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1What is a centrifugal pump and what role does it play in our lives?

Have you ever looked at a fire truck or a fountain in the park and wondered how they pump water? Or have you wondered how fighter jets can be refuelled or cars on a factory line can be painted so quickly? They use centrifugal pumps! Despite being one of the simplest pieces of equipment in any process plant, it is one of the most important. Essentially, they transport a fluid while adding pressure and energy to it. 4Ever seen one before?

From Wikipedia There are two main parts to a centrifugal pump: The volute casing (The case) The impeller (A shaft with vanes attached; sort of like a fan) Powered by a motor

7Why do we use it? Advantages? The relatively easy maintenance and high efficiencies that are typically associated with centrifugal pumps often make them the most cost effective solution (Bachus &Custodio 2006, p.76). Centrifugal pumps are utilised widely throughout the chemical and process industry, as they can effectively handle most low viscosity applications (Bachus &Custodio 2006, p.78).

Other features such as smooth flow though the pump and uniform discharge pressure add to the overall practicality (Munson et al. 2008, p.654).Durability is also an attribute centrifugal pumps possess due to their simple principle of operation.

8How does a centrifugal pump work? 9

Figure Schematic diagram of basic elements of a centrifugal pump. (Munson et al. 2008, p. 564)

Whats the Principle of operation? Translation How does a centrifugal pump work?

The impeller, which is attached to a rotating shaft powered by a motor or driver, consists of a number of blades Due to the rotation of the impeller, fluid is sucked through the eye of the casing and flows radially outward to the periphery of the blades. The rotating vanes add energy to the fluid, simultaneously increasing the pressure and absolute velocity. The shaft rotates at the same speed as the blades and transfers energy from the motor to the fluid. The motor converts electricity to mechanical energy. The result: Here are some videos that might be good illustrations 13Real life analogue
The fan consists of a rotating arrangement of vanes or blades which act on the air. The rotating assembly of blades and hub is known as an impeller, a rotor, or a runner. Usually, it is contained within some form of housing or case. A household cooling fan transports a fluid, namely air, from one part of the room to another at a higher pressure. BUT, there is a difference you need to understand,

Specific theory
What is fluid mechanics? Fluid mechanics is a branch of applied physics that deals with the behaviour of fluids at rest and in motion and the energies and forces that relate to that behaviour. Behaviour General background theory Mechanical Energy equation Continuity eqn. What is pressure head/efficiency How efficiency is optimised. Explanation of equations Pressure head

Efficiency and throughput

Performance Curves Performance Curves indicate the relative performance of a specific pump for the diameters of blade used in that pump. Pump performance comes from the amount of head, i.e. pressure it can generate in relation to its capacity or flow rate. Munson, RB, Young, FD, Okiishi, HT, Huebsch, WW 2009, Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics, Sixth Edition, John Willey & Sons, New Jersey. Pump performance curves and their importance (BEP) - It is impossible to predict pump performance accurately on a completely theoretical basis due to the general complexity of the flow through a centrifugal pump. Experimental tests are performed to determine the actual pump performance. Pump characteristics are determined and presented as the pump performance curves from these tests. This is helpful to the engineer responsible for the incorporating pumps into a given flow system.

Where would it be used? Who uses it? Real-life examples

What are some of the Advantages/ Disadvantages of a centrifugal pump? Small and compact. Simplistic Design makes repair easy Higher output than most other pumps of the same size. Can be connected directly to a power source Disadvantages Must be underwater or primed before operation can be effective Cavitation can occur. Ineffective at pumping very viscous fluids - How is it used in the chemical industry? - Centrifugal pump is one of most common radial flow turbo machines. It has been designed especially for use in the food, dairy, beverage, pharmaceutical and light chemical industries. The primary purpose of centrifugal pump is to transfer liquids or gases from one vessel to another by the conversion of the rotational kinetic energy to the hydro dynamics energy of the liquid flow. It is highly used for pumping water, sewage, petroleum, and petrochemicals.

Centrifugal pumps are also versatile when compared with other pumps, with capacities ranging from 0.5 to 20,000 m3/h and relatively low net positive suction head requirement (Munson et al. 2008, p.655). Centrifugal pumps are typically able to run for long periods of time and have long lives. In addition to this, centrifugal pumps can run at zero flow, albeit for short periods of time (Munson et al. 2008, p.655).