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Bus Admittance Matrix 1 -- A.C. Nerves, U.P. Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Nov.

13 2003
1
Elements line segments in a graph that represent network components.
Nodes the terminals of the line segment.
Incident node and element if the node is terminal of the element.
Graph shows the geometrical interconnection of the elements of a network.
Subgraph any subset of elements of a graph.
Path a subgraph of connected elements with no more than two elements connected to
any one node.
Connected graph if and only if there is a path between every pair of nodes.
Oriented graph if each element of a connected graph is assigned a direction.
:
Single-line diagram:
Oriented connected graph:
G
G
G
1 2 3 4
0
6
7
5 4
3
2
1
1
2 4
3
GRAPH S

Exampl e
Bus Admittance Matrix 1 -- A.C. Nerves, U.P. Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Nov. 13 2003
2
Tree a connected subgraph containing all nodes of a graph but no closed path.
Branches the elements of a tree
Number of branches required to form a tree:
1 where = no. of nodes in the graph
Links elements of the connected graph that are not included in the tree.
Cotree a subgraph formed by the links of a connected graph.
Number of links of a connected graph:
where = no. of elements of a connected graph
It follows that
1
:
7 = 5 = 4 = 3
1 2 3 4
0
6
7
5 4
3
2
1
Branch
Link

b
n b n
l
b e l e
n e l
Exampl e
e = n b l
=
=
+ =
Bus Admittance Matrix 1 -- A.C. Nerves, U.P. Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Nov. 13 2003
3

The elements of the element-node incidence matrix of a connected graph are as follows:
1 if the th element is incident to and oriented away from the th
node.
1 if the th element is incident to and oriented towards from the th
node.
0 if the th element is not incident to the th node.
The dimension of the matrix is .
:
For the previous example network, the element-node incidence matrix is
(0) (1) (2) (3) (4)
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

Since
, , 2 , 1 0
1
0
the columns of

are linearly dependent rank

< .
Nodes
Elements
I NCI DE NCE M AT RI CE S
A
A
A A
El ement- Node I nci dence M atr i x
a
i j
= i j
a
i j
= i j
a
i j
= i j
e n
Exampl e
e i a
n
j
i j
n

=
= =

K
Bus Admittance Matrix 1 -- A.C. Nerves, U.P. Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Nov. 13 2003
4
Bus incidence matrix obtained from

by deleting the column corresponding to


the reference node. The dimension of this matrix is ( 1) and the rank is 1 =
.
:
For the previous example network, if node 0 is chosen as the reference node, the bus
incidence matrix is,
(1) (2) (3) (4)
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
1
1
1
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

The matrix is rectangular and therefore singular.
Binary valued matrix a matrix whose entries are binary (Boolean) variables.
The elements of the square, binary bus connection matrix is given by
, , 2 , 1 ,
otherwise

line a by bus to connected bus
0
1
1
1 denotes Boolean TRUE
0 denotes Boolean FALSE
is symmetric
Negation: : All TRUE elements of are replaced by FALSE, and all FALSE
entries are replaced by TRUE
Bus
Element
Bus I nci dence M atr i x
e n n
b
Exampl e
n j i
j i
j i
b
i j
A
A A
A
BI NARY BUS CO NNECTI O N M ATRI X B
B
B
B B

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

'

K
Bus Admittance Matrix 1 -- A.C. Nerves, U.P. Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Nov. 13 2003
5
Boolean AND: , where and are binary bus connection matrices
, , 2 , 1 , , 2 , 1
2 2 1 1
denotes Boolean AND
+ denotes Boolean OR
is
is
is
Boolean OR:
, all for
It is necessary that and have the same dimensions.
The operation produces a square matrix of dimension for an -bus system
where ( ) is 1 when buses and are joined by a line or are joined through an
intervening bus by a line. Otherwise ( ) is 0.
:
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
1 0 1 0 0
0 1 0 1 1
1 0 1 1 0
0 1 1 1 1
0 1 0 1 1
) 5 (
) 4 (
) 3 (
) 2 (
) 1 (
(1)
(4)
(2)
(3) (5)

B D B D
D B
B D
B
D
B D
D B
A B
B B
B B
B B
B

( )
= =
+ + + =

( ) + = +

=
c j r i
d b d b d b
mj i m j i j i i j
r c
r m
m c
+
j i d b
i j i j i j
n n
i j
i j
i j
Exampl e
K K
L

Bus Admittance Matrix 1 -- A.C. Nerves, U.P. Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Nov. 13 2003
6
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
1 0 1 1 0
0 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1
0 1 1 1 1
) 5 (
) 4 (
) 3 (
) 2 (
) 1 (
Note that is also square and contains 1 in positions corresponding to buses
joined by three or fewer lines and two or less intervening buses. The diagonal entries
of and so on, are all 1.
Generalization:
If is the binary bus connection matrix for an -bus power system, and the notation
(m)
,
times
) (
is used to denote repeated AND operations, and
(1)
= , then
(m)
consists of all 0s
except in the diagonal position, where 1s appear. Also, the position of
(m)
contains
1s if and only if buses and are joined via lines or less (hence giving 1
intervening buses). Furthermore, for an -bus system
( 1)
consists of all 1s when all
system buses are connected to the system.
To determine whether a given bus is close to another bus. The buses and may be
evaluated for proximity by examining
(m)
; if this entry is a 1, buses and are
connected to each other through or fewer lines.
: If a fault study is to be done for a short circuit at bus , only
buses nearby bus need to be examined.
To determine whether a give system is connected. The matrix
( 1)
must all be 1s
when an -bus system is connected since the farthest possible configuration between
bus 1 and bus occurs when 1 and are on opposite ends of a radial string of buses. If
( 1)
contains a 0, the system is disconnected.

=

=

B B
B B B
B, B B, B B B,
B
B
B B B B
B B B
B
B
B
B
B



Bool ean AND Oper ati ons on t he Bi nar y Bus Connecti on Matr i x
n
m
m
i j
i j m m
n
n
Appl i cati ons i f the Bi nar y Bus Connecti on M atr i x
i j
i j
m
Potenti al appl i cati on k
k
n
n
n n
n
L
Bus Admittance Matrix 1 -- A.C. Nerves, U.P. Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Nov. 13 2003
7
The disconnection matrix and the matrices , , and so on, have
properties similar to
(2)
,
(3)
, and so on. Allowing to denote the bus disconnection
matrix, it is easy to show that
) ( ) ( ) (
The line incidence matrix is defined by
otherwise
bus at ends line
bus at starts line
0
1
1
) (
For a system of lines and buses, is . This matrix is used to calculate the voltage
difference between the buses at the terminals of each system line. Let
line
be a -vector
of line voltages (i.e., voltage drops across each system line); then
line
=
bus
For the purpose of calculating line voltage drops, each line must be considered to be
directed (i.e., having a start or higher voltage bus and an end or lower voltage bus). This
convention is reflected in the definition of line start and end in matrix While it is
unimportant which bus is selected as the start of a line and which as the end, once the
convention is established, it must be consistent in the definition of elements of
bus
.
Bus Di sconnecti on Matr i x
l k l k
j i
j i
i j
l n l n
l
B
B B B B B B
B B D
B D B
L I NE I NCI DE NCE M AT RI X L
L
L
L
V
V L V
L .
V

[ ]

=

Bus Admittance Matrix 1 -- A.C. Nerves, U.P. Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Nov. 13 2003
8
bus
bus
Formation Methods:
1.
bus
building rules
2. Building block approach
3. Network incidence matrix
Node a junction formed when two or more circuit elements (R, L, C, V
s
, I
s
) are
connected to each other at their terminals.
Consider the circuit diagram
KCL at node 1: 0
4 1 2 1 3 1
KCL at node 3:
3 1 3 2 3 3
Rearranging,
3 3 2 1
4 3 2 1
0
Similar equations can be formed for node 2 and 4.
NOTE: All branch currents can be found when the node voltages are known, and a
node equation formed for the reference node would yield no further information.
Hence, the required number of independent node equations is one less than the number
of nodes.
BUS ADM I T T ANCE M ATRI X Y
Y
Y
Node Equati ons
f d c
Y V V Y V V Y V V
I Y V V Y V V Y V
c b a
I Y Y Y V Y V Y V
Y V Y V Y V Y Y Y V
c b a b c
f c d f d c

( ) ( ) ( ) = + +
( ) ( ) = + +
( )
( )= + + +
= + +
Y
a
Y
b
Y
c
Y
d
Y
e
Y
f
Y
g
I
4
I
3
0
1
2
3 4
Reference
Bus Admittance Matrix 1 -- A.C. Nerves, U.P. Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Nov. 13 2003
9
General matrix format:
bus
4
3
2
1
4
3
2
1
44 43 42 41
34 33 32 31
24 23 22 21
14 13 12 11

when forming
bus
:
1. Diagonal element = sum of the admittances directly connected to node .
2. Off-diagonal element = the negative of the net admittance connected between nodes
and .
: self-admittance or driving-point admittance.
: mutual admittance or transfer admittance.
Using the rules,
0
0
bus
Separating the entries for Y
c
,
0 0 0 0
0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0

0
0 0
0
bus
I V Y
Y
Y
Y
=

( )
( )
( )
( )

+ +
+ +
+ +
+ +
=
( )
( )
( )
( )

+ +
+
+ +
+
=
or
I
I
I
I
V
V
V
V
Y Y Y Y
Y Y Y Y
Y Y Y Y
Y Y Y Y
Usual r ul es
Y
j j
j
Yi j
i j
Y
j j
Y
ij
g f e e f
c b a b c
e b e d b d
f c d f d c
Y Y Y Y Y
Y Y Y Y Y
Y Y Y Y Y Y
Y Y Y Y Y Y
c c
c c
g f e e f
b a b
e b e d b d
f d f d
Y Y
Y Y
Y Y Y Y Y
Y Y Y
Y Y Y Y Y Y
Y Y Y Y
Bus Admittance Matrix 1 -- A.C. Nerves, U.P. Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Nov. 13 2003
10
More compactly,
(3) (1)
1 1
1 1
The smaller matrix on the right is a compact storage matrix for matrix contribution of
to
bus
. It is an important building block in forming
bus
for more general networks.
Bus impedance matrix:
44 43 42 41
34 33 32 31
24 23 22 21
14 13 12 11
1
bus bus
Consider a generator in steady-state:Voltage equation:
Dividing voltage equation by ,
1
where
c
c c
c c
Y
Y Y
Y Y
Y
c
Z Z Z Z
Z Z Z Z
Z Z Z Z
Z Z Z Z
Br anch and Node Admi ttances
V I Z E
a s
Z
a
a
a a
a
s
s
Z
Y VY I
Z
E
I

= =

+ =
= + = =
Y Y
Y Z
E
s
Z
a
I
+
-
V
+
-
N
e
t
w
o
r
k
I
s
Y
a
I
V
+
-
N
e
t
w
o
r
k
Bus Admittance Matrix 1 -- A.C. Nerves, U.P. Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Nov. 13 2003
11
The voltage source and its series impedance can be interchanged with the current
source and its shunt admittance , provided that
1
and
Sources and may be considered externally applied at the nodes of the transmission
network, which then consists of only .
Suppose that only branch admittance is connected between nodes and as part of a
larger network of which only the reference node is shown,
= branch impedance, primitive impedance
= branch admittance, primitive admittance
Current and voltage equations:
1
1
1 1
1
1
1 1 ;
1 1 ;
1
1
for branch
E
s
Z
a
I
s
Y
a
a
a
a
s
s
Z
Y
Z
E
I
E
s
I
s
passi ve br anches
Y
a
m n
Z
a
Y
a
n
m
n
m
a a
a a
n
m
a
n
m
a
a
n
m
a a a a
n
m
a a
n
m
I
I
V
V
Y Y
Y Y
I
I
I
V
V
Y
I
V
V
Y I V Y
V
V
V I
I
I
nodal admi tt ance equati on Y
a
nodal admi ttance matr i x
= =
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]

Y
a
= 1/Z
a
I
a
I
n
I
m
V
m
V
n
+ +
- -
V
a
+
-
Reference node
n m
Bus Admittance Matrix 1 -- A.C. Nerves, U.P. Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Nov. 13 2003
12
The nodal admittance matrix is singular because neither node nor node connects
to the reference.
When is the reference node, = 0 and
This corresponds to removal of row and column from the coefficient matrix (nodal
admittance matrix).
Note that
1 1
1 1
1 1
1
1
The nodal admittance matrices are simply storage matrices with row and column
labels determined by the end nodes of the branch. To obtain the
of a network, we simply combine the individual branch matrices
by adding together elements with identical row and column labels.
Such addition causes the sum of the branch currents flowing from each node of the
network to equal the total current injected into that node, as required by KCL.
Provided at least one of the network branches is connected to the reference node, the
net result is
bus
of the system.

m n
n V
n
m m a
I V Y
n n
over al l nodal
admi ttance matr i x
bui l di ng bl ock
[ ] =
[ ]

Y
Bus Admittance Matrix 1 -- A.C. Nerves, U.P. Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Nov. 13 2003
13
:
Single-line diagram:
Reactance diagram (per unit):
Exampl e
1
2
3 4
0
1
2
3 4
j0.1
j0.25
j0.25
j0.125
j0.2
j0.4
j0.1
j1.15 j1.15
1.25 0
o
0.85 -45
o
+ +
- -
Bus Admittance Matrix 1 -- A.C. Nerves, U.P. Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Nov. 13 2003
14
Admittance diagram:
(1) (4) (2) (4) (1) ) 2 (
(4)
(1) (3) (2) (3)
) 3 (
1 1 -
1 - 1
(1)
(4)
;
1 1 -
1 - 1
(2)
(4)
;
1 1
1 1
) 1 (
) 2 (
1 (4) ;
1 1 -
1 - 1
(1)
(3)
;
1 1
1 1
(2)
(3)
; 1 ) 3 (
Combining elements of the above matrices having identical row and column labels,
(1) (2) (3) (4)
) 4 (
) 3 (
) 2 (
) 1 (

0
0
=
bus
The order in which the labels are assigned is not important here, provided the columns
and rows follow the same order.
Nodal admittance equations of the overall network:
o
o
4
3
2
1
135 68 . 0
90 00 . 1
0
0
3 . 8 0 . 0 0 . 5 5 . 2
0 . 0 8 . 8 0 . 4 0 . 4
0 . 5 0 . 4 0 . 17 0 . 8
5 . 2 0 . 4 0 . 8 5 . 14
[ ] [ ]

( )
( )
( )
( )

+ +
+ +
+ +
+ +

f e d
g c b a
Y Y Y
Y Y Y Y
g f e e f
c b a b c
e b e d b d
f c d f d c
Y Y Y Y Y
Y Y Y Y Y
Y Y Y Y Y Y
Y Y Y Y Y Y
V
V
V
V
j j j
j j j
j j j j
j j j j
Y

I
b
-j4.0
-j4.0
-j8.0
-j5.0
-j2.5
1 -90
0.68 -135
I
e
I
c
I
f
I
d
I
a
-j0.8 -j0.8
I
g
0
1
2
3 4
Bus Admittance Matrix 1 -- A.C. Nerves, U.P. Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Nov. 13 2003
15
bus
Two mutually coupled branches with impedance parameters or with admittance
parameters:
Primitive impedance equations:
where mutual impedance is positive when and enter the dotted terminals.
Inverse of the primitive impedance matrix:
2
1
1
Mutual l y Coupl ed Br anches i n
b
a
b M
M a
b
a
I
I
Z Z
Z Z
V
V
Z
M
I
a
I
b
b M
M a
a M
M b
M b a
b M
M a
Y Y
Y Y
Z Z
Z Z
Z Z Z
Z Z
Z Z
pr i mi ti ve admi ttance matr i x
Y


Z
a
Z
M
Z
b
V
b
V
a
+ +
- -
I
a
I
b
I
p
I
q
I
m
I
n
Y
a
Y
M
Y
b
V
b
V
a
+ +
- -
I
a
I
b
I
p
I
q
I
m
I
n
Bus Admittance Matrix 1 -- A.C. Nerves, U.P. Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Nov. 13 2003
16
Voltage-drop equations:
1 1 0 0
0 0 1 1
where = coefficient matrix
Current equations:
1 0
1 0
0 1
0 1
Substitute voltage drop equations into the primitive impedance equation,
Premultiply by ,
Nodal admittance equations of the two mutually coupled branches:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
) (
) (
) (
) (

The 4 4 submatrices above form part of the larger nodal admittance matrix of the
overall system. The pointers , , , indicate the rows and columns of the system
matrix to which the elements of the above nodal admittance matrix belong.

q
p
n
m
q
p
n
m
q p
n m
b
a
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V V
V V
V
V
b
a T
b
a
q
p
n
m
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
b
a
q
p
n
m
b M
M a
I
I
V
V
V
V
Y Y
Y Y
T
q
p
n
m
b
a T
q
p
n
m
b M
M a T
I
I
I
I
I
I
V
V
V
V
Y Y
Y Y
m n p q
q
p
n
m
q
p
n
m
q
p
n
m
b b M M
b b M M
M M a a
M M a a
I
I
I
I
V
V
V
V
Y Y Y Y
Y Y Y Y
Y Y Y Y
Y Y Y Y
m n p q
A
A
A
A
A
A A A

Bus Admittance Matrix 1 -- A.C. Nerves, U.P. Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Nov. 13 2003
17
Nodal admittance matrix by inspection:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
) (
) (
) (
) (

1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
If node is the reference, we may eliminate the row and column of that node.
If and are one and the same node, columns and are combined (since = ),
and the corresponding rows are added because and are parts of the common
injected current.
:
Primitive admittances:
25 . 6 75 . 3
75 . 3 25 . 6
25 . 0 15 . 0
15 . 0 25 . 0
1
Nodal admittance matrix:
(3) (1) (3) (2)
) 2 (
) 3 (
) 1 (
) 3 (

) 25 . 6 (
1 1
1 1
) 75 . 3 (
1 1
1 1
) 75 . 3 (
1 1
1 1
) 25 . 6 (
1 1
1 1
m n p q
q
p
n
m
b M
M a
Y Y
Y Y
n
n q n q V
n
V
q
I
n
I
q
Exampl e
j j
j j
j j
j j
j j
j j

j0.25
j0.25
j0.25 j0.15
2
1
3
Bus Admittance Matrix 1 -- A.C. Nerves, U.P. Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Nov. 13 2003
18
Adding the columns and rows of the common node 3,
(3) (2) (1)
75 . 3 75 . 3 25 . 6 25 . 6 25 . 6 75 . 3 75 . 3 25 . 6
25 . 6 75 . 3 25 . 6 75 . 3
75 . 3 25 . 6 75 . 3 25 . 6
) 3 (
) 2 (
) 1 (
Nodal equations:
3
2
1
3
2
1
00 . 5 50 . 2 50 . 2
50 . 2 25 . 6 75 . 3
50 . 2 75 . 3 25 . 6
Three branches with mutual coupling:
3 2
3 1
2 1
1
2
1
2 1
0
0
bus
:
1. Invert the primitive impedance matrices of the network branches to obtain the
corresponding primitive admittance matrices. A single branch has a 1 1 matrix. Two
mutually coupled branches have a 2 2 matrix, three mutually coupled branches have
a 3 3 matrix, and so on.
2. Multiply the elements of each primitive admittance matrix by the 2 2 building-block
matrix.

+ + +
+

j j j j j j j j
j j j j
j j j j
I
I
I
V
V
V
j j j
j j j
j j j
c M M
M b M
M M a
c M
b M
M M a
Y Y Y
Y Y Y
Y Y Y
Z Z
Z Z
Z Z Z
To f or m f or a net wor k wi th mutual l y coupl ed br anches Y
I
a
Z
b
Z
c
Z
M1
Z
M2
Z
a
I
b
I
c
m p r
n q s
Bus Admittance Matrix 1 -- A.C. Nerves, U.P. Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Nov. 13 2003
19
3. Label the two rows and the two columns of each building-block matrix with
the end-node numbers of the corresponding self-admittance. For mutually coupled
branches it is important to label in the order of the marked (dotted) --- then ---
unmarked (undotted) node numbers.
4. Label the two rows of each building-block matrix with node numbers
aligned and consistent with the row labels assigned in (3); then label the columns
consistent with the column labels of (3).
5. Combine, by adding together, those elements with identical row and column labels to
obtain the nodal admittance matrix of the overall network. If one of the nodes
encountered is the reference node, omit its row and column to obtain the system
Y
bus
.
di agonal
off -di agonal