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Advertising and promotional schemes of cocacola

Introduction : introduction In this age of servers competition, promotion is the only marketing tools which can be manipulated easily. The reasons is that the present era is of information management. And the company which communicates well succeeds.The purpose of my study is to test effectiveness of the promotional activities of coca-cola India inc in the present globalised economy of India. To test the effectiveness of promotional activities of coca- cola I conducted exhaustive study and analysis of market conditions of soft drink during my training in Gurgaon. And I found that promotional activities conducted by the company are satisfactory but they need certain improvement. STATEMENT OF PROBLEM : STATEMENT OF PROBLEM As we know that sales promotion plays a very critical role in the field of every business organisastion as well as the life of a consumer,both have to take suitabale decisions regarding the selling or purchasing the products.The company gives various promotional schemes to their customer,retailers,distributors according to their pre set plans or market conditions so that they will not jump to other products. The main problem faced by me during summer training was time limitation i.e. six weeks which is not sufficient to know every things about the COCA-COLA promotional strategies. OBJECTIVES : OBJECTIVES To see how much the promotional activities are successful in popularizing the coca cola and pulling the consumers towards the company. To compare the effectiveness of coca- cola's "Promotional activities" with other soft drinks. To see that whether the final consumer of coca- cola and intermediaries are getting proper benefits from sales promotional activities or not. To appraise the personal selling efforts directed by Coca-Cola. To suggest measures to further improve the promotional activities of Coca-Cola and make it more competitive. SCOPE OF THE STUDY : SCOPE OF THE STUDY The main concern of my study is to have knowledge and an idea about the Marketing strategies of COCA COLA and suggest measure for improving promotional activities. The training gave me a chance to have practical experience and also the realize theoretical knowledge which I am getting in 'M.B.A'. CONCEPTUALISASTION Theoretical Aspect of Sales Promotion : CONCEPTUALISASTION Theoretical Aspect of Sales Promotion Objective of sales promotion 1. To stimulate the demand by popularizing product 2. To face competition effectively. 3. To keep the memory of products in mind of consumers. 4. To supplement the personal selling & advertising 5. To establish the large market segment Practical aspects : Practical aspects PROMOTIONAL SCHEMES 1. Limca Launches 'Laptop Ki Barish' 2.Coca-Cola Cricket 3.CocaCola Food Mela 5.Coca-Cola Pet Promotion 6.Scheme 7.Promotion through restaurants and cinema hall holdings Industry profile : Industry profile Soft drink market demand is very strong in all over the world. Now there are two major company of Soft drinks Coca-Cola & PepsiCo which are competitors to each other. PepsiCo brands are available in nearly 200 countries and territories and generate sales at the retail level of about $92 billion. Some of PepsiCo's brand names are more than 100-years-old. PepsiCo was founded in 1965 through the merger of Pepsi-Cola and Frito-Lay. Tropicana was acquired in 1998 and PepsiCo merged with The Quaker Oats Company, including Gatorade, in 2001. The world's largest beverages company Coca-Cola begins more than century ago. The Coca-Cola Company's world head quarters in Atlanta Georgia (U.S.A). Formation of Coca-Cola beverages stated in a very simple way, but today it has spread world-wide. It has a wonderful history and exciting future. Despite having many ups and down in its way it went on ahead and today it is a house hold name and a favourite among its customers. Company profile : Company profile Coca- Cola (An USA base Company) was the first soft drink company in India which stated in business in 1958, Gradually, it becomes the part and parcel of the life of the urbanities particularly in Bombay. CORE BRANDS Research Methodology : Research Methodology Research Design Research is exploratory as well as comparative analysis in nature. Data collection and sampling plan :

Data collection and sampling plan Primary data Secondary data SAMPLING:-Systematic random sampling Sample Size Number of consumers:-100 Number of retailers:-100 Number of distributors:-10 SALES PROMOTION TECHNIQUES OF COMPANY : SALES PROMOTION TECHNIQUES OF COMPANY Good Advertising. Effective Incentive Policy. Quality. Wide & Deep Distribution System. Attractive packaging. Allotting SGAS (Refrigerator, Chest cooler, Table Umbrella, Chairs etc.) to retailers. Decorating Retailers shop by display board, dealers board etc. Data Analysis Conclusion : Data Analysis Conclusion Q1:-Which of the following promotional schemes you have come across so far? Interpretation The results show that price off and extra quantity is the two main offers/schemes which consumers have came across at the time of purchase. It will help the manufacturers and marketers too how too launch their new products in the market with which schemes. Q 2:-Which medium do you feel is suitable to promote the various promotional schemes? : Q 2:-Which medium do you feel is suitable to promote the various promotional schemes? Interpretation:-The above result shows TV as the best media to market the product which will cover majority of the viewer ship Q:-3What do You think about the Sales promotional Schemes offered to you by the company. : Q:-3What do You think about the Sales promotional Schemes offered to you by the company. Q:4 Do you think that more Sales promotional Schemes are needed for distributors of retailers. : Q:4 Do you think that more Sales promotional Schemes are needed for distributors of retailers. Interpretation:-From the above diagram, it reveals that 7 Distributors think that more Sales promotional Schemes are needed for distributors of retailers and 3 Distributors think that more Sales promotional Schemes are not needed for distributors of retailers like 50%off scheme Q:-5 What kind of Promotional activities affect sales mostly ? : Q:-5 What kind of Promotional activities affect sales mostly ? Interpretation:-free bottle scheme one get one free affect the coca-cola sales mostly FINDINGS : FINDINGS Advertising campaign of coca cola now can see easily on villages like sign board, hoardings on highway, banners @ outlets Personal - selling assistance gives to them by the company & more POPs. Advertising materials and refiregerators from Coca- Cola has also good result on sales. the sales promotion techniques like- Discount to monopoly retailers & schemes on products is good. SUGGESTIONS : SUGGESTIONS Free gifts must be distributed among retailer who sells higher quantity of Coca- Cola product. When new promotional scheme started, information about the promotional scheme. Must be published in newspaper and advertisement of the promotional scheme be transmitted on television so that large number of consumer know about the promotional scheme. Company must make new strategy to fight local cold drinks brands LIMITATIONS : LIMITATIONS Limitation of time. The project report is conducted only in gurgaon, hence the results may vary in other parts of the state/cities. The findings are based on the survey conducted in the month of June to August, the results may vary in other months. The responses may vary as some people did not want to come up with real answers. And like any other research the limitation of personal bias of respondents limits the scope of the study

COKE VS PEPSI
2. INTRODUCTION1. INTRODUCTION1.1 INTRODUCTION ABOUT TOPICIn the modern culture consumption of soft drinks particularly among younger generationhas become very popular. Soft drinks in various flavors and tastes are widely patronizedby urbane population at various occasions like dinner parties, marriages, social getogether, birthday calibration etc. children of all ages and groups are especially attractedby the mere mention of the word soft drinks. With the growing popularity of soft drinks, thetechnology of its production, preservation, transportation and or marketing in the recentyears has witnessed phenomenal changes. The socalled competition for this product inthe market is from different other brands. Mass media, particularly the emergence oftelevision, has contribute to a large extent of the ever growing demand for soft drinks theattractive jingles and sport make the large audience remember this product at all times. 12 13. It is expected that with the sort of mass advertising, reaching almost the entire countryand offering various varieties annual demand for the product is expected to rise sharply inthe times to come.In any marketing situation, the behavioral / environmental variables relating to consumers,competition and environment are constantly influx. The competitors in a given industrymay be making many tactical maneuvers in market all the time. They may introduce orinitiate an aggressive promotion campaign or announce a price reduction. The marketingman of the firm has to meet all these maneuver and care of competitive position of hisfirm and his brand in the market. The only rout open to him for achieving this is themanipulation of his marketing tactics.In todays highly competitive market place, three players have dominated the industry;The New York based Pepsi Company Inc. The Atlanta based coca- cola and U.K. basedCadbury Schweppes. Through the globe, these major players have been battling it out fora bigger chunk of the ever growing soft drink market. Now this battle has been evolvedup to India too with the arrival of these three giants. Soft drink industry is on amazinggrowth; ultimately

these are only one person who will determine their fortunes. The Indianconsumer the real War to quench his thirst has just begun.The soft drink industry has been a profitable one in spite of the cola wars between thetwo largest players. Several factors contribute to this profitability, and these factors alsohelp to show why the profitability of the concentrate production side of the industry hasbeen so much greater than the bottling side. Over the years the concentrate producershave experimented with different levels of vertical integration, and although it has notnecessarily been clear which have been more successful historically, some decisioncriteria can be developed to help determine if and when complete vertical integration isnecessary.The World most popular soft drinks is on duel! Pepsi and Coca Cola, its the battlebetween the red can soft drinks and the blue can soft drinks! So this 2 drinks taste almostthe same, but which one of the soft drinks do you prefer?Coke and Pepsi have rolled out many celebrities during the past 20 years, and comedian 13 14. Dave Chapels promoted both drinks during the same year. The soft drink industry hasbeen a profitable one in spite of the cola wars between the two largest players. Severalfactors contribute to this profitability, and these factors also help to show why theprofitability of the concentrate production side of the industry has been so much greaterthan the bottling side. Over the years the concentrate producers have experimented withdifferent levels of vertical integration, and although it has not necessarily been clear whichhave been more successful historically, some decision criteria can be developed to helpdetermine if and when complete vertical integration is necessary.The concentration in the industry (Coke and Pepsi have 73% in 1994) would suggest thatinternal rivalry is somewhat less than if there were many players of equal size. Althoughthe competition between Coke and Pepsi has become fiercer over time, they traditionallycompeted primarily on advertising, promotion and new products rather than price(although the explosion of new brands did eventually lead to some price competition). Theproducts are similar but not homogeneous

and buyers are fairly brand loyal. Retail buyershave significant costs for switching from the major brands since those are responsible forbringing people into the store. Flattening and potentially declining U.S. demand may be afactor which increases internal rivalry and encourages more price competition and thuserosion of profits.The ultimate battle of two major players competing for the top spot in a massive globalmarket. The cola and carbonated beverage industry reaches to virtually all corners of theplanet, and the vast majority of the market share belongs to the two giants Coke andPepsi. With such a huge market and enormous revenue potential in an industry such asthis, it is no wonder that the Coke vs. Pepsi competition is so fierce.Coke vs. Pepsi, nearly everyone has a preference or an opinion about which one isbetter. There is really no arguing the fact that the two soft drinks are very similar in termsof flavor. The flavor difference between them is subtle at most, so it is interesting that somany people have such strong feelings about which one is superior.Global market analysis on the cola industry shows that Coca Cola typically has a slightadvantage over Pepsi in market share. In some regions Pepsi is winning the war,however overall it seems that more people are choosing Coke versus Pepsi. Looking at a 14 15. wide range of data shows that Coca Cola owns somewhere between60-63% of the Indianmarket, while Pepsi gets in the neighborhood of 30%. Of course different studies willproduce different results so it is difficult to get a truly accurate picture. The one thing thatis certain is that Coke and Pepsi continue to blow away any other form of competition.The cola wars are truly a two horse race..1.2 INTRODUCTION ABOUT COMPANYThe Coca-Cola Company exists to benefit and refresh everyone it touches. Type Public(NYSE:KO) Industry Beverage Founded 1886, USA 15 16. Coca-Cola, the product that has given the world Headquarters Atlanta, Georgia , USAits best- known taste was born in Atlanta, Area served WorldwideGeorgia on May 8, 1886. Coca-Cola Companyis the worlds leading manufacturer, Marketer Key People Muhtar Kentand distributor of

non-alcoholic beverage (Chairman and CEO)concentrates and syrups, used to producenearly 400 beverage brands. The corporate Products Coca Colaheadquarters are in Atlanta, with local Carbonated Soft Drinksoperations in over 200 countries around theworld. The Coca-Cola Company began building Waterits global network in the 1920s.Coca-Cola Other non alcoholicsystem has successfully applied a formula on a beveragesglobal scale Provide a moment of refreshmentfor small amount of money a billion times a day. Employees 92,400 (October 2009) Website Coca-cola.comWhen launched Coca-Cola two key ingredientswere cocaine (benzoyl methyl ecgonine) and caffeine. The cocaine was derived from thecoca leaf and the caffeine from kola nut, leading to the name Coca-Cola (the "K" in Kolawas replaced with a "C" for marketing purposes Coca-Cola often referred to simply asCoke (a registered trademark of The Coca-Cola Company in the United States sinceMarch 27, 1944)was invented in May 1886 by Dr. John Stith Pemberton in Atlanta,Georgia. The name "Coca-Cola" was suggested by Dr. Pembertons bookkeeper, FrankRobinson. He penned the name CocaCola in the flowing script that is famous today.Coca-Cola was first sold at a soda fountain in Jacobs Pharmacy in Atlanta by WillisVenable. The first sales were at Jacobs Pharmacy in Atlanta, Georgia, on May 8, 1886. Itwas initially sold as a patent medicine for five cents a glass at soda fountains, which werepopular in the United States at the time due to the belief that carbonated water was goodfor the health. 16 17. Pemberton claimed Coca-Cola cured many diseases, including morphine addiction,dyspepsia, neurasthenia, headache, and impotence.Pemberton ran the first advertisement for the beverage on May 29 of the same year in theAtlanta Journal. The company was formed to sell three main products: PembertonsFrench Wine Cola (later known as CocaCola), Pembertons Indian Queen Hair Dye, andPembertons Globe Flower Cough Syrup.[The Coca-Cola formula and brand was boughtin 1889 by Asa Candler who incorporated The Coca-Cola Company in 1892. In 1892 Candler incorporated a second company, The Coca-Cola Company (the

current corporation), Coca-Cola was sold in bottles for the first time on March 12, 1894. The first Outdoor wall advertisement was painted in the same year as well in Cartersville, Georgia. CAN of Coke first appeared in 1955. On February 7, 2005, the Coca-Cola Company announced that in thesecond quarter of 2005 they planned to launch a Diet Coke product sweetened with theartificial sweetener sucralose, the same sweetener currently used in Pepsi One. OnMarch 21, 2005, it announced another diet product, Coca-Cola Zero, sweetened partlywith a blend of aspartame and acesulfame potassium. On July 5, 2005, it was revealedthat Coca-Cola would resume operations in Iraq for the first time since the Arab Leagueboycotted the company in 1968. In India, Coca-Cola ranked third behind the leader,Pepsi-Cola, and local drink Thums Up. The Coca-Cola Company purchased Thums Up in1993. As of 2004, Coca-Cola held a 60.9% market-share in India.Coca-Cola was the first commercial sponsor of the Olympic games, at the 1928 games inAmsterdam, and has been an Olympics sponsor ever since. Special aluminum bottledesigned exclusively for the Vancouver 2010 Olympic Winter Games Torch Relay. Thiscorporate sponsorship included the 1996 Summer Olympics hosted in Atlanta, whichallowed Coca-Cola to spotlight its hometown. 17 18. Since 1978, Coca-Cola has sponsored each FIFA World Cup, and other competitionsorganized by FIFA. In fact, one FIFA tournament trophy, the FIFA World YouthChampionship from Tunisia in 1977 to Malaysia in 1997, was called "FIFA Coca ColaCup".In 2010 it was announced that Coca-Cola had become the first brand to top 1 billion inannual UK grocery salesIngredients Carbonated water Sugar (sucrose or high-fructose corn syrup depending on country of origin) Caffeine Phosphoric acid v. Caramel (E150d) Natural flavorings A Can of Coke (12 fl ounces/355ml) has 39 grams of carbohydrates (all from sugar, approximately 10 teaspoons), 50 mg of sodium, 0 grams fat, 0 grams potassium,140calorie. LOGOThe famous Coca-Cola logo was created by John Pembertons bookkeeper, Frank MasonRobinson, in 1885. Robinson came up with the name and chose the logos distinctivecursive script. The typeface used, known as

Spenserian script, was developed in the mid19th century and was the dominant form of formal handwriting in the United States duringthat period. 18 19. Robinson also played a significant role in early Coca-Cola advertising. His promotionalsuggestions to Pemberton included giving away thousands of free drink coupons andplastering the city of Atlanta with publicity banners and streetcar signs.The Worlds Most Powerful BrandInterbrains Global Brand Scorecard for 2003 ranked Coca-Cola the #1 Brand in theWorld, estimated its brand value at $70.45 billion .The rankings methodology determineda brands valuation on the basis of how much it was likely to earn in the future, distillingthe percentage of revenues that could be credited to the brand, and assessing thebrands strength to determine the risk of future earnings forecasts. Considerationsincluded market leadership, stability, and global reach, incorporating its ability to crossboth geographical and cultural borders.From the beginning, Coke understood the importance of branding and the creation of adistinct personality. Its catchy, well-liked slogans (Its the real thing (1942, 1969),Things go better with Coke (1963), Coke is it (1982), Cant beat the Feeling (1987),and a 1992 return to Cant beat the real thing) linked that personality to the core valuesof each generation and established Coke as the authentic, relevant, and trustedrefreshment of choice across the decades and around the globe.1.2.1 BUSINESS MODEL OF COMPANY 19 20. 1.3 SWOT ANALYSIS 20 Coca-cola needs a proper planned route of operation. 21 WEAKNESSES: Its new launched product AAM PANA which gives desi taste to Indians. People trust coca-cola. A wide range of different tastes. Maintains high quality. Thumbs up is much stronger in taste compared to Pepsi. Coca-cola has many stars endorsing its products. Coca-cola Company is the most famous brand name of the world. STRENGTHS: ThreatsSWOT analysis of the coca-cola company can be

understood as follows: Opportunities Weaknesses Strength 21. SWOT analysis is the overall evaluation of the company or an individual. THREATS: 22 Can launch many new schemes to defeat Pepsi from the market (like a home delivery scheme was launched in Jaipur House area.) Can launch new traditional Indian products. Good semi urban market. It has a large rural market to spread its products. OPPORTUNITIES: Retailers dont support its low budget schemes. Proper quality control methods are not used. Its name brand coke is not much popular among people. It has very low budget for promotion and advertisement of its products.22. Increase in the sales of other fruit juices or health drinks.1.4 OBJECTIVES OF STUDY 23 The research which is conducted by some institutes regarding pesticides in soft drinks. It has an intense competition with Pepsi. 23. To know which brand advertisement mostly liked by the target customers.1.5 NEED OF STUDY 24 To find out the factor(s) that influences the consumer(s) consumption of soft drinks. To study the preference of the people for soft drinks. To study the performance of coca cola. 24. 25. The main aim of this research study is to analyze the preference of people (of differentage group) on consumption pattern of soft drink and consumer awareness about softdrinks.The need of the study arises because with the help of this study company can get theinformation about the brand awareness, position of its brand in the market, sales andpromotion policies . So that, after understandings the customers and retailers opinionabout the company helps the company to change its marketing strategies to focus on thecustomers and helps to fight against the competitors. With the help of this study thecompany can improve its promotion policy and increase its market share and profit. 25 26. CHAPTER- 2 REVIEW OFLITERATURE 26

27. 2. REVIEW OF LITERATUREAccording to the Websters dictionary, literature is the writings that pertains towardsparticular branch of learning and printed matter and review means to examine again, tostudy carefully.Therefore literature review is the printed matter which we study very carefully during ourwork. This project is also a collection of insight into the different printed material.The preference for Coke versus Pepsi is not only a matter for the tongue to decide,Samuel McClure and his colleagues have found. Brain scans of people tasting the softdrinks reveal that knowing which drink they taste affects their preference and activatesmemory-related brain regions that recall cultural influences.The knowledge about sales and promotion principles is gained from the book Theprinciple of marketing written by Philip Kotler.There were many researches which were conducted to determine the awareness thecoca cola .In 2009 a research was conducted in Delhi region.. In this research it wasfound that people were aware of coca cola more than Pepsi.( Samuel, et, al. 2004)According to the Product Insights: Soft Drinks in India report,The global soft drinks market grew at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 3.45%from 2005 to 2009 and was valued at $494.5 billion in 2009. New product launches in theglobal soft drinks market increased by 8.59% in 2009. The US was the top country byretail sales as well as by number of new product launches, followed by Japan whichranked second in both categories. Globally, India ranked 25th in terms of retail sales and13th in terms of the number of new product launches in the soft drinks market in 2009.In spite of Indias huge population and the fact that around 47% of the population iscomposed of persons below 30 years of age, the per-capita consumption of soft drinks inIndia remains very low, at approximately at 5.2 liters against the world average of nearly 27

28. 85.22 liters. Developed countries such as the US, Germany, Italy and Spain all have per-capita consumption in the range of 280-400 liters, showcasing the huge potential formarket growth in India. Coca-Cola remains the market leader in the carbonates categorywith a market share of more than 60% in the Indian market, followed by Pepsi with around35%.

In the bottled water category, Parles Bisleri andKinley from Coca-Cola are the leading players. The packaged juices market in Indiacontinues to be dominated by Maaza and Frooti, followed by brands such as Slice,Tropicana and Real which have registered good growths in their market shares in thepast few years. Red Bull with its strong dominance of the energy drinks category, whichis the largest segment in the functional drinks category, is the market leader in thefunctional drinks market.CocaCola had built its reputation on the consumer-loving products it sells. This is whythey dont want its main rival, Pepsi, free-riding on that reputation. Coca-Cola made theaverage glass bottle famous. Now, Pepsi just wants to take advantage of Coca-Colasgoodwill and reputation just to boost its own sales. Why else would Pepsi want to sell asimilar glass bottle? Although Pepsi makes a strong case, this fact alone could destroyPepsis chances of a victory.2.1 A study of factors responsible for brand preference in FMCG sector.The purpose of this paper is the study of factors responsible for brand preference inFMCG products, increasing competition, more due to globalization, is motivating manycompanies to base their strategies almost entirely on building brands. Brand preferencemeans to compare the different brands and opt for the most preferred brand. This brandpreference is influenced by various factors.According to this study many factors were find out for preferring a brand like:Brand personaBrand constancyBrand loftinessBrand value. 28 29. In the identification of factors affecting the brand preference, it was concluded that brandpersona is the most effective factor that affects the brand preference. This brand personadeals with the personality aspects or the external attributes of brand, thus it can be saidthat consumer prefer any brand by looking at the external attributes of a brand.2.2 Bombarding the senses: StudyBy choosing to formulate a new beverage, the researchers noted that the new productwould need to be differentiated by improving the sensory characteristics. Four factorswere identified for the formulation: four color intensities), three flavorings, two label types(soft versus hard), and two pack sizes (standard versus oversize). By using bothquantitative

(hedonic testing) and qualitative (focus groups) approaches, the researchersfound that the main factors which drive consumer preference for this concept are colorintensity and flavoring. Indeed, color intensity accounted for 43 per cent and flavor 32 percent of the consumers overall liking. Pack size and label type are taken into account bythe consumer to a lesser extent, they added. This methodology of a qualitative screeningassociated to a conjoint analysis on relevant sensory attributes has shown goodperformances to fit consumers expectation: it has now to be reproduced, as e very brand,concept and product is a unique combination designed for a specific consumer group,concluded the researchers.2.3. Taste or health: A study on consumer acceptance of cola drinksThis study examined the relative contributions of taste and health considerations onconsumer liking and purchase intent of cola drinks. Eight types of commercial cola drinkswere evaluated by 305 adult consumers who also completed a brief questionnaire on foodhabits. Data were analyzed using factor analysis. Results revealed that purchase intent ofcola drinks was strongly related to degree of liking and to several key sensory attributesincluding saltiness, drinks flavor and greasiness. These variables emerged as the firstfactor in the analysis, suggesting that consumers perceive these characteristics as beingmost important in their choice of cola drinks. Factor 2 described a health dimension andwas related to respondents attitudes toward fat in the diet. Factor 3 comprised two 29 30. remaining sensory attributes (color and crunchiness), which apparently were of minorimportance to the respondents. These data suggest that in spite of current concern aboutreducing dietary fat, health remains secondary to taste in the selection of cola drinks forconsumers in this population.2.4. Paired preference tests using placebo pairs and different responseOptions for cola drinks, orange juices: AbstractPreference tests were performed for varieties of cola drinks, orange juices and usingthree response protocols: the traditional paired preference test with the "no preference"option, a 9-point hedonic scale and a 6-point hybrid

hedonic/purchase intent scale. Thedifferent stimuli to be assessed were presented in pairs, but putatively identical stimuliwere also presented as a "placebo" pair. Performance on the placebo pair with identicalstimuli provided a measure of the hidden demand characteristics of the test protocol. Thepresentation of the different pairs provided a measure of preference accompanied bysuch hidden demand effects. Comparison between the two allowed a better measure ofpreference per se. The order of presentation of the identical and different pairs did showoccasional slight evidence of contrast effects. For the placebo "identical" pairs, a majorityof consumers reported false preferences. Liking questions with the hedonic and hybridscales elicited fewer false preferences than preference questions with the pairedpreference protocol. Yet, the effects tended to be slight. The 6-point hedonic/purchaseintent scale exhibited the fewest false preferences in the placebo condition, and this wasbecause of its fewer categories rather than any cognitive strategy change elicited by itsdifferent labels. 30 31. CHAPTER- 3SOFT DRINKINDUSTRY 31 32. 3.1 SOFT DRINK INDUSTRY: AN OVERVIEWIt all began in 1886, when a tree legged brass kettle in Hohn Styth pembertons backyardin Atlanta was brewing the first P of marketing legeent Unaware the pharmacist has givenbirth to a caramel colored syrup, which is now the chief ingredient of the worlds favoritedrink. The syrup combined with carbonated the soft drink market. It is estimated that thisdrink is served more than one thousand million times in a day.In 1894, this beverage got into bottle, courtesy a candy merchant from Mississippi. By the1950s Colas was a daily consumption item, stored in house hold fridges. Soon were bornother non- cola variants of this product like orange & Lemon.Now, the soft drink industry has been dominated by three major players 1. The New York based Pepsi co. Inc.2. The Atlanta based coca cola co.3. The United Kingdom based Cadbury Schweppes.Throughout the glove these major players have been battling it. Out of a big chunk of

theever growing cold drink market, now this battle has begun in India too. India is now the 32 33. part of cold drink war. Gone are days of Ramesh Chauhan, Indias one time cola king andhis bouts of pistol shooting. Expect now to hear the boon of cannons when the Coca Cola& Pepsi co. battles it out for, as the Jordon goes a bigger share of throat. By buying Overlocal competition, the two American Cola giants have cleared up the arena and arepacking all their power behind building the Indian franchisee of their globe girdling brands.The huge amount invested in fracture has never been seen before. Both players seen anenormous potential in his country where swigging a carbonated beverage is stillconsidered a treat, virtually a luxury. Consequently, by world standards Indias per capitaconsumption of cold drinks as going by survey results is rock bottom, less than overNeighbors Pakistan & Bangladesh, where it is four times as much. Behind the hype, in aneffort invisible to consumer Pepsi pumps in Rs 3000 crores (1994) to add muscle to itsinfrastructure in bottling and distribution. This is apart from money that companysfranchised bottles spend in upgrading their plants all this has contributed to substantialgains in the market. In colas, Pepsi is already market leader and in certain cities likeBanaras, Pepsi outlets are on one side & all the other colas put together on the other.While coke executive scruff at Pepsis claims as well as targets, industry observers are ofthe view that Pepsi has definitely stolen a march over its competitor coke.Apart from numbers, Pepsi has made qualitative gains. The foremost is its image. Thisimage turnaround is no small achievements, considering that since it was establishedin1989, taking the hardship route prior to liberalization and weighed down by exportcommitments.Now, at present as there are three major players coke, Pepsi and Cadbury and there isstiff competition between first two, both Pepsi and coke have started, sponsoring localevents and staging frequent consumer promotion campaigns. As the mega event of thiscentury has started, and the marketers are using this event world cup football, cricketevents and many more other events. Like Pepsi, coke is picking up equity in its bottles

toguarantee their financial support; one side coke is trying to increase its popularity througheat Food, enjoy Food. Drink only coca cola. Eat cricket, sleep cricket. Drink only cocacola. Eat movies, sleep movies. Drink only coca cola. 33 VISIBILITYVisibility is the presence felt, if any outlet has a particular brand of soft drink say- Pepsicola and this brand is not displayed in the outlet, then its availability is of no use. The softdrink must be shown off properly and attractively so as to catch the attention of theconsumer immediately Pepsi achieves visibility by providing glow signboards, hoarding, 34 AVAILABILITYAvailability means the presence of a particular brand at any outlet. If a product is nowavailable at any outlet and the competitor brand is available, the consumer will go for itbecause generally the consumption of any soft drink is an impulse decision and notpredetermined one. Range Cooling Visibility Availability 34. On the other side of coin Pepsi has introduced AMITABH BACHHAN for capturing thelemon market through MIRINDA Lemon with zor ka jhatka dhere se lage.But no doubt that UK based Cadbury is also recognizing its presence. So there is a realcrush in the soft drink market. with launch of the carbonated organize drink Crush, fewyear ago in Banaras ., the first in a series of a launches , Cadbury Schweppes beverageIndia (CSBI) HAS PLANNED:- The world third largest soft drink marketers all over thecountry. CSBI wholly owned subsidiary of the London based $ 6.52billion. CadburySchweppes is hoping that crush is going well and well not suffer the same fate as theRs.175 crore Cadbury Indias apple drink Apella. CSBI is now with orange (crush), andSchweppes soda in the market.As orange drinks are the smallest of non-cola categories that is Rs. 1100 crore marketswith 10% market share and cola heaving 50% is followed by Lemon segment with25%.The success of soft drink industry depends upon 4 major factors viz. RANGE This is the last but not the least factor, which affects the sale of the products of a particular company. Range availability means the availability of all flavors in all sizes. 35 COOLING As the soft drinks are consumed chilled so cooling them plays a vital role in boosting up the

sales. The brand, which is available chilled, gets more sales then the one which is not, even if it is more preferred one.35. calendars etc. to the outlets. It also includes various stands to display Pepsi and other flavors of the company. 36. 3.2 COCA-COLA3.2.1 COCA-COLA IN INDIACoke would rather be long term wiser, than being short term smarter Abhraham ninan Director External Affairs COCA-COLA INDIAIndia is home to one of the most ancient cultures in the world dating back over 5000years. At the beginning of the twenty-first century, twenty-six different languages werespoken across India, 30% of the population knew English, and greater than 40% wereilliterate. At this time, the nation was in the midst of great transition and the dichotomybetween the old India and the new was stark. Remnants of the caste system existedalongside the worlds top engineering schools and growing metropolises as thehistorically agricultural economy shifted into the services sector. In the process, India hadcreated the worlds largest middle class, second only to China. 36 37. A British colony since 1769 when the East India Company gained control of all Europeantrade in the nation, India gained its independence in 1947 under Mahatma Ghandi and hisprinciples of non-violence and selfreliance. In the decades that followed, self-reliancewas taken to the extreme as many Indians believed that economic independence wasnecessary to be truly independent. As a result, the economy was increasingly regulatedand many sectors were restricted to the public sector. This movement reached its peak in1977 when the Janta party government came to power and Coca-Cola was thrown out ofthe countryCoca-Cola was the leading soft drink brand in India until 1977 when it left rather thanreveals its formula to the government and reduces its equity stake as required under theForeign Exchange Regulation Act (FERA) which governed the operations of foreigncompanies in India. After a 16-year absence, Coca-Cola returned to India in 1993,cementing its presence with a deal that gave Coca-Cola ownership of the nations topsoftdrink brands and bottling network. Cokes acquisition of localPopular Indian

brands including Thums Up (the most trusted brand in India21), Limca,Maaza, Citra and Gold Spot provided not only physical manufacturing, bottling, anddistribution assets but also strong consumer preference. This combination of local andglobal brands enabled Coca-Cola to exploit the benefits of global branding and globaltrends in tastes while also tapping into traditional domestic markets.Leading Indian brands joined the Companys international family of brands, includingCoca- Cola, diet Coke, Sprite and Fanta, plus the Schweppes product range. In 2000, thecompany launched the Kinley water brand and in 2001, Shock energy drink and thepowdered concentrate Sunfill hit the market. While The CocaCola Company is a globalcompany with some of the worlds most widely brands, the Coca-Cola business in India,as in each country where it operates, is a local business.After a 16-years absence, Coca-Cola returned to India in 1993. The Companys presencein India was cemented in November that year in a deal that gave Coca-Cola ownership ofthe nations top soft-drink brands and bottling network.Coca-Cola India has made significant investments to build and continually improve its 37 The complexity of the Indian market is reflected in the distribution fleet, which includes 10-tonne trucks, open-bay three-wheelers that can navigate the narrow alleyways of Indian cities, and trademarked tricycles and pushcarts. 38 A network of 29 contract-packers also manufactures a range of products for the Company The Coca-Cola system in India comprises 27 wholly-owned company-owned bottling operations and another 17 franchisee-owned bottling operations. Virtually all the goods and services required to produce and market Coca-Cola locally are made in India In India, we indirectly create employment for more than 125,000 people in related industries through our vast procurement, supply and distribution system In 2003, Coca-Cola India pledged to invest a further US$100 million in its operations Coca-Cola is one of the countrys top international investors by 2003; Coca-Cola India had won the prestigious Woodruff Cup from among 22 divisions of the Company based on three broad parameters of volume, profitability, and quality. During the past

decade, the Coca-Cola system has invested more than US$ 1 billion in India 38. business in India, including new production facilities, wastewater treatment plants, anddistribution systems and marketing equipment Ranking: We own 4 of the worlds top 5 non-alcoholic sparkling beverage brands: Coca-Cola, Diet Coke, Sprite and Fanta. 39 We will collaborate creatively with those who sell our products in the marketplace, developing relationships built on mutual success, not only from our brands, but also from our services. The complete manufacturing process had a documented quality control and assurance program including over 400 tests performed throughout the process.39. 40. Oct 1993 1993 - Pune 1996 Coke relaunched Concentrate Can, PET plant Plant started in Pune in Agra 1998 Sept 1997 First greenfield Acquired first bottling plant, Ahmedabad plant, Bareilly 1997 - 1999 2000 22 Acquired, 6 COBO regions, 4 bottling 7 Greenfield companies 1 FOBO operation 2010- 7000 local employees, 500 managers, over 60 manufacturing locations, 27 Company Owned Bottling Operations (COBO), 17 Franchisee Owned Bottling Operations (FOBO) and a network of 29 Contract Packers that facilitate the manufacture process of a range of products for the companyBeverage industry in India: a brief insight:-In India, beverages form an important part of the lives of people. It is an industry, in whichthe players constantly innovate, in order to come up with better products to gain moreconsumers and satisfy the existing consumers. 40 41. The soft-drink industry comprises companies that manufacture nonalcoholic beveragesand carbonated mineral waters or concentrates and syrups for the manufacture ofcarbonated beverages.Non-alcoholic soft drink beverage market can be divided into fruit drinks and soft drinks.Soft drinks can be further divided into carbonated and non-carbonated drinks. Cola,lemon and oranges are carbonated drinks while mango drinks come under noncarbonated category.Cola products account for over 60% of the total soft drink market and include popularbrands such as Coca-Cola,

Pepsi, and Thumps up etc. Non-cola segment constitutes forover 35% of the market. 41 Profit: Maximizing return to shareowners while being mindful of our overall responsibilities. 42 Partners: Nurturing a winning network of partners and building mutual loyalty. Portfolio: Bringing to the world a portfolio of beverage brands that anticipate and satisfy peoples desires and needs. Planet: Being a responsible global citizen that makes a difference. People: Being a great place to work where people are inspired to be the best they can be. To Create Value and Make a Difference...everywhere we engage.VISIONTo achieve sustainable growth, we have established a Vision with clear goals: To Inspire Moments of Optimism...through our brands and our actions. To Refresh the World ...in body, mind, and spirit. 42. 3.2.2 MISSION AND VISIONMISSIONEverything we do is inspired by our enduring 43. 3.2.4 BRANDS OF COKECoca-colaCoca cola is the most popular and highest selling soft drinks in the history, as well as thebest known product in the world. Coca-Cola has a truly remarkable heritage. From thehumble beginning in 1886, its now a flagship brand of the largest manufacturer, marketerand distributor of the non-alcoholic beverages in the world.Diet cokeWorlds Third Largest Selling Soft DrinkDiet Coke is for those who want plenty of taste but no calories. Diet coke is also known asCoke light in some countries.Thums upToday it is the largest selling soft drink brand in India.Thums Up is known for its strong, fizzy taste and its confident, mature and uniquelymasculine attitude. This brand clearly seeks to separate the men from the boys.SpriteSprite is the brand that gained most share in sparkling beverages in the year 2010.Present in over 130 countries worldwide. In India, sprite is the second largest brand ofsoft drinks. Sprite is a good product at cola and contains at lemon flavor. And preferred byall age of people.FantaFanta the orange drink 43 44. Over the years Fanta has occupied a strong market place and is identified as the "TheFun Catalyst".LimcaLimcas freshness is like no other-

lime n lemoniLime n lemoni Limca can cast a tangy refreshing spell on anyone, anywhere. Derivedfrom Nimbu + jaisa hence Lime Sa, Limca has lived up to its promise of refreshmentand has been the original thirst choice of millions of consumers for over 3 decade.MaazaMaaza the wholesome family fun Mango. Imagine this delicious fruit, bottled. This iswhat Maaza is all about. Maaza- the most loved beverage brand in India. It provides themost authentic experience of rich, juicy mangoesanytime, anywhere!Minute Maid NimbuJust Like Home-made LemonadeA lemon drink with no added preservative or colour, Minute Maid Nimbu Fresh offers arefreshing drinking experience as close to homemade NimbuPaani as possible in apackaged format. Nostalgia in a bottle, Minute Maid Nimbu Fresh offers Ghar Ki YaadonKa Ras (memories of home-made lemonade) in every sip.Minute MaidRefreshingly Orange Surprisingly Pulpy!Minute Maid one of the worlds largest juice and juice drink brands.KinleyWater you can trust and be truly safe and pure.Kinley water understands the importance and value of this life giving force. Kinley waterthus promises water that is as pure as it is meant to be. 44 45. Kinley SodaIndias no.1 National Soda brand.With its unique taste and formula Kinley Soda packs quite a punch 45 46. 3.2.4 COKE: BRANDS IN INDIA 46 47. 3.2.5 SLOGANS OF COCA-COLA1886 "Coca-Cola-Delicious, Refreshing, Exhilarating"1904 - Delicious and refreshing.1905 - Coca-Cola revives and sustains.1906 - The great national temperance beverage.1908 - Good till the last drop1917 - Three million a day.1922 - Thirst knows no season.1923 - Enjoy life.1924 - Refresh yourself.1925 - Six million a day.1926 - It had to be good to get where it is.1927 - Pure as Sunlight1927 - Around the corner from anywhere.1928 - Coca-Cola ... pure drink of natural flavors.1929 - The pause that refreshes.1932 - Ice-cold sunshine.1937 - Americas favorite moment.1938 - The best friend thirst ever had.1938 - Thirst asks nothing more. 47

48. 1939 - Coca-Cola goes along.1939 - Coca-Cola has the taste thirst goes for.1939 - Whoever you are, whatever you do, wherever you may be, when you think ofrefreshment, think of ice cold Coca-Cola.1941 - CocaCola is Coke!1942 - The only thing like Coca-Cola is Coca-Cola itself.1944 - How about a Coke?1945 - Coke means Coca-Cola.1945 - Passport to refreshment.1947 - Coke knows no season.1948 - Where theres Coke theres hospitality.1949 - Coca-Cola ... along the highway to anywhere.1952 - What you want is a Coke.1954 - For people on the go.1956 - Coca-Cola ... makes good things taste better.1957 - The sign of good taste.1958 - The Cold, Crisp Taste of Coke1959 - Be really refreshed.1963 - Things go better with Coke.1966 - Coke ... after Coke ... after Coke.1969 - Its the real thing. 48

49. 1971 - Id like to buy the world a Coke. (basis for the song Id Like to Teach the World toSing)1974 - Look for the real things.1976 - Coke adds life.1979 - Have a Coke and a smile1982 - Coke is it!1985 - Americas Real Choice1986 - Red White & You (for Coca-Cola Classic)1986 - Catch the Wave (for New Coke)1989 - Cant Beat the Feeling. (also used in the UK)1993 - Always Coca-Cola.2000 - Enjoy.2001 - Life tastes good. (also used in the UK)2003 - Real.2005 - Make It Real.2006 - The Coke Side of Life (used also in the UK)2007 - Live on the Coke Side of Life (also used in the UK)2009 - Open Happiness2010 - Twist The Cap To Refreshment2011 - Life Begins Here 49

50. India"Thanda matlab Coca-Cola!" ("Cold means Coca-Cola!") (2000s)"Pio sar utha ke" ("Drink with pride")"Jo chaho ho jaye, Coca-Cola enjoy!" ("Whatever you wish will come true, enjoy Coca-Cola!") 50

51. 3.3 PEPSICOPepsiCo is one the largest companies in the U.S. It figures amongst the largest15companies worldwide according to the number of employees hired. It has a U.S.Fortune rank of 50.The company profits for 1997 were $2.14 billion on revenues of $20.92billion and Pepsi is bottled in nearly 190 countries. PepsiCo is a world leader inconvenient snacks, foods and beverages with revenues of more than $43 billion and

over198,000employees. Take a journey through our past and see the key milestones thatdefine PepsiCo. PepsiCo is a world leader in the food chain business. It consists of manycompanies amongst which the prominent once are Pepsi-Cola, Frito-Lay and Pepsi FoodInternational. The group is presently into two of the most profitable and profitable andgrowing industriesnamely, beverages and snack foods. It has scores of big brandsavailable in nearly 150 51 52. countries across the globe. The group has established for itself once of the strongestbrands in various segments of its operations.The beverages segment primarily markets its Pepsi, Diet Pepsi, Mountain Dew andother brands worldwide and 7-UP outside the U.S. markets. These are positioned in closecompetition with Coca-Cola Inc. of USA. A point which is worth a mention is that Coca-Cola gets 80% of its profits for International operations while the same figure for PepsiCostands at 6%. The segment is also in the bottling plants and distribution facilities and alsodistributes the ready to drink tea products of Lipton in North America. In a jointventurewith orient spray juice products PepsiCo also manufactures and distributes fruit juices.The snack food division manufactures and distributes and markets chips and othersnacks worldwide. The international operations of this segment extend to the markets ofMexico, the UK and Canada. Frito-Lay represents this segment of PepsiCo. Therestaurant segment earlier primarily consists of the operations of the worldwide Pizza Hut,Taco Bell and KFC chains, PFS. Pepsi companys restaurant distribution operation,supplies company owned and franchise restaurants in the U.S. The company venturedinto restaurant business with Taco Bell, KFC, Pizza Hut ended last year when they werespanned off from the company. A packaged goods company comprised of Pepsi-ColaCompany and Frito-Lay will continue to bear the PepsiCo name. The move shouldenhance both corporations ability to prosper with their own fully dedicated structure andmanagement team. 52 53. 3.3.1PEPSICO IN INDIAPepsiCo gained entry to India in 1988 by creating a joint venture with the Punjabgovernment-owned Punjab Agro

Industrial Corporation (PAIC) and Voltas India Limited.This joint venture marketed and sold Lehar Pepsi until 1991, when the use offoreign brands was allowed; PepsiCo bought out its partners and ended the joint venturein 1994.Others claim that firstly Pepsi was banned from import in India, in 1970, forhaving refused to release the list of its ingredients and in 1993, the ban was lifted, withPepsi arriving on the market shortly afterwards. These controversies are a reminder of"Indias sometimes acrimonious relationship with huge multinational companies." Indeed,some argue that PepsiCo and The Coca-Cola Company have "been major targets inpart because they are well-known foreign companies that draw plenty of attention."In2003, the Centre for Science and Environment (CSE), a nongovernmental organizationin New Delhi, said aerated waters produced by soft drinks manufacturers in India,including multinational giants PepsiCo and The Coca-Cola Company, contained Toxins,including linden , DDT, marathon and chlorpyrifos pesticides that can contribute to 53 54. cancer, a breakdown of the immune system and cause birth defects. Tested productsincluded Coke, Pepsi, 7 Up, Miranda, Fanta, Thums Up, Limca, and Sprite.CSE foundthat the Indian-produced Pepsis soft drink products had 36 times the level of pesticideresidues permitted under European Union regulations; Coca Colas 30 times.CSE said ithad tested the same products in the US and found no such residues. However, this wasthe European standard for water, not for other drinks. No law bans the presence ofpesticides in drinks in India. The Coca-Cola Company and PepsiCo angrily deniedallegations that their products manufactured in India contained toxin levels far above thenorms permitted in the developed world. But an Indian parliamentary committee, in 2004,backed up CSEs findings and a government-appointed committee, is now trying todevelop the worlds first pesticides standards for soft drinks. Coke and PepsiCoopposed the move, arguing that lab tests arent reliable enough to detect minute traces ofpesticides in complex drinks. As of 2005, The CocaCola Company and PepsiCo togetherhold 95% market share of soft-drink sales in India. PepsiCo has also been accused by thePuthussery

panchayat in the Palakkad district in Kerala, India, of practicing "water piracy"due to its role in exploitation of ground water resources resulting in scarcity of drinkingwater for the panchayat resident who have been pressuring the government to closedown the PepsiCo unit in the village. In 2006, the CSE again found that soda drinks,including both Pepsi and Coca-Cola, had high levels of pesticides in their drinks. BothPepsiCo and The Coca-Cola Company maintain that their drinks are safe for consumptionand have published newspaper advertisements that say pesticide levels in their productsare less than those in other foods such as tea, fruit and dairy products. In the Indian stateof Kerala, sale and production of Pepsi-Cola, along with other soft drinks, was banned bythe state government in 2006, but this was reversed by the Kerala High Court merely amonth later. Five other Indians tates have announced partial bans on the drinks inschools, colleges and hospitals.Brand FactsPepsiCo nourishes consumers with a range of products from tasty treats to healthy eatsthat deliver enjoyment, nutrition, convenience as well as affordability The group has builtan expansive beverage and foods business. To support its operations, PepsiCo has 42 54 55. bottling plants in India, of which 13 are company owned and 29 are franchisee owned. Inaddition to this, PepsiCos Frito Lay division has 3 state-of-the-art plants. PepsiCosbusiness is based on its sustainability vision of making tomorrow better than today.PepsiCos commitment to living by this vision every day is visible in its contribution to thecountry, consumers and farmers.BeveragesPepsiCo Indias expansive portfolio includes iconic refreshment beverages Pepsi, 7UP, Nimbooz, Miranda and Mountain Dew, in addition to low calorie options such as DietPepsi, hydrating and nutritional beverages such as Aquafina drinking water, isotonicsports drinks - Gatorade, Tropicana100% fruit juices, and juice based Drinks TropicanaNectars, Tropicana Twister and Slice. Local brands Lehar EvervessSoda, DukesLemonade and Mangola add to the diverse range of brands 55

It provides direct and indirect employment to 150,000 people in India. 56 Well known and loved global brands that delight and nourish consumers. Invested more than USD 1 Billion since inception. PepsiCo established its business operations in India in 1989. 56. FoodsPepsiCos food division, Frito-Lay, is the leader in the branded salty snack market and allFrito Lay products are free of trans-fat and MSG. It manufactures Lays Potato Chips;Cheetos extruded snacks, Uncle Chips and traditional snacks under the Kurkure andLehar brands. The companys high fiber breakfast cereal, Quaker Oats, and low fat androasted snack options enhance the healthful choices available to consumers. Frito Layscore products, Lays, Kurkure, Uncle Chipps and Cheetos are cooked in Rice Bran Oil tosignificantly reduce saturated fats and all of its products contain voluntary nutritionallabeling on their packets.QUICK FACTS

It has more than 42 bottling plants in India, of which 13 are company owned57. & 3 State-of-the-art food plants in Punjab, Maharashtra and West Bengal. 5729franchisee owned.

58. 3.3.2 PEPSICO INDIA: A FORTUNE 500 COMPANY IN INDIAPepsiCo, which ranks among the worlds five largest food and beverage companies with16 brands, and its partners have invested more than US$ 700 million in India - buildingbusinesses, which today provide direct or indirect employment to more than 60,000people. Since Pepsis entry into the Indian market in 1989, several brands fromits portfolio have become established category leaders. Brand Pepsi is now the 2ndbiggest brand in the country. PepsiCos portfolio of beverage brands in India includes theflagship cola brand Pepsi; Diet Pepsi; two flavors of Mirinda Orange and Lemon; 7UP;Mountain Dew; packaged drinking water Aquafina; variants of the fruit drink brand Slice;the 100 per cent fruit juice brand Tropicana in several variants and the worlds leadingsports drink Gatorade. 58

Pepsi has always played on the front foot and since its inception has come out with revolutionary concepts like Diet, 2L bottles, recyclable plastic cola

bottles and the enviable My Can. 59 1886, United States of America. Caleb Brad man, the man with a plan, got on to formulate a blockbuster digestive drink and decided to call it Brads drink. It was this doctors potion that was to become Pepsi Cola in 1898, and eventually, Pepsi in 1903. Youngistan loves it. 200 million people worldwide love it. But what has made Pepsi the single largest selling soft drink brand in India is actually a formula concocted a century ago in a far away continent. Pepsi is a hundred year old brand loved by over 200 million people worldwide. The largest single selling soft drink brand in India is the ubiquitous socialite at every occasion.59. Pepsi - Yeh Hai Youngistan Meri Jaan 3.3.3 BRAND HISTORY The Pepsi My Can is undoubtedly the most popular cola pack of all times. It is not just a pack but a style statement for todays youth. 60 Pepsi, Cricket and bollywood have been joined at the hip since the beginning. Shahrukh Khan, Sachin Tendulkar, Saif Ali Khan, Amitabh Bachchan, Kareena Kapoor, Priyanka Chopra, Virender Sehwag, M. S. Dhoni, John Abraham, Ranbir Kapoor and Deepika Padukone are a few celebrities who will go any length for a chilled Pepsi. Pepsi has become a friend to the youth and has led many youth cultures. Youngsters over the generations have grown up with Pepsi and share an emotional connect with it, unlike any other cola brand. Be it parties, hangouts, or just another day at home, a day is never complete without the fizz of Pepsi! 60. 3.3.4 PEPSICO: Brand Advantage 61. 3.3.5 PEPSICO PRODUCT IN INDIA 61 62. 3.3.6 SLOGANS OF PEPSI19391950: "Twice as Much for a Nickel"1950: "More Bounce to the Ounce"19501957: "Any Weather is Pepsi Weather"19571958: "Say Pepsi, Please"19581960: "Be Sociable, Have a Pepsi"19611964: "Now Its Pepsi for Those Who Think Young" (jingle sung by JoanieSommers)19641967: "Come Alive, Youre in the Pepsi Generation" (jingle sung by JoanieSommers)19671969: "(Taste that beats the others cold) Pepsi Pours It On".19691975: "Youve Got a

Lot to Live, and Pepsis Got a Lot to Give"19751977: "Have a Pepsi Day"19771980: "Join the Pepsi People (Feeling Free)"19801981: "Catch That Pepsi Spirit" (David Lucas, composer)19811983: "Pepsis got your taste for life"1983: "Its cheaper than Coke!"19831984: "Pepsi Now! Take the Challenge!"19841991: "Pepsi. The Choice of a New Generation" (commercial with MichaelJackson and The Jacksons, featuring the Pepsi version of "Billie Jean", "Bad" and "Blackor White". "Black of White"s was promoting the Dangerous World Tour.) 62 63. 19841988: "Diet Pepsi. The Choice of a New Generation"19881989: "Diet Pepsi. The Taste Thats Generations Ahead"19891990: "Diet Pepsi. The Right One"19891992: "Diet Pepsi. The Taste That Beats Diet Coke"19861987: "Weve Got the Taste" (commercial with Tina Turner)19871990: "Pepsis Cool" (commercial with Michael Jackson, featuring Pepsi versionof Bad)19901991: "You got the right one Baby UH HUH" (sung by Ray Charles for Diet Pepsi)19901991: "Yehi hai right choice Baby UH HUH" (Hindi - meaning "This is the rightchoice Baby UH HUH") (India)19911992: "Chill Out"19921993: "Be Young, Have Fun, Drink Pepsi"19931994: "Right Now" (Van Halen song for the Crystal Pepsi advertisement)1995: "Nothing Else is a Pepsi"19951996: "Drink Pepsi. Get Stuff." Pepsi Stuff campaign19961997: "Pepsi: Theres nothing official about it" (During the Wills World Cup (cricket)held in India/Pakistan/Sri Lanka)19971998: "Generation Next" (with the Spice Girls)19981999: "Its the cola" (100th anniversary commercial)19992000: "For Those Who Think Young"/"The Joy of Pepsi-Cola" (commercialwith Britney Spears/commercial with Mary J. Blige)19992006: "Yeh Dil Maange More!" (Hindi - meaning "This heart asks for more") (India) 63 64. 2003: "Its the Cola"/"Dare for More" (Pepsi Commercial)20062007: "Why You Doggin Me"/"Taste the one thats forever young" (Mary J. Blige)20072008: "More Happy"/"Taste the once thats forever young" (Michael Alexander)2000present: "pepsi ye pyaas heh bari" ((Urdu) meaning "There is a lot of thirst"2009present: "Refresh Everything"/"Every Generation Refreshes the World"2009present: "Yeh hai youngistaan meri

jaan" (Hindi - meaning "This is our youngcountry my baby")2009 "My Pepsi My Way"(India)2010 "Every Pepsi Refreshes The World"2010 2011 "Badal Do Zamana" (Urdu - meaning "Change The World" by CALL)2011present: "Change the game" (Bangladesh, India for the 2011 Cricket World Cup) 64 65. 3.4 THE RIVARLY BEGINS:3.4.1 Coke Come in IndiaCoca cola comes to India with fanfare in the fifties. For a number of days, The HindustanTimes and other newspapers of New Banaras carried full page advertisement showing abig boy in uniform with a soft-drink crown as the cap. There was no indication of theproduct. After a few days, Coke was introduced. It was an entirely new drink whichfascinated people. It soon became the national drink. For the first time, a soft-drink wasavailable from one corner of the country to another. The person who brought Coca-Colato India was the father of late Sardar Charanjit Singh, Sardar Mohan Singh. A practicalman Mohan Singh realized that to popularize Coca-Cola, and make it a bestseller it wasnecessary to catch them young. So he focused on youngsters in the society. Thecompany realized that to become a mass consumption product, one has to go to thevillage. They gave much importance to the distributive network. The company truckssupplied coke to even the remotest village. Few products appears to be more similar thansoft drinks, yet the Cola wars that mark the competition between Coke and Pepsi showhow even organizations with highly similar product can be differentiated by their businessstrategies. Then comes battles over the issue of bottle size standardization. Coke thearch rival tried to offering more Cola at a lower price. Pepsi which had some of its earlyinvestment tied up in 250ml bottles, went the fountain way. The General bottle size freedhas settled at 300 ml. 100 ml more than the pre MNC standard. Fountain mix dispensers,carry home bottles, even 1.50 plastic bottle with caps good enough to keep them lyingdown and still preserve the fizz. It poured in vast sums to whip up its visibility at the retaillevel, so that consumers were greeted virtually at every street corner by Pepsis blue, redand white colors, because they have perception the thing on display

Sells more. Coca-Cola is, finally, redoing the real thing to the replicate the success that its arch-rival,PepsiCo. Has achieved with its fast and furious marketing. But to win them, Coke iscopying Pepsi. 65 66. 3.4.2 MARKETING STATEGIES OF COKE AND PEPSIPepsi and Coca-Cola focused on the following controllable aspects:-PriceCoca-Cola reduced prices nationwide by 15-25% to make them affordable and easy toget access to. Pepsi introduced returnable glass bottles for customers to recoup costs.ProductCoca-Cola and Pepsi launched different product lines to appeal to the Indian consumertastes. They started with product lines that were already available, such as cola, fruitdrinks, and carbonated water. Then, when the market was ready, they launched otherlines, such as bottled water (Coke- Kinley and Pepsi-Aquafina) and clear lime sodas(Coke-Sprite, Pepsi-7 Up).PromotionBoth Coca-Cola and Pepsi adapted to the local market with promotions. They promotedheavily during the Navrarti festival. Pepsi gave away a kilo of Basmati rice with every refillof a case of Pepsi. This is an effective strategy to blend the old (rice) with the new(Pepsi). Coca-Cola gave away vacations to Goa, a famous resort in India.Further, they teamed up with influential figures in Indian popculture to promote theirproducts. Pepsi launched an ambitious marketing campaign sponsoring Cricketcelebrities and athletes from the World Cup. Coca-Cola launched its Lifestyle AdvertisingCampaign as a method of building brand loyalty among its target markets: India A (18-24 year old urban youth) and India B (rural youth). They used a music director and anactor to promote the project. Most importantly, they tried to create a connection betweenlocal idioms and their products so that they would stick. The use of celebrities is apowerful marketing tool across cultures to promote products. 66 67. Channels of distributionProduction plants and bottling centers were strategically placed in large cities all aroundIndia. More were added as demand grew, along with new product lines. In Coca-Colascase, the JV with Parle provided access to its bottling plants and its products. By formingpartnerships, both Coca-Cola and Pepsi were able to get initial

access into the market.ResearchIt seems that prior research into general market demand may have been the mostoverlooked aspect by Coca-Cola and Pepsi. India has not ever been considered alucrative market for the soft drink industry. In 1989, Indians per capita were consumingonly three bottles per year. One might question the risk-reward analysis that bothcompanies partook in. Why enter a high-risk political/economic market where there is avery little proven track record of success in beverages? 67 68. 3.4.3 PRODUCT COMPARISION IN INDIAS. NO. Coca-cola product Pepsi product1 Coke Pepsi2 Diet Coke Pepsi Diet3 Thums-up Pepsi4 Limca Mirinda lemon5 Fanta Mirinda orange6 Maaza Slice7 Sprite 7up8 Sprite Mountain Dew9 Minute Made Tropicana10 Kinley Mineral Water Aquifinna Mineral Water11 Kinley Club Soda --------12 Georgia coffee -------13 ------ Lays product14 ------ Lehar product 68 69. 3.4.4 STRATEGY ADOPTED BY COKE AND PEPSIThe Pepsi ProcessDespite being a global brand, Pepsi has built its success on meeting the Indianconsumers need particularly in terms of making the brand synchronize with localizedevents and traditions. Instead of harping on its global lineage, ergo, it tries to plug intoethnic festivals, use the vernacular indifferent part of the country, and blend into the localfabric. Pepsi is using both national campaigns-such as the Drink Pepsi, Get Stuff scheme,which offers large discounts on other products to Pepsi-buyers as well as local.The Coke CopyInstead of creating a bond with the customers through small but high-impact events,Coca-Cola chose to associate itself with national and international mega events like theworld cup Cricket, 1996 and World cup Football 1998. But now coke is also entering intolocal action. Coke is also trying to make their brand synchronize with localize eventtradition and festivals. Coca-Cola new tag line in this advertisement is Real shopping,real refresher. In this way Coke is copy Pepsi.EMPOWERMENTThe Pepsi ProcessOnce of the strongest weapons in Pepsis armory is the flexibility. it has empowered itspeople with. Every manager and salesperson has the authority to take whatever steps he,or

she, feels will make consumers aware of the brand and increase its consumption. 69 70. The Coke CopyFlexibility is the weapon that Coca-Cola, fettered as it is by the need for approvals fromAtlanta for almost everything. In the past, this has shown up in its stubborn insistence onjunking the franchisee network it had acquired from Parle; in its dependence on its ownfeedback mechanism over that of its bottlers; and on its headquarters approaches.PRICEThe Pepsi processPepsi has consistently wielded its pricing strategy as in invitation to sample, aiming to turntrial into addiction. It launched the 500 ml bottle in 1994 at Rs. 8 versus Thumps Ups Rs.9, in April, 1996, its 1.5 liters bottle followed Coke into the marketplace at Rs. 30 Rs 5less than Cokes .But it couldnt continue the lower price positioning for long.The Coke CopyInitially, coke carbon-copied the strategy by introducing its 330mlcans in January 1996, atan invitation price of Rs. 15 before raising it to Rs 18. By this time,it had realized that theCoca-Cola brand did not hold enough attraction for customers to fork out a premium. The200ml Coke, launched so far in parts of eastern, western, and northern India, is priced atRs. 5, lowering the entry-barriers. Too really drive the market, as Coke wants to you mustgo down to Rs. 3. 70 IMRAN KHAN 71 AKSHAY KUMAR BIPASHA BASU VIVEK OBEROI AAMIR KHAN AISHWARYA RAI SALMAN KHAN DEEPIKA PADUKONE CELIBRITIES OF COKE: VINDHU DARA SUNGJ RANBIR KAPOOR YUVRAJ SINGH HARBHAJAN SINGH ZAHEER KHAN MOHAMAD KAIF RAHUL DRAVID SOURAV GANGULY SAIF ALI KHAN SACHIN TENDULKAR PRIETY ZINTA SHAHRUKH KHAN AMITABH BACHHAN71. 3.4.5 CELEBRITIES ENDORSED CELIBRITIES OF PEPSI: 72. 3.4.6 PRICEMaximum retail price of 300 ml bottles is controlled by the Central Government. The othersize and packs are priced keeping factors like competition, internal costs, external costs,and the corporate objective of the company in the mindProducts Selling price(per caret) Max selling

price(per caret)300 ml bottle 240 264500ml bottle 364 3881 litter 500 520Soda 300 ml 164 188Cans 332 3521.5 litter PET bottle 50* 55*Price per bottles the empty bottles are priced at Rs 120 per crate and the shell at Rs100.