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Tirthankar(24 Bhagwan) 1.

Lord Rishabha (Adinath)

Birthplace; Consecration Vinittanagari; Sarvartha-siddha Asthapad Mt. Ayodhya; Sammed Vijaya-vimana 2.Lord Ajitnath Shikharji Shravasti; Sammed 3.Lord Sambhavnath Uvari-magraiveka Shikhari Heaven(Moksha) 4.Lord Abhinandannath 5.Lord Sumatinath Jayanta-vimana Ayodhya; Sammed Shikharji Ayodhya; Sammed Shikharji

Parents ( Mata -Pita) Nabhiraja & Marudevi Jitashatru & Vijaya devi Jitari & Susena mata Samvar raja & Siddhartha devi Meghaprabha & Sumangala Dharan & Sushima devi Pratishthasen & Pruthvi devi Mahasena raja & Sulakshana Sugriva raja & Rama rani

Symbol (Chinha) Bull or Ox (Bell) Elephant (Haathi) Horse (Ghoda) Monkey (Bandar) Curlew or Red Goose (kronch pakshi) Lotus (Kamal) Swas-tika Moon (Chandrama) Croc-odile (Magar Macch)

Jayanta-vimana

Kaushambi; Sammed Shikharji MadhyaVaranasi; Sammed 7.Lord Suparshvanath magraiveka Shikharji Chandrapura; Sammed 8.Lord Vijayanta Shikharji Chandraprabhu Kakandi-nagari; 9.Lord Pushpadanta Anata-devaloka Sammed Shikharji Bhadrapura or 10.Lord Sheetalnath Achyuta-devaloka Bhadilapura; Sammed Shikharji Simhapuri; Sammed 11.Lord Shreyansnath Achyuta-devaloka Shikharji Champapuri; Sammed Pranata-devaloka 12.Lord Vasupujya Shikharji MahasaraKampilyapura; 13.Lord Vimalnath devaloka Sammed Shikharji 6.Lord Padmaprabhu Uvari-magraiveka 14.Lord Anantnath Pranata-devaloka Ayodhya; Sammed Shikharji Ratnapuri; Sammed Shikharji Gajapura or Hastinapuri; Sammed Shikharji Gajapura or Hastinapuri; Sammed Shikharji Gajapura or Hastinapuri; Sammed Shikharji Mithila; Sammed

Dridharatha-raja Kalpa-vriksha or ficus & Sunanda religiosa Vishnu raja & Venu devi Vasupujya & Vijaya Kritavarma raja & Suramya devi Simhasena & Suyasah or Sujasa Bhanu raja & Suvrita Visvasena & Achira Suryasen & Srirani Sudarshana & Mitrasena Devi Kumbharaja Rhino-ceros (Genda) female buffalo (Bhaisa) Shukar Falcon ( Baaj) Vajra (Thunderbolt) Deer (Hiran)

15.Lord Dharmanath Vijaya-vimana 16.Lord Shantinath Sarvartha-siddha

17.Lord Kunthunath

Sarvartha-siddha

He-Goat (Bakra)

18.Lord Arahnath 19.Lord Mallinath

Sarvartha-siddha Jayanta-devaloka

Fish (Machali) Jar (Kalash)

Shikharji Rajgriha; Sammed 20.Lord Munisuvrata Aparajita-devaloka Shikharji Mithila; Sammed Pranata-devaloka 21.Lord Naminath Shikharji Sauryapura; Aparajita Mount Girnar 22.Lord Neminath (Girnarji) Varanasi; Sammed 23.Lord Parshvanath Pranata-devaloka Shikharji Kundalpur or Chitrakuta; pavapuri

& Prabhavati Sumitra raja & Padmavati Vijaya raja & Vipra rani

Tortoise (Kachua) Blue Water Lily or Blue Lotus (Hara Kamal)

Samudra vijaya Conch (Shankh) & Shiva devi Asvasena & Vamadevi Siddhartha (Sreyansa or Yasasvin) & Trishala (Vidchadinna or Priyakarini) Snake (Naag)

24.Lord Mahaveera

Pranata-devaloka

Lion (Sih)

In order of their appearance, the names, signs, and colours of the Jinas of this age are (1) Rishbhanatha (Lord Bull), or Adinatha (Lord First), his emblem the bull, his colour golden; (2) Ajita (Invincible One), elephant, golden; (3) Shambhava (Auspicious), horse, golden; (4) Abhinandana (Worship), ape, golden; (5) Sumati (Wise), heron, golden; (6) Padmaprabha (Lotus-Bright), lotus, red; (7) Suparshva (Good-Sided), the swastika symbol, golden; (8) Candraprabha (Moon-Bright), moon, white; (9) Suvidhi, or Pushpadanta (Religious Duties or Blossom-Toothed), dolphin or makara (sea dragon), white; (10) Shitala (Coolness), the shrivatsa symbol, golden; (11) Shreyamsha (Good), rhinoceros, golden; (12) Vasupujya (Worshiped with Offerings of Possessions), buffalo, red; (13) Vimala (Clear), boar, golden; (14) Ananta (Endless), hawk (according to the Digambara sect, ram or bear), golden; (15) Dharma (Duty), thunderbolt, golden; (16) Shanti (Peace), antelope or deer, golden; (17) Kunthu (meaning uncertain), goat, golden; (18) Ara (a division of time), the nandyavarta (an elaborated swastika; according to the Digambara sect, fish), golden; (19) Malli (Wrestler), water jug, blue; (20) Suvrata, or Munisuvrata (Of Good Vows), tortoise, black; (21) Nami (Bowing Down), or Nimin (Eye-Winking), blue lotus, golden; (22) Nemi, or Arishtanemi (The Rim of Whose Wheel Is Unhurt), conch shell, black; (23) Parshvanatha (Lord Serpent), snake, green; (24) Vardhamana (Prospering), later called Mahavira (Great Hero), lion, golden

Bhagwan Mahavira's teachings were carried on by his ganadharas to us in the form of scriptures (Agams or Angas). They were compiled into twelve separate parts, known as Angagama or Angas or the dwadashangi (twelve parts). The knowledge of Sruti, Sruta-Jnana, which are contained in the Anga (Limbs or sacred books of the Jainas) or the things outsides of Anga,. This Jaina Sacred Literature is mostly lost today as by Digambara sect. These 12 parts of Anga or Anagama are: 1.The chra-anga comprises a full exposition of the rules of conduct for ascetics. It contains 18,000 Madhyama Padas. 2. The Strakrita-anga comprises a detailed exposition of knowledge, humility etc., of religious rites, and difference between the rites of one's own religion and those of the other one-sided views. It contains 36,000 Madhyama Padas. 3. The Sthna-anga comprises an exposition of one or more sthnas, or numerical points of view in considering Jva (Soul), Pudgala (Matter) and other Dravyas. While the Jva-dravya or soul id from the point of view of consciousness one and the same everywhere, from the point of view of being liberated (siddha) or mundane (samsrin) it is of two kinds. Similarly the samsrin, or mundane Jva, that soul not yet perfectly freed from the bondage of karmas which keep it moving in the cycle of existences, is of three kinds - one-sensed immobile (sthvara), not full-sensed (vikalendriya), and in possession of all the organs of the senses or full-sensed (sakalendriya). The liberated souls too, are of many kinds from the point of view of place, time etc. This anga contains 42,000 Madhyama Padas. 4. The Samavya-anga gives an account of the similarities that arise from the point of view of Dravya (elements of the universe), Ksetra (place), Kla (time), and Bhva (character). From the point of view of dravya, Dharma and Adharma are alike (that is, both are constituent elements of the universe). From the point of view of place, the breadth of human region, and of the first central hole of the first hell (indrakabila), and the first central car or abode of the first heaven (indrakavimna), and the abode of siddhas are alike. From the point of view of time, the Utsarpini and Avasarpini, the ascending and descending arcs or eras are alike. From the point of view of bhva, right-belief and

right-knowledge are the same. This Anga has 164,000 Madhyama Padas. 5. The Vykhy-prajapti-anga gives an acoount of the 60,000 questions which the chief disciples put to the Omniscient Lord, the Trithamkara, with their answers. It has 228,000 Madhyama Padas. 6.The Jtridharma-kath-anga is also called Dharma-Kathanga. It gives an exposition in detail of the nature ect., of the nine padarthas Jiva etc., as well as the answers to questions which the Ganadharas put to the Lord. It has 556,000 Madhyama Padas. 7. The Upsakdhyayna-anga gives details of the eleven stages of a householder's life, the vows of chastity etc., and other rules of conduct for the householder's, as well as aphorisms and lectures on the same. It has 1,170,000 Madhyama Padas. 8. The Antakrit-daa-anga gives account in detail of the ten ascetics who, in the period of each of the twenty-four Trithamkaras, undergo very strict suffering in asceticism and finally set themselves free from the bondage of Karma. It has 2,328,000 Madhyama Padas. 9. The Anuttaropapdaka-daa-anga gives an acoount of the ten great ascetics who, in the period of each Trithamkaras, practice asceticism of a very high type and in virtue of that take birth in the five Anuttaravimnas, or heavens, such as Vijaya etc. It has 9,244,000 Madhyama Padas. 10. The Prana-vykarana-anga gives instructions as to how to reply to questions relating to past and future time, gain and loss, happiness and misery, life and death, good and evil, etc. It also furnishes an account of the four kinds of narration, viz., ksepan (substantiation), Viksepan (refutation), Samvedan (devotion), Nirvedan (renunciation). It has 9,316,000 Madhyama Padas. 11. The Vipka-stra-anga contains an exposition of the bondage, operation, and existence of Karmas, and of their intensity or mildness from the point of view of dravya, ksetra, kla and bhva. It has 18,400,000 Madhyama Padas. 12. The Drishti-pravda-anga has 1,086,856,005 Madhyama Padas. It is divided into five parts: five Parikarmas, Stra, Prathamnuyoga, fourteen Prva-gatas, and five Chliks. These five parts will be considered one by one.

Digambar Jain Religion Sacred Books


Ashta Pahuda (Eight Presents or Sections) by Acharya Kundkund. The book contains a brief exposition of Jaina doctrine. It has 502 verses in eight sections dealing with Faith (Darshan), Scripture (Sutra), Conduct (Charitra), Enlightenment (Bodha), Realization or Internal Feelings, Thoughts, Dispositions (Bhava), Emancipation or Liberation (Moksha), Insignia (Linga), and Virtue (Sheel). Atmanushasana (Discourse to the Soul) by Acharaya Guna-Bhadra Each and every one of the 270 verses in this work exhorts the soul to separate its own self from the non-self. This supreme separation is the complete victory of the soul over Sin, Sorrow, and Death, and is Moksha, Freedom or Liberation, absolute, perfect, eternal, and everlasting. Barasa Anuvekkha (Twelve Contemplations) by Acharya Kundkund. The topics of reflections serve as potent factors leading to spiritual progress. When one is impressed by the transient nature of worldly objects and relations, one directs his attention from the outward to the inward; the attachment to the world is reduced giving place to liking for the religious life which alone can save the soul from miseries of the world and lead it on to liberation. Bhadrabahu Samhita (Jaina Law of Inheritance and Partition) by Bhadrabahu Svami. This book consists of 12,000 verses is written to determine quarrels among members of the same family. Quarrels lead to passionate and hostile feelings and Jainism aims at the suppression and eradication of these, chiefly of Anger, Pride, Deceit, and Greed as they imprison the soul in matter and retard its evolution on to freedom and liberation from mundane misery. Chhahadhala (Six Faceted Shield to Fight the Karmas and Attain Liberation) Written by Pandit Daulat Ram. Dravya Samgraha (Expositions of Substances) by Nemichandra Siddhanta Chakravarti. It deals with both the living and non-living substances existing and comprising the universe. A person must have knowledge of substances (Dravyas) existing in this universe and only then can he proceed to regulate his conduct accordingly. Consisting of 58 verses in five parts, the book is a brief and but exhaustive work which is very useful to the beginner in his study of Jainism. Gommatsara Jivakanda Compilation of the Essence of the Doctrine dealing with the Soul by Nemichandra Siddhanta Chakravarti. The book consisting of twenty chapters and 734 verses, it deals primarily with the soul (Jiva) or consciousness - the natural characteristics of jivas and the means and stages of their development. It describes the 14 spiritual stages of souls in various conditions of life (gunasthana), 14 soul classes (jiva samasa), 6 capacities to develop (Paryapti), 10 vital forces (Prana), 4 instincts or impulses (Sangya), 14 soul quests (Margana), and 12 kinds of conscious attentiveness (Upayoga). The classification is also often expressed as the 20 Prarupanas (expositions), which really exhaust the standpoints from which souls in the universe may be viewed. Gommatsara Karma Kanda Part I Compilation of the Essence of the Doctrine dealing with the Karmas by Nemichandra Siddhanta Chakravarti. Gommatsara Karma Kanda Part II By Nemichandra Siddhanta Chakravarti. These volumes, which have 972 verses, deal with the non-living karmic matter, the attributes and modifications of the substances, the conditions in which the embodied souls are found and the rules which regulate the combination of Soul and Matter. It describes the obstacles producing bondage of karma and the ways and means of obtaining deliverance, moksha, liberation from karmic contact. Gyanarnava (Ocean of Knowledge) by Acharya Shubhchandra.

Ishtopadesh (Discourse Divine) by Acharya Pujyapad Swami. It is a charming composition about the glorious divinity of the Inner Self, that signifies a sort of direct appeal to the experience of self-realization rather than a metaphysical study of the soul nature through the intellectual faculty. Niyamasara (The Perfect Law) by Acharya Kundkund. It deals with the path of liberation, which is Right Vision, or Faith, Right Knowledge and Right Conduct, which necessarily (niyamena) form the path of liberation. Nyaya-Karnika (Primer of Jain Philosophy of Standpoints) by Vinay Vijay Maharaj. A work on logic, it means a flower which has for its pericarp, or central point, the thing to be viewed; and for its petals the various standpoints (nayas) from which it is to tbe viewed. Nyaya-Avatara (The Earliest Jaina Work on Pure Logic) by Siddhasena Divakar. It is the earliest known Jaina treatise on Pure Logic, as it distinguishes logic from the cognate branches of learning. Panchastikayasara (The Building of the Cosmos) by Acharya Kundkund. It is a fine exposition of Jaina metaphysics. It discusses 5 magnitudes (Astikayas), i.e. those entities that manifest through numerous qualities and modes, their existence with extensive spatial points, viz. soul (Jiva), matter (Pudgal), principles of motion and rest (Dharma and Adharma), and space (Akash). These five together with time (kal) are called substances (dravyas), which are the constituent elements of the universe. Parikshamukham by Manikyanandi, It is a standard work on Jaina Nyaya philosophy and deals with Praman (valid knowledge), Anuman (inference), and fallacies. It contains 212 aphorisms divided unevenly in six sections as 13, 12, 101, 9, 3 and 74 aphorisms respectively. Parmatma Prakash Written by Yogindu Deva Pravachanasara by Acharya Kundkund. It discusses Jaina philosophy, particularly knowledge and the object of (inauspicious, auspicious, and pure) and the Jaina theory of omniscience. Book Two deals with substances, which are characterized by and endowed with various qualities and modifications and which are all the while coupled with origination, destruction and permanence without leaving their existential nature. It also deals with the nature of the soul and the matter and the theory of non-absolutism, viewpoints and predications. Book Three describes ascetic conduct. Purushartha Siddhyupaya Jaina Pravachana Rahasya-kosh by Acharya Amrit Chandra Suri. It treats of Ahimsa (non-injury), a basic rule of conduct, in all its varying aspects. Himsa is defined as injury to the vitalities caused through want of care and caution. Ratna-Karanda Shravakachara (The Householder's Dharma) by Acharya Samantabhadra. It is a systematic exposition of the duties of a pious layman. It testifies to the fact that Jainism is not only metaphysically a sound system, but also a practical way of living as well. The book is called a Casket of Gems because it is a systematic exposition of the three gems, viz. Right Faith, Right Knowledge, and Right Conduct, which constitute the path of liberation. Samadhi Shatak A Century of Verses on Concentration or Self-Absorption by Acharya Pujyapad Swami. It mainly deals with the nature of the pure Self. Emphasis is laid on the abandonment of the external self, concentration on the internal self and contemplation of the pure self. This is the correct method of meditation and of realizing the nature of pure Self. It thus provides consolation to an afflicted mind and an inspiring vision of the divine life to a seeker after truth. Samyasara (The Soul Essence) by Acharya Kundkund.

It describes the pure nature of the Soul. The word Samaya is used in the sense of Self- absorption or realisation, which is the central goal to be aimed at. It deals with the soul's Identity with Itself being the only living Conscious Reality. All Truth, Goodness, Beauty, Reality, Morality, Freedom, is in this pure all conscious Self-absorbed Soul, which is God. Any connection, Causal or Effectual, with the non-self is a delusion, limitation, imperfection, bondage, caused by impure thought activity or passions. To obtain Liberation or Deification, this connection must be destroyed. Sarvarthasiddhi by Acharya Pujyapad Swami. A commentary on Tattvarthasutra by Acharya Pujyapad Swami. It is the oldest extant commentary available on Tattvarthasutra, which contains the quintessence of Jain philosophy. There is no Jaina doctrine or principle left unexplained in this book. Tattvartha Sutra (Moksha Sutra) by Umaswami or Umasvati. It is rightly termed and known as Jain Bible and enjoys the unique distinction of being regarded as an authoritative work by all sections of the Jains. There is no Jain doctrine or dogma, which is not expressed or implied in the 357 aphorisms (Sutras) divided into 10 chapters.