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C hello world example

#include <stdio.h> int main() { printf("Hello world\n"); return 0; }

Hello world program in c


We may store "hello world" in a character array and then print it.
#include <stdio.h> int main() { char string[] = "Hello World"; printf("%s\n", string); return 0; }

Hello world program.

Print Integer
#include <stdio.h> int main() { int a; printf("Enter an integer\n"); scanf("%d", &a); printf("Integer that you have entered is %d\n", a); return 0; }

c program to add two numbers


C program to add two numbers: This c language program perform the basic arithmetic operation of addition on two numbers and then prints the sum on the screen. For example if the user entered two numbers as 5, 6 then 11 ( 5 + 6 ) will be printed on the screen.

C programming code

#include<stdio.h> main() { int a, b, c; printf("Enter two numbers to add\n"); scanf("%d%d",&a,&b); c = a + b; printf("Sum of entered numbers = %d\n",c); return 0;

C program to check odd or even using modulus operator


#include<stdio.h> main() { int n; printf("Enter an integer\n"); scanf("%d",&n); if ( n%2 == 0 ) printf("Even\n"); else printf("Odd\n"); return 0; }

C program to check odd or even using bitwise operator


#include<stdio.h> main() { int n; printf("Enter an integer\n"); scanf("%d",&n); if ( n & 1 == 1 ) printf("Odd\n"); else printf("Even\n"); return 0; }

C program to check odd or even without using bitwise or modulus operator


#include<stdio.h> main() { int n; printf("Enter an integer\n"); scanf("%d",&n); if ( (n/2)*2 == n ) printf("Even\n"); else printf("Odd\n"); return 0; }

Find odd or even using conditional operator


#include<stdio.h> main() { int n; printf("Enter an integer\n"); scanf("%d",&n); n%2 == 0 ? printf("Even number\n") : printf("Odd number\n"); return 0; }

C program to perform addition, subtraction, multiplication and division


C program to perform basic arithmetic operations i.e. addition , subtraction, multiplication and division of two numbers. Numbers are assumed to be integers and will be entered by the user.

C programming code
#include <stdio.h> int main() { int first, second, add, subtract, multiply; float divide;

printf("Enter two integers\n"); scanf("%d%d", &first, &second); add subtract multiply divide = = = = first first first first + * / second; second; second; (float)second;

//typecasting

printf("Sum = %d\n",add); printf("Difference = %d\n",subtract); printf("Multiplication = %d\n",multiply); printf("Division = %.2f\n",divide); return 0; }

c program to check whether input alphabet is a vowel or not


This code checks whether an input alphabet is a vowel or not. Both lower-case and uppercase are checked.

C programming code
#include <stdio.h> main() { char ch; printf("Enter a character\n"); scanf("%c", &ch); if (ch == 'a' || ch == 'A' || ch == 'e' || ch == 'E' || ch == 'i' || ch == 'I' || ch =='o' || ch=='O' || ch == 'u' || ch == 'U') printf("%c is a vowel.\n", ch); else printf("%c is not a vowel.\n", ch); return 0; }

Check vowel using switch statement


#include <stdio.h> main() { char ch; printf("Enter a character\n"); scanf("%c", &ch);

switch(ch) { case 'a': case 'A': case 'e': case 'E': case 'i': case 'I': case 'o': case 'O': case 'u': case 'U': printf("%c is a vowel.\n", ch); break; default: printf("%c is not a vowel.\n", ch); } return 0; }

Function to check vowel


int check_vowel(char a) { if (a >= 'A' && a <= 'Z') a = a + 'a' - 'A'; /* Converting to lower case or use a = a + 32 */ if (a == 'a' || a == 'e' || a == 'i' || a == 'o' || a == 'u') return 1; return 0; }

add digits of number in c


C program to add digits of a number: Here we are using modulus operator(%) to extract individual digits of number and adding them.

C programming code
#include <stdio.h> main() { int n, sum = 0, remainder; printf("Enter an integer\n"); scanf("%d",&n); while(n != 0) {

remainder = n % 10; sum = sum + remainder; n = n / 10; } printf("Sum of digits of entered number = %d\n",sum); return 0; }

Factorial program in c
Factorial program in c: c code to find and print factorial of a number, three methods are given, first one uses a for loop, second uses a function to find factorial and third using recursion. Factorial is represented using !, so five factorial will be written as 5!, n factorial as n!. Also n! = n*(n-1)*(n-2)*(n-3)...3.2.1 and zero factorial is defined as one i.e. 0!=1.

Factorial program in c using for loop


: Here we find factorial using for loop.
#include <stdio.h> int main() { int c, n, fact = 1; printf("Enter a number to calculate it's factorial\n"); scanf("%d", &n); for (c = 1; c <= n; c++) fact = fact * c; printf("Factorial of %d = %d\n", n, fact); return 0; }

Factorial
Output of code:

Factorial program in c using function


#include <stdio.h>

long factorial(int); int main() { int number; long fact = 1; printf("Enter a number to calculate it's factorial\n"); scanf("%d", &number); printf("%d! = %ld\n", number, factorial(number)); return 0; } long factorial(int n) { int c; long result = 1; for (c = 1; c <= n; c++) result = result * c; return result; }

Factorial program in c using recursion


#include<stdio.h> long factorial(int); int main() { int num; long f; printf("Enter a number to find factorial\n"); scanf("%d", &num); if (num < 0) printf("Negative numbers are not allowed.\n"); else { f = factorial(num); printf("%d! = %ld\n", num, f); } return 0; } long factorial(int n) { if (n == 0) return 1; else return(n * factorial(n-1)); }

c program to find hcf and lcm


C program to find hcf and lcm: The code below finds highest common factor and least common multiple of two integers. HCF is also known as greatest common divisor(GCD) or greatest common factor(gcf).

C programming code
#include <stdio.h> int main() { int a, b, x, y, t, gcd, lcm; printf("Enter two integers\n"); scanf("%d%d", &x, &y); a = x; b = y; while t = b = a = } (b != 0) { b; a % b; t;

gcd = a; lcm = (x*y)/gcd; printf("Greatest common divisor of %d and %d = %d\n", x, y, gcd); printf("Least common multiple of %d and %d = %d\n", x, y, lcm); return 0; }

C program to find hcf and lcm using recursion


#include <stdio.h> long gcd(long, long); int main() { long x, y, hcf, lcm; printf("Enter two integers\n"); scanf("%ld%ld", &x, &y); hcf = gcd(x, y); lcm = (x*y)/hcf; printf("Greatest common divisor of %ld and %ld = %ld\n", x, y, hcf); printf("Least common multiple of %ld and %ld = %ld\n", x, y, lcm); return 0; }

long gcd(long a, long b) { if (b == 0) { return a; } else { return gcd(b, a % b); } }

C program to find hcf and lcm using function


#include <stdio.h> long gcd(long, long); int main() { long x, y, hcf, lcm; printf("Enter two integers\n"); scanf("%ld%ld", &x, &y); hcf = gcd(x, y); lcm = (x*y)/hcf; printf("Greatest common divisor of %ld and %ld = %ld\n", x, y, hcf); printf("Least common multiple of %ld and %ld = %ld\n", x, y, lcm); return 0; } long gcd(long x, long y) { if (x == 0) { return y; } while (y != 0) { if (x > y) { x = x - y; } else { y = y - x; } } return x; }

Decimal to binary conversion


C program to convert decimal to binary: c language code to convert an integer from decimal number system(base-10) to binary number system(base-2). Size of integer is assumed to be 32 bits. We use bitwise operators to perform the desired task. We right shift the original number by 31, 30, 29, ..., 1, 0 bits using a loop and bitwise AND the number obtained with 1(one), if the result is 1 then that bit is 1 otherwise it is 0(zero).

C programming code
#include <stdio.h> int main() { int n, c, k; printf("Enter an integer in decimal number system\n"); scanf("%d", &n); printf("%d in binary number system is:\n", n); for (c = 31; c >= 0; c--) { k = n >> c; if (k & 1) printf("1"); else printf("0"); } printf("\n"); return 0; }

Above code only prints binary of integer, but we may wish to perform operations on binary so in the code below we are storing the binary in a string. We create a function which returns a pointer to string which is the binary of the number passed as argument to the function.

C code to store decimal to binary conversion in a string


#include <stdio.h> #include <stdlib.h> char *decimal_to_binary(int); main() { int n, c, k; char *pointer; printf("Enter an integer in decimal number system\n"); scanf("%d",&n); pointer = decimal_to_binary(n); printf("Binary string of %d is: %s\n", n, t); free(pointer); return 0; }

char *decimal_to_binary(int n) { int c, d, count; char *pointer; count = 0; pointer = (char*)malloc(32+1); if ( pointer == NULL ) exit(EXIT_FAILURE); for ( c = 31 ; c >= 0 ; c-- ) { d = n >> c; if ( d & 1 ) *(pointer+count) = 1 + '0'; else *(pointer+count) = 0 + '0'; count++; } *(pointer+count) = '\0'; return } pointer;

c program to find ncr and npr


c program to find nCr and nPr: This code calculate nCr which is n!/(r!*(n-r)!) and nPr = n!/(n-r)!

C program to find nCr using function


#include<stdio.h> long factorial(int); long find_ncr(int, int); long find_npr(int, int); main() { int n, r; long ncr, npr; printf("Enter the value of n and r\n"); scanf("%d%d",&n,&r); ncr = find_ncr(n, r); npr = find_npr(n, r); printf("%dC%d = %ld\n", n, r, ncr); printf("%dP%d = %ld\n", n, r, npr); return 0; }

long find_ncr(int n, int r) { long result; result = factorial(n)/(factorial(r)*factorial(n-r)); return result; } long find_npr(int n, int r) { long result; result = factorial(n)/factorial(n-r); return result; } long factorial(int n) { int c; long result = 1; for( c = 1 ; c <= n ; c++ ) result = result*c; return ( result ); }

Add n numbers
#include <stdio.h> int main() { int n, sum = 0, c, value; printf("Enter the number of integers you want to add\n"); scanf("%d", &n); printf("Enter %d integers\n",n); for (c = 1; c <= n; c++) { scanf("%d",&value); sum = sum + value; } printf("Sum of entered integers = %d\n",sum); return 0; }

Swapping of two numbers in c

#include <stdio.h> int main() { int x, y, temp; printf("Enter the value of x and y\n"); scanf("%d%d", &x, &y); printf("Before Swapping\nx = %d\ny = %d\n",x,y); temp = x; x = y; y = temp; printf("After Swapping\nx = %d\ny = %d\n",x,y); return 0; }

Swapping of two numbers without third variable


You can also swap two numbers without using temp or temporary or third variable. In that case c program will be as shown :#include <stdio.h> int main() { int a, b; printf("Enter two integers to swap\n"); scanf("%d%d", &a, &b); a = a + b; b = a - b; a = a - b; printf("a = %d\nb = %d\n",a,b); return 0; }

To understand above logic simply choose a as 7 and b as 9 and then do what is written in program. You can choose any other combination of numbers as well. Sometimes it's a good way to understand a program.

Swap two numbers using pointers


#include <stdio.h> int main() { int x, y, *a, *b, temp; printf("Enter the value of x and y\n"); scanf("%d%d", &x, &y);

printf("Before Swapping\nx = %d\ny = %d\n", x, y); a = &x; b = &y; temp = *b; *b = *a; *a = temp; printf("After Swapping\nx = %d\ny = %d\n", x, y); return 0; }

Swapping numbers using call by reference


In this method we will make a function to swap numbers.
#include <stdio.h> void swap(int*, int*); int main() { int x, y; printf("Enter the value of x and y\n"); scanf("%d%d",&x,&y); printf("Before Swapping\nx = %d\ny = %d\n", x, y); swap(&x, &y); printf("After Swapping\nx = %d\ny = %d\n", x, y); return 0; } void swap(int *a, int *b) { int temp; temp = *b; *b = *a; *a = temp; }

C programming code to swap using bitwise XOR


#include <stdio.h> int main() { int x, y; scanf("%d%d", &x, &y);

printf("x = %d\ny = %d\n", x, y); x = x ^ y; y = x ^ y; x = x ^ y; printf("x = %d\ny = %d\n", x, y); return 0; }

c program to reverse a number


C Program to reverse a number :- This program reverse the number entered by the user and then prints the reversed number on the screen. For example if user enter 123 as input then 321 is printed as output. In our program we use modulus(%) operator to obtain the digits of a number. To invert number look at it and write it from opposite direction or the output of code is a number obtained by writing original number from right to left. To reverse large numbers use long data type or long long data type if your compiler supports it, if you still have large numbers then use strings or other data structure.

C programming code
#include <stdio.h> main() { int n, reverse = 0; printf("Enter a number to reverse\n"); scanf("%d",&n); while (n != 0) { reverse = reverse * 10; reverse = reverse + n%10; n = n/10; } printf("Reverse of entered number is = %d\n", reverse); return 0; }

Palindrome Numbers
Palindrome number in c: A palindrome number is a number such that if we reverse it, it will not change. For example some palindrome numbers examples are 121, 212, 12321, 454. To check whether a number is palindrome or not first we reverse it and then

compare the number obtained with the original, if both are same then number is palindrome otherwise not. C program for palindrome number is given below.

Palindrome number algorithm


1. Get the number from user. 2. Reverse it. 3. Compare it with the number entered by the user. 4. If both are same then print palindrome number 5. Else print not a palindrome number.

Palindrome number program c


#include<stdio.h> main() { int n, reverse = 0, temp; printf("Enter a number to check if it is a palindrome or not\n"); scanf("%d",&n); temp = n; while( temp != 0 ) { reverse = reverse * 10; reverse = reverse + temp%10; temp = temp/10; } if ( n == reverse ) printf("%d is a palindrome number.\n", n); else printf("%d is not a palindrome number.\n", n); return 0; }

c program to print patterns of numbers and stars


These program prints various different patterns of numbers and stars. These codes illustrate how to create various patterns using c programming. Most of these c programs involve usage of nested loops and space. A pattern of numbers, star or characters is a way of arranging these in some logical manner or they may form a sequence. Some of these patterns are triangles which have special importance in mathematics. Some patterns are symmetrical while other are not. Please see the complete page and look at comments for many different patterns.
* *** *****

******* *********

We have shown five rows above, in the program you will be asked to enter the numbers of rows you want to print in the pyramid of stars.

C programming code
#include<stdio.h> main() { int row, c, n, temp; printf("Enter the number of rows in pyramid of stars you wish to see "); scanf("%d",&n); temp = n; for ( row = 1 ; row <= n ; row++ ) { for ( c = 1 ; c < temp ; c++ ) printf(" "); temp--; for ( c = 1 ; c <= 2*row - 1 ; c++ ) printf("*"); printf("\n"); } return 0; }

Consider the pattern


* ** *** **** ***** to print above pattern see the code below:
#include<stdio.h> main() { int n, c, k; printf("Enter number of rows\n"); scanf("%d",&n); for ( c = 1 ; c <= n ; c++ )

{ for( k = 1 ; k <= c ; k++ ) printf("*"); printf("\n"); } return 0; }

c program to print Floyd's triangle


C program to print Floyd's triangle:- This program prints Floyd's triangle. Number of rows of Floyd's triangle to print is entered by the user. First four rows of Floyd's triangle are as follows :1 23 456 7 8 9 10 It's clear that in Floyd's triangle nth row contains n numbers.

C programming code
#include <stdio.h> int main() { int n, i,

c, a = 1;

printf("Enter the number of rows of Floyd's triangle to print\n"); scanf("%d", &n); for (i = 1; i <= n; i++) { for (c = 1; c <= i; c++) { printf("%d ",a); a++; } printf("\n"); } return 0; }

c program to print Pascal triangle


Pascal Triangle in c: C program to print Pascal triangle which you might have studied in Binomial Theorem in Mathematics. Number of rows of Pascal triangle to print is entered by the user. First four rows of Pascal triangle are shown below :-

1 1 1 1 2 1 1 3 3 1

Pascal triangle in c
#include<stdio.h> long factorial(int); main() { int i, n, c; printf("Enter the number of rows you wish to see in pascal triangle\n"); scanf("%d",&n); for ( i = 0 ; i < n ; i++ ) { for ( c = 0 ; c <= ( n - i - 2 ) ; c++ ) printf(" "); for( c = 0 ; c <= i ; c++ ) printf("%ld ",factorial(i)/(factorial(c)*factorial(i-c))); printf("\n"); } return 0; } long factorial(int n) { int c; long result = 1; for( c = 1 ; c <= n ; c++ ) result = result*c; return ( result ); }

c program to print diamond pattern


Diamond pattern in c: This code print diamond pattern of stars. Diamond shape is as follows:
* *** ***** *** *

C programming code
#include <stdio.h> int main() { int n, c, k, space = 1; printf("Enter number of rows\n"); scanf("%d", &n); space = n - 1; for (k = 1; k <= n; k++) { for (c = 1; c <= space; c++) printf(" "); space--; for (c = 1; c <= 2*k-1; c++) printf("*"); printf("\n"); } space = 1; for (k = 1; k <= n - 1; k++) { for (c = 1; c <= space; c++) printf(" "); space++; for (c = 1 ; c <= 2*(n-k)-1; c++) printf("*"); printf("\n"); } return 0; }

c program for prime number


Prime number program in c: c program for prime number, this code prints prime numbers using c programming language. To check whether a number is prime or not see another code below. Prime number logic: a number is prime if it is divisible only by one and itself. Remember two is the only even and also the smallest prime number. First few prime numbers are 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17....etc. Prime numbers have many applications in computer science and mathematics. A number greater than one can be factorized into prime numbers, For example 540 = 22*33*51

Prime number program in c language


#include<stdio.h> main() { int n, i = 3, count, c; printf("Enter the number of prime numbers required\n"); scanf("%d",&n); if ( n >= 1 ) { printf("First %d prime numbers are :\n",n); printf("2\n"); } for ( count = 2 ; count <= n ; ) { for ( c = 2 ; c <= i - 1 ; c++ ) { if ( i%c == 0 ) break; } if ( c == i ) { printf("%d\n",i); count++; } i++; } return 0; }

There are many logic to check prime numbers, one given below is more efficient then above method. for ( c = 2 ; c //only checking from 2 to square root of number is sufficient. There are many more efficient logic then written above.

C program for prime number or not


#include<stdio.h> main() { int n, c = 2; printf("Enter a number to check if it is prime\n"); scanf("%d",&n); for ( c = 2 ; c <= n - 1 ; c++ ) { if ( n%c == 0 ) {

printf("%d is not prime.\n", n); break; } } if ( c == n ) printf("%d is prime.\n", n); return 0; }

C program for prime number using function


#include<stdio.h> int check_prime(int); main() { int n, result; printf("Enter an integer to check whether it is prime or not.\n"); scanf("%d",&n); result = check_prime(n); if ( result == 1 ) printf("%d is prime.\n", n); else printf("%d is not prime.\n", n); return 0; } int check_prime(int a) { int c; for ( c = 2 ; c <= a - 1 ; c++ ) { if ( a%c == 0 ) return 0; } if ( c == a ) return 1; }

armstrong number c program


armstrong number c program: c programming code to check whether a number is armstrong or not. A number is armstrong if the sum of cubes of individual digits of a number is equal to the number itself. For example 371 is an armstrong number as 33 + 73 + 13 = 371. Some other armstrong numbers are: 0, 1, 153, 370, 407.

C programming code

#include <stdio.h> main() { int number, sum = 0, temp, remainder; printf("Enter a number\n"); scanf("%d",&number); temp = number; while( temp != 0 ) { remainder = temp%10; sum = sum + remainder*remainder*remainder; temp = temp/10; } if ( number == sum ) printf("Entered number is an armstrong number."); else printf("Entered number is not an armstrong number."); return 0; }

c program to generate and print armstrong numbers


armstrong number in c: This program prints armstrong number. In our program we ask the user to enter a number and then we use a loop from one to the entered number and check if it is an armstrong number and if it is then the number is printed on the screen. Remember a number is armstrong if the sum of cubes of individual digits of a number is equal to the number itself. For example 371 is an armstrong number as 33 + 73 + 13 = 371. Some other armstrong numbers are 0, 1, 153, 370, 407.

C code
#include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> main() { int r; long number = 0, c, sum = 0, temp; printf("Enter the maximum range upto which you want to find armstrong numbers "); scanf("%ld",&number); printf("Following armstrong numbers are found from 1 to %ld\n",number); for( c = 1 ; c <= number ; c++ ) { temp = c;

while( temp != 0 ) { r = temp%10; sum = sum + r*r*r; temp = temp/10; } if ( c == sum ) printf("%ld\n", c); sum = 0; } getch(); return 0; }

Fibonacci series in c
Fibonacci series in c programming: c program for Fibonacci series without and with recursion. Using the code below you can print as many number of terms of series as desired. Numbers of Fibonacci sequence are known as Fibonacci numbers. First few numbers of series are 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8 etc, Except first two terms in sequence every other term is the sum of two previous terms, For example 8 = 3 + 5 (addition of 3, 5). This sequence has many applications in mathematics and Computer Science.

Fibonacci series in c using for loop


/* Fibonacci Series c language */ #include<stdio.h> main() { int n, first = 0, second = 1, next, c; printf("Enter the number of terms\n"); scanf("%d",&n); printf("First %d terms of Fibonacci series are :-\n",n); for ( c = 0 ; c < n ; c++ ) { if ( c <= 1 ) next = c; else { next = first + second; first = second; second = next; } printf("%d\n",next); } return 0; }

Fibonacci series program in c using recursion


#include<stdio.h> int Fibonacci(int); main() { int n, i = 0, c; scanf("%d",&n); printf("Fibonacci series\n"); for ( c = 1 ; c <= n ; c++ ) { printf("%d\n", Fibonacci(i)); i++; } return 0; } int Fibonacci(int n) { if ( n == 0 ) return 0; else if ( n == 1 ) return 1; else return ( Fibonacci(n-1) + Fibonacci(n-2) ); }

c program to add two numbers using pointers


This program performs addition of two numbers using pointers. In our program we have two two integer variables x, y and two pointer variables p and q. Firstly we assign the addresses of x and y to p and q respectively and then assign the sum of x and y to variable sum. Note that & is address of operator and * is value at address operator.

C programming code
#include<stdio.h> main() { int first, second, *p, *q, sum; printf("Enter two integers to add\n"); scanf("%d%d", &first, &second); p = &first; q = &second;

sum = *p + *q; printf("Sum of entered numbers = %d\n",sum); return 0; }

c program to find maximum element in array


This code find maximum or largest element present in an array. It also prints the location or index at which maximum element occurs in array. This can also be done by using pointers (see both codes).

C programming code
#include <stdio.h> int main() { int array[100], maximum, size, c, location = 1; printf("Enter the number of elements in array\n"); scanf("%d", &size); printf("Enter %d integers\n", size); for (c = 0; c < size; c++) scanf("%d", &array[c]); maximum = array[0]; for (c = 1; c < size; c++) { if (array[c] > maximum) { maximum = array[c]; location = c+1; } } printf("Maximum element is present at location number %d and it's value is %d.\n", location, maximum); return 0; }

C programming code using pointers


#include <stdio.h> int main() { long array[100], *maximum, size, c, location = 1; printf("Enter the number of elements in array\n");

scanf("%ld", &size); printf("Enter %ld integers\n", size); for ( c = 0 ; c < size ; c++ ) scanf("%ld", &array[c]); maximum = array; *maximum = *array; for (c = 1; c < size; c++) { if (*(array+c) > *maximum) { *maximum = *(array+c); location = c+1; } } printf("Maximum element is present at location number %ld and it's value is %ld.\n", location, *maximum); return 0; }

c program to find minimum element in array


C code to find minimum or smallest element present in an array. It also prints the location or index at which minimum element occurs in array. This can also be done by using pointers (see both the codes).

C programming code
#include <stdio.h> main() { int array[100], minimum, size, c, location = 1; printf("Enter the number of elements in array\n"); scanf("%d",&size); printf("Enter %d integers\n", size); for ( c = 0 ; c < size ; c++ ) scanf("%d", &array[c]); minimum = array[0]; for ( c = 1 ; c < size ; c++ ) { if ( array[c] < minimum ) { minimum = array[c]; location = c+1; }

} printf("Minimum element is present at location number %d and it's value is %d.\n", location, minimum); return 0; }

C programming code using pointers


#include <stdio.h> main() { int array[100], *minimum, size, c, location = 1; printf("Enter the number of elements in array\n"); scanf("%d",&size); printf("Enter %d integers\n", size); for ( c = 0 ; c < size ; c++ ) scanf("%d", &array[c]); minimum = array; *minimum = *array; for ( c = 1 ; c < size ; c++ ) { if ( *(array+c) < *minimum ) { *minimum = *(array+c); location = c+1; } } printf("Minimum element is present at location number %d and it's value is %d.\n", location, *minimum); return 0; }

linear search in c
Linear search in c programming: The following code implements linear search ( Searching algorithm ) which is used to find whether a given number is present in an array and if it is present then at what location it occurs.It is also known as sequential search. It is very simple and works as follows: We keep on comparing each element with the element to search until the desired element is found or list ends. Linear search in c language for multiple occurrences and using function.

Linear search c program


#include<stdio.h> main()

{ int array[100], search, c, number; printf("Enter the number of elements in array\n"); scanf("%d",&number); printf("Enter %d numbers\n", number); for ( c = 0 ; c < number ; c++ ) scanf("%d",&array[c]); printf("Enter the number to search\n"); scanf("%d",&search); for ( c = 0 ; c < number ; c++ ) { if ( array[c] == search ) /* if required element found */ { printf("%d is present at location %d.\n", search, c+1); break; } } if ( c == number ) printf("%d is not present in array.\n", search); return 0; }

C program for binary search


C program for binary search: This code implements binary search in c language. It can only be used for sorted arrays, but it's fast as compared to linear search. If you wish to use binary search on an array which is not sorted then you must sort it using some sorting technique say merge sort and then use binary search algorithm to find the desired element in the list. If the element to be searched is found then its position is printed.
The code below assumes that the input numbers are in ascending order.

C programming code for binary search


#include<stdio.h> main() { int c, first, last, middle, n, search, array[100]; printf("Enter number of elements\n"); scanf("%d",&n); printf("Enter %d integers\n", n); for ( c = 0 ; c < n ; c++ ) scanf("%d",&array[c]);

printf("Enter value to find\n"); scanf("%d",&search); first = 0; last = n - 1; middle = (first+last)/2; while( first <= last ) { if ( array[middle] < search ) first = middle + 1; else if ( array[middle] == search ) { printf("%d found at location %d.\n", search, middle+1); break; } else last = middle - 1; middle = (first + last)/2; } if ( first > last ) printf("Not found! %d is not present in the list.\n", search); return 0; }

c program to reverse an array


c program to reverse an array :- This program reverses the array elements. For example if a is an array of integers with three elements such that a[0] = 1 a[1] = 2 a[2] = 3 then on reversing the array will be a[0] = 3 a[1] = 2 a[0] = 1 Given below is the c code to reverse an array .

C programming code
#include <stdio.h> int main() { int n, c, d, a[100], b[100]; printf("Enter the number of elements in array\n"); scanf("%d", &n);

printf("Enter the array elements\n"); for (c = 0; c < n ; c++) scanf("%d", &a[c]); /* * Copying elements into array b starting from end of array a */ for (c = n - 1, d = 0; c >= 0; c--, d++) b[d] = a[c]; /* * Copying reversed array into original. * Here we are modifying original array, this is optional. */ for (c = 0; c < n; c++) a[c] = b[c]; printf("Reverse array is\n"); for (c = 0; c < n; c++) printf("%d\n", a[c]); return 0; }

Reverse array by swapping(without using additional memory)


#include <stdio.h> int main() { int array[100], n, c, t, end; scanf("%d", &n); end = n - 1; for (c = 0; c < n; c++) { scanf("%d", &array[c]); } for (c = 0; c < n/2; c++) { t = array[c]; array[c] = array[end]; array[end] = t; end--; } printf("Reversed array elements are:\n"); for (c = 0; c < n; c++) { printf("%d\n", array[c]); } return 0;

c program to reverse an array using pointers


#include<stdio.h> #include<stdlib.h> void reverse_array(int*, int); main() { int n, c, *pointer; scanf("%d",&n); pointer = (int*)malloc(sizeof(int)*n); if( pointer == NULL ) exit(EXIT_FAILURE); for ( c = 0 ; c < n ; c++ ) scanf("%d",(pointer+c)); reverse_array(pointer, n); printf("Original array on reversal is\n"); for ( c = 0 ; c < n ; c++ ) printf("%d\n",*(pointer+c)); free(pointer); return 0; } void reverse_array(int *pointer, int n) { int *s, c, d; s = (int*)malloc(sizeof(int)*n); if( s == NULL ) exit(EXIT_FAILURE); for ( c = n - 1, d = 0 ; c >= 0 ; c--, d++ ) *(s+d) = *(pointer+c); for ( c = 0 ; c < n ; c++ ) *(pointer+c) = *(s+c); free(s); }

c program to insert an element in an array


This code will insert an element into an array, For example consider an array a[10] having three elements in it initially and a[0] = 1, a[1] = 2 and a[2] = 3 and you want to insert a number 45 at location 1 i.e. a[0] = 45, so we have to move elements one step below so after insertion a[1] = 1 which was a[0] initially, and a[2] = 2 and a[3] = 3. Array insertion does not mean increasing its size i.e array will not be containing 11 elements.

C programming code
#include <stdio.h> int main() { int array[100], position, c, n, value; printf("Enter number of elements in array\n"); scanf("%d", &n); printf("Enter %d elements\n", n); for (c = 0; c < n; c++) scanf("%d", &array[c]); printf("Enter the location where you wish to insert an element\n"); scanf("%d", &position); printf("Enter the value to insert\n"); scanf("%d", &value); for (c = n - 1; c >= position - 1; c--) array[c+1] = array[c]; array[position-1] = value; printf("Resultant array is\n"); for (c = 0; c <= n; c++) printf("%d\n", array[c]); return 0; }

c program to delete an element from an array


This program delete an element from an array. Deleting an element does not affect the size of array. It is also checked whether deletion is possible or not, For example if array is containing five elements and you want to delete element at position six which is not possible.

c programming code

#include <stdio.h> main() { int array[100], position, c, n; printf("Enter number of elements in array\n"); scanf("%d", &n); printf("Enter %d elements\n", n); for ( c = 0 ; c < n ; c++ ) scanf("%d", &array[c]); printf("Enter the location where you wish to delete element\n"); scanf("%d", &position); if ( position >= n+1 ) printf("Deletion not possible.\n"); else { for ( c = position - 1 ; c < n - 1 ; c++ ) array[c] = array[c+1]; printf("Resultant array is\n"); for( c = 0 ; c < n - 1 ; c++ ) printf("%d\n", array[c]); } return 0; }

C program to merge two arrays


C program to merge two arrays into third array: Arrays are assumed to be sorted in ascending order. You enter two short sorted arrays and combine them to get a large array.

C programming code to merge two sorted arrays


#include <stdio.h> void merge(int [], int, int [], int, int []); int main() { int a[100], b[100], m, n, c, sorted[200]; printf("Input number of elements in first array\n"); scanf("%d", &m); printf("Input %d integers\n", m); for (c = 0; c < m; c++) { scanf("%d", &a[c]); } printf("Input number of elements in second array\n");

scanf("%d", &n); printf("Input %d integers\n", n); for (c = 0; c < n; c++) { scanf("%d", &b[c]); } merge(a, m, b, n, sorted); printf("Sorted array:\n"); for (c = 0; c < m + n; c++) { printf("%d\n", sorted[c]); } return 0; } void merge(int a[], int m, int b[], int n, int sorted[]) { int i, j, k; j = k = 0; for (i = 0; i < m + n;) { if (j < m && k < n) { if (a[j] < b[k]) { sorted[i] = a[j]; j++; } else { sorted[i] = b[k]; k++; } i++; } else if (j == m) { for (; i < m + n;) { sorted[i] = b[k]; k++; i++; } } else { for (; i < m + n;) { sorted[i] = a[j]; j++; i++; } } } }

c program for bubble sort


c program for bubble sort: c programming code for bubble sort to sort numbers or arrange them in ascending order. You can easily modify it to print numbers in descending order.

Bubble sort algorithm in c


/* Bubble sort code */ #include <stdio.h> int main() { int array[100], n, c, d, swap; printf("Enter number of elements\n"); scanf("%d", &n); printf("Enter %d integers\n", n); for (c = 0; c < n; c++) scanf("%d", &array[c]); for (c = 0 ; c < { for (d = 0 ; d { if (array[d] { swap array[d] array[d+1] } } } ( n - 1 ); c++) < n - c - 1; d++) > array[d+1]) /* For decreasing order use < */ = array[d]; = array[d+1]; = swap;

printf("Sorted list in ascending order:\n"); for ( c = 0 ; c < n ; c++ ) printf("%d\n", array[c]); return 0; }

Bubble sort in c language using function


#include <stdio.h> void bubble_sort(long [], long); int main() { long array[100], n, c, d, swap; printf("Enter number of elements\n"); scanf("%ld", &n); printf("Enter %ld longegers\n", n); for (c = 0; c < n; c++) scanf("%ld", &array[c]); bubble_sort(array, n);

printf("Sorted list in ascending order:\n"); for ( c = 0 ; c < n ; c++ ) printf("%ld\n", array[c]); return 0; } void bubble_sort(long list[], long n) { long c, d, t; for (c = 0 ; c < ( n - 1 ); c++) { for (d = 0 ; d < n - c - 1; d++) { if (list[d] > list[d+1]) { /* Swapping */ t = list[d]; list[d] = list[d+1]; list[d+1] = t; } } } }

insertion sort in c
Insertion sort in c: c program for insertion sort to sort numbers. This code implements insertion sort algorithm to arrange numbers of an array in ascending order. With a little modification it will arrange numbers in descending order.

Insertion sort algorithm implementation in c


/* insertion sort ascending order */ #include <stdio.h> int main() { int n, array[1000], c, d, t; printf("Enter number of elements\n"); scanf("%d", &n); printf("Enter %d integers\n", n); for (c = 0; c < n; c++) { scanf("%d", &array[c]); } for (c = 1 ; c <= n - 1; c++) {

d = c; while ( d > 0 && array[d] < array[d-1]) { t = array[d]; array[d] = array[d-1]; array[d-1] = t; d--; } } printf("Sorted list in ascending order:\n"); for (c = 0; c <= n - 1; c++) { printf("%d\n", array[c]); } return 0; }

selection sort in c
Selection sort in c: c program for selection sort to sort numbers. This code implements selection sort algorithm to arrange numbers of an array in ascending order. With a little modification it will arrange numbers in descending order.

Selection sort algorithm implementation in c


#include<stdio.h> main() { int array[100], n, c, d, position, swap; printf("Enter number of elements\n"); scanf("%d", &n); printf("Enter %d integers\n", n); for ( c = 0 ; c < n ; c++ ) scanf("%d", &array[c]); for ( c = 0 ; c < ( n - 1 ) ; c++ ) { position = c; for ( d = c + 1 ; d < n ; d++ ) { if ( array[position] > array[d] ) position = d; } if ( position != c ) { swap = array[c]; array[c] = array[position];

array[position] = swap; } } printf("Sorted list in ascending order:\n"); for ( c = 0 ; c < n ; c++ ) printf("%d\n", array[c]); return 0; }

c program to add two matrix


This c program add two matrices i.e. compute the sum of two matrices and then print it. Firstly user will be asked to enter the order of matrix ( number of rows and columns ) and then two matrices. For example if the user entered order as 2, 2 i.e. two rows and two columns and matrices as First Matrix :12 34 Second matrix :45 -1 5 then output of the program ( sum of First and Second matrix ) will be 57 29

C programming code
#include <stdio.h> main() { int m, n, c, d, first[10][10], second[10][10], sum[10][10]; printf("Enter the number of rows and columns of matrix "); scanf("%d%d", &m, &n); printf("Enter the elements of first matrix\n"); for ( c = 0 ; c < m ; c++ ) for ( d = 0 ; d < n ; d++ ) scanf("%d", &first[c][d]); printf("Enter the elements of second matrix\n"); for ( c = 0 ; c < m ; c++ ) for ( d = 0 ; d < n ; d++ ) scanf("%d", &second[c][d]); for ( c = 0 ; c < m ; c++ ) for ( d = 0 ; d < n ; d++ ) sum[c][d] = first[c][d] + second[c][d];

printf("Sum of entered matrices:-\n"); for ( c = 0 ; c < m ; c++ ) { for ( d = 0 ; d < n ; d++ ) printf("%d\t", sum[c][d]); printf("\n"); } return 0; }

Matrix multiplication in c
Matrix multiplication in c language: c program to multiply matrices (two dimensional array), this program multiplies two matrices which will be entered by the user. Firstly user will enter the order of a matrix. If the entered orders of two matrix is such that they can't be multiplied then an error message is displayed on the screen. You have already studied the logic to multiply them in Mathematics. Matrices are frequently used while doing programming and are used to represent graph data structure, in solving system of linear equations and many more.

Matrix multiplication in c language


#include <stdio.h> int main() { int m, n, p, q, c, d, k, sum = 0; int first[10][10], second[10][10], multiply[10][10]; printf("Enter the number of rows and columns of first matrix\n"); scanf("%d%d", &m, &n); printf("Enter the elements of first matrix\n"); for ( c = 0 ; c < m ; c++ ) for ( d = 0 ; d < n ; d++ ) scanf("%d", &first[c][d]); printf("Enter the number of rows and columns of second matrix\n"); scanf("%d%d", &p, &q); if ( n != p ) printf("Matrices with entered orders can't be multiplied with each other.\n"); else { printf("Enter the elements of second matrix\n"); for ( c = 0 ; c < p ; c++ ) for ( d = 0 ; d < q ; d++ ) scanf("%d", &second[c][d]);

for ( c = { for ( d { for ( { sum }

0 ; c < m ; c++ ) = 0 ; d < q ; d++ ) k = 0 ; k < p ; k++ ) = sum + first[c][k]*second[k][d];

multiply[c][d] = sum; sum = 0; } } printf("Product of entered matrices:-\n"); for ( c = 0 ; c < m ; c++ ) { for ( d = 0 ; d < q ; d++ ) printf("%d\t", multiply[c][d]); printf("\n"); } } return 0; }

c program print string


This program print a string. String can be printed by using various functions such as printf, puts.

C programming code
#include <stdio.h> main() { char array[20] = "Hello World"; printf("%s\n",array); return 0; }

To input a string we use scanf function.

C programming code
#include <stdio.h> main() {

char array[100]; printf("Enter a string\n"); scanf("%s", array); printf("You entered the string %s\n",array); return 0; }

Input string containing spaces


#include <stdio.h> main() { char a[80]; gets(a); printf("%s\n", a); return 0; }

String length
This program prints length of string, for example consider the string "c programming" it's length is 13. Null character is not counted when calculating string length. To find string length we use strlen function of string.h.

C program to find string length


#include<stdio.h> #include<string.h> main() { char a[100]; int length; printf("Enter a string to calculate it's length\n"); gets(a); length = strlen(a); printf("Length of entered string is = %d\n",length); return 0; }

C program to find string length without strlen


C program to find length of a string using pointers.

#include<stdio.h> main() { char array[100], *pointer; int length = 0; printf("Enter a string\n"); gets(array); pointer = array; while(*(pointer+length)) length++; printf("Length of entered string = %d\n",length); return 0; }

Function to find string length


int string_length(char *s) { int c = 0; while(*(s+c)) c++; return c; }

c program to compare two strings


This c program compares two strings using strcmp, without strcmp and using pointers. For comparing strings without using library function see another code below.

C program to compare two strings using strcmp


#include<stdio.h> #include<string.h> main() { char a[100], b[100]; printf("Enter the first string\n"); gets(a); printf("Enter the second string\n"); gets(b); if( strcmp(a,b) == 0 ) printf("Entered strings are equal.\n");

else printf("Entered strings are not equal.\n"); return 0; }

C program to compare two strings without using strcmp


Here we create our own function to compare strings.
int compare(char a[], char b[]) { int c = 0; while( a[c] == b[c] ) { if( a[c] == '\0' || b[c] == '\0' ) break; c++; } if( a[c] == '\0' && b[c] == '\0' ) return 0; else return -1; }

C program to compare two strings using pointers


In this method we will make our own function to perform string comparison, we will use character pointers in our function to manipulate string.
#include<stdio.h> int compare_string(char*, char*); main() { char first[100], second[100], result; printf("Enter first string\n"); gets(first); printf("Enter second string\n"); gets(second); result = compare_string(first, second); if ( result == 0 ) printf("Both strings are same.\n"); else printf("Entered strings are not equal.\n"); return 0; }

int compare_string(char *first, char *second) { while(*first==*second) { if ( *first == '\0' || *second == '\0' ) break; first++; second++; } if( *first == '\0' && *second == '\0' ) return 0; else return -1; }

string copying in c programming


This program copy string using library function strcpy, to copy string without using strcpy see source code below in which we have made our own function to copy string.

C program to copy a string


#include<stdio.h> #include<string.h> main() { char source[] = "C program"; char destination[50]; strcpy(destination, source); printf("Source string: %s\n", source); printf("Destination string: %s\n", destination); return 0; }

c program to copy a string using pointers


: here we copy string without using strcmp by creating our own function which uses pointers.
#include<stdio.h> void copy_string(char*, char*); main() { char source[100], target[100]; printf("Enter source string\n");

gets(source); copy_string(target, source); printf("Target string is \"%s\"\n", target); return 0; } void copy_string(char *target, char *source) { while(*source) { *target = *source; source++; target++; } *target = '\0'; }

c program to concatenate strings


This program concatenates strings, for example if the first string is "c " and second string is "program" then on concatenating these two strings we get the string "c program". To concatenate two strings we use strcat function of string.h, to concatenate without using library function see another code below which uses pointers.

C code
#include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> #include<string.h> main() { char a[100], b[100]; printf("Enter the first string\n"); gets(a); printf("Enter the second string\n"); gets(b); strcat(a,b); printf("String obtained on concatenation is %s\n",a); getch(); return 0; }

String concatenation without strcat


#include<stdio.h>

void concatenate_string(char*, char*); main() { char original[100], add[100]; printf("Enter source string\n"); gets(original); printf("Enter string to concatenate\n"); gets(add); concatenate_string(original, add); printf("String after concatenation is \"%s\"\n", original); return 0; } void concatenate_string(char *original, char *add) { while(*original) original++; while(*add) { *original = *add; add++; original++; } *original = '\0'; }

Reverse string
This program reverses a string entered by the user. For example if a user enters a string "reverse me" then on reversing the string will be "em esrever". We show you three different methods to reverse string the first one uses strrev library function of string.h header file and in second we make our own function to reverse string using pointers, reverse string using recursion and Reverse words in string. If you are using first method then you must include string.h in your program.

C programming code
/* String reverse in c*/
#include<stdio.h> #include<string.h> main() { char arr[100];

printf("Enter a string to reverse\n"); gets(arr); strrev(arr); printf("Reverse of entered string is \n%s\n",arr); return 0; }

/* Second method */

C program to reverse a string using pointers


: Now we will invert string using pointers or without using library function strrev.
#include<stdio.h> int string_length(char*); void reverse(char*); main() { char string[100]; printf("Enter a string\n"); gets(string); reverse(string); printf("Reverse of entered string is \"%s\".\n", string); return 0; } void reverse(char *string) { int length, c; char *begin, *end, temp; length = string_length(string); begin = string; end = string; for ( c = 0 ; c < ( length - 1 ) ; c++ ) end++; for ( c = { temp = *end = *begin 0 ; c < length/2 ; c++ ) *end; *begin; = temp;

begin++; end--; } }

int string_length(char *pointer) { int c = 0; while( *(pointer+c) != '\0' ) c++; return c; }

C program to reverse a string using recursion


#include<stdio.h> #include<string.h> void reverse(char*,int,int); main() { char a[100]; gets(a); reverse(a, 0, strlen(a)-1); printf("%s\n",a); return 0; } void reverse(char *x, int beg, int end) { char a, b, c; if ( beg >= end ) return; c = *(x+beg); *(x+beg) = *(x+end); *(x+end) = c; reverse(x, ++beg, --end); }

c palindrome program, c program for palindrome


C program for palindrome or palindrome in c programming: palindrome program in c language, c code to check if a string is a palindrome or not and for palindrome number. This program works as follows :- at first we copy the entered string into a new string, and then we reverse the new string and then compares it with original string. If both of them have same sequence of characters i.e. they are identical then the entered string is a palindrome otherwise not. To perform copy, reverse and compare operations we use strcpy, strrev and strcmp functions of string.h respectively, if you do not wish to use these

functions see c programming code for palindrome without using string functions. Some palindrome strings examples are "dad", "radar", "madam" etc.

C program for palindrome


#include <stdio.h> #include <string.h> main() { char a[100], b[100]; printf("Enter the string to check if it is a palindrome\n"); gets(a); strcpy(b,a); strrev(b); if( strcmp(a,b) == 0 ) printf("Entered string is a palindrome.\n"); else printf("Entered string is not a palindrome.\n"); return 0; }

Palindrome number in c
#include <stdio.h> main() { int n, reverse = 0, temp; printf("Enter a number to check if it is a palindrome or not\n"); scanf("%d",&n); temp = n; while( temp != 0 ) { reverse = reverse * 10; reverse = reverse + temp%10; temp = temp/10; } if ( n == reverse ) printf("%d is a palindrome number.\n", n); else printf("%d is not a palindrome number.\n", n); return 0; }

C program for palindrome without using string functions


#include <stdio.h> #include <string.h> main() { char text[100]; int begin, middle, end, length = 0; gets(text); while ( text[length] != '\0' ) length++; end = length - 1; middle = length/2; for( begin = 0 ; begin < middle ; begin++ ) { if ( text[begin] != text[end] ) { printf("Not a palindrome.\n"); break; } end--; } if( begin == middle ) printf("Palindrome.\n"); return 0; }

C program check palindrome


#include <stdio.h> int is_palindrome(char*); void copy_string(char*, char*); void reverse_string(char*); int string_length(char*); int compare_string(char*, char*); main() { char string[100]; int result; printf("Enter a string\n"); gets(string); result = is_palindrome(string); if ( result == 1 ) printf("\"%s\" is a palindrome string.\n", string); else

printf("\"%s\" is not a palindrome string.\n", string); return 0; } int is_palindrome(char *string) { int check, length; char *reverse; length = string_length(string); reverse = (char*)malloc(length+1); copy_string(reverse, string); reverse_string(reverse); check = compare_string(string, reverse); free(reverse); if ( check == 0 ) return 1; else return 0; } int string_length(char *string) { int length = 0; while(*string) { length++; string++; } return length; } void copy_string(char *target, char *source) { while(*source) { *target = *source; source++; target++; } *target = '\0'; } void reverse_string(char *string) { int length, c; char *begin, *end, temp; length = string_length(string); begin = string; end = string;

for ( c = 0 ; c < ( length - 1 ) ; c++ ) end++; for ( c = { temp = *end = *begin 0 ; c < length/2 ; c++ ) *end; *begin; = temp;

begin++; end--; } } int compare_string(char *first, char *second) { while(*first==*second) { if ( *first == '\0' || *second == '\0' ) break; first++; second++; } if( *first == '\0' && *second == '\0' ) return 0; else return -1; }

remove vowels string c


Remove vowels string c: c program to remove or delete vowels from a string, if the input string is "c programming" then output will be "c prgrmmng". In the program we create a new string and process entered string character by character, and if a vowel is found it is not added to new string otherwise the character is added to new string, after the string ends we copy the new string into original string. Finally we obtain a string without any vowels.

C programming code
#include <stdio.h> #include <string.h> int check_vowel(char); int main() { char s[100], t[100]; int i, j = 0; printf("Enter a string to delete vowels\n"); gets(s); for(i = 0; s[i] != '\0'; i++) {

if(check_vowel(s[i]) == 0) { t[j] = s[i]; j++; } } t[j] = '\0'; strcpy(s, t);

//not a vowel

//We are changing initial string

printf("String after deleting vowels: %s\n", s); return 0; } int check_vowel(char c) { switch(c) { case 'a': case 'A': case 'e': case 'E': case 'i': case 'I': case 'o': case 'O': case 'u': case 'U': return 1; default: return 0; } }

C programming code using pointers


#include<stdio.h> #include<stdlib.h> #include<string.h> #define TRUE 1 #define FALSE 0 int check_vowel(char); main() { char string[100], *temp, *pointer, ch, *start; printf("Enter a string\n"); gets(string); temp = string; pointer = (char*)malloc(100); if( pointer == NULL ) { printf("Unable to allocate memory.\n"); exit(EXIT_FAILURE);

} start = pointer; while(*temp) { ch = *temp; if ( !check_vowel(ch) ) { *pointer = ch; pointer++; } temp++; } *pointer = '\0'; pointer = start; strcpy(string, pointer); /* If you wish to convert original string */ free(pointer); printf("String after removing vowel is \"%s\"\n", string); return 0; } int check_vowel(char a) { if ( a >= 'A' && a <= 'Z' ) a = a + 'a' - 'A'; if ( a == 'a' || a == 'e' || a == 'i' || a == 'o' || a == 'u') return TRUE; return FALSE; }

Substring in c programming, c substring


Substring in c programming: c programming code to find a substring from a given string and for all substrings of a string, For example substrings of string "the" are "t", "th", "the", "h", "he" and "e" to find substring we create our own c substring function which returns a pointer to string. String address, length of substring required and position from where to extract substring are the three arguments passed to function. String.h does not contain any library function to directly find substring.

C substring code
#include <stdio.h> #include <malloc.h> char* substring(char*, int, int); main()

{ char string[100], *pointer; int position, length; printf("Enter a string\n"); gets(string); printf("Enter the position and length of substring\n"); scanf("%d%d",&position, &length); pointer = substring( string, position, length); printf("Required substring is \"%s\"\n", pointer); free(pointer); return 0; } /*C substring function: It returns a pointer to the substring */ char *substring(char *string, int position, int length) { char *pointer; int c; pointer = malloc(length+1); if (pointer == NULL) { printf("Unable to allocate memory.\n"); exit(EXIT_FAILURE); } for (c = 0 ; c < position -1 ; c++) string++; for (c = 0 ; c < length ; c++) { *(pointer+c) = *string; string++; } *(pointer+c) = '\0'; return pointer; }

C code for all substrings of a string


#include <stdio.h> #include <string.h> #include <malloc.h> char* substring(char*, int, int); main() { char string[100], *pointer;

int position = 1, length = 1, temp, string_length; printf("Enter a string\n"); gets(string); temp = string_length = strlen(string); printf("Substring of \"%s\" are\n", string); while (position <= string_length) { while (length <= temp) { pointer = substring(string, position, length); printf("%s\n", pointer); free(pointer); length++; } temp--; position++; length = 1; } return 0; } /* Use substring function given in above c program*/

c program to sort a string in alphabetic order


C program to sort a string in alphabetic order: For example if user will enter a string "programming" then output will be "aggimmnoprr" or output string will contain characters in alphabetical order.

C programming code
#include <stdio.h> #include <stdlib.h> #include <string.h> void sort_string(char*); main() { char string[100]; printf("Enter some text\n"); gets(string); sort_string(string); printf("%s\n", string); return 0; }

void sort_string(char *s) { int c, d = 0, length; char *pointer, *result, ch; length = strlen(s); result = (char*)malloc(length+1); pointer = s; for ( ch = 'a' ; ch <= 'z' ; ch++ ) { for ( c = 0 ; c < length ; c++ ) { if ( *pointer == ch ) { *(result+d) = *pointer; d++; } pointer++; } pointer = s; } *(result+d) = '\0'; strcpy(s, result); free(result); }

c program remove spaces, blanks from a string


C code to remove spaces or excess blanks from a string, For example consider the string
"c programming"

There are two spaces in this string, so our program will print a string "c programming". It will remove spaces when they occur more than one time consecutively in string anywhere.

C programming code
#include <stdio.h> int main() { char text[100], blank[100]; int c = 0, d = 0; printf("Enter some text\n"); gets(text); while (text[c] != '\0') { if (!(text[c] == ' ' && text[c+1] == ' ')) {

blank[d] = text[c]; d++; } c++; } blank[d] = '\0'; printf("Text after removing blanks\n%s\n", blank); return 0; }

C programming code using pointers


#include<stdio.h> #include<string.h> #include<stdlib.h> #define SPACE ' ' main() { char string[100], *blank, *start; int length, c = 0, d = 0; printf("Enter a string\n"); gets(string); length = strlen(string); blank = string; start = (char*)malloc(length+1); if ( start == NULL ) exit(EXIT_FAILURE); while(*(blank+c)) { if ( *(blank+c) == SPACE && *(blank+c+1) == SPACE ) {} else { *(start+d) = *(blank+c); d++; } c++; } *(start+d)='\0'; printf("%s\n", start); free(start); return 0; }

strlwr, strupr in c
Here we will change string case with and without strlwr, strupr functions.

strlwr in c
#include<stdio.h> #include<string.h> main() { char string[] = "Strlwr in C"; printf("%s\n",strlwr(string)); return } 0;

strupr in c
#include<stdio.h> #include<string.h> main() { char string[] = "strupr in c"; printf("%s\n",strupr(string)); return } 0;

Change string to upper case without strupr


#include<stdio.h> void upper_string(char*); main() { char string[100]; printf("Enter a string to convert it into upper case\n"); gets(string); upper_string(string); printf("Entered string in upper case is \"%s\"\n", string); return 0; } void upper_string(char *string) {

while(*string) { if ( *string >= 'a' && *string <= 'z' ) { *string = *string - 32; } string++; } }

Change string to lower case without strlwr


#include<stdio.h> void lower_string(char*); main() { char string[100]; printf("Enter a string to convert it into lower case\n"); gets(string); lower_string(string); printf("Entered string in lower case is \"%s\"\n", string); return 0; } void lower_string(char *string) { while(*string) { if ( *string >= 'A' && *string <= 'Z' ) { *string = *string + 32; } string++; } }

c program to swap two strings


C program to swap strings.

C programming code
#include<stdio.h> #include<string.h> #include<malloc.h> #include<conio.h> main() {

char first[100], second[100], *temp; printf("Enter the first string "); gets(first); printf("Enter the second string "); gets(second); printf("\nBefore Swapping\n"); printf("First string: %s\n",first); printf("Second string: %s\n\n",second); temp = (char*)malloc(100); strcpy(temp,first); strcpy(first,second); strcpy(second,temp); printf("After Swapping\n"); printf("First string: %s\n",first); printf("Second string: %s\n",second); getch(); return 0; }

c program to find frequency of characters in a string


This program computes frequency of characters in a string i.e. which character is present how many times in a string. For example in the string "code" each of the character 'c', 'o', 'd', and 'e' has occurred one time. Only lower case alphabets are considered, other characters ( uppercase and special characters ) are ignored. You can easily modify this program to handle uppercase and special symbols.

C programming code
#include<stdio.h> #include<string.h> main() { char string[100], ch; int c = 0, count[26] = {0}; printf("Enter a string\n"); gets(string); while ( string[c] != '\0' ) { /* Considering characters from 'a' to 'z' only */ if ( string[c] >= 'a' && string[c] <= 'z' ) count[string[c]-'a']++; c++;

} for ( c = 0 ; c < 26 ; c++ ) { if( count[c] != 0 ) printf("%c occurs %d times in the entered string.\n",c+'a',count[c]); } return 0; }

anagram in c
Anagram in c: c program to check whether two strings are anagrams or not, string is assumed to consist of alphabets only. Two words are said to be anagrams of each other if the letters from one word can be rearranged to form the other word. From the above definition it is clear that two strings are anagrams if all characters in both strings occur same number of times. For example "abc" and "cab" are anagram strings, here every character 'a', 'b' and 'c' occur only one time in both strings. Our algorithm tries to find how many times characters appears in the strings and then comparing their corresponding counts.

C anagram programming code


#include <stdio.h> int check_anagram(char [], char []); int main() { char a[100], b[100]; int flag; printf("Enter first string\n"); gets(a); printf("Enter second string\n"); gets(b); flag = check_anagram(a, b); if (flag == 1) printf("\"%s\" and \"%s\" are anagrams.\n", a, b); else printf("\"%s\" and \"%s\" are not anagrams.\n", a, b); return 0; } int check_anagram(char a[], char b[]) { int first[26] = {0}, second[26] = {0}, c = 0;

while (a[c] != '\0') { first[a[c]-'a']++; c++; } c = 0; while (b[c] != '\0') { second[b[c]-'a']++; c++; } for (c = 0; c < 26; c++) { if (first[c] != second[c]) return 0; } return 1; }

c program to read a file


C program to read a file :- This program reads a file entered by the user and displays it's contents on the screen, fopen function is used to open a file, it returns a pointer to structure FILE. FILE is a predefined structure in stdio.h . If the file is successfully opened then fopen returns a pointer to file and if it is unable to open a file then it returns NULL. fgetc function returns a character which is read from the file and fclose function closes the file. Opening a file means we bring file from disk to ram to perform operations on it. The file must be present in the directory in which the executable file of this code sis present.

C program to open a file


C programming code to open a file and to print it contents on screen.
#include<stdio.h> #include<stdlib.h> main() { char ch, file_name[25]; FILE *fp; printf("Enter the name of file you wish to see "); gets(file_name); fp = fopen(file_name,"r"); // read mode if( fp == NULL ) { perror("Error while opening the file.\n");

exit(EXIT_FAILURE); } printf("The contents of %s file are :- \n\n", file_name); while( ( ch = fgetc(fp) ) != EOF ) printf("%c",ch); fclose(fp); return 0; }

c program to copy files


C program to copy files: This program copies a file, firstly you will specify the file to copy and then you will enter the name of target file, You will have to mention the extension of file also. We will open the file that we wish to copy in read mode and target file in write mode.

C programming code
#include <stdio.h> #include <stdlib.h> main() { char ch, source_file[20], target_file[20]; FILE *source, *target; printf("Enter name of file to copy\n"); gets(source_file); source = fopen(source_file, "r"); if( source == NULL ) { printf("Press any key to exit...\n"); exit(EXIT_FAILURE); } printf("Enter name of target file\n"); gets(target_file); target = fopen(target_file, "w"); if( target == NULL ) { fclose(source); printf("Press any key to exit...\n"); exit(EXIT_FAILURE); } while( ( ch = fgetc(source) ) != EOF ) fputc(ch, target);

printf("File copied successfully.\n"); fclose(source); fclose(target); return 0; }

c program to merge two files


This c program merges two files and store their contents in an another file. The files which are to be merged are opened in read mode and the file which contains content of both the files is opened in write mode. To merge two files first we open a file and read it character by character and store the read contents in another file then we read the contents of another file and store it in file, we read two files until EOF ( end of file ) is reached.

C programming code
#include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> #include<stdlib.h> main() { FILE *fs1, *fs2, *ft; char ch, file1[20], file2[20], file3[20]; printf("Enter name of first file "); gets(file1); printf("Enter name of second file "); gets(file2); printf("Enter name of file which will store contents of two files "); gets(file3); fs1 = fopen(file1,"r"); fs2 = fopen(file2,"r"); if( fs1 == NULL || fs2 == NULL ) { perror("Error "); printf("Press any key to exit...\n"); getch(); exit(EXIT_FAILURE); } ft = fopen(file3,"w"); if( ft == NULL ) { perror("Error ");

printf("Press any key to exit...\n"); exit(EXIT_FAILURE); } while( ( ch = fgetc(fs1) ) != EOF ) fputc(ch,ft); while( ( ch = fgetc(fs2) ) != EOF ) fputc(ch,ft); printf("Two files were merged into %s file successfully.\n",file3); fclose(fs1); fclose(fs2); fclose(ft); getch(); return 0; }

c program to list files in directory This program list all files present in a directory/folder in
which this executable file is present. For example if this executable file is present in C:\\TC\\BIN then it will lists all the files present in C:\\TC\\BIN.

C programming code
#include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> #include<dir.h> main() { int done; struct ffblk a; printf("Press any key to view the files in the current directory\n"); getch(); done = findfirst("*.*",&a,0); while(!done) { printf("%s\n",a.ff_name); done = findnext(&a); } getch();

return 0; }

c program to delete a file


This c program deletes a file which is entered by the user, the file to be deleted should be present in the directory in which the executable file of this program is present. Extension of the file should also be entered, also note that deleted file doesn't go to recycle bin, remove macro is used to delete the file. If there is an error in deleting the file then an error will be displayed using perror function.

C programming code
#include<stdio.h> main() { int status; char file_name[25]; printf("Enter the name of file you wish to delete\n"); gets(file_name); status = remove(file_name); if( status == 0 ) printf("%s file deleted successfully.\n",file_name); else { printf("Unable to delete the file\n"); perror("Error"); } return 0; }

c program to generate random numbers


This c program generates random numbers using random function, randomize function is used to initialize random number generator. If you don't use randomize function then you will get same random numbers each time you run the program.

C programming code using rand


#include <stdio.h> #include <stdlib.h> int main() { int c, n; printf("Ten random numbers in [1,100]\n");

for (c = 1; c <= 10; c++) { n = rand()%100 + 1; printf("%d\n", n); } return 0; }

C programming code using random function(Turbo C compiler only)


#include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> #include<stdlib.h> main() { int n, max, num, c; printf("Enter the number of random numbers you want "); scanf("%d",&n); printf("Enter the maximum value of random number "); scanf("%d",&max); printf("%d random numbers from 0 to %d are :-\n",n,max); randomize(); for ( c = 1 ; c <= n ; c++ ) { num = random(max); printf("%d\n",num); } getch(); return 0; }

c program to add two complex numbers


c program to add two complex numbers :- This program calculate the sum of two complex numbers which will be entered by the user and then prints it. User will have to enter the real and imaginary parts of two complex numbers. In our program we will add real parts and imaginary parts of complex numbers and prints the complex number, i is the symbol used for iota. For example if user entered two complex numbers as (1 + 2i) and (4 + 6 i) then output of program will be (5+8i). A structure is used to store complex number.

C programming code

#include <stdio.h> struct complex { int real, img; }; main() { struct complex a, b, c; printf("Enter a and b where a + ib is the first complex number.\n"); printf("a = "); scanf("%d", &a.real); printf("b = "); scanf("%d", &a.img); printf("Enter c and d where c + id is the second complex number.\n"); printf("c = "); scanf("%d", &b.real); printf("d = "); scanf("%d", &b.img); c.real = a.real + b.real; c.img = a.img + b.img; if ( c.img >= 0 ) printf("Sum of two complex numbers = %d + %di\n",c.real,c.img); else printf("Sum of two complex numbers = %d %di\n",c.real,c.img); return 0; }

c program to print date


This c program prints current system date. To print date we will use getdate function.

C programming code
#include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> #include<dos.h> main() { struct date d; getdate(&d); printf("Current system date is %d/%d/%d",d.da_day,d.da_mon,d.da_year); getch(); return 0; }

c program to get ip address


This c program prints ip (internet protocol) address of your computer, system function is used to execute the command ipconfig which prints ip address, subnet mask and default gateway. The code given below works for Windows xp and Windows 7. If you are using turbo c compiler then execute program from folder, it may not work when you are working in compiler and press Ctrl+F9 to run your program.

C programming code
#include<stdlib.h> main() { system("C:\\Windows\\System32\\ipconfig"); system("pause"); return 0; }

C program to shutdown or turn off computer


C Program to shutdown your computer: This program turn off i.e shutdown your computer system. Firstly it will asks you to shutdown your computer if you press 'y' the your computer will shutdown in 30 seconds, system function of "stdlib.h" is used to run an executable file shutdown.exe which is present in C:\WINDOWS\system32 in Windows XP. You can use various options while executing shutdown.exe for example -s option shutdown the computer after 30 seconds, if you wish to shutdown immediately then you can write "shutdown -s -t 0" as an argument to system function. If you wish to restart your computer then you can write "shutdown -r".
If you are using Turbo C Compiler then execute your file from folder. Press F9 to build your executable file from source program. When you run from within the compiler by pressing Ctrl+F9 it may not work.

C programming code for Windows XP


#include <stdio.h> #include <stdlib.h> main() { char ch; printf("Do you want to shutdown your computer now (y/n)\n"); scanf("%c",&ch); if (ch == 'y' || ch == 'Y') system("C:\\WINDOWS\\System32\\shutdown -s");

return 0; }

C programming code for Windows 7


#include <stdio.h> #include <stdlib.h> main() { char ch; printf("Do you want to shutdown your computer now (y/n)\n"); scanf("%c",&ch); if (ch == 'y' || ch == 'Y') system("C:\\WINDOWS\\System32\\shutdown /s"); return 0; }

To shutdown immediately use "C:\\WINDOWS\\System32\\ shutdown /s /t 0". To restart use /r instead of /s.

C programming code for Ubuntu Linux


#include <stdio.h> int main() { system("shutdown -P now"); return 0; }