,

jet engines,

heat exchangers,

gas turbines,

pumps,

furnaces, or

air conditioners,

a constant ow of new uid continuously enters and exits the device. In fact, once the uid

has left the device, we often are not concerned with that uid, as far as the performance

of the device is concerned. Of course, we might care about the pollution emitted by the

device and the long term fate of expelled particles. Pollution dispersion, in contrast to

pollution-creation, is more a problem of uid mechanics than thermodynamics.

Analysis of control volumes is slightly more complicated than for systems, and the equa-

tions we will ultimately use are slightly more complex. Unfortunately, the underlying mathe-

matics and physics which lead to the development of our simplied control volume equations

are highly challenging! Worse still, most beginning thermodynamics texts do not expose

the student to all of the many nuances required for the simplication. In this chapter, we

will summarize the key results and refer the student to an appendix for a more rigorous

development.

We will introduce no new axioms in this chapter. We shall simply formulate our mass

and energy conservation axioms for a control volume conguration. A sketch of a generic

apparatus for control volume analysis is given in Fig. 6.1.

141

142 CHAPTER 6. FIRST LAW ANALYSIS FOR A CONTROL VOLUME

Q

cv

W

cv

.

.

m

i

(h

i

+ v

i

2

/2 + gz

i

)

.

m

e

(h

e

+ v

e

2

/2 + gz

e

)

.

m

e

(h

e

+ v

e

2

/2 + gz

e

)

.

m

e

(h

e

+ v

e

2

/2 + gz

e

)

.

Figure 6.1: Sketch of generic conguration for control volume analysis.

6.1 Detailed derivations of control volume equations

This section will give a summary of the necessary mathematical operations necessary to cast

the conservation of mass and energy principles in a traditional control volume formulation.

The analysis presented has been amalgamated from a variety of sources. Most directly, it

is a specialization of course notes for AME 60635, Intermediate Fluid Mechanics.

1

Basic

mathematical foundations are covered well by Kaplan.

2

A detailed and readable description,

which has a stronger emphasis on uid mechanics, is given in the undergraduate text of

Whitaker.

3

A rigorous treatment of the development of all equations presented here is

included in the graduate text of Aris.

4

Popular mechanical engineering undergraduate uids

texts have closely related expositions.

56

However, despite their detail, these texts have some

minor aws! The treatment given by BS is not as detailed. This section will use a notation

generally consistent with BS and show in detail how to arrive at its results.

1

J. M. Powers, 2011, Lecture Notes on Intermediate Fluid Mechanics, University of Notre Dame,

http://www.nd.edu/powers/ame.538/notes.pdf.

2

W. Kaplan, 2003, Advanced Calculus, Fifth Edition, Addison-Wesley, New York.

3

S. Whitaker, 1992, Introduction to Fluid Mechanics, Krieger, Malabar, Florida.

4

R. Aris, 1962, Vectors, Tensors, and the Basic Equations of Fluid Mechanics, Dover, New York.

5

F. M. White, 2002, Fluid Mechanics, Fifth Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York.

6

R. W. Fox, A. T. McDonald, and P. J. Pritchard, 2003, Introduction to Fluid Mechanics, Sixth Edition,

John Wiley, New York.

CC BY-NC-ND. 04 May 2012, J. M. Powers.

6.1. DETAILED DERIVATIONS OF CONTROL VOLUME EQUATIONS 143

6.1.1 Relevant mathematics

We will use several theorems which are developed in vector calculus. Here, we give short

motivations and presentations. The reader should consult a standard mathematics text for

detailed derivations.

6.1.1.1 Fundamental theorem of calculus

The fundamental theorem of calculus is as follows

_

x=b

x=a

(x) dx =

_

x=b

x=a

_

d

dx

_

dx = (b) (a). (6.1)

It eectively says that to nd the integral of a function (x), which is the area under the

curve, it suces to nd a function , whose derivative is , i.e. d/dx = (x), evaluate

at each endpoint, and take the dierence to nd the area under the curve.

6.1.1.2 Divergence theorem

The divergence theorem, often known as Gausss

7

theorem, is the analog of the fundamental

theorem of calculus extended to volume integrals. Gauss is depicted in Fig. 6.2. While it is

Figure 6.2: Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855), German mathematician; image from

http://www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/history/Biographies/Gauss.html.

often attributed to Gauss who reported it in 1813, it is said that it was rst discovered by

Joseph Louis Lagrange in 1762.

8

Let us dene the following quantities:

t time,

7

Carl Friedrich Gauss, 1777-1855, Brunswick-born German mathematician, considered the founder of

modern mathematics. Worked in astronomy, physics, crystallography, optics, bio-statistics, and mechanics.

Studied and taught at Gottingen.

8

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Divergence theorem.

CC BY-NC-ND. 04 May 2012, J. M. Powers.

144 CHAPTER 6. FIRST LAW ANALYSIS FOR A CONTROL VOLUME

x spatial coordinates,

V

a

(t) arbitrary moving and deforming volume,

A

a

(t) bounding surface of the arbitrary moving volume,

n outer unit normal to moving surface,

(x, t) arbitrary vector function of x and t

The divergence theorem is as follows:

_

Va(t)

dV =

_

Aa(t)

n dA. (6.2)

The surface integral is analogous to evaluating the function at the end points in the funda-

mental theorem of calculus.

If (x, t) has the form (x, t) = c(x, t), where c is a constant vector and is a scalar

function, then the divergence theorem, Eq. (6.2), reduces to

_

Va(t)

(c) dV =

_

Aa(t)

(c) n dA, (6.3)

_

Va(t)

_

c

..

=0

+c

_

dV =

_

Aa(t)

(c n) dA, (6.4)

c

_

Va(t)

dV = c

_

Aa(t)

n dA, (6.5)

c

__

Va(t)

dV

_

Aa(t)

n dA

_

. .

=0

= 0. (6.6)

Now, since c is arbitrary, the term in parentheses must be zero. Thus,

_

Va(t)

dV =

_

Aa(t)

n dA. (6.7)

Note if we take to be the scalar of unity (whose gradient must be zero), the divergence

theorem reduces to

_

Va(t)

(1) dV =

_

Aa(t)

(1)n dA, (6.8)

0 =

_

Aa(t)

(1)n dA, (6.9)

_

Aa(t)

n dA = 0. (6.10)

CC BY-NC-ND. 04 May 2012, J. M. Powers.

6.1. DETAILED DERIVATIONS OF CONTROL VOLUME EQUATIONS 145

That is, the unit normal to the surface, integrated over the surface, cancels to zero when the

entire surface is included.

We will use the divergence theorem (6.2) extensively. It allows us to convert sometimes

dicult volume integrals into easier interpreted surface integrals. It is often useful to use

this theorem as a means of toggling back and forth from one form to another.

6.1.1.3 Leibnizs rule

Leibnizs

9

rule relates time derivatives of integral quantities to a form which distinguishes

changes which are happening within the boundaries to changes due to uxes through bound-

aries. Leibniz is depicted in Fig. 6.3.

Figure 6.3: Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz (1646-1716), German mathe-

matician, philosopher, and polymath who co-invented calculus; image from

http://www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/history/Biographies/Leibniz.html.

Let us consider the scenario sketched in Figure 6.4. Say we have some value of interest,

, which results from an integration of a kernel function over V

a

(t), for instance

=

_

Va(t)

dV. (6.11)

We are often interested in the time derivative of , the calculation of which is complicated

by the fact that the limits of integration are time-dependent. From the denition of the

derivative, we nd that

d

dt

=

d

dt

_

Va(t)

dV = lim

t0

_

Va(t+t)

(t + t) dV

_

Va(t)

(t) dV

t

. (6.12)

9

Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz, 1646-1716, Leipzig-born German philosopher and mathematician. In-

vented calculus independent of Newton and employed a superior notation to that of Newton.

CC BY-NC-ND. 04 May 2012, J. M. Powers.

146 CHAPTER 6. FIRST LAW ANALYSIS FOR A CONTROL VOLUME

I

II

A

I

A

II

V

II

V

I

w

I

w

II

V

a

n

II

n

I

V (t)

a V

a

(t+t)

Figure 6.4: Sketch of the motion of an arbitrary volume V

a

(t). The boundaries of V

a

(t) move

with velocity w. The outer normal to V

a

(t) is A

a

(t). Here, we focus on just two regions: I,

where the volume is leaving material behind, and II, where the volume is sweeping up new

material.

Now, we have

V

a

(t + t) = V

a

(t) + V

II

(t) V

I

(t). (6.13)

Here, V

II

(t) is the amount of new volume swept up in time increment t, and V

I

(t) is

the amount of volume abandoned in time increment t. So we can break up the rst integral

in the last term of Eq. (6.12) into

_

Va(t+t)

(t + t) dV =

_

Va(t)

(t + t) dV +

_

V

II

(t)

(t + t) dV

_

V

I

(t)

(t + t) dV,

(6.14)

which gives us then

d

dt

_

Va(t)

dV =

lim

t0

_

Va(t)

(t + t) dV +

_

V

II

(t)

(t + t) dV

_

V

I

(t)

(t + t) dV

_

Va(t)

(t) dV

t

. (6.15)

Rearranging (6.15) by combining terms with common limits of integration, we get

d

dt

_

Va(t)

dV = lim

t0

_

Va(t)

((t + t) (t)) dV

t

+ lim

t0

_

V

II

(t)

(t + t) dV

_

V

I

(t)

(t + t) dV

t

. (6.16)

CC BY-NC-ND. 04 May 2012, J. M. Powers.

6.1. DETAILED DERIVATIONS OF CONTROL VOLUME EQUATIONS 147

Let us now further dene

w the velocity vector of points on the moving surface V

a

(t),

Now, the volume swept up by the moving volume in a given time increment t is

dV

II

= w n

. .

positive

t dA

II

= w

II

t

. .

distance

dA

II

, (6.17)

and the volume abandoned is

dV

I

= w n

. .

negative

t dA

I

= w

I

t

. .

distance

dA

I

. (6.18)

Substituting into our denition of the derivative, Eq. (6.16), we get

d

dt

_

Va(t)

dV = lim

t0

_

Va(t)

((t + t) (t))

t

dV

+ lim

t0

_

A

II

(t)

(t + t)w

II

t dA

II

+

_

A

I

(t)

(t + t)w

I

t dA

I

t

. (6.19)

Now, we note that

We can use the denition of the partial derivative to simplify the rst term on the right

side of (6.19),

The time increment t cancels in the area integrals of (6.19), and

A

a

(t) = A

I

+ A

II

,

so that

d

dt

_

Va(t)

dV

. .

total time rate of change

=

_

Va(t)

t

dV

. .

intrinsic change within volume

+

_

Aa(t)

w n dA

. .

net ux into volume

. (6.20)

This is the three-dimensional scalar version of Leibnizs rule. Say we have the special case

in which = 1; then Leibnizs rule (6.20) reduces to

d

dt

_

Va(t)

dV =

_

Va(t)

t

(1)

. .

=0

dV +

_

Aa(t)

(1)w n dA, (6.21)

d

dt

V

a

(t) =

_

Aa(t)

w n dA. (6.22)

This simply says the total volume of the region, which we call V

a

(t), changes in response to

net motion of the bounding surface.

CC BY-NC-ND. 04 May 2012, J. M. Powers.

148 CHAPTER 6. FIRST LAW ANALYSIS FOR A CONTROL VOLUME

Leibnizs rule (6.20) reduces to a more familiar result in the one-dimensional limit. We

can then say

d

dt

_

x=b(t)

x=a(t)

(x, t) dx =

_

x=b(t)

x=a(t)

t

dx +

db

dt

(b(t), t)

da

dt

(a(t), t). (6.23)

As in the fundamental theorem of calculus (6.1), for the one-dimensional case, we do not have

to evaluate a surface integral; instead, we simply must consider the function at its endpoints.

Here, db/dt and da/dt are the velocities of the bounding surface and are equivalent to w.

The terms (b(t), t) and (a(t), t) are equivalent to evaluating on A

a

(t).

We can also apply the divergence theorem (6.2) to Leibnizs rule (6.20) to convert the

area integral into a volume integral to get

d

dt

_

Va(t)

dV =

_

Va(t)

t

dV +

_

Va(t)

(w) dV. (6.24)

Combining the two volume integrals, we get

d

dt

_

Va(t)

dV =

_

Va(t)

_

t

+ (w)

_

dV. (6.25)

6.1.1.4 General transport theorem

Let B be an arbitrary extensive thermodynamic property, and be the corresponding in-

tensive thermodynamic property so that

dB = dm. (6.26)

The product of a dierential amount of mass dm with the intensive property give a

dierential amount of the extensive property. Since

dm = dV, (6.27)

where is the mass density and dV is a dierential amount of volume, we have

dB = dV. (6.28)

If we take the arbitrary = , Leibnizs rule, Eq. (6.20), becomes our general transport

theorem:

d

dt

_

Va(t)

dV =

_

Va(t)

t

() dV +

_

Aa(t)

(w n) dA. (6.29)

Applying the divergence theorem, Eq. (6.2), to the general transport theorem, Eq. (6.29),

we nd the alternate form

d

dt

_

Va(t)

dV =

_

Va(t)

_

t

() + (w)

_

dV. (6.30)

CC BY-NC-ND. 04 May 2012, J. M. Powers.

6.1. DETAILED DERIVATIONS OF CONTROL VOLUME EQUATIONS 149

6.1.1.5 Reynolds transport theorem

Osborne Reynolds

10

made many pioneering contributions to uid mechanics. He is depicted

in Fig. 6.5. Among other things, he wrote a treatise on the development of conservation

Figure 6.5: Osborne Reynolds (1842-1912), Anglo-Irish engineer; image from

http://www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/history/Biographies/Reynolds.html.

principles in a general sense.

11

From this work, and after employing more modern notation,

we arrive at what is now known as the Reynolds transport theorem if we force the arbitrary

velocity of the moving volume to take on the velocity of a uid particle, i.e. take

w = v. (6.31)

In this case, our arbitrary volume is no longer arbitrary. Instead, it always contains the same

uid particles. We call this volume a

material volume, V

m

(t): a volume which always contains the same uid particles.

The proper way to generalize laws of nature which were developed for point masses is to

consider collections of xed point masses, which will always reside within a material volume.

That said, it is simple to specialize the general transport theorem to obtain the Reynolds

transport theorem. Here, we give two versions, the rst using area integrals, and the second

using volume integrals only. In this special case, Eqs. (6.29) and (6.30) become, respectively,

d

dt

_

Vm(t)

dV =

_

Vm(t)

t

() dV +

_

Am(t)

(v n) dA, (6.32)

10

Osborne Reynolds, 1842-1912, Belfast-born British engineer and physicist, educated in mathematics at

Cambridge, rst professor of engineering at Owens College, Manchester, did fundamental experimental work

in uid mechanics and heat transfer.

11

O. Reynolds, 1903, Papers on Mechanical and Physical Subjects, Volume III, The Sub-Mechanics of the

Universe, Cambridge, Cambridge.

CC BY-NC-ND. 04 May 2012, J. M. Powers.

150 CHAPTER 6. FIRST LAW ANALYSIS FOR A CONTROL VOLUME

d

dt

_

Vm(t)

dV =

_

Vm(t)

_

t

() + (v)

_

dV. (6.33)

The implications of these mathematical statements are summarized in the words of Reynolds:

in Fig. 6.5.

Figure 6.6: Image from Reynolds 1903 study, p. 9, giving his key general axiom.

6.1.1.6 Fixed (control) volumes

If we take our arbitrary volume to be xed in space, it is most often known as a

control volume: a xed volume in space.

For control volumes

w = 0. (6.34)

Thus, the arbitrary volume loses its time dependency, so that

V

a

(t) = V, A

a

(t) = A, (6.35)

and the general transport theorem, Eq. (6.29), reduces to

d

dt

_

V

dV =

_

V

t

() dV. (6.36)

6.1.2 Conservation axioms

A fundamental goal of mechanics is to take the verbal notions which embody the basic

axioms into usable mathematical expressions. First, we must list those axioms. The axioms

themselves are simply principles which have been observed to have wide validity as long as

length scales are suciently large to contain many molecules. Many of these axioms can be

applied to molecules as well. The axioms cannot be proven. They are simply statements

which have been useful in describing the universe.

A summary of the axioms in words is as follows

CC BY-NC-ND. 04 May 2012, J. M. Powers.

6.1. DETAILED DERIVATIONS OF CONTROL VOLUME EQUATIONS 151

Mass conservation principle: The time rate of change of mass of a material region is

zero.

Linear momenta principle: The time rate of change of the linear momenta of a material

region is equal to the sum of forces acting on the region. This is Eulers generalization

of Newtons second law of motion.

Angular momenta principle: The time rate of change of the angular momenta of a

material region is equal to the sum of the torques acting on the region. This was rst

formulated by Euler.

Energy conservation principle: The time rate of change of energy within a material

region is equal to the rate that energy is received by heat and work interactions. This

is the rst law of thermodynamics.

Entropy inequality: The time rate of change of entropy within a material region is

greater than or equal to the ratio of the rate of heat transferred to the region and the

absolute temperature of the region. This is the second law of thermodynamics.

Here, we shall systematically convert two of these axioms, the mass conservation principle

and the energy conservation principle, into mathematical form.

6.1.2.1 Mass

Mass is an extensive property for which we have

B = m, = 1. (6.37)

The mass conservation axiom is simple to state mathematically. It is

d

dt

m = 0. (6.38)

A relevant material volume is sketched in Figure 6.7. We can dene the mass enclosed within

a material volume based upon the local value of density:

m =

_

Vm(t)

dV. (6.39)

So the mass conservation axiom is

d

dt

_

Vm(t)

dV = 0. (6.40)

Invoking the Reynolds transport theorem (6.32),

d

dt

_

Vm(t)

[ ]dV =

_

Vm(t)

t

[ ]dV +

_

Am(t)

v

n[ ]dA, we get

d

dt

_

Vm(t)

dV =

_

Vm(t)

t

dV +

_

Am(t)

v n dA = 0. (6.41)

CC BY-NC-ND. 04 May 2012, J. M. Powers.

152 CHAPTER 6. FIRST LAW ANALYSIS FOR A CONTROL VOLUME

dV

dA

w = v

n

Figure 6.7: Sketch of nite material region V

m

(t), innitesimal mass element dV , and

innitesimal surface element dA with unit normal n, and general velocity w equal to uid

velocity v.

The rst equality of Eq. (6.41) is simply a mathematical statement involving denitions;

forcing either of the terms to equal zero is a statement of physics. Now, we invoke the

divergence theorem, Eq. (6.2)

_

V (t)

[ ]dV =

_

A(t)

n [ ]dA, to convert a surface integral to

a volume integral to get the mass conservation axiom to read as

_

Vm(t)

t

dV +

_

Vm(t)

(v) dV = 0, (6.42)

_

Vm(t)

_

t

+ (v)

_

. .

=0

dV = 0. (6.43)

Now, in an important step, we realize that the only way for this integral, which has absolutely

arbitrary limits of integration, to always be zero, is for the integrand itself to always be zero.

Hence, we have

t

+ (v) = 0. (6.44)

This is the important dierential form of the mass conservation principle.

We can get a useful control volume formulation by integrating the mass conservation

principle (6.44) over a xed volume V :

_

V

_

t

+ (v)

_

dV =

_

V

0 dV. (6.45)

Now, the integral of 0 over a xed domain must be zero. This is equivalent to saying

_

b

a

0dx = 0, where the area under the curve of 0 has to be zero. So we have

_

V

_

t

+ (v)

_

dV = 0. (6.46)

CC BY-NC-ND. 04 May 2012, J. M. Powers.

6.1. DETAILED DERIVATIONS OF CONTROL VOLUME EQUATIONS 153

Next apply the divergence theorem (6.2) to (6.46) to get

_

V

t

dV +

_

A

v n dA = 0. (6.47)

Applying now the result from (6.36) to (6.47), we see for the xed volume that

d

dt

_

V

dV +

_

A

v n dA = 0. (6.48)

We note now that at an inlet to a control volume that v points in an opposite direction to

n, so we have

v n < 0, at inlets. (6.49)

At exits to a control volume v and n point in the same direction so that

v n > 0, at exits. (6.50)

If now, we take the simplifying assumption that and v have no spatial variation across

inlets and exits, we get for a control volume with one inlet and one exit that

d

dt

_

V

dV +

e

|v

e

|A

e

i

|v

i

|A

i

= 0. (6.51)

Here, the subscript i denotes inlet, and the subscript e denotes exit. Rearranging (6.51), we

nd

d

dt

_

V

dV =

i

|v

i

|A

i

e

|v

e

|A

e

. (6.52)

We now dene the mass in the control volume m

cv

as

m

cv

=

_

V

dV. (6.53)

Here, (6.53) is equivalent to the equation on the top of p. 182 of BS. If we make the further

simplifying assumption that does not vary within V , we nd that

dm

cv

dt

. .

rate of change of mass

=

i

|v

i

|A

i

. .

mass rate in

e

|v

e

|A

e

. .

mass rate out

. (6.54)

Here, m

cv

is the mass enclosed in the control volume. If there is no net rate of change of

mass the control volume is in steady state, and we can say that the mass ow in must equal

the mass ow out:

i

|v

i

|A

i

=

e

|v

e

|A

e

. (6.55)

We dene the mass ow rate m as

m = |v|A. (6.56)

CC BY-NC-ND. 04 May 2012, J. M. Powers.

154 CHAPTER 6. FIRST LAW ANALYSIS FOR A CONTROL VOLUME

For steady ows with a single entrance and exit, we have

m = constant. (6.57)

For unsteady ows with a single entrance and exit, we can rewrite (6.54) as

dm

cv

dt

= m

i

m

e

. (6.58)

For unsteady ow with many entrances and exits, we can generalize (6.54) as

dm

cv

dt

. .

rate of change of mass

=

i

|v

i

|A

i

. .

mass rate in

e

|v

e

|A

e

. .

mass rate out

, (6.59)

dm

cv

dt

. .

rate of change of mass

=

m

i

. .

mass rate in

m

e

. .

mass rate out

. (6.60)

Note that (6.60) is fully equivalent to BSs Eq. (6.1) (p. 181), but that it actually takes a

good deal of eort to get to this point with rigor! For steady state conditions with many

entrances and exits we can say

i

|v

i

|A

i

=

e

|v

e

|A

e

. (6.61)

Thus

m

i

=

m

e

. (6.62)

Here, (6.62) is the same as BSs (6.9), p. 186.

6.1.2.2 Energy

For energy, we must consider the total energy which includes internal, kinetic, and potential.

Our extensive property B is thus

B = E = U +

1

2

mv v + mgz. (6.63)

Here, we have assumed the uid resides in a gravitational potential eld in which the gravi-

tational potential energy varies linearly with height z. The corresponding intensive property

is

= e = u +

1

2

v v + gz. (6.64)

We recall the rst law of thermodynamics, which states the change of a material volumes

total energy is equal to the heat transferred to the material volume less the work done by

the material volume. Mathematically, this is stated as Eq. (5.8):

dE = QW. (6.65)

CC BY-NC-ND. 04 May 2012, J. M. Powers.

6.1. DETAILED DERIVATIONS OF CONTROL VOLUME EQUATIONS 155

We recall the total derivative is used for dE, since energy is a property and has an exact

dierential, while both heat transfer and work are not properties and do not have exact

dierentials. It is more convenient to express the rst law as a rate equation, which we get

by dividing (6.65) by dt to get

dE

dt

=

Q

dt

W

dt

. (6.66)

Recall that the upper case letters denote extensive thermodynamic properties. For example,

E is total energy, inclusive of internal and kinetic and potential

12

, with SI units of J. Let us

consider each term in the rst law of thermodynamics in detail and then write the equation

in nal form.

6.1.2.2.1 Total energy term For a uid particle, the dierential amount of total energy

is

dE = dV =

_

u +

1

2

v v + gz

_

. .

dV, (6.67)

= dV

..

mass

_

u +

1

2

v v + gz

_

. .

internal +kinetic +potential

. (6.68)

6.1.2.2.2 Work term Let us partition the work into work W

P

done by a pressure force

F

P

and work done by other sources, which we shall call W

mv

, where the subscript mv

indicates material volume.

W = W

P

+ W

mv

. (6.69)

Taking a time derivative, we get

W

dt

=

W

P

dt

+

W

mv

. (6.70)

The work done by other sources is often called shaft work and represents inputs of such

devices as compressors, pumps, and turbines. Its modeling is often not rigorous.

Recall that work is done when a force acts through a distance, and a work rate arises when

a force acts through a distance at a particular rate in time (hence, a velocity is involved).

Recall also that it is the dot product of the force vector with the position or velocity that

gives the true work or work rate. In shorthand, we can say that the dierential work done

by the pressure force F

P

is

W

P

= F

P

dx, (6.71)

W

P

dt

= F

P

dx

dt

= F

P

v. (6.72)

12

Strictly speaking our derivation will only be valid for potentials which are time-independent. This is the

case for ordinary gravitational potentials. The modications for time-dependent potentials are straightfor-

ward, but require a more nuanced interpretation than space permits here.

CC BY-NC-ND. 04 May 2012, J. M. Powers.

156 CHAPTER 6. FIRST LAW ANALYSIS FOR A CONTROL VOLUME

=

W

dt

P

.

F

P

v > 0 for expansion

v

n

v

v

F

P

= PA n

Figure 6.8: Sketch of uid doing work.

Here, W has the SI units of J, and F

P

has the SI units of N. Now, let us consider the work

done by the pressure force. In a piston-cylinder arrangement in which a uid exists with

pressure P within the cylinder and the piston is rising with velocity v, the work rate done

by the uid is positive. We can think of the local stress vector in the uid as pointing in

the same direction as the uid is moving at the piston surface, so that the dot product is

positive. Now, we can express the pressure force in terms of the pressure by

F

P

= PAn. (6.73)

Substituting (6.72) into (6.73), we get

W

P

dt

= PAn v. (6.74)

It is noted that we have been a little loose distinguishing local areas from global areas. Better

stated, we should say for a material volume that

W

P

dt

=

_

Am(t)

Pn v dA. (6.75)

This form allows for P and v to vary with location. This is summarized in the sketch of

Figure 6.8.

6.1.2.2.3 Heat transfer term If we were considering temperature elds with spatial

dependency, we would dene a heat ux vector. This approach is absolutely necessary to

describe many real-world devices, and is the focus of a standard undergraduate course in

CC BY-NC-ND. 04 May 2012, J. M. Powers.

6.1. DETAILED DERIVATIONS OF CONTROL VOLUME EQUATIONS 157

heat transfer. Here, we will take a simplied assumption that the only heat uxes are easily

specied and are all absorbed into a lumped scalar term we will call

Q

mv

. This term has

units of J/s = W in SI. So we have then

Q

dt

=

Q

mv

. (6.76)

6.1.2.2.4 The rst law of thermodynamics Putting the words of the rst law into

equation form, we get

d

dt

_

Vm(t)

_

u +

1

2

v v + gz

_

dV

. .

Emv

=

Q

dt

W

dt

. (6.77)

We next introduce our simplication of heat transfer (6.76) and partition of work (6.70)

along with (6.75) into (6.77) to get

d

dt

_

Vm(t)

_

u +

1

2

v v + gz

_

dV =

Q

mv

_

W

mv

+

_

Am(t)

Pn v dA

_

. (6.78)

Now, we bring the pressure work integral to the right side of (6.78) to get

d

dt

_

Vm(t)

_

u +

1

2

v v + gz

_

dV +

_

Am(t)

Pn v dA =

Q

mv

W

mv

. (6.79)

We next invoke the Reynolds transport theorem (6.32) into (6.79) to expand the derivative

of the rst integral so as to obtain

_

Vm(t)

t

_

_

u +

1

2

v v + gz

__

dV +

_

Am(t)

_

_

u +

1

2

v v + gz

__

v n dA

. .

dEmv/dt

+

_

Am(t)

Pn v dA =

Q

mv

W

mv

. (6.80)

We next note that the two area integrals have the same limits and can be combined to form

_

Vm(t)

t

_

_

u +

1

2

v v + gz

__

dV +

_

Am(t)

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

u +

P

. .

h

+

1

2

v v + gz

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

v n dA

=

Q

mv

W

mv

.(6.81)

We recall now the denition of enthalpy h, Eq. (5.52),

h = u +

P

= u + Pv. (6.82)

CC BY-NC-ND. 04 May 2012, J. M. Powers.

158 CHAPTER 6. FIRST LAW ANALYSIS FOR A CONTROL VOLUME

Invoking (6.82) into (6.81), we get

_

Vm(t)

t

_

_

u +

1

2

v v + gz

__

dV +

_

Am(t)

_

_

h +

1

2

v v + gz

__

v n dA

=

Q

mv

W

mv

. (6.83)

Next use the divergence theorem (6.2) to rewrite (6.83) as

_

Vm(t)

t

_

_

u +

1

2

v v + gz

__

dV +

_

Vm(t)

_

v

_

h +

1

2

v v + gz

__

dV

=

Q

mv

W

mv

. (6.84)

Now, for convenience, let us dene the specic control volume heat transfer and work q

mv

and w

mv

, each with SI units J/kg such that

Q

mv

=

_

Vm(t)

t

(q

mv

) dV, (6.85)

W

mv

=

_

Vm(t)

t

(w

mv

) dV, (6.86)

so that by substituting (6.85) and (6.86) into (6.84), we get

_

Vm(t)

t

_

_

u +

1

2

v v + gz

__

dV +

_

Vm(t)

_

v

_

h +

1

2

v v + gz

__

dV

=

_

Vm(t)

t

(q

mv

) dV

_

Vm(t)

t

(w

mv

) dV. (6.87)

Now, all terms in (6.87) have the same limits of integration, so they can be grouped to form

_

Vm(t)

_

t

_

_

u +

1

2

v v + gz

__

+

_

v

_

h +

1

2

v v + gz

__

t

(q

mv

) +

t

(w

mv

)

_

dV = 0. (6.88)

As with the mass equation, since the integral is zero, in general we must expect the integrand

to be zero, giving us

t

_

_

u +

1

2

v v + gz

__

+

_

v

_

h +

1

2

v v + gz

__

t

(q

mv

) +

t

(w

mv

) = 0.

(6.89)

To get the standard control volume form of the equation, we then integrate (6.89) over

a xed control volume V to get

_

V

_

t

_

_

u +

1

2

v v + gz

__

+

_

v

_

h +

1

2

v v + gz

__

t

(q

mv

) +

t

(w

mv

)

_

dV = 0. (6.90)

CC BY-NC-ND. 04 May 2012, J. M. Powers.

6.1. DETAILED DERIVATIONS OF CONTROL VOLUME EQUATIONS 159

Now, dening the control volume heat transfer rate and work rate,

Q

cv

and

W

cv

,

Q

cv

=

_

V

t

(q

mv

) dV, (6.91)

W

cv

=

_

V

t

(w

mv

) dV, (6.92)

we employ (6.91) and (6.92) in (6.90) to get

_

V

_

t

_

_

u +

1

2

v v + gz

__

+

_

v

_

h +

1

2

v v + gz

___

dV =

Q

cv

W

cv

.(6.93)

Applying the divergence theorem (6.2) to (6.93) to convert a portion of the volume integral

into an area integral, and (6.36) to bring the time derivative outside the integral for the xed

volume, we get

d

dt

_

V

_

u +

1

2

v v + gz

_

dV

. .

Ecv

+

_

A

v n

_

h +

1

2

v v + gz

_

dA =

Q

cv

W

cv

. (6.94)

We now dene the total energy in the control volume as

E

cv

=

_

V

_

u +

1

2

v v + gz

_

dV. (6.95)

Next assume that all properties across entrances and exits are uniform so that the area

integral in (6.93) reduces to

_

A

v n

_

h +

1

2

v v + gz

_

dA =

m

e

_

h

e

+

1

2

v

e

v

e

+ gz

e

_

m

i

_

h

i

+

1

2

v

i

v

i

+ gz

i

_

. (6.96)

Substituting (6.95) and (6.96) into (6.94), we get

dE

cv

dt

+

m

e

_

h

e

+

1

2

v

e

v

e

+ gz

e

_

m

i

_

h

i

+

1

2

v

i

v

i

+ gz

i

_

=

Q

cv

W

cv

. (6.97)

Rearranging (6.97), we get

dE

cv

dt

. .

rate of CV energy change

=

Q

cv

..

CV heat transfer rate

W

cv

..

CV shaft work rate

+

m

i

_

h

i

+

1

2

v

i

v

i

+ gz

i

_

. .

total enthalpy rate in

m

e

_

h

e

+

1

2

v

e

v

e

+ gz

e

_

. .

total enthalpy rate out

. (6.98)

CC BY-NC-ND. 04 May 2012, J. M. Powers.

160 CHAPTER 6. FIRST LAW ANALYSIS FOR A CONTROL VOLUME

Here, (6.98) is equivalent to BSs Eq. (6.7), p. 185. Note that the so-called total enthalpy is

often dened as

h

tot

= h +

1

2

v v + gz. (6.99)

Employing (6.99) in (6.98), we nd

dE

cv

dt

=

Q

cv

W

cv

+

m

i

h

tot,i

m

e

h

tot,e

. (6.100)

Here, (6.100) is equivalent to BSs (6.8), p. 185.

If there is a single entrance and exit, we lose the summation, so that (6.98) becomes

dE

cv

dt

=

Q

cv

W

cv

+ m

i

_

h

i

+

1

2

v

i

v

i

+ gz

i

_

m

e

_

h

e

+

1

2

v

e

v

e

+ gz

e

_

. (6.101)

If the ow is steady, we have dE

cv

/dt = 0 and m

i

= m

e

= m, so the rst law with a single

entrance and exit becomes

0 =

Q

cv

W

cv

+ m

_

h

i

h

e

+

1

2

(v

i

v

i

v

e

v

e

) + g(z

i

z

e

)

_

. (6.102)

Dening the specic control volume heat transfer and work as

q =

Q

cv

m

, w =

W

cv

m

, (6.103)

and substituting (6.103) into (6.102), we get

0 = q w + h

i

h

e

+

1

2

(v

i

v

i

v

e

v

e

) + g(z

i

z

e

), (6.104)

Now, (6.104) can be rearranged to form BSs (6.13), p. 187:

q + h

i

+

1

2

v

i

v

i

+ gz

i

= w + h

e

+

1

2

v

e

v

e

+ gz

e

. (6.105)

This looks more like the rst law when we rearrange as

_

h

e

+

1

2

v

e

v

e

+ gz

e

_

_

h

i

+

1

2

v

i

v

i

+ gz

i

_

= q w. (6.106)

If the ow is adiabatic, steady, has one entrance and one exit, and there is no shaft work,

we nd that the total enthalpy must remain constant:

h

i

+

1

2

v

i

v

i

+ gz

i

= h

e

+

1

2

v

e

v

e

+ gz

e

(6.107)

CC BY-NC-ND. 04 May 2012, J. M. Powers.

6.2. MASS CONSERVATION IN BRIEF 161

6.2 Mass conservation in brief

Here, we summarize the key equations for mass conservation derived in the previous section.

We consider the mass enclosed in a xed control volume V , Eq. (6.53):

m

cv

=

_

V

dV. (6.108)

The density can vary throughout V . In this class, we will nearly always take it to be

constant throughout the volume. If is constant throughout V , then it can be brought

outside the integral operator, yielding m

cv

=

_

V

dV = V. Our control volume will have a

nite number of openings where uid can enter and exit.

We state mass conservation for a control volume as

dm

cv

dt

. .

rate of change of mass

=

i

|v

i

|A

i

. .

mass rate in

e

|v

e

|A

e

. .

mass rate out

, (6.109)

dm

cv

dt

. .

rate of change of mass

=

m

i

. .

mass rate in

m

e

. .

mass rate out

. (6.110)

Equations (6.109, 6.110) were fully developed in the previous section where they appeared

as Eqs. (6.59, 6.60). Here, the uid at an inlet i has density

i

, velocity vector v

i

and ows

through cross-sectional area A

i

. An analogous set of variables exists at each exit e. Let us

look at the units of the important quantity |v|A:

|v|A

kg

m

3

m

s

m

2

1

=

kg

s

. (6.111)

Obviously, it is a rate of mass ow; consequently, we dene the mass ow rate as

m |v|A. (6.112)

Often we will neglect the vector notation and take |v| = v. Equation (6.110) expresses

mathematically the notion of mass conservation for the control volume:

The time rate of accumulation of mass within the control volume is equal to the net

rate of mass ow into the control volume.

In short

accumulation = in - out

In the important case in which there is no net accumulation rate, the so-called steady

state limit, we get

dm

cv

dt

. .

=0

=

m

i

m

e

. (6.113)

CC BY-NC-ND. 04 May 2012, J. M. Powers.

162 CHAPTER 6. FIRST LAW ANALYSIS FOR A CONTROL VOLUME

m

i

=

m

e

. (6.114)

Eq. (6.114) is the same as Eq. (6.62). If there is a single entrance and exit, then we simply

get

m

i

= m

e

= m = constant. (6.115)

Example 6.1

Consider a control volume with three openings. A sketch is given in Fig. 6.9. The system is in a

1

2

3

T

1

= 200C

P

1

= 7 bar

m

1

= 40 kg/s

x

3

= 0

P

3

= 7 bar

(Av)

3

= 0.06 m

3

/s

A

2

= 0.25 cm

2

T

2

= 40 C

P

2

= 7 bar

.

Figure 6.9: Sketch for steady state control volume mass conservation example.

steady state, and water is the working uid. Measurements at the openings shows conditions at each

to be

1. inlet with T

1

= 200

C, P

1

= 7 bar, m

1

= 40 kg/s

2. inlet with A

2

= 25 cm

2

, T

2

= 40

C, P

2

= 7 bar.

3. exit with x

3

= 0, P

3

= 7 bar, (Av)

3

= 0.06 m

3

/s.

Find m

3

, m

2

and v

2

.

Our mass conservation equation is

dm

cv

dt

=

m

i

m

e

, (6.116)

= m

1

+ m

2

m

3

. (6.117)

CC BY-NC-ND. 04 May 2012, J. M. Powers.

6.2. MASS CONSERVATION IN BRIEF 163

Now, because the problem is steady, d/dt = 0. Thus, there is no net accumulation of mass in the

control volume, and we must have

0 = m

1

+ m

2

m

3

, (6.118)

m

2

= m

3

m

1

. (6.119)

Now, m = vA = Av/v. So

m

3

=

(Av)

3

v

3

. (6.120)

Now, we have two properties at state 3, so we know the state. The water tables thus give us

v

3

= v

f

= 0.001108

m

3

kg

. (6.121)

so

m

3

=

0.06

m

3

s

0.001108

m

3

kg

= 54.1516

kg

s

. (6.122)

So

m

2

= m

3

m

1

=

_

54.1516

kg

s

_

_

40

kg

s

_

= 14.1516

kg

s

. (6.123)

Now,

m

2

=

A

2

v

2

v

2

, (6.124)

v

2

=

m

2

v

2

A

2

. (6.125)

Now, state 2 is a compressed liquid. Let us estimate v

2

by v

f

at T

2

= 40

C. We nd this is

v

2

= 0.001008 m

3

/kg. So

v

2

=

_

14.1516

kg

s

__

0.001008

m

3

kg

_

(25 cm

2

)

_

1 m

100 cm

_

2

, (6.126)

= 5.70594

m

s

. (6.127)

Example 6.2

A tank is initially empty. A liquid with = 62.4 lbm/ft

3

is poured into the tank at a constant

mass ow rate of m

i

= 7 lbm/s. The tank has cross-sectional area A = 0.2 ft

2

, and the uid in the

tank has a variable height H(t). There is a hole at the bottom of the tank. The uid ows out of the

tank at a rate proportional to the uid height: m

e

= kH, where k = 1.4 lbm/ft/s. Find H(t). A

sketch is given in Fig. 6.10.

Our mass conservation law for the control volume says

dm

cv

dt

= m

i

m

e

. (6.128)

CC BY-NC-ND. 04 May 2012, J. M. Powers.

164 CHAPTER 6. FIRST LAW ANALYSIS FOR A CONTROL VOLUME

m

e

.

m

i

.

H

Figure 6.10: Sketch of tank lling problem.

Now, m

cv

= V = AH(t). Substituting, we get

d

dt

(AH) = m

i

kH, (6.129)

A

dH

dt

= m

i

kH, (6.130)

dH

dt

=

m

i

A

k

A

H, (6.131)

dH

dt

=

m

i

A

_

1

k

m

i

H

_

. (6.132)

The only variable here is H(t). Every other parameter is a known constant. We can separate variables

to get

dH

1

k

mi

H

=

m

i

A

dt, (6.133)

_

dH

1

k

mi

H

=

_

m

i

A

dt, (6.134)

m

i

k

ln

_

1

k

m

i

H

_

=

m

i

A

t + C. (6.135)

Now, when t = 0, we have H = 0, so C = 0 and

m

i

k

ln

_

1

k

m

i

H

_

=

m

i

A

t, (6.136)

ln

_

1

k

m

i

H

_

=

k

A

t, (6.137)

1

k

m

i

H = exp

_

k

A

t

_

, (6.138)

H =

m

i

k

_

1 exp

_

k

A

t

__

. (6.139)

Note

lim

t

H(t) =

m

i

k

. (6.140)

CC BY-NC-ND. 04 May 2012, J. M. Powers.

6.3. ENERGY CONSERVATION IN BRIEF 165

10 20 30 40 50

t (s)

1

2

3

4

5

H (ft)

Figure 6.11: Plot of H(t) for transient tank lling problem.

In the long time limit, a steady state height is reached where the ow out balances the ow in. If we

increase m

i

, the steady state height increases proportionally.

We also see by inspection that the time constant is

=

A

k

. (6.141)

This gives an estimate of how long it takes to reach the steady state height.

Substituting numbers, we nd

H(t) =

_

7

lbm

s

1.4

lbm

ft s

_

_

_

1 exp

_

_

1.4

lbm

ft s

_

62.4

lbm

ft

3

_

(0.2 ft

2

)

t

_

_

_

_

, (6.142)

H(t) = (5 ft)(1 exp

_

t

8.91429 s

_

. (6.143)

The time constant is = 8.91429 s; H() is 5 ft. A plot of H(t) is shown in Figure 6.11. Note that

the physics of this problem would be better modeled by m

e

= k

_

H(t), as we shall see later in the

course. However, near the equilibrium state, our linear analysis can be shown to be appropriate. A

better capture of the initial transients would require the indicated modications, and would necessitate

a numerical solution, rather than the closed form analytic solution given here.

6.3 Energy conservation in brief

We can state the rst law of thermodynamics for a control volume as

dE

cv

dt

. .

rate of CV energy change

=

Q

cv

..

CV heat transfer rate

W

cv

..

CV shaft work rate

+

m

i

_

h

i

+

1

2

v

2

i

+ gz

i

_

. .

total enthalpy rate in

m

e

_

h

e

+

1

2

v

2

e

+ gz

e

_

. .

total enthalpy rate out

. (6.144)

CC BY-NC-ND. 04 May 2012, J. M. Powers.

166 CHAPTER 6. FIRST LAW ANALYSIS FOR A CONTROL VOLUME

Here, Eq. (6.144) is equivalent Eq. (6.98) and to BSs Eq. (6.7), p. 185. Note that the

so-called total enthalpy is often dened as

h

tot

= h +

1

2

v

2

+ gz = u +

1

2

v

2

+ gz + Pv. (6.145)

Note that in this context, total enthalpy is on a per mass basis. The total comes from

summing internal, kinetic, potential, and Pv terms. Employing (6.145) in (6.144), we nd

dE

cv

dt

=

Q

cv

W

cv

+

m

i

h

tot,i

m

e

h

tot,e

. (6.146)

Here, Eq. (6.146) is equivalent to Eq. (6.100) and to BSs (6.8), p. 185. Eq. (6.146) expresses

mathematically the notion of energy conservation for the control volume:

The time rate of accumulation of total energy within the control volume is equal the

rate of heat transfer into the control volume minus the rate of work done leaving the

control volume plus the net rate of total enthalpy entering the control volume.

The new terms here are attributable to total enthalpy entering and exiting the control

volume.

Again, the total enthalpy is the sum of the specic internal energy, the specic kinetic

energy, the specic potential energy and the term Pv. It is easy to imagine that E

cv

, which

itself is composed of u, KE, and PE, is aected by the ow of u, KE, and PE into and out

of the control volume. However the term Pv is unusual. It is multiplied by m. Let us check

the units:

mPv

_

kg

s

__

kN

m

2

__

m

3

kg

_

=

kJ

s

= kW. (6.147)

It has the units of power. As shown in detail in the previous section,

The term mPv embedded within the control volume energy equation within h

tot

accounts

for the net work rate done by the uid as it enters and exits the control surface bounding

the control volume.

The term

W

cv

represents so-called shaft work and does not include work associated with

the expansion of the working uid.

If there is a single entrance and exit, we lose the summation, so that (6.144) becomes

dE

cv

dt

=

Q

cv

W

cv

+ m

i

_

h

i

+

1

2

v

2

i

+ gz

i

_

m

e

_

h

e

+

1

2

v

2

e

+ gz

e

_

. (6.148)

If the ow is steady, we have dE

cv

/dt = 0 and m

i

= m

e

= m, so the rst law with a single

entrance and exit becomes

0 =

Q

cv

W

cv

+ m

_

h

i

h

e

+

1

2

(v

2

i

v

2

e

) + g(z

i

z

e

)

_

. (6.149)

CC BY-NC-ND. 04 May 2012, J. M. Powers.

6.4. SOME DEVICES 167

Dening the specic control volume heat transfer and work as

q =

Q

cv

m

, w =

W

cv

m

, (6.150)

and substituting (6.150) into (6.149), we get

0 = q w + h

i

h

e

+

1

2

(v

2

i

v

2

e

) + g(z

i

z

e

). (6.151)

Now, (6.151) can be rearranged to form BSs (6.13), p. 187:

q + h

i

+

1

2

v

2

i

+ gz

i

= w + h

e

+

1

2

v

2

e

+ gz

e

. (6.152)

This looks more like the rst law when we rearrange as

_

h

e

+

1

2

v

2

e

+ gz

e

_

. .

outlet

=

_

h

i

+

1

2

v

2

i

+ gz

i

_

. .

inlet

+ q w

. .

CV heat and work

. (6.153)

If the ow is adiabatic, steady, has one entrance and one exit, and there is no shaft work,

we nd that the total enthalpy must remain constant:

h

i

+

1

2

v

2

i

+ gz

i

= h

e

+

1

2

v

2

e

+ gz

e

. (6.154)

6.4 Some devices

Here, we will consider rudiments of control volume analysis for some common engineering

devices.

6.4.1 Throttling device

A ow is throttled when, for example, it ows through a partially open valve. When it does

so, we notice that there can be a signicant pressure loss from one side of the partially open

valve to the other. A sketch of a throttling device is given in Fig. 6.12.

We model a throttling device as steady with one entrance and exit, with no control

volume work or heat transfer. We neglect changes in area as well as potential energy. Mass

conservation tells us

dm

cv

dt

. .

=0

= m

1

m

2

, (6.155)

0 = m

1

m

2

, (6.156)

m

1

= m

2

= m. (6.157)

CC BY-NC-ND. 04 May 2012, J. M. Powers.

168 CHAPTER 6. FIRST LAW ANALYSIS FOR A CONTROL VOLUME

1

2

Figure 6.12: Sketch of throttling device.

Energy conservation tells us that

dE

cv

dt

. .

=0

=

Q

cv

..

=0

W

cv

..

=0

+ m

1

_

h

1

+

v

2

1

2

+ gz

1

_

m

2

_

h

2

+

v

2

2

2

+ gz

2

_

, (6.158)

0 = m

_

_

_

h

1

h

2

+

v

2

1

2

v

2

2

2

. .

0

+gz

1

gz

2

. .

=0

_

_

_

, (6.159)

(6.160)

Now, in throttling devices there may be a change in velocity due to compressibility eects,

but it is usually observed to be small. So we shall neglect it and recover

h

1

= h

2

. (6.161)

So, we can say a throttling device is one in which pressure drops and enthalpy remains

constant.

Example 6.3

Let us throttle steam from P

1

= 3 bar, T

1

= 200

C to P

2

= 1 bar. Find T

2

.

We know two properties at state 1; therefore, its state is determined. At state 2, we know the

pressure and something about the path of the process which brought us to state 2. The process was

iso-enthalpic, so h

2

= h

1

. From the tables, we nd

h

1

= 2865.5

kJ

kg

= h

2

. (6.162)

So at state 2, we have P

2

= 1 bar, h

2

= 2865.5 kJ/kg. We interpolate the steam tables to nd

T

2

= 195.04

C. (6.163)

Note for steam, the enthalpy remained constant, but the temperature dropped. If the material had

been an ideal gas, the temperature drop would have been zero, since for ideal gases, the enthalpy is

related only to temperature.

CC BY-NC-ND. 04 May 2012, J. M. Powers.

6.4. SOME DEVICES 169

6.4.2 Nozzles and diusers

Similar to a throttling device, we model nozzles and diusers as steady with one entrance

and exit, with no control volume work. We may or may not neglect heat transfer. We neglect

potential energy changes but take kinetic energy changes into account.

A nozzle is a device which induces a velocity increase; a diuser is a device which induces

a velocity decrease. For ows with subsonic velocities, nozzles have area decrease in the

ow direction, while diusers have area increases with the ow direction. We sketch these

common congurations in Fig. 6.13. If one systematically applied the conservation of mass,

subsonic

nozzle

subsonic

diuser

1

2

1

2

Figure 6.13: Sketch of subsonic nozzle and diuser.

momentum, and energy principles, after detailed analysis, one nds the converse state of

aairs for supersonic ow conditions. Supersonic nozzles have increasing area; supersonic

diusers have decreasing area. This is why in the design of rocket nozzles, the cross-sectional

area broadens at the base. The broadening area induces a higher velocity, and induces a

higher thrust for a supersonic rocket engine.

We analyze nozzles and diusers as follows. Mass conservation tells us

dm

cv

dt

. .

=0

= m

1

m

2

, (6.164)

m

1

= m

2

= m. (6.165)

CC BY-NC-ND. 04 May 2012, J. M. Powers.

170 CHAPTER 6. FIRST LAW ANALYSIS FOR A CONTROL VOLUME

Energy conservation tells us

dE

cv

dt

. .

=0

=

Q

cv

W

cv

..

=0

+ m

1

_

h

1

+

v

2

1

2

+ gz

1

_

m

2

_

h

2

+

v

2

2

2

+ gz

2

_

, (6.166)

0 =

Q

cv

+ m

_

_

h

1

h

2

+

v

2

1

2

v

2

2

2

+ gz

1

gz

2

. .

=0

_

_

, (6.167)

0 =

Q

cv

m

+ h

1

h

2

+

v

2

1

2

v

2

2

2

. (6.168)

If the nozzle or diuser is also adiabatic, we get

h

1

+

v

2

1

2

= h

2

+

v

2

2

2

. (6.169)

6.4.3 Turbine

A turbine is a device in which work is generated through expansion of a uid as it passes

through a fan-like device. The uid interacts with the blades and turns the fan. Ultimately

thermal and mechanical energy is transferred from the uid into the rotational kinetic energy

of the fan blades. A sketch of a turbine is given in Fig. 6.14. For a turbine, we typically

P

high

P

low

v

i

v

e

Figure 6.14: Highly simplied sketch of turbine.

neglect kinetic and potential energy changes of the uid. We may or may not neglect heat

CC BY-NC-ND. 04 May 2012, J. M. Powers.

6.4. SOME DEVICES 171

transfer. We also neglect any unsteady eects. Mass conservation tells us

dm

cv

dt

. .

=0

= m

1

m

2

, (6.170)

m

1

= m

2

= m. (6.171)

Energy conservation tells us

dE

cv

dt

. .

=0

=

Q

cv

W

cv

+ m

1

_

h

1

+

v

2

1

2

+ gz

1

_

m

2

_

h

2

+

v

2

2

2

+ gz

2

_

, (6.172)

0 =

Q

cv

W

cv

+ m

_

_

_

h

1

h

2

+

v

2

1

2

v

2

2

2

. .

=0

+gz

1

gz

2

. .

=0

_

_

_

, (6.173)

0 =

Q

cv

W

cv

+ m(h

1

h

2

), (6.174)

W

cv

=

Q

cv

+ m(h

1

h

2

). (6.175)

We often neglect

Q

cv

to get

W

cv

= m(h

1

h

2

). (6.176)

On a per mass basis, we can scale by m to get

w = h

1

h

2

. (6.177)

For turbines, h

1

> h

2

, so we get w > 0. The device is doing work.

6.4.4 Pumps and compressors

The analysis for a pump or compressor is eectively identical to that for a turbine. However

the device operates in an opposite sense. Mechanical energy from either rotating (like a

compressor in a jet engine) or reciprocating machinery (like a piston-cylinder arrangement)

is transferred to the working uid, raising its energetic state. We typically neglect changes

in kinetic and potential energy of the uid and consider the device to be in a steady state.

We sometimes neglect heat transfer to the device.

The analysis is as follows. Mass conservation tells us

dm

cv

dt

. .

=0

= m

1

m

2

, (6.178)

m

1

= m

2

= m. (6.179)

CC BY-NC-ND. 04 May 2012, J. M. Powers.

172 CHAPTER 6. FIRST LAW ANALYSIS FOR A CONTROL VOLUME

Energy conservation tells us

dE

cv

dt

. .

=0

=

Q

cv

W

cv

+ m

1

_

h

1

+

v

2

1

2

+ gz

1

_

m

2

_

h

2

+

v

2

2

2

+ gz

2

_

, (6.180)

0 =

Q

cv

W

cv

+ m

_

_

_

h

1

h

2

+

v

2

1

2

v

2

2

2

. .

=0

+gz

1

gz

2

. .

=0

_

_

_

, (6.181)

0 =

Q

cv

W

cv

+ m(h

1

h

2

), (6.182)

W

cv

=

Q

cv

+ m(h

1

h

2

). (6.183)

We often neglect

Q

cv

to get

W

cv

= m(h

1

h

2

). (6.184)

On a per mass basis, we can scale by m to get

w = h

1

h

2

. (6.185)

For pumps and compressors, h

1

< h

2

, so we get w < 0. The device requires an input of

work.

6.4.5 Heat exchanger

A heat exchanger is a device in which a working uid trades its thermal energy with another

working uid. A sketch of a heat exchanger is given in Fig. 6.15. For heat exchangers, we

T

1,hot

T

1,cold

T

2,hot

T

2,cold

Figure 6.15: Sketch of counterow heat exchanger.

typically neglect all work, as well as changes in kinetic and potential energy. Also

there will be exchange of thermal energy between individual ow streams, but

globally for the entire device, there will be no heat transfer with the environment.

CC BY-NC-ND. 04 May 2012, J. M. Powers.

6.4. SOME DEVICES 173

Let us consider a counterow heat exchanger. The mass balance for steady ow is trivial.

The energy balance, neglecting changes in KE and PE states

dE

cv

dt

. .

=0

=

Q

cv

..

=0

W

cv

..

=0

+

i

m

i

h

i

e

m

e

h

e

. (6.186)

Applying this to the counterow heat exchanger gives

m

1

h

1,hot

+ m

2

h

2,cold

= m

1

h

1,cold

+ m

2

h

2,hot

, (6.187)

m

1

(h

1,hot

h

1,cold

) = m

2

(h

2,hot

h

2,cold

) . (6.188)

Example 6.4

Given an adiabatic air turbine with m = 1.5 kg/s with the following inlet and exit conditions

P

i

= 1000 kPa,

T

i

= 1200 K,

P

e

= 100 kPa,

T

e

= 700 K,

calculate the work output of the turbine assuming i) CPIG, ii) CIIG, and neglecting changes in kinetic

and potential energy. We have a simple sketch in Fig. 6.16.

turbine

i

e

Figure 6.16: Sketch of turbine problem.

The rst law for both CPIG and CIIG is the same. It is, after neglecting changes of kinetic and

potential energy,

dE

cv

dt

. .

=0

=

Q

cv

..

=0

W

cv

+ mh

i

mh

e

. (6.189)

Because this problem is adiabatic and steady, we get

W

cv

= m(h

i

h

e

). (6.190)

Our estimate of the work output will depend on which caloric state equation we choose.

CC BY-NC-ND. 04 May 2012, J. M. Powers.

174 CHAPTER 6. FIRST LAW ANALYSIS FOR A CONTROL VOLUME

CPIG. For a CPIG, we have

h

i

h

e

= c

P

(T

i

T

e

). (6.191)

For ideal gases we have, c

P

c

v

= R and k = c

P

/c

v

. For diatomic gases at moderate temperatures,

we have k = 7/5. Solving gives

c

P

=

k

k 1

R =

7

5

7

5

1

R =

7

2

R, c

v

=

1

k 1

R =

1

7

5

1

R =

5

2

R. (6.192)

So

c

P

=

7

5

7

5

1

_

0.287

kJ

kg K

_

= 1.0045

kJ

kg K

, (6.193)

c

v

=

1

7

5

1

_

0.287

kJ

kg K

_

= 0.7175

kJ

kg K

. (6.194)

Note these are the same values listed in Table A.5 of BS.

So for the turbine work output, we get

W

cv

= mc

P

(T

i

T

e

) =

_

1.5

kg

s

__

1.0045

kJ

kg K

_

((1200 K) (700 K)) = 753.375 kW. (6.195)

CIIG. For the CIIG, we have a few choices. We could use Table A.6 of BS to estimate c

P

at an

intermediate temperature, and then treat it as a constant. We could form the integral

_

e

i

c

P

(T)dT.

Or we could use the ideal gas tables, Table A.7.1 of BS. Let us do the third method. At T

i

= 1200 K,

we nd

h

i

= 1277.81

kJ

kg

. (6.196)

At T

e

= 700 K, we nd

h

e

= 713.56

kJ

kg

. (6.197)

So

W

cv

= m(h

i

h

e

) =

_

1.5

kg

s

___

1277.81

kJ

kg

_

_

713.56

kJ

kg

__

= 846.375 kW. (6.198)

The two methods yield similar results. Use of the more accurate CIIG reveals there is more useful work

that can be expected when we take actual material behavior into account. This is because the high

temperature gas has some extra energy stored in its vibrational modes which was unaccounted for by

the CPIG model. Recall our CPIG model did account for rotational modes in taking c

v

= 5/2R. But

as can be seen from examining Fig. 5.12, for diatomic molecules in air, such as O

2

, c

v

/R > 5/2 for our

temperatures of T [700 K, 1200 K]. Presumably, molecular vibration is relevant at these elevated

temperatures. The CIIG model properly accounts for this.

Example 6.5

Given a steam turbine with m = 1.5 kg/s,

Q

cv

= 8.5 kW with the following inlet and exit

conditions

CC BY-NC-ND. 04 May 2012, J. M. Powers.

6.4. SOME DEVICES 175

P

i

= 2 MPa,

T

i

= 350

C,

v

i

= 50

m

s

,

z

i

= 6 m,

P

e

= 0.1 MPa,

x

e

= 1,

v

e

= 200

m

s

,

z

i

= 3 m,

nd the power output. The same simple sketch of Fig. 6.16 applies.

The rst law states

dE

cv

dt

. .

=0

=

Q

cv

W

cv

+ m

_

h

i

+

v

2

i

2

+ gz

i

_

m

_

h

e

+

v

2

e

2

+ gz

e

_

, (6.199)

W

cv

=

Q

cv

+ m

_

h

i

h

e

+

1

2

(v

2

i

v

2

e

) + g(z

i

z

e

)

_

. (6.200)

From the steam tables, we learn

h

i

= 3137

kJ

kg

, h

e

= 2675.5

kJ

kg

. (6.201)

So

W

cv

= (8.5 kW) +

_

1.5

kg

s

___

3137

kJ

kg

_

_

2675.5

kJ

kg

_

+

1

2

_

kJ

1000 J

__

_

50

m

s

_

2

_

200

m

s

_

2

_

+

9.81

m

s

2

1000

J

kJ

((6 m) (3 m))

_

, (6.202)

= (8.5 kW) +

_

1.5

kg

s

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

461.6

kJ

kg

_

. .

=h

_

18.75

kJ

kg

_

. .

=KE

+

_

0.0294

kJ

kg

_

. .

=PE

_

_

_

_

_

, (6.203)

= 655.7 kW. (6.204)

Note

The dominant term is the h term. Kinetic and potential energy changes, as well as heat transfer

eects are small in comparison. This is typical for turbines.

The factor of 1000 is necessary to give the units of specic kinetic and potential energy changes kJ/kg.

Let us quickly check the units for kinetic energy, here without the factor of 1000:

J

kg

=

N m

kg

=

kg m

2

s

2

kg

=

m

2

s

2

. (6.205)

CC BY-NC-ND. 04 May 2012, J. M. Powers.

176 CHAPTER 6. FIRST LAW ANALYSIS FOR A CONTROL VOLUME

6.5 Introduction to the Rankine cycle

Consider the

Rankine cycle: a thermodynamic cycle which forms the foundation for most steam

power plants.

The cycle was studied analytically by Rankine

13

, depicted in Fig. 6.17.

Figure 6.17: William John Macquorn Rankine (1820-1872), Scottish engineer who sys-

tematically studied and published discussion of steam power cycles. Image from

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William John Macquorn Rankine.

The key features of the Rankine cycle are

1 2: compression of a liquid by a pump,

2 3: boiling of the liquid to form a vapor,

3 4: expansion of the vapor through a turbine, and

4 1: condensation of the vapor to liquid in a condenser.

A sketch of the Rankine cycle in the P v plane is given in Fig. 6.18. The Rankine

cycle forms the cornerstone of a wide variety of power generating devices in the world today.

Whether the heat source comes from burning coal, natural gas, fuel oil, garbage, nuclear

ssion, solar energy, or some other source, it can always be used to boil water, which is

13

W. J. M. Rankine, 1859, A Manual of the Steam Engine and Other Prime Movers, Grin, London.

CC BY-NC-ND. 04 May 2012, J. M. Powers.

6.5. INTRODUCTION TO THE RANKINE CYCLE 177

1

2 3

4

pump

boiler

turbine

condenser

P

v

Figure 6.18: Sketch of Rankine cycle in the P v plane.

the key feature of the Rankine cycle. Most modern power plants are considerably more

complicated than the simple outline given here. Some are equipped to use a variety of

fuels. Often coal burning components are used continuously and are supplemented during

peak consumption hours by natural gas. Some cycles are equipped for district heating and

cooling, some for electric power generation, some for nautical propulsion.

Example 6.6

Consider the Rankine cycle sketched in Fig. 6.19 for generation of power. The conditions of the

boiler

turbine

condenser

pump

2

q

3

1

w

2

= - 4 kJ/kg

4

q

1

3 3a

4

1

2

P

3

= 2 MPa

T

3

= 300 C

P

3a

= 1.9 MPa

T

3a

= 290 C

3a

w

4

P

4

= 15 kPa

x

4

= 0.9

P

1

= 14 kPa

T

1

= 45 C

Figure 6.19: Sketch of steam power cycle, known as the Rankine cycle.

steam are indicated in Fig. 6.19. The cycle includes some of the eect of losses; thus, it is not an ideal

Rankine cycle. But it is close. Find, on a per unit mass basis,

CC BY-NC-ND. 04 May 2012, J. M. Powers.

178 CHAPTER 6. FIRST LAW ANALYSIS FOR A CONTROL VOLUME

the heat transfer in the line between the boiler and the turbine,

the turbine work,

the heat transfer in the condenser, and

the heat transfer in the boiler.

For illustration, Fig. 6.20 shows photographs of some elements of the University of Notre Dame

Power Plant congured in a way which reects the rudimentary Rankine cycle. The actual plant is

boiler

turbine

condenser pump

Figure 6.20: Elements of the University of Notre Dame Power Plant, congured in an over-

simplied manner, 14 June 2010.

more complex than indicated in Fig. 6.20. It contains additional elements for cooling, heating with gas

and oil, and pollution removal. A full analysis is beyond the scope of these notes.

We use the steam tables for our equation of state. We can model this as a steady state system

composed of devices with one inlet and one exit. We can neglect changes in KE and PE. For any such

CC BY-NC-ND. 04 May 2012, J. M. Powers.

6.5. INTRODUCTION TO THE RANKINE CYCLE 179

device, the mass ow rate m is constant, and the energy balance gives

dE

cv

dt

. .

=0

=

Q

cv

W

cv

+ m(h

i

h

e

), (6.206)

0 = q w + h

i

h

e

. (6.207)

Work in pump. Let us assume an ideal pump, which is adiabatic,

1

q

2

= 0. Work is done by the

pump on the uid in compressing it. A pump restores the high pressure to the uid to compensate

for frictional losses.

1

w

2

= h

i

h

e

= h

1

h

2

. (6.208)

We go to the tables and nd h

1

= 188.45 kJ/kg. Now, we know

1

w

2

= 4 kJ/kg, so this lets us

calculate h

2

via

h

2

= h

1

1

w

2

=

_

188.45

kJ

kg

_

_

4

kJ

kg

_

= 192.45

kJ

kg

. (6.209)

Note:

The pump work is relatively small, as will be seen by comparison to later calculations of work

and heat transfers for other devices.

Heat transfer in boiler. A boiler is an active device in which thermal energy of perhaps combustion

or nuclear reaction is used to boil water. The tables tell us that h

3

= 3023.5 kJ/kg. There is no work

in a boiler, so

2

w

3

= 0, and the rst law becomes

2

q

3

= h

e

h

i

= h

3

h

2

, (6.210)

=

_

3023.5

kJ

kg

_

_

192.45

kJ

kg

_

= 2831.1

kJ

kg

. (6.211)

Note

The heat transfer to the boiler,

2

q

3

> 0, so the thermal energy is entering the device.

Heat transfer in line between boiler and turbine. For the ow in the pipe, there is no external shaft

work, so

3

w

3a

= 0, and thus

3

q

3a

= h

e

h

i

= h

3a

h

3

. (6.212)

From double interpolation of the steam tables, h

3a

= 3002.5 kJ/kg, so

3

q

3a

=

_

3002.5

kJ

kg

_

_

3023.5

kJ

kg

_

= 21

kJ

kg

. (6.213)

Because the thermal energy leaves the pipe,

3

q

3a

< 0. In general we will nd that q will be

path-dependent. For this type of analysis, it reduces to dierences in the end states.

Note that P drops because of friction in the pipes.

Note that T drops because of heat transfer to the surroundings.

Most importantly, note that we easily determined a quantity of global importance with data

that was easily measured at the inlet and exit of the pipe. We did not need to consider the

detailed uid and thermal elds within the pipe.

CC BY-NC-ND. 04 May 2012, J. M. Powers.

180 CHAPTER 6. FIRST LAW ANALYSIS FOR A CONTROL VOLUME

Turbine work. We assume an ideal turbine, which is adiabatic,

3a

q

4

= 0, so

3a

w

4

= h

i

h

e

= h

3a

h

4

. (6.214)

Now, we know h

3a

already. For h

4

, we have

h

4

= h

f

+ x

4

h

fg

, at P

4

= 15 kPa, (6.215)

=

_

225.94

kJ

kg

_

+ (0.9)

_

2373.1

kJ

kg

_

, (6.216)

= 2361.7

kJ

kg

. (6.217)

Thus,

3a

w

4

=

_

3002.5

kJ

kg

_

_

2361.7

kJ

kg

_

= 640.8

kJ

kg

. (6.218)

Note

the pressure P drops as the steam expands through the turbine,

the work

3a

w

4

> 0, which indicates the turbine is doing work, and

the function of a turbine is precisely that: to do work.

Heat transfer in condenser. A condenser is just a place for steam to convert to liquid water. It is a

passive device. So

4

w

1

= 0. The rst law reduces to

4

q

1

= h

e

h

i

= h

1

h

4

. (6.219)

We know h

4

. And h

1

is a compressed liquid state. Let us approximate h

1

using the saturated liquid

value at T = 45

C; thus, h

1

= 188.45 kJ/kg. So

4

q

1

=

_

188.45

kJ

kg

_

_

2361.7

kJ

kg

_

= 2173.25

kJ

kg

. (6.220)

Note:

the heat transfer

4

q

1

< 0 because thermal energy leaves the condenser to the surroundings. This

is why cooling lakes near power plants are warmer than they otherwise would be.

This problem is an example of a thermodynamic cycle. This particular cycle is important because it

is the foundation of most electrical power generation in the world, as well as many other applications.

We can introduce the concept of a cycle thermal eciency, as the ratio of what we want to what we

pay for. Here, we want net work, which is the dierence of the turbine work and the pump work, and

we pay for the heat transfer into the boiler. Mathematically, we have

=

what we want

what we pay for

, (6.221)

=

w

cycle

q

in

, (6.222)

=

w

turbine

+ w

pump

q

boiler

, (6.223)

=

3a

w

4

+

1

w

2

2

q

3

, (6.224)

=

_

640.8

kJ

kg

_

+

_

4

kJ

kg

_

2831.1

kJ

kg

, (6.225)

= 0.225. (6.226)

CC BY-NC-ND. 04 May 2012, J. M. Powers.

6.5. INTRODUCTION TO THE RANKINE CYCLE 181

Process h

_

kJ

kg

_

q

_

kJ

kg

_

w

_

kJ

kg

_

1 2 4 0 -4

2 3 2831.1 2831.1 0

3 3a -21 -21 0

3a 4 -640.8 0 640.8

4 1 -2173.25 -2173.25 0

Total 0 636.8 636.8

Table 6.1: First law analysis summary for our non-ideal Rankine cycle.

This is a low eciency by modern standards. Later we shall use the second law of thermodynamics to

calculate the peak eciency of a steam power plant. That analysis will reveal that the peak eciency

for this plant is = 0.445.

In a spirit similar to that of double-entry accounting, we summarize the key energy balances in

Table 6.1. Note there is some small round-o error due mainly due to signicant digits and interpolation

that has been ignored in Table 6.1. Each row must maintain the control volume balance h = q w.

Each column must add to form its total. Because h is a state property, the net h for the cycle must

be zero. And to satisfy the rst law for the cycle, the total q must equal the total w.

There is another useful way to formulate the thermal eciency. We can begin with Eq. (6.224) and

say

=

3

aw

4

+

1

w

2

2

q

3

. (6.227)

Using Eqs. (6.208,6.210), we can reform Eq. (6.227) as

=

(h

3a

h

4

) + (h

1

h

2

)

h

3

h

2

, (6.228)

=

h

3a

h

3

+ h

3

h

4

+ h

1

h

2

h

3

h

2

, (6.229)

=

(h

3a

h

3

) + (h

3

h

2

) + (h

1

h

4

)

h

3

h

2

, (6.230)

= 1

(h

3

h

3a

) + (h

4

h

1

)

h

3

h

2

, (6.231)

And with the net heat entering as q

in

= h

3

h

2

and the net heat loss as q

out

= (h

3

h

3a

) +(h

4

h

1

),

we can express Eq. (6.231) as

= 1

q

out

q

in

=

q

in

q

out

q

in

=

w

cycle

q

in

. (6.232)

The local steam power plant at the University of Notre Dame runs on a variant of the Rankine

cycle. This particular power plant relies on a local source, St. Josephs Lake, for its cooling water. On

a cold winter day, the eect of the power plant on St. Josephs Lake, relative to the nearby St. Marys

Lake, which has no connection to the power plant, is dramatic. Fig. 6.21 shows the two lakes on the

same day. The power plant also generates steam for heating of the buildings on campus which requires

many underground steam lines. The eect of heat loss is the lines is obvious on many winter days on

the Notre Dame campus as is evident from Fig. 6.22.

CC BY-NC-ND. 04 May 2012, J. M. Powers.

182 CHAPTER 6. FIRST LAW ANALYSIS FOR A CONTROL VOLUME

Figure 6.21: St. Josephs Lake (left) and St. Marys Lake (right) on the University of Notre

Dame campus, 14 February 2010, demonstrating the eect of exchanging heat with the

condenser of the Notre Dame power plant near St. Josephs Lake.

Figure 6.22: Zones of melted snow in regions near underground steam lines on the University

of Notre Dame campus, 14 February 2010.

Example 6.7

A well insulated chamber with V = 1 ft

3

initially contains air at P = 14.7 lbf/in

2

, T = 100

F.

See Fig. 6.23. Intake and exhaust valves are opened, and air enters and exits at 1 lbm/min through

each valve. The entering air is at P = 30 lbf/in

2

, T = 200

F. Assume the air is well mixed so that

P and T are uniform throughout the chamber. Find P(t), T(t).

The temperatures are moderate, so it is not a problem to model air as a CPIG. For a CPIG, we

have

P

V

m

= RT, (6.233)

dh = c

P

dT, (6.234)

du = c

v

dT. (6.235)

CC BY-NC-ND. 04 May 2012, J. M. Powers.

6.5. INTRODUCTION TO THE RANKINE CYCLE 183

air initially at

P = 14.7 psia

T = 100 F

1

2

P = 30 psia

T = 200 F

m = 1 lbm/min

air

.

Figure 6.23: Sketch of transient thermal mixing problem.

The mass and energy evolution equations for the control volume are, respectively,

dm

cv

dt

= m

1

m

2

, (6.236)

dE

cv

dt

=

Q

cv

W

cv

+ m

1

_

h

1

+

v

2

1

2

+ gz

1

_

m

2

_

h

2

+

v

2

2

2

+ gz

2

_

. (6.237)

Let us nd the initial mass in the control volume. At t = 0 s, we have

m =

PV

RT

=

PV

R

M

T

=

_

14.7

lbf

in

2

__

144

in

2

ft

2

_

_

1 ft

3

_

1545

lbf ft

lbmole

R

28.97

lbm

lbmole

(100 + 460

R)

= 0.0709 lbm. (6.238)

Now, the mass balance gives

dm

cv

dt

= m

1

m

2

, (6.239)

with m

1

= m

2

= (1 lbm/min)(min/60 s) = (1/60) lbm/s.

dm

cv

dt

=

_

1

60

lbm

s

_

_

1

60

lbm

s

_

= 0, (6.240)

m

cv

= constant = 0.0709 lbm. (6.241)

Now, for the energy equation, we can neglect changes in kinetic and potential energies. The volume is

insulated, so

Q

cv

= 0. And there is no shaft work, so

W

cv

= 0. So the energy balance reduces to

dE

cv

dt

= m

1

h

1

m

2

h

2

. (6.242)

Now, since m

1

= m

2

= m, and since E

cv

= U

cv

= m

cv

u

cv

when KE and PE are neglected, the energy

equation reduces to

d

dt

(m

cv

u

cv

) = m(h

1

h

2

). (6.243)

Since m

cv

is constant, and since du = c

v

dT, where c

v

is constant for a CPIG, we get

m

cv

c

v

dT

cv

dt

= m(h

1

h

2

). (6.244)

Now, h

1

is known from the inlet conditions. After mixing, the exit enthalpy takes on the value of the

enthalpy in the chamber. So we have from the caloric state equation for h that

h

1

h

2

= c

P

(T

1

T

cv

). (6.245)

CC BY-NC-ND. 04 May 2012, J. M. Powers.

184 CHAPTER 6. FIRST LAW ANALYSIS FOR A CONTROL VOLUME

Thus, the energy equation becomes

m

cv

c

v

dT

cv

dt

= mc

P

(T

1

T

cv

). (6.246)

We also have the initial condition T(0) = T

o

. We rewrite the energy equation, Eq. (6.246), as

dT

cv

dt

=

m

m

cv

c

P

c

v

..

=k

(T

1

T

cv

). (6.247)

dT

cv

dt

=

m

m

cv

k(T

1

T

cv

). (6.248)

Note the temperature is equilibrated when T

cv

= T

1

. We expect after a long time that the entire system

acquires the character of the inlet after all the old material is ushed from the control volume. The

question now is how long is the ushing time? To answer this, we must solve a dierential equation.

Let us separate variables to get

dT

cv

T

1

T

cv

=

m

m

cv

kdt, (6.249)

ln(T

1

T

cv

) =

m

m

cv

kt + C, (6.250)

T

1

T

cv

= exp

_

m

m

cv

kt C

_

, (6.251)

T

1

T

cv

= C

exp

_

m

m

cv

kt

_

. (6.252)

At the initial state, we get

T

1

T

o

= C

. (6.253)

Thus

T

cv

= T

1

(T

1

T

o

) exp

_

m

m

cv

kt

_

. (6.254)

Note that as t , T

cv

T

1

. Also note by inspection, the time constant of relaxation is

=

m

cv

m

1

k

. (6.255)

So the time to equilibrium is short if

the input forcing m is large, or

the mass in the control volume, m

cv

, is small.

For us, the time constant is

=

0.0709 lbm

_

7

5

_ _

1

60

lbm

s

_ = 3.04 s. (6.256)

So the temperature variation is

T

cv

(t) = (660

R) ((660

R) (560

R)) exp

_

t

3.04 s

_

. (6.257)

CC BY-NC-ND. 04 May 2012, J. M. Powers.

6.6. PREVIEW: EQUATIONS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 185

T

cv

(t) = (660

R) (100

R) exp

_

t

3.04 s

_

. (6.258)

For the pressure, we have PV = mRT, so

P

cv

(t) =

mRT

cv

(t)

V

, (6.259)

=

(0.0709 lbm)

_

1545

ft lbf

lbmole

R

28.97

lbm

lbmole

_

_

(660

R) (100

R) exp

_

t

3.04 s

__

1 ft

3

ft

2

144 in

2

. (6.260)

So the pressure is

P

cv

(t) = (17.33 psia) (2.6258 psia) exp

_

t

3.04 s

_

. (6.261)

A plot of T(t) and P(t) is given in Fig. 6.24. Note, the nal pressure is not the inlet pressure.

2 4 6 8 10 12 14

580

600

620

640

660

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14

13

14

15

16

17

18

t (s)

t (s)

P (psia)

T (R)

0

Figure 6.24: Plots of T(t) and P(t) for transient thermal mixing problem.

6.6 Preview: equations of continuum mechanics

This course focuses on mass and energy conservation coupled with equations of state for sys-

tems which are well modeled as equilibrium processes. We can do many important problems

with these tools. However, there are many problems which we cannot do with these tools,

e.g. problems with coupled time and space dependency, or problems with detailed material

motion.

Let us, as a preview for future courses, write various related sets of partial dierential

equations which can couple equilibrium thermodynamics with mechanics.

CC BY-NC-ND. 04 May 2012, J. M. Powers.

186 CHAPTER 6. FIRST LAW ANALYSIS FOR A CONTROL VOLUME

6.6.1 Full set

We rst give a summary of a reasonably complete and general set of equations for a continuum

material. One way to write these equations is as follows:

t

+ (v) = 0 mass, (6.262)

t

(v) + (vv) = g P + , linear momenta, (6.263)

T

= , angular momenta, (6.264)

t

_

_

u +

1

2

v v

__

+

_

v

_

u +

1

2

v v

__

= q (Pv)

+ ( v) + v g,

energy. (6.265)

Equations (6.262-6.265) are the axioms of mass conservation, linear momentum conservation,

angular momenta conservation, and energy conservation, respectively. They are valid for any

pure material, be it solid, liquid, or gas, as long as we are at velocities small relative to the

velocity of light. New variables here include the deviatoric stress tensor , and the heat ux

vector q. The vector g is the constant gravitational acceleration. It is easily modied for

variable gravitational acceleration.

The conservation axioms are necessary but not sucient to determine all ow variables.

They must be supplemented by constitutive relations. Constitutive relations specify the

actual material. A general set is given here.

P = P(, T), thermal EOS, (6.266)

u = u(, T), caloric EOS, (6.267)

q = q(T, T, . . . ), heat ux, (6.268)

= (T, v, x, . . . ), stress. (6.269)

Equation (6.266) is a thermal equation of state. An example is the ideal gas law P = RT.

Equation (6.267) is a caloric equation of state. An example is a calorically perfect ideal

gas, u = c

v

(T T

o

) + u

o

. Equation (6.268) is a relation between the heat ux vector and

other state variables. An example is Fouriers law, q = kT. Equation (6.269) is a relation

between the deviatoric stress and a variety of variables. For example, a Newtonian uid

obeying Stokes assumption has = (v + (v)

T

) (1/3)( v)I. This relates stress to

strain rate. On the other hand, the stress in a solid would be related to the strain, instead

of the strain rate.

6.6.2 Static solids equations

For a static solid, we take v = 0 and the density constant. The mass equation becomes

irrelevant, as does the angular momenta equation. The linear momenta equation reduces to

CC BY-NC-ND. 04 May 2012, J. M. Powers.

6.6. PREVIEW: EQUATIONS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 187

a force balance, since inertia is zero. We take the total stress tensor = PI, where I is

the identity matrix.

= g, linear momenta. (6.270)

=

E

1 +

_

e +

1 2

Tr(e)I

_

, stress-strain relation. (6.271)

Here, E is the modulus of elasticity, is Poissons ratio (1 1/2), and e is the strain.

6.6.3 Incompressible uid mechanics equations

In the discipline of incompressible uid mechanics, we typically take to be a constant,

we ignore the kinetic energy of the uid, consider uid properties such as viscosity and

conductivity to be constant, and reduce our equations to the following set

v = 0, mass, (6.272)

_

v

t

+v v

_

= g P +

2

v, linear momenta, (6.273)

T

= , angular momenta, (6.274)

c

P

_

T

t

+v T

_

= k

2

T, energy, (6.275)

= (v + (v)

T

), stress-strain rate, (6.276)

q = kT, Fouriers law (6.277)

The thermodynamic state equations are not particularly important here. Moreover, the mass

and linear momenta equations form an independent set. The energy equation is coupled to

to mass and momenta equations because of the velocity vector.

6.6.4 Compressible uid mechanics equations

In compressible aerodynamics, we account for density changes and thermodynamics, but

usually neglect gravity, viscosity and heat conduction. Our equations reduce to, for a CPIG,

t

+ (v) = 0, mass, (6.278)

_

v

t

+v v

_

= P, linear momenta, (6.279)

_

u

t

+v u

_

= P

_

v

t

+v v

_

, energy, (6.280)

P = RT, thermal state, (6.281)

u = c

v

T + u

o

, caloric state. (6.282)

CC BY-NC-ND. 04 May 2012, J. M. Powers.

188 CHAPTER 6. FIRST LAW ANALYSIS FOR A CONTROL VOLUME

Notice the energy equation is simply the familiar du/dt = Pdv/dt, when d/dt is interpreted

as /t +v .

6.6.5 Heat transfer in incompressible static solids

For heat transfer in static solids, we require v = 0. Moreover, there is no work. We take

a calorically perfect solid with constant thermal conductivity k which obeys Fouriers law

q = kT and get the rst law of thermodynamics to reduce to the simple scalar equation

known to Fourier in the early nineteenth century:

c

T

t

= k

2

T, energy. (6.283)

CC BY-NC-ND. 04 May 2012, J. M. Powers.

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